wake up QUARTERLY
a strategic intelligence report The Issue // Latinos
Letter From The Editor..................................................................................................... 4 Latino Identity// A Culture In-Between....................................................................................... 6 Hispanic vs. Latino............................................................................................ 7 Latinos on Latino Identity................................................................................. 9 Opportunities for Marketers............................................................................. 10 The Latino Effect // Latino Effect...................................................................................................... 12 Media and Entertainment............................................................................... 14 Latinas // Resilient Dynamos............................................................................................. 20 Spotlight: Lorena Garcia................................................................................. 23 Latinas in Numbers........................................................................................... 24 Influence in Shopping...................................................................................... 25 The Rise of the Lime-A-Rita // Authenticity of the Palate............................................................................... 26 Latin Mash-Ups.................................................................................................. 29 Latino Homophobia // Enduring or Fading........................................................................................... 30 Gay Rights Among Latinos.............................................................................. 31 Latino Snapshots............................................................................................................. 32 Audience Workshops...................................................................................................... 36 Contributors..................................................................................................................... 37 Footnotes......................................................................................................................... 38
letter froM the editor fall 2013
For a guy whose name rings more James Joyce than it does Gabriel García Márquez, I’ve had a lifelong, visceral connection to Hispanic culture. It began in Quito, Ecuador during a citywide black-
by candlelight, to a proper Latin celebration. And I
out. It was 1976 and a military dictatorship had am-
haven’t been able to shake my love for the culture
bitiously developed the country’s
oil resources at the expense of its
to Panama, then onto Venezuela,
infrastructure. On April 20th, La Clinica Pichíncha, a dilapidated hospital in the oldest part of the city, lost all power just minutes after my mother, a fish-out-of-water expat from Pasadena, went into early labor. To make matters worse, my father, a more seasoned expat from
My history with
latino culture goes
back to the
day of My birth.
Connecticut, was stuck on a flight
where I attended my first school, Campo Alegre - a German outfit in Caracas. Many years later, and many latitudes north, at a Brahmin New England prep school, I took my first course in Latin American history at the insistence of my soccer coach, Dr. Bob Kmen, who may have promised preferential treat-
back from Brazil with a suitcase full of inoculations
ment on the field in exchange for filling seats in his
and antibiotics – luxuries not available in Ecuador at
sparsely attended class.
the time. I emerged from the womb 24 hours later,
From Ecuador we moved
letter froM the editor From early colonization to Castro, Maya to Sand-
What you’ll find in these pages is an unvarnished
inistas, I was hooked. So much so that when I ar-
look at a culture that’s changing at a breakneck
rived at university the next year, I declared Latin
pace. In the interest of surfacing real tension
American Studies as my major, playing against
points and actionable insights, we’ve peeled
type, at a small liberal-arts school that produced
back the layers of conflict and cohesion; identity
an inordinate number of econ majors on the as-
and influence; assimilation and acculturation.
sembly line to investment banking. It’s far from a clean read, but that just reinforcThroughout my career in marketing, I’ve had the
es the unpredictable and idiosyncratic nature of
opportunity to work on global campaigns with
this captivating culture. I hope you find this issue
some world-class Hispanic agencies, both state-
as thought provoking as I did, and as always, I
side and abroad. I’ve experienced firsthand the
welcome your thoughts and feedback.
creative results of bi-cultural collaboration. But I’ve also seen the downside of engaging specialists to bolt-on Hispanic adaptations to broad campaigns, instead of using insights from this audience to inform general marketing creative. By now you’re probably wondering where I’m going with this self-indulgent, tangential trip down memory lane, so bear with me as I get to the point, as I promise there is one buried in here. When Omelet’s strategic brain trust landed on Hispanic culture as the topic for this report, I was initially conflicted. I clearly love this subject, but given my history with it – personally, academically and professionally – I wanted to deliver real depth of analysis and insight. The last thing any of us needs is another Hispanic Marketing 101 re-
chief strategy officer
port that simply repackages census and panel data into snackable facts. So I challenged the team to dig into unexpected, even controversial issues, and report on angles that inform a broader snapshot of where this cohort is now, and where it’s going next. To look for patterns not in the obvious growth rate in terms of population size, but rather in the growing rates of influence and affluence, as they relate to both Hispanic culture and mainstream America.
latino identity a culture in-between
Life stages and personal identity: two subjects that
So imagine going through these universal growing
marketers love to dissect and analyze.
pains while navigating an unfamiliar world. Hispanics in the U.S. face this obstacle every day. Their
At every turn of our lives - large or small - identity
growing influence on the mainstream over the last
plays an important role in who we are at that mo-
several years is evidence that Latinos have man-
ment and what we’re going to do next. It’s the
aged to successfully shape their own identity inside
source of conflict and breakthrough, tension and
American culture. How did this happen? What’s the
catalyst for this change? The answer may lie in the acculturation of second-genera-
There are those individuals who develop
ic skills as a means of adapting to identity struggles, initiated by the usual suspects: ethnicity, religion, age, sexual orientation, socio-economics, and educational background. But the rest of us aren’t as malleable. As teenagers, we struggle with the transition from childhood to adulthood. In college, we attempt to balance an inherited value system with newfound interests and
My parents kept the
Close to 2/3 of Hispanics in the U.S. are between the ages of 20-34
Nothing changed for us
and the majority of this group was
at home. but the kids,
we were the ones that changed.
an idealized version of the person we aspire to become. As grownups, the conflict sim-
born here in the states.1 They’re bilingual, with an English dominance. They keep close to their Latino roots at home, but conventionally live the American lifestyle outside of it.
A majority of these young Latinos grew up playing the role of household translator. For second-generation Latinos, the phrase “walk the
talk” has a unique social context.
ply transfers to different battlegrounds, in the workplace and at home; with the families we were born
Second-generation Latinos have navigated cultural
into and the families we’re creating.
and linguistic ambiguity by upholding a value system in which family plays a pivotal role. Traditional
Most people can relate with this tension because
celebrations around rites of passage and holidays
we’ve lived it. We recognize the need to fit in, the
are multi-generational gatherings rooted in con-
need to be accepted, and the need to belong to
nectivity between friends and family. It’s a classic
something that’s bigger than ourselves.
immigration story of preserving old-world traditions in a new-world order.
Hispanic vs. Latino
hispanic Vs. latino In this issue the terms Latino and Hispanic will be used interchangeably, with the understanding that there are signiﬁcant overlaps between the people classiﬁed within each group. However, there are two big distinctions between the terms: language and geography.
not all hispanics are latinos. not all latinos are hispanic.
Refers to someone who comes from, or whose family is originally from, a Spanish-dominant speaking country. All Hispanics are not Latinos because Spanish is spoken beyond the Americas.
People whose origin links to Spain or Equatorial Guinea can also be called Hispanic.
An abbreviation of Latino Americano. A person originally from, or whose ancestry hails from, a country in Central America, South America and some of the Caribbean Islands.
latino or hispanic refers to an ethnicity or culture, not a race.
Across these countries Spanish is the most common native language. A few countries in Latin American don’t speak Spanish. Brazil (Portuguese) and Belize(English).3
A culture in-between Habits)
Does embracing the Latino side of life make this group feel less at home in the U.S.? Not really. In general, Latinos in the U.S. feel as American as the next person. Many love football as much as they do soccer; burgers as much as traditional ethnic cuisine; popcorn flicks as much as in-language imports. But they also face conflict in identifying with one side of the looking glass or the other. While many of us apply the terms Latino or Hispanic as a frame of reference for this population, actual Latinos closely identify with a country of origin or ethnic group. The latter is common among first-generation Latinos, who are generally sensitive to broad stereotypes and attuned to the nuances under the umbrella of Hispanic culture. The issue of muddled identity is further exasperated
Ironically, the American norm is also changing at an
by the failure of mainstream media and marketing
accelerated pace. The portrait of mainstream Amer-
to accurately portray how heterogeneous Hispanic
ica is evolving in front of our eyes as more people
culture truly is. That is, how Hispanic culture is simply
of varying cultural, ethnic, and racial backgrounds
not that different from the rest of America. The over-
blend identities. Latinos have played a pivotal role
use of generalities leaves partially unacculturated
in this movement and are quickly shedding their role
Latinos unable to explain whatâ€™s distinctive about
as in-betweeners navigating a cultural divide for
their â€œLatin-ness,â€? while acculturated Latinos feel
the more influential role of agents-of-change within
they are outsiders within their specific heritage, yet
not entirely within the American norm.
There are over 21 nationalities associated with the Hispanic origin. The top countries of origin for U.S. Latinos:
of latinos are u.s. born
of latinos identify themselves most often by their family's country of origin
recognize themselves as hispanic or latino
Latinos on Latino Identity
“i can take the
best of both worlds.
Latinos on Latino Identity
i pick and choose what i like froM each culture and bring that with Me.“ - eddie rivoldi
“We only spoke Spanish at home. My mom
”I play soccer. I eat at taco trucks. I make tongue
wouldn’t have it any other way. "
tacos. I respect and hang out with my elders.
- Eddie Rivoldi
To me, family is blood. I love tequila. I go to Quinceañeras and do piñatas."
“I mostly communicate in English, but with the older
- Raul Montes
aunts and uncles I communicate in Spanish as well as with my grandparents. They can understand
“I identify as half Hispanic – half white but my
some English, but they will get offended and think
mother encouraged me to be proud of saying I
it's disrespectful when we only speak English in their
- Sabrina Wells
- Emely Heras "I identified myself as Mexican/Latina up until I “At home we mostly speak English but the Spanish
went to college and someone told me "You are
names and words are properly spoken. I tried to
Mexican American." I never really identified as
speak Spanish with my Dad’s mom who doesn’t
American, because I thought it was so broad.
speak English, but it made me nervous. But with my
Now I consider myself a Chicana. There are too
mom’s mom I felt more comfortable speaking in
many terms and I am questioned pretty
Spanish because she spoke English, and we can
frequently. I am very light-skinned and people's
be silly in both languages.”
eyes widen when I start speaking Spanish!"
- Ali Rodriguez
- Emely Heras
latino identity opportunity for marketers
The opportunity is simple: expand the color palette,
cultural landscape. We should help Latinos feel at
and lean into the heterogeneity of this audience.
ease with their evolving identity, not struggle to define it.
The cultural third-rail is also equally clear. Using Spanish-language adaptations, broad Hispanic
Marketers should constantly challenge themselves
cues, or entrenched characterizations to engage
to embrace and showcase Hispanic culture in ev-
the amorphous Latino market is not an option. Itâ€™s
eryday American life in a way thatâ€™s authentic and
a crutch that will no longer hold the weight of this
relatable. There is an opportunity to develop an im-
populationâ€™s growing influence.
age that allows Latinos to see themselves portrayed organically and honestly in the creative, and even
Does that mean marketers should cater messaging
more importantly, allows non-Hispanics to feel in-
to each specific Hispanic origin? Not by a long-
shot. Not only is this approach inefficient, but it also
isolates demographic segments that have finally
Astute marketers can connect with Latinos by em-
succeeded in making their mark on the American
powering them to celebrate the heritage and tra-
Latinos on Latino Identity identity (continued) "I am definitely more American. Even before moving to the U.S. I embraced the American lifestyle. It’s always been part of my life." - Clemente Bornacelli "I identify myself as Latina most of the time. People usually want to know what type of Latina someone is, so then I say I’m Mexican American if they ask further. I also identify with being Chicana." - Ali Rodriguez "When people would ask me, I’d always have a hard time. I never really knew what to say. Do you want to know where I was born? That’s not really accurate to who I am. Do you want to know if I’m Latino? Yeah, sure but I grew up mostly in the U.S. It really just depends on the context and the situation. If it’s more convenient for me to be Peruvian great, if it’s more convenient to be American, well I’m that." - Eddie Rivoldi "It kind of depends on context. Culturally I feel about as white as they come. I don’t speak Spanish. That’s ditions that are close to their hearts by using multi-generational family dynamics as narrative context, or multi-cultural interactions as storytelling framework. Think about it: as America’s population blends together different experiences and convergeing paths, personal stories will become even more enmeshed. By empowering Latinos to invite others to share in the richness of their origin stories, we can remind them that they’re about as American as you can get.
always been a thing. It pushed me outside of the culture." - Alex Gonzalez " I still consider myself Puerto Rican but I also feel American in many ways. It is complicated to explain and many Puerto Ricans think I am betraying my people, but that is not the way it is." -Natalia Landrón "This is a very hard question, in 3 years living in the U.S. I still don't know how to answer. I don't like to identify myself as Latino because everyone thinks I'm Mexican. I try to just say white, but I feel like I'm lying…." - Teresa Piacenza Sidero
THE LATINO It’s National Hispanic Heritage Month. Brands of all
This fall welcomes the debut of Flama, a network
shapes and sizes are celebrating Hispanic culture –
aimed at Hispanic Millennials. This new YouTube
some organically, as a means of building relation-
channel will feature content ranging from comedy
ships with this community, and others opportunisti-
and lifestyle to short-form documentary. Univision’s
cally, as a means of selling to this consumer.
President of Content Distribution, Tonia O’Connor, sees the digital space as one where they can test
These marketing efforts, influenced by tectonic shifts
programming and “be a lot more risky than [they]
in the worlds of media, entertainment, and technol-
could ever be on television.”6
ogy, point to broader trending topics that are shaping the future of how successful brands and content
NPR was light-years ahead of the zeitgeist with Lati-
providers connect with this critically important audi-
no USA with Maria Hinojosa, which in its 20th year is
ence year around.
the longest-running Latino-focused program on radio. To meet the demand of a growing U.S. Hispanic
So let’s a take closer look at the insights, opportuni-
population, the program recently expanded from
ties, and implications of these trends for marketers.
30 minutes to an hour, adding new contributors such
new media, new voices When it comes to new media consumption, Latinos are leading the digital charge. Stateside content creators are watching the numbers and responding with a new crop of Latino-focused terrestrial and digital channels. Over the past few years, we’ve seen the birth of Huffington Post’s LatinoVoices, Fox News Latino, and NBC’s NBCLatino – all English-language sites targeting Hispanics. NBCLatino’s Executive Editor Chris Peña’s goal with the site, which seems to be shared across the board, “is to take Hispanic news beyond the usual conversation, toward something more inspired, empowered and energized; to tell and reflect this Hispanic-American story with authentic voices.”5
as The Daily Show’s Al Madrigal. With mainstream audience becoming more attuned to Latino issues, Hinojosa feels “an even greater responsibility to tell a broader range of stories, because Latino stories are American stories.”8
network delay While digital and cable channels are seizing the opportunity to target Latinos in their programming, the Hispanic population is still underrepresented on network television. In fact, over the last decade Latino casting has actually decreased on networks. According to the "GLAAD" Where We Are on TV Report, 2012-2013, Latinos have a 4% representation on network TV.9 Contrast that to the real composition of 17% of the U .S. population and you’ve got a significant gap.
the latino effect Media & entertainMent habits
the latino effect
Media & Entertainment Habits
Latinos lead in social, mobile, and digital usage:
more likely to listen to internet radio10
more digital video than non-latinos11
last year’s growth in internet radio’s hispanic listeners was
feel there is a scarcity of digital content in spanish12
more likely to go online using a mobile device13
of latinos favor english or bilingual tv 14 programming
sports Most commonly followed sports:15
• • •
Fútbol, futebol or soccer MLB NFL
24% of players on 2013’s MLB roster are foreign-born Latinos.16
the latino effect
So where’s the source of this dis-
There’s no question that there’s
illustrates the networks’ lag behind
parity? According to the Nation-
significant upside for networks in
cable and online channels.
al Latino Media Council’s (NLMC)
connecting with the Latino au-
2012 Network Diversity Narrative,
dience, and the numbers speak
the root of the problem lies in the
for themselves, starting with the
lack of diversity among network
more than 52 million Latinos rep-
executives. It argues that there
resenting 17% of our population.
are not enough Latino decision
According to a 2011 Pew Hispanic
makers in a position to make pro-
Center survey, 45% of this group
gramming decisions. The report
watch mostly English-language
states, “To their detriment, enter-
television, while 28% watch mostly
tainment executives have been
Spanish-language television, and
missing the point, that is, in order
26% watch both - with a prefer-
to connect with an audience, one
ence for English.18 Those are big
must understand that audience.
audience numbers, representing
Diversity inside of the networks’
some serious purchasing poten-
teams at all levels will provide that
tial, but when a network like ABC
passes on a show like Devious Maids, which landed at Lifetime, it
with risk comes reward When we look at what’s happening in cable and online - the real bellwethers for the future of American television - we see some very interesting trends emerging in channel selection, language choice, story concepts, and casting across three first-of-their-kind shows.19 Let’s start with Devious Maids, a Lifetime show from actress and executive producer Eva Longoria, about five attractive Latina maids working in wealthy Beverly Hills homes. While some people are happy to see five Lati-
the latino effect
millennial latinos want more than
This storytelling format is a great example of what marketing wonks refer to as “edutainment.” And while it’s certainly interesting from a cultural standpoint, it’s also demonstrative of how Hulu is effectively using second-screen experiences to extend storytelling beyond each episode. Viewers can interact with characters and access additional content through owned properties, making the story immersive, and most importantly, eminently shareable. Given the show’s strong viewership numbers on Hulu among both Latino and non-Latino audiences, it’s no surprise that it’s currently in development of a
na actresses cast in leads on a mainstream show,
others can’t seem to shake the depiction of Latinas as domestic workers.
In one of the most innovative programming decisions in recent history, the new FX series, The Bridge,
We’ll leave it up to the judgment of viewers as to
a crime drama set on both sides of the U.S.- Mex-
whether the relationship between hyper-sexualized
ico border, alternates between English and Span-
domestic workers and their uptight employers rep-
ish, setting a new standard for bilingual television
resents a step forward or simply reinforces existing
in America. The show’s producers recruited Span-
stereotypes, but audiences certain-
ly tuned in and the show has been
My hope is that people
renewed for a second season.
froM east l.a. get to see theMselVes in the show
Contrast that with the groundbreak-
portrayed as diVerse huMan beings and not
ing Hulu drama series East Los High, the first English-language show with an all-Latino cast. The show’s cre-
the typical latino
ators, Carlos Portugal and Kathleen Bedoya, set out with three rules for
stereotypes we see
the writers: no gardeners, no gang
in tV and filMs.
members, and no maids.
-carlos portugal, creator of east los high20
The show, clearly speaking to Latino Millennials, mashes up salacious
Naranjo to help bridge these two worlds with an authentic voice. “To me, the show isn’t just what is good and bad about Mexico and America, but about dealing with preconceptions and prejudices about what is Mexican and what is American.”21 In a marketing effort that’s as groundbreaking as the programming itself, FX, an English-language network, has developed promotions in Spanish, including adver-
telenovela drama with the typical trappings of a
tising, press conferences, screenings and Q&A for
CW teen show, including teen pregnancy, cheat-
bilingual media and local promotions in Latino com-
ing, hazing, drug use, and sex tapes. The series was
munities in New York, LA, Miami, Houston, and Chi-
developed with the support of the nonprofit orga-
cago. As part of the unique distribution deal, each
nization Population Media Center, as a non-tradi-
show is rebroadcast in Spanish on MundoFox.
tional PSA for Latino teens, and episodes are complemented with online resources on issues like teen pregnancy and drug abuse.
THE LATINO EFFECT It’s no great surprise that crossover into the main-
So why do more brands get it wrong than right?
stream is happening at the hands of cable and
Because the one-size-fits-all approach to market-
online channels, not networks. But the growing suc-
ing simply doesn’t work with an audience that’s
cess of the shows above, relative to failed network
so diverse in culture, origin, ethnicity, and even
attempts at Latin-themed concepts (see: Rob, Luis,
language. And too many smart marketers still ap-
Greetings from Tucson, etc), only proves that there
proach Hispanic outreach tactically, as another
isn’t some entertainment curse on Hispanic content
marketing discipline or extension, not holistically, as
in mainstream television. You can attract, engage,
an inclusive and conceptual brand narrative.23
and reflect Latino audiences – as well as non-Latino ones – if you take smart risks. Sure, some of them will
The consequences of inauthenticity speak for them-
inevitably fail, and some will offend the sensibilities
selves. Take for example, Mitt Romney’s failed at-
of the very audience that they’re developed for,
tempt to connect with Latino voters by constantly
but isn’t that just business-as-usual in Hollywood?
reminding them that his father was born in Mexico.24 We all know how that ended.
the tech-entrepreneurship gap When it comes to technology, there’s a major gap between the supply and demand of technological innovation.
are more likely to use social media and access the Internet from mobile devices than non-Latinos, they’re underrepresented
technology. In fact, Hispanics only make up about 4% of people working in the computer industry, according to the U.S. Census Bureau.
Oscar G. Torres, entrepreneur and cofounder of Miner Labs, is bridging this gap by
A smart marketing strategy isn’t solely defined by whether you’re actively reaching out to Latinos, but also by how you’re engaging with them. There’s a
Out of hundreds
I felt like I was the only Latino
in the room.
dience. There’s a place between a one-way monologue and a two-way conversation. It’s not as easy as translating general-market
into Spanish, but the long-term rewards of investing time and resources in getting it right - in the form of cultural relevance and resonance - are significant. It starts by thinking of Latinos as people, not as consumes; by
Latinos in the hopes that it will encourage Hispanics to get into the tech industry.
what does it mean for marketers? Authenticity may be one of the most over-used words in the marketing lexicon, but one cannot explore Hispanic marketing trends without addressing it head on. It goes without saying that creating a meaningful connection with the Latino audience
to and speaking with the au-
-manos accelerator co-founder, ceo, edward avila25
organizing hack-a-thons for
requires an authentic voice.
fine line between speaking
identifying what they buy into, not just what they buy. And in the process, demonstrating an understanding of the beliefs and values that are shared among the many segments of this audience. From there, it’s a matter of architecting a strategy that gives Latinos an active voice in telling your brand narrative: one that makes them feel like they’re influencing your marketing more than it’s influencing them.
hispanic heritage Month started as hispanic heritage week in 1968 and it becaMe a 4-week eVent in 1988. 26
Hispanic Heritage Month gives us a lot of marketing fodder to criticize or, occasionally, praise. Whether it's Sherwin-Williams’ #ColorLatino social media campaign promoting Jardin, Pueblo, Jacaranda, and other colors inspired by Hispanic culture, or Macy’s announcing that everyone’s favorite bilingual cartoon heroine Dora the Explorer is one of their 2013 Icons of Style, major brands are seizing the opportunity to hop on the annual bandwagon. It should go without saying, but the true sign of a brand’s commitment to this audience can be found in how it celebrates Hispanic culture during the eleven other months of the year. Like Black History Month in February, or any other designated time to celebrate a culture or ethnicity, there’s no shortage of brands that will appropriate cultural cues to capitalize on relevancy. Some campaigns are very astute and respectful, and some are downright offensive in their keyhole view of Latinos. Most fall somewhere in-between on the authenticity spectrum. We’ll leave it up to our readers to judge whether these efforts succeed or fail to authentically represent Hispanic culture. We’ll also be the first to admit that it’s difficult to capture the nuance of this audience in ethnicity, origins, and language. Marketing to Latinos has evolved past the “speak English, act Latino” ethos. Sure, you have to identify simple universal human truths that unite this complex, segmented group. And no, you don’t need to hyper-target within this audience. Just acknowledge country of origin, different faces, diverse complexions, and distinct sounds when developing content for Latino audiences. Or as we say: use a sharper nail, not a heavier hammer.
latinas resilient dynamos
The mainstream media has a well-earned reputa-
In addition to growing in affluence, Latinas are gain-
tion for depicting Latina Americans as broad car-
ing in influence.29 They’re adopting and adapting
icatures. The narrative is as familiar as it is formula-
personal technology at a faster pace than non-lati-
ic: a hardworking Latina housekeeper in a five-star
no females; they’re using smartphones to connect
Manhattan hotel meets a successful Anglo senator
with their friends and families, and Facebook and
who sweeps her off her tired feet and saves her from
Twitter to maintain their cultural ties with affinity
a life of poverty and single motherhood in the Bronx.
groups both at home and abroad.
It’s a classic fairytale, cast through the lens of the hyper-marketable Jennifer López.
This social behavior reinforces their sense of ambiculturality – the idea that Latinos feel equally com-
Hollywood’s hegemonic treatment of ethnicity, cul-
fortable with Spanish language and culture as they
ture, gender, and sexual identity is hardly new and
do with English. This fact alone makes them an im-
a topic best left for another forum. But as the sub-
portant cohort of social influencers, as they act as
ject relates to today’s Latina, and her aspirational
a link between the traditional multigenerational His-
journey to greater influence and power, there’s a
panic family and the non-Hispanic world, with the
subtext that points to some broad cross-cultural ten-
ability to pivot back-and-forth between the two.
sions. The rise of the Latina is undeniable. But beneath It’s an easy target, but let’s take Sófia Vergara’s
this sea of change lies a strong, dark undercurrent.
red-lipped, big-hipped Latina
While older generations of
bombshell in the hit show Mod-
Latinas are experiencing un-
ern Family. General audiences may buy the one-dimensional portrayal of a Colombian sexpot saved from a villager’s life of drug dealers and donkeys by a wealthy white man, but Hispanic viewers are tuning it out, indexing far below audience norms.
86% of latina woMen
are at the helM of
and financial success relative to the rest of the female population, younger Millennial and Gen X Latinas strug-
in their households.
This gap underscores
gle with issues of self-doubt and depression that aren’t reflective of their non-Hispanic peer groups. In fact,
the changing social dynamics between mainstream
a staggering 1 in 5 Latina teens attempts suicide.
and Hispanic cultures.
That’s double the number of Caucasian youth, and 44% more than African-Americans.30 So what’s the
As the largest and fastest-growing minority group in
cause of this alarming high suicide and self-harm
America, there’s no question that Latinas have be-
come important agents of change. This power shift is measured not only in sheer size, but also in success
Experts attribute several factors, including volatile
and stature. As reported by Nielsen, Latinas are ex-
family relationships, unrealistic lifestyle expectations,
pected to represent 30% of the total female pop-
and bi-cultural disparities. Dr. Luis Zayas, Dean of the
ulation by 2060
and are surpassing their non-Lati-
School of Social Work at the University of Texas Aus-
na female counterparts in everything from college
tin, has been studying this issue since the 70s and
enrollment to entrepreneurship to home ownership
points to the disconnected relationship between
- and that translates directly to purchasing power.
Resilient Dynamos (continued)
mothers and daughters. “The girls were less familistic
make some progress with troubled teens in the area.
and more socialized than their parents, they were
“These conflicts escalate, and the adolescents feel
more depressed, had lower self-esteem and poor
like there is a bleak life ahead of them.”32 She hopes
coping skills. Most of these girls were U.S. born of im-
to get more parents involved as the program gains
Latina teens are struggling with an identity crisis.
There’s an obvious disconnect between the imme-
They are caught in between two worlds that of their
diate liabilities and long-term benefits of bi-cultural
parents and that of their American peers. Many His-
adolescence. On the one hand, you have a group
panic parents don’t want their children behaving
of teens that experience significantly higher rates
like typical American kids, frowning upon typical
of suicide ideation and attempts than other peer
teenage rites-of-passage like group hangouts and
groups. On the other, the same teens that emerge
from this troubling period go on to experience suc-
cess at higher rates than their peers. Hispanic mothers are especially notorious for criticizing their daughters on everything from their weight, to the music they listen to, to the friends they spend their free time with. With little control over their lives, many teens resort to self-harm in order to cope. But this form of parental repression isn’t radically different from what today’s Hispanic mothers experienced themselves a generation ago. And while this issue was first discovered in the 1970s, it has just been getting worse. So what makes the paradigm different today?
insights for brands How can we, as marketers, help young Latinas bridge the gap between two cultures, and play a
i realized that when people tell you
no to something
positive role in the development of their personal identity? We know that each brand Millennials adopt is a reflection of their "Brand Me," and Hispanics tend
that you cannot do, i mean that should
to be more brand-loyal than
teens in an empowering and
give you the strength
Hispanic girls are now acculturating at faster rates than their mothers. That, in turn, acceler-
ates this destructive pattern of behavior, surfacing it at a younger age. Coupled with the pressure to live up to the bi-cultural successes of their prideful parents, it’s nothing short of a pressure-cooker environment. Cultural stigmas around self-harm make it
other peer groups. So maybe we can cater our messaging and communications to these supportive way that gives them an outlet for self-expression and individuality. Maybe we can engage them as brand advocates
across their disparate cultural worlds, and involve them in bringing the two closer together through shared values and interests. Maybe we can use social channels to let them know that they’re not alone, that there’s no stigma around their feelings,
difficult for Hispanic parents to openly speak out or
and that it gets better. We’re committed to starting
seek help, even after multiple incidents.
the dialogue if anyone else wants to join us.
That’s where people like Rosa Gils comes in. She
runs the Life is Precious program for suicidal Hispan-
ic girls in Brooklyn and the Bronx, and is starting to
(Spotlight: Lorena Garcia)
"being a latina in this country right now, i think it’s the best position that we can be. we’re growing. we’re being noticed. so,48 pay attention.”
Spotlight: Lorena Garcia ´ 33 Lorena García, like many American Latinas, struggled with her identity when she first broke into the culinary industry. The famed chef, TV personality, and author, was born and raised in Venezuela, earned a law degree and immigrated to the U.S. in order to pursue a bigger and brighter career. Once in the U.S., she realized her true calling was in the world of food and she immediately enrolled in culinary school. From the outset, García knew that one of her ultimate goals was to have her own English-language cooking show. However, she was immediately told that it would be near impossible unless she lost her accent. This was not an option for Garcia, who was not interested in diluting her identity for a bigger shot at mainstream fame. García soon become a widespread success among U.S. Spanish-speaking television viewers, but it wasn’t enough for her. Determined to become a crossover success, García decided to start marketing herself as a brand through her Lorena García collection of home products. Each piece in the collection was deliberately infused with a bit of her culture and personality. García has always tried to stay true to her roots, and has a certain soft spot for her larger Hispanic community. Most recently, she collaborated with Taco Bell to create their Cantina Bell menu in the summer of 2012, which was a sales-and-marketing success. Her recipes have been featured in a range of publications from Cosmopolitan to Entrepreneur, and her cookbooks have been popular among both Latinos and non-Latinos alike. No stranger to television, García has been featured as a guest chef on Top Chef All Stars, and is one of the stars of America’s Next Great Restaurant. García has been able to meet and surpass her goals, and a large part of that can be attributed to staying true to herself and her culture. She can, and should be seen as, a role model for Latina teens torn between their Latino and American cultures.
latinas in numbers
Latinas in Numbers
Total Number of Latinos in the U.S.34
1 in 6 American women is of Latino origin. By 2015, 1 in 3 babies will be Latino. By 2060, the Latino population is expected to more
Latinas' median age is 10 years younger than the median for the overall U.S. population.
65% of U.S. Hispanics are Millennials (22-35).
in 2012 the smithsonian added a quincea単era dress to the
american stories collection.36
Quincea単era: is a coming-of-age social/ family occasion for Latino 15 year-old girls.
Inﬂuence in Shopping
latinas influence in shopping
purchase power This group’s spending is about 10% of the U.S. buying power.37 They spend 11% more38 per shopping trip to
1.2 trillion dollars
the grocery store, and they are 2x more likely to experience shopping through the senses – touch and smell.39
the rise of the liMe-a-rita Mexican
of Vietnamese pho (hint: it sounds
tional dishes – is not exclusive to
epidemic – being spread one
like our favorite four-letter word).
Mexican or Latin cuisine, but there
sizzling fajita platter and plas-
They preach about how the carne
are some interesting tension points
tic-bottle margarita mix at a time
asada taco you’re enjoying is a
here that support broader cultural
is the scourge of self-proclaimed
philistine stand-in for the lengua
tacos they get from a back-alley
stall in the garment district.
menu” at a local taco joint that’s
You probably know the type.
Take for example, the “gringo
They trip over themselves to cor-
The pathological pursuit of au-
frequented by Omelet staffers.40
rect family, friends, and complete
thentic ethnic food – and disdain
It’s written on a small chalkboard,
strangers over the pronunciation
for the Americanization of tradi-
segregated from the hero menu,
the rise of the liMe-a-rita
The Rise of the Lime-A-Rita
and carries the warning: “This
learn from this phenomenon?
is not real Mexican food.” Sure,
floodgates? Given the accelerated pace of demand for bigger,
school cafeteria staples like chimi-
First, that adding an unexpected
bolder flavors, we predict that this
changas and tostadas have all of
Latino twist or campiness to an
trend will continue in the near fu-
the worldly sophistication of Cinco
Americana classic gives people
de Mayo tequila shots, but there’s
permission to love the lowbrow,
clearly enough customer demand
not unlike the “guilty pleasure” of
It also begs the question: why
to put them on the menu.
watching telenovelas; that lean-
don’t we see other popular glob-
ing into, not away from, the faux
al flavors extended into American
So what compelled the restaurant
factor is a viable way to have your
staples? Where’s the Tandoori
to apologetically label this "faxi-
tres leches cake and eat it too.
jerky, tamarind froyo, Kung Pao
(a portmanteau of fake +
And second, that blending cul-
peanuts, or miso mayo? Is the rel-
Mexican) food? We'd bet that it's
tures rather than simply appropri-
ative dearth, or likely lag behind
a preemptive measure to protect
ating one, can activate fan love.
Hispanic flavors, due to the fact
the brand from the ire of the au-
that these cultures aren’t as histor-
thenticity Gestapo; those foodies
On the surface, this mainstream
ically entrenched or geographi-
who flock to Yelp and Chowhound
embrace of inauthentic Latin fla-
cally proximate? Only time will tell.
to stigmatize culinary imposters.
vors, manifested in everything from
We are seeing a growing prolifer-
chorizo and eggs on the menu at
ation of Asian flavors like sriracha,
We’d even argue that the apol-
IHOP to the Bud Light Lime-a-Rita,
ginger, and lemongrass, but they
ogist strategy points to the insight
seems to contradict the growing
don’t stray too far outside the eth-
that irony, or openly owning inau-
movement towards authentic or
nic foods sections in the supermar-
thenticity, gives a brand permis-
traditional Mexican flavors. But, is
sion to play in these murky waters.
it possible that the former is driving
Just look at the runaway success
the latter? Perhaps acculturated
of the mash-up of two beloved
foods are conditioning American
food icons: Taco Bell’s Doritos Lo-
tastes, serving as a gateway to
cos Taco. There’s nothing authen-
the more complex, even polariz-
tic about ground beef in a Doritos
ing traditional flavors.
shell, but it sold a staggering 100 million units in its first 10 weeks and
Further evidence of the Hispani-
caused a social media and press
cization of the American palate
frenzy in the process.
can be found in almost any conventional supermarket aisle: from
Upping the cross-cultural stakes,
Dulce de Leche Cheerios to Post’s
Taco Bell’s advertising for this fran-
Mini Cinnamon Churros cereal to
ken-taco featured Lionel Richie’s
Ruffles Tapatio chips. There’s chi-
80s ballad “Hello,” fully translated
potle-flavored everything, from
Spanish. It’s an interesting
mayo to pickles. Same thing
extension of the “Live Mas” cam-
goes for jalapeno, spicing-up our
paign, which features the only
bacon, processed cheese slic-
mainstream tagline we can think
es, bologna, and canned tuna.
of that’s half-English, half-Spanish.
Have Latin flavors jumped the
So, as marketers, what can we
shark or are we just opening the
salsa is america's favorite 41 condiment.
THE RISE OF THE LIME-A-RITA
The Rise of the Lime-A-Rita continued
Contrast that to Top Chef Master Rick Bayless’ line of
author and magazine writer Dianne Kennedy, who
Frontera products, which runs the gamut from more
was once hailed as the “Julia Child of Mexican cui-
authentic offerings like mole and tomatillo sauces,
sine,” Bayless has spent many years changing the
to Tex-Mex staples like barbecue sauce and chili kits,
image of Mexican food through his cookbooks,
to in-between items like hot sauces, chips, salsas,
cooking shows, and award-winning restaurants.42 He
spices, and marinades. Following in the footsteps of
has succeeded in introducing Americans to a more traditional and epicurean interpretation of Mexican food, and is now cashing in his bona fides to grow his brand empire. What can we take away from these observations? There’s no question that American tastes have been influenced heavily by Mexican and other Latin flavors. That, in turn, has had a ripple effect on product development, sales, distribution, and marketing strategies. In navigating these cycles, brands should be more attuned to delivering on unmet or under-delivered customer needs and desires, and less concerned about preconceived notions of authenticity. They should embrace the blurred lines rather than trying too hard to define them; they should ask customers what they actually want rather than trying to tell them what they should like. After all, who’s to say what’s authentic or inauthentic? What’s more, who cares? Anyone who’s visited Mexico City in the past decade can attest to the cross-cultural convergence that’s come to define modern Mexican cuisine. In what foodies would probably call a gastro-renaissance, chefs of diverse backgrounds are creatively interpreting traditional dishes, influenced as much by European – and even American – techniques as they are by Mesoamerican flavors. Is that authentic? We certainly think so. Sure, we buy into the principle that we can all explore foreign cultures through traditional culinary experiences, without having to break out our passports. But to do so at the exclusion of visceral pleasures like the Doritos Locos Taco? That’s just loco.
the rise of the liMe-a-rita Mash-Ups
latin Mash-up Cuisine mash-ups utilizing Hispanic food are getting increasingly creative.
Korean takeout restaurant Kortako opened in New
When you walk into MexiKosher, the first thing you
York December 2012, playfully using ‘tako’ instead
see is a dreidel-shaped piñata. For the strict Jewish
of ‘taco.’ The owner explained, “We are using [a]
community residing near Los Angeles’s “Kosher Cor-
Mexican food format, which Americans are quite
ridor,” a Catholic Japanese-Mexican chef experi-
familiar with, to promote Korean food.”43
menting with non-traditional kosher dishes is quite a surprise.44
You can find a three-way mash-up of Japanese,
Ugly Kitchen doesn’t sound tasty, but many swear
Brazilian and Peruvian cuisine at Sushisamba. The
by the miso-rubbed pork belly. In New York's East
first restaurant opened in New York in 1999, but there
Village, Chef Moul Kim fuses flavors from his Korean
are now seven locations, including one in London.
heritage with his Argentine upbringing.45
latino hoMophobia enduring or fading?
Despite the widespread social
cultural taboos that Americans
However, being an outsider is an
progress we’ve made in recent
struggle with. When can we talk
experience that’s shared by both
years, the conversation around
about it? In what forum and with
the LGBTQ and Latino commu-
guaranteed equal rights for all
whom? What are the land mines
nities. So, given this narrative red
Americans, regardless of age,
to avoid in taking sides? These
thread, why are there so many
gender, race, religion, immigra-
opposing values between the
tion status, or sexual orientation,
marketers too as brands play an
two? Do the shifting dynamics in
continues to be a lightning-rod for
increasingly visible role - whether
each of these communities point
conflict. Discrimination is still a very
they want to or not - in the social
to a different outlook in the fu-
real issue; there are still lingering
conversation surrounding divisive
ture? In an already conservative
issues like gun control or gay rights.
culture that’s rooted heavily in re-
Just ask Starbucks or Barilla, or bet-
ligion and social traditions, the di-
ter yet, their crisis-management
alogue around same-sex lifestyles
has been muted at best.
For gay Latinos, the search for
Is this a conversation the U.S. His-
equality and acceptance is a
panic population is open to hav-
battle that takes place on two
ing now or in the future? We’d
fronts: mainstream America and
argue they are ready now, but
the U.S. Latino community.
proceed with caution. Here’s why:
acceptance of hoMoseXuality is dependent on acculturation leVel.46 30
While insular Hispanic communi-
As more generations of Hispanics
stereotypes and preconceived
ties can be intolerant of LGBTQ
are raised in the United States,
notions about the gay communi-
communities, the more accultur-
and as gay communities fight for
ated Hispanic population gen-
equal rights in countries around
erally experiences a higher rate
the world, the rate of acceptance
It also opens up new opportuni-
of interaction with this group. This
of differing lifestyles is projected to
ties for marketers to shape how
leads to a higher rate of tolerance
increase within the Hispanic com-
brands push this conversation
and general acceptance.
munity. However, there’s still a
forward, in a way that bridges
great deal of stress involved with
communities and constituencies.
being a young member of the His-
However, it requires more than just
panic LGBTQ community.
picking a side and supporting it – it requires keeping an open mind
of latinos identify as catholic47
of latino catholics support saMe-seX Marriage
Things are changing. Social media
as different people with different
has created a whole new support
belief systems express themselves,
platform for LGBTQ communi-
and encouraging thoughtful dia-
ties. This new conversation venue
logue from all participants.
acceptance for hesitant LGBTQ youth, while simultaneously educating the masses against hurtful
Gay rights among Latinos
Monica MarqueZ is the first latina and first openly gay MeMber of the colorado supreMe court.47
According to SSRS director David Dutwin, "as society is evolving on LGBTQ issues and becoming more accepting of this community, so too are Hispanics." The changes in U.S. Latino culture may be linked to — and are certainly bolstered by — changes in Latin America. Argentina, Spain, and Brazil already allow same-sex couples to marry, and Uruguay has implemented laws to legalize same-sex marriage that will be enacted in 2013. Mexico City passed a law in 2009 that gave gay and lesbian couples the right to marry and to adopt children while other countries, like Colombia, Ecuador, and Brazil, have recognized domestic partnerships between samesex couples.27
That said, in Mexico there is still a strong social stigma attached to homosexuality, which often carries over into the U.S. among Mexican immigrants. Gay Mexican-American youth, brought up in traditional Catholic homes, often have a particularly tough time revealing their sexual identity to friends and family. They’re afraid of being ridiculed and stereotyped, and at the same time, terrified of the uncertainty surrounding their family’s acceptance of their sexuality.30
snapshots of latinos
ali, 27 2nd gen. latina MeXico
raul, 35 2nd gen. latino MeXico
Born in: San Jose, CA
Born in: Los Angeles, CA
Speaks: Mostly in English
Watching: Realities on Bravo TV, Sons of Anarchy
Watching: Game of Thrones, Steve Harvey, Family
On what: Hulu, Netflix
Reading: 20 Something 20
On what: Apple TV, FIFA app, Univision
On what: Kindle App
Reading: The new Stephen King novel
Listening to: Justin Timberlake, Elle Varner
Listening to: Classic Rock, Rock en Español (Maná,
On what: Spotify and Pandora
Cafe Tacuba, Aterciopelados)
Favorite Food: Mexican
On what: Pandora
Celebrated Traditions: Mexican Mother’s Day (May
Favorite Food: Tacos
10th), Day of the Dead (Nov 1st)
Latino Traditions: Quinceañeras, Piñatas
eddie, 26 1st gen. latino 16 years in the u.s. Born in: Lima, Peru Speaks: Mostly in English Watching: Suits, Duck Dynasty, Mad Men, Eastbound and Down, Real Time with Bill Maher On what: Netflix, Apple TV Reading: GQ, Vice, and A Hundred Years of Solitude - in Spanish. On what: Hardcover Listening to: Rolling stones, Kings of Leon, Fito Paez, Soda Stereo On what: Spotify and iTunes Favorite Food: Italian Latino Traditions: Family dinner on Christmas Eve, "eating 12 grapes at midnight on New Year's Eve"
cristina, 33 1st gen. latina 3 years in the u.s. Born in: Bogotá, Colombia Speaks: English and Spanish equally Watching: The Big Bang Theory, Scandal, Suits, How I Met your Mother, Adulto Contemporaneo On what: Netflix, Hulu, YouTube Reading: The Great Enigma by T. Tranströmer On what: Paperback books Listening to: Cherub, Gina Chavez, Rudimental, Carlos Vives, Fonseca, Fabulosos Cadillacs On what: Pandora, Spotify Favorite Food: Arepas, Arequipe Latino Traditions: Family dinner on Christmas Eve, "eating 12 grapes at midnight on New Year's Eve"
aleXander, 26 2nd gen. latino guateMala Born in: Los Angeles, CA Speaks: English and Spanish equally Watching: The Walking Dead On what: Netflix Listening to: Red Hot Chilli Peppers On what: iPod Favorite Food: In-N-Out Burger Latino Traditions: Dressing the kids in traditional Mayan clothing during religious holidays
natalia, 34 u.s. latina Born in: San Juan, Puerto Rico Languages: English and Spanish equally Watching: The Big Bang Theory, The Good Wife, How I Met your Mother On what: TV Reading: Zite Magazine On what: Phone App Listening to: Armin Van Buuren, Guetta, Kaskade, Enya, Carlos Vives, Ricky Martin, ManĂĄ On what: Radio, Spotify and podcasts in iTunes Favorite Food: Puerto Rican and Thai Latino Traditions: La Noche de San Juan (June), Three Kingsâ€™ Day (Jan 6)
snapshots of latinos
1st gen. latina oVer 1 year in the u.s. Born in: Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Speaks: English for the most part. Portuguese only with Brazilian friends Watching: Nothing in particular these days Reading: The Corner Office and Sonho Grande On what: iPad and hardcopy Listening to: American and Brazilian music alike On what: iPod Favorite Food: "Regular meat" and salad. Latino Traditions: I celebrate Easter with my
aleX, 37 2nd gen. latino MeXico/spain Born in: Tucson, AZ Speaks: Only English Watching: Battlestar Galactica, Eagleheart, Portlandia, SouthPark, GoLion On what: Netflix Reading: Alejandro Jodorowsky's Metaboarons On what: Paperback Listening to: Progressive Rock (Yes), 70â€™s freak scene On what: Mog Favorite Food: Burritos and all Mexican food
cleMente, 33 1st gen. latino 21 years in the u.s. Born in: Caracas, Venezuela Speaks: Mostly in English Watching: Homeland, Modern Family, Sons of Anarchy On what: DVR, Apple TV Reading: The new Dan Brown book On what: Kindle Listening to: Queens of the Stone Age and Beatles Favorite Food: Arepas, Venezuelan scrambled eggs (huevos pericos), steak fries Latino Traditions: Family dinner on Christmas Eve
teresa, 28 1st gen. latina 3 years in the u.s. Born in: Buenos Aires, Argentina Speaks: English and Spanish equally Watching: The Big Bang Theory, New Girl, Family Guy, How I Met your Mother, HGTV On what: TV and iPad Reading: Gone Girl On what: Nook Listening to: Country and pop; Juan Luis Guerra, Bacilos, Tipitos On what: Radio and Pandora Favorite Food: Empanadas with creamy corn filling Latino Traditions: Family dinner on Christmas Eve
audience workshops Our strategists at Omelet are cultural thermometers
You may remember from our last issue of Wake Up
and translators. We're continuously tracking trends,
that we're slightly obsessed with Millennials, and we
surveying our clients' categories, and digging deep
also offer a Millennials-on-Millennials workshop. In
into consumer behavior. Our audience experts and
these sessions, Omelet's resident Millennials and au-
analysts have been immersed in Hispanic culture
dience experts tap into our reserves of intel and first-
preparing for this issue of Wake Up, and we're offer-
hand experience to help you crack this group, not
ing workshops for any of our readers who want to
by talking at you, but rather by talking with you and
by putting our expert witnesses on-the-stand for you to cross-examine.
Each session is tailored to you and your business challenge. We provide a depth of knowledge that rang-
If you're interested in our Hispanic Culture or Millenni-
es from basic training for the uninitiated, to category
als-on-Millennials workshops, just send a note to:
or segment-specific consultations for those looking to slice the data thinner. Every session covers trends,
behaviors, and opportunities, using tangible cases
and pop-culture references to break down simple and actionable insights.
contributors strategy Morgan Aceino, Senior Brand Strategist Whitney Anderson, Director of Strategy Sarah Ceglarski, Director of Business Development Jas Gill, Junior Strategist Sean McNamara, Chief Strategy Officer Cristina Pedroza, Senior Brand and Business Analyst
creative Michele Pappas, Designer
production Dena Gonzalez, VP, Production Jakob Frank, Photographer Robert Macaisa, Production Intern
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photo credits Page 14 Photo Credit: demxx / CC BY 2.0 Original Image URL: http://www.flickr.com/photos/ demxx/8137464330\ Title: Avalon Hollywood Page 23 Photo Credit: Lorena Garcia Original Image URL: http://www.cheflorenagarcia.com/section/ media-kit2 Page 25 Photo Credit: MinistĂŠrio da Cultura / CC BY 2.0 Original Image URL: http://www.flickr.com/photos/ministeriodacultura/4641248351/ Title: Coquetel de Abertura do II Encontro Afro Latino Page 26 Photo Credit: Kenn Wilson / CC BY 2.0 Original Image URL: http://farm3.static.flickr. com/2465/3757867729_8d16dcf283_o.jpg Title: Margarita Page 29 Photo Credit: Muy Yum/ CC BY 2.0 Original Image: http://www.flickr.com/photos/ muyyum/6396350047/ Title: Chicken Fajita Salad Page 29 Photo Credit: Muy Yum/ CC BY 2.0 Original Image: http://www.flickr.com/photos/ muyyum/6396350047 Title: Eggplant and Mustard Miso Anticucho at Sushi Samba Strip Page 32 Photo Credit: Gabriel Garcia Marengo / CC BY 2.0 Original Image URL: http://www.flickr.com/photos/gabrielgm/8732445988 Title: Hiiiipster Page 36 Photo Credit: Kryziz Bonny / Original Image URL: http://www.flickr.com/photos/kryziz/4316961646/ Title: Busted Fer Page 41 Photo Credit: Bicentenario Uruguay / (CC BY-SA 2.0) Original Image URL: http://www.flickr.com/photos/bicentenariouy/9359541380/ Title: Luces y banderines en Soriano
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This issue focuses on Latinos, a culture growing and changing at a breakneck pace. In the interest of surfacing real tension points and acti...