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Our world has changed— so too should our thoughts about and management of parking. PART


IPMI Roadmap to Recovery: A COVID-19 INDUSTRY UPDATE

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Rethinking Parking

Our world has changed—so too should our thoughts about and management of parking. By David Mepham, PhD


Sizing Up Multi-modal Parking Violations

Scooters, bikes, and cars all have different effects when they’re illegally parked. Here’s what we learned about these violations and cities. By Anne Brown, Nicholas J. Klein, and Calvin Thigpen


IPMI Roadmap to Recovery

IPMI releases pandemic industry response and impact benchmark survey results. By Brett Wood, CAPP, PE; and Rachel Yoka, CAPP, LEED AP BD&C, WELL AP


Parking Lots, Public Spacing, Social Distancing, and Safety

Repurposing parking for new public services during a pandemic presents its own dangers. By Warren C. Vander Helm and David Vogel




Thriving With Grace DEPARTMENTS 4 ENTRANCE Accelerating Technology Deployment and Adoption By Roamy Valera, CAPP

6 FIVE THINGS Great Apps to Beat Stress 8 THE BUSINESS OF PARKING How About a Kick in the A? By Julius E. Rhodes, SPHR

9 THE GREEN STANDARD Contactless and Gateless: A Sustainable Future By Conor Burke

10 PARKING & MOBILITY SPOTLIGHT Mobile Payments in Parking: What Cities Need to Know By Michael Mintz

12 ON THE FRONTLINE The More Things Change By Cindy Campbell

14 MOBILITY & TECH Five Straightforward Tips to Successful Curb Management By Carmen Donnell, CAPP

16 ASK THE EXPERTS 44 IPMI IN ACTION Re-imagining Everything By Rita Pagan


My dogs, a two-year-old heeler beagle and a chocolate lab of uncertain age, have taken to crashing in my home office most of the day. I’d like to tell you it’s because they adore their mama, but the real reason is much more mundane: I’m the quietest member of my family, my office is the most remote room in the house, and they are big, allday nappers. Honestly, after months of disruption and uncertainty, knowing they’ll be snoring on my feet all day is a lovely constant despite their motivation. I’ll take what I can get. A few weeks ago, IPMI surveyed members about the effects (so far) of COVID: challenges, solutions, worries for the future, unknowns, strategies. The survey results are published in this issue and they’re quite telling. We’ve broken them down by industry segment and in a few other ways to make them most useful to you, and there are charts and graphs that spell it all out and break it all down. Some of it’s encouraging, some of it’s not so much, but it shows that this is a resilient industry whose members are ready to change course at a moment’s notice to best serve their communities and their teams. Like my pups hanging around in the same spots every day, that’s a terrific constant. I recently watched a session by Ben Nemtin, author of bestseller “What Do You Want To Do Before You Die?’ He talked about resilience through the stories of a group of his college friends who wrote out their bucket lists and set out on an epic road trip to cross as many things off as possible. Some of the goals were self-serving, some were just fun, and some changed other people’s lives (they worked to get a robotic arm for a friend born without a natural one, for example). I’d never heard of Nemtin before the virtual conference session that popped up on my screen, but since watching the seminar, I’ve gobbled up everything I can find about him and his friends’ project (catch some of his presentation here). Pretty sure “catch a pandemic” isn’t on anybody’s bucket list, but maybe thrive through one—or just make it through with grace—is. I see so many parking and mobility professionals doing just that in so many ways, and it’s inspiring and comforting. We’re surrounded by really good people. I hope to see you from our respective desks at next month’s Leadership Summit, which will be chock-full of more inspiration just like Nemtin’s presentation. I’ll have dogs on my feet and be waving at my industry friends through the screen while we all bone up on our leadership skills, including resilience through challenging times. What a great message for this year. Until next month…

54 CALENDAR 55 ADVERTISERS INDEX fernandez@parking-mobility.org



Shawn Conrad, CAE

conrad@parking-mobility.org EDITOR

Kim Fernandez

Accelerating Technology Deployment and Adoption

fernandez@parking-mobility.org TECHNICAL EDITOR

Rachel Yoka, CAPP, LEED AP BD+C, WELL AP yoka@parking-mobility.org CONTRIBUTING EDITOR

Bill Smith, APR

bsmith@smith-phillips.com ADVERTISING SALES

Bonnie Watts, CEM

watts@parking-mobility.org SUBSCRIPTIONS

Tina Altman

taltman@parking-mobility.org PUBLICATION DESIGN

BonoTom Studio

info@bonotom.com For advertising information, contact Bonnie Watts at watts@parking-mobility.org or 888.IPMI.NOW. For subscription changes, contact Tina Altman, taltman@parking-mobility.org. Parking & Mobility (ISSN 0896-2324 & USPS 001436) is published monthly by the International Parking & Mobility Institute. P.O. Box 25047 Alexandria, VA 22313 Phone: 888.IPMI.NOW Fax: 703.566.2267 Email: info@parking-mobility.org Website: parking-mobility.org Postmaster note: Send address label changes promptly to: Parking & Mobility P.O. Box 25047 Alexandria, VA 22313 Interactive electronic version of Parking & Mobility for members and subscribers only at parking-mobility. org/magazine. Periodical postage paid at Alexandria, Va., and additional mailing offices. Copyright © International Parking & Mobility Institute, 2020. Statements of fact and opinion expressed in articles contained if Parking & Mobility are the sole responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent an official expression of policy or opinion on the part of officers or the members of IPMI. Manuscripts, correspondence, articles, product releases, and all contributed materials are welcomed by Parking & Mobility; however, publication is subject to editing, if deemed necessary to conform to standards of publication. The subscription rate is included in IPMI annual dues. Subscription rate for non-members of IPMI is $120 per year (U.S. currency) in the U.S., Canada, and Mexico. All other countries, $150. Back issues, $10. Parking & Mobility is printed on 10 percent recycled paper and on paper from trees grown specifically for that purpose.


By Roamy Valera, CAPP

SIGN OF THE CURRENT TIMES is when Domino’s Pizza enters

the “contactless” discussion and adds it to their consumer messaging and narrative. I never imagined I would see “pizza” and “contactless” in the same sentence. The COVID-19 pandemic has been referred to as an accelerator of contactless and touchless technologies. The highly contagious and serious nature of the virus has changed the way people move about, the ways municipalities manage their transportation systems, and how they manage the curb. But many of these changes merely hastened trends that were already underway: ■  Showing clear and valuable insights into parking operations to maximize effectiveness. ■  Using data as a learning opportunity to manage the curb during the COVID-19 crisis. ■  The types of opportunities the crisis presented, such as upgrading parking and curb management infrastructure. ■  Finding ways to embrace the current state, in which there are fewer cars on various streets, to improve urban planning. We have recently seen parking demand recovery happening in regions where easing restrictions has allowed on-demand parking to slowly return. The trend remains ahead of long-term parking (monthly), which confirms the work-from-home strategy remains an option for many employers. We will likely not see this pattern shift until schools are open and parents can safely return and resume a normal work schedule. As this is written, on-demand mobile parking transactions are trending 60 to


70 percent from those posted in the first two and a half months of 2020. Major municipalities are seeing the recovery reveal an increased adoption of mobile payments in double digits from pre-pandemic numbers—a clear indicator that contactless technologies will increase in adoption and acceptance. Ingenico Group and Freedom Pay found that 75 percent of millennials and 70 percent of Gen Z shoppers were satisfied with contactless payments, with the latter group calling them a a “must-have” option for merchants. No economic recovery can occur without the collaboration of the public and private sectors. Paid parking spaces have become loading zones for the growing demand for online shopping, pick-up and delivery for restaurants, and an extension of outdoor seating. All these uses are accelerating the need for curb space management to be data-driven. As such, digitalization is needed for competing uses to have a chance and equitable access to conduct everyday business. We can no longer manage a dynamic piece of real estate as a “dumb” asset. Our consumers, merchants, and livelihoods depend on it. Stay safe! ◆ ROAMY VALERA, CAPP, is CEO North America, with PayByPhone and past chair of IPMI’s Board of Directors. He can be reached at rvalera@ paybyphone.com.

Great Apps to Beat Stress Your smartphone keeps you on top of your email, offers a running commentary on what your friends are doing on social media, helps you manage your money, easily buys stuff at a click, and offers Jetsons-like communication anytime you want (or maybe don’t). But when it’s not dinging and reminding you and beckoning with promises of great prices and gossip, it can also help reduce your stress—seriously—and who couldn’t use some of that right now? CNET recently offered its list of great apps to reduce stress and calm you down. Here are our favorites.


Calm. With a limited free version and an expansive subscription version, this is one of the App Store’s top sellers in 2020—and for good reason. Queue up a quick or long meditation session on-demand or take advantage of its 10-minute Daily Calm session on a schedule.



Wave. This meditation app was built for music lovers and uses musical beats to enhance the experience. Level up with the Wave Booster, a memory foam cushion that translates those beats to vibrations and come with Bluetooth headphones for an immersive experience. Developers say you feel the mediation instead of just hearing it.


The Breathing App. Totally free, this app focuses on mindful breathing for those who want calming benefits without traditional meditation or spiritual techniques. Developers say it helps you slow your breathing for big benefits, including a healthier heart rate, lower blood pressure, and a calmer you.


FitMind. CNET’s top choice, this one is billed as “CrossFit for the mind,” and offers a 3-day mental fitness challenge, along with regular meditation sessions and science-based explanations about why it all works. If charts and graphs are your favorite way to map your progress, this one’s a clear winner.


Headspace. This one offers individual subscriptions or a bundled family plan for its guided meditations, articles, and other resources. It starts out with a 10-session “learn to meditate” series for beginners and goes up from there.



How About a Kick in the A? HOPE THAT EACH OF YOU and your loved ones are safe and well as

A Positive A

we continue to struggle through these trying times.

As you think about the pandemic and experiencing feelings of stress, burnout, and isolation, realize that what you allow yourself to believe is what you accept and what you communicate to others. And as it relates to our current reality, let me suggest a couple of ways that you can give yourself a kick in the attitude, to bolster your morale and regain the focus and energy you need to move forward in a positive manner. First, begin each day by engaging in positive self-talk. This is a process by which you take a realistic and positive approach to consider the things that allow you to find purpose and meaning in your existence. Each of us is part of something far greater than ourselves, and our presence in that environment adds to others’—and our own—sense of connection. Second, allow yourself to take mental breaks during the day. Enjoy the sights, smells, sounds, and sensations that are all around us in abundance, and truly understand and recognize what makes them pleasurable. By taking advantage of these two opportunities, you can greatly elevate your mood and your attitude. Next time you see someone who is suffering through a depressed mood, ask them, “Do you need a kick in the A?” Be prepared for a strange look, and quickly explain that the A is not what they think. It has the possibility of dramatically changing their reality. ◆

What’s that? The headline. Oh, the headline! I hope you did not take ­offense—it is not what you think. We have all heard the saying, “You need a kick in the A.” Please accept my apologies for leading you in a direction I certainly didn’t intend. When I say, “kick in the A,” I mean something totally different.

Let’s talk about the stress, burnout, and feelings of isolation we’ve experienced during these unprecedented times. I want you to know it’s OK not to be OK with everything that’s going on in the world. Your current situation does not determine your position in life. What helps determine your position in life begins

How many of you are feeling a bit stressed or even burned out because of the pandemic? How many of you also have experienced a lack of motivation or a loss of drive associated with isolation?

with your attitude, and your attitude is one of the few things you have absolute control over from the time you wake up to the time you go to bed. Consider this: Your attitude allows you to create your destiny. Life isn’t about what happens to you; it’s about how you respond to the things that happen to you, and that circles back to your attitude. So when you feel yourself slipping into a malaise of some sort, ask yourself: What is in my control and what small changes can I make now that will allow me to better control my environment and realize long-term beneficial gains?

Your A When I say “A,” I mean attitude—a way of thinking or responding to something. We can say an attitude is neither positive nor negative; it only takes on a positive or negative connotation when we begin to add the many filters we have from upbringing, education, socialization, and other factors that influence our values.


JULIUS E. RHODES, SPHR, is founder and principal of the mpr group and author of BRAND: YOU Personal Branding for Success in Life and Business. He is speaking at this year’s IPMI Leadership Summit (parking-mobility.org/re-imagine) and can be reached at jrhodes@mprgroup. info or 773.548.8037.



By Julius E. Rhodes, SPHR


Contactless and Gateless: A Sustainable Future By Conor Burke


N AN UNREMARKABLE DAY, I started to unpack a case filled with new boxes of entry tickets.


Suddenly as I pulled out the third box, its bottom flung open and the tickets came cascading down—it looked like a scene from a Charlie Chaplin film. What happened? I overlooked that the tape holding the bottom of the box was cut too short and led to the flap’s failure to hold the weight of the tickets. I had two choices: Try to weave back together 6,000 connected tickets with a magnetic strip, twisting and tangling with every move I made, or as my boss put it, “trash ’em.” Not surprisingly, after storing used tickets for the allotted time for auditing purposes, most of them end up in the trash. For a long time, there was nothing parking and mobility professionals could do to get around that cost of business. This year has been a reckoning for the effect our profession has on the community and how we are perceived. While, I doubt many of us would have guessed we would be looking at a highly contagious virus as the reason to recalculate budgets, some of us were able to retrofit our facilities as testing sites, others repurposed their facilities as field hospitals, and I am sure all our companies have great stories of how our teams answered the call to help our communities. However, as the industry moves back into our primary function, parking and mobility professionals should recognize that part of helping our communities flourish will start with being more sustainable.

Advances PARCS systems have advanced significantly in the last five to 10 years, like most of our technology, and systems with license plate recognition (LPR) and

gateless technology have really closed any weaknesses in recent years. These gateless systems can be a logical step toward greater sustainability as they reduce waste and help the industry move to contactless interfaces that help keep people from touching the same buttons. While I understood the broad strokes of how gateless systems can advance sustainability, I really wanted to get a more detailed picture of all the advantages of moving in this direction so I contacted a colleague who is an expert in dealing with this technology. Tim Hoppenrath, market president with Premium Parking, calls dateless a frictionless parking experience that increases sustainability. Besides the benefits of eliminating ticket/paper consumption and being contactless, dateless systems eliminate the resources used in manufacturing gates

and gate arms, while reducing access chokepoints at entry and exits and being able to organize parking in the facility without customer inconvenience, all of which reduces carbon emissions. Parking and mobility professionals have already embraced facets of the turn toward digital systems in our facilities, and in the current environment, this embrace has been a necessary change. Applications on our phones for mobility solutions, online reservation sites, and some valet platforms have already started to help integrate new systems to the legacy apparatus at older sites and stand prepared to reap the benefits of the public’s desire for more digital solutions. Making any to changes to an existing PARCS system can be a costly endeavor, but when the time comes to replace your legacy equipment, embracing digital technologies that streamline systems while cutting consumer waste and reducing supplies needed to operate the system can be seen as a future-forward decision that embraces a more sustainable business strategy. ◆

CONOR BURKE is general manager of VPNE Parking Solutions and a member of IPMI’s Sustainability Committee. He can be reached at cburke@vpne.com.



Mobile Payments in Parking: What Cities Need to Know By Michael Mintz


OLLOWING THE COVID-19 CRISIS, one thing is certain: Use of contactless and mobile

payments is going to increase significantly as cities implement best practices to keep the public safe. Mobile payments only account for approximately 20 percent of today’s parking payments. However, with the expanded focus on touchless technologies and sanitation, that number is about to explode. Higher convenience fees generally mean the payby-cell provider is paying the merchant fees as part of their contract with the city. Merchant processing fees vary and, in many cases, are a direct expense to the city. As with their other operating expenses, cities should look to minimize the convenience fee charged to consumers whenever possible.

One or Multiple Platforms?

How Does the Convenience Fee Work? Most cities using pay-by-cell for their parking payments have a convenience fee charged at the point of sale. On average, that $2 parking session will cost $2.35, or even $2.50 depending on what city you are in, what pay-by-cell platform is operating, or if the convenience fee includes credit card processing. 10 PARKING & MOBILITY / SEPTEMBER 2020 / PARKING-MOBILITY.ORG

Offer the Mobile Wallet to Consumers? The market has clearly spoken on this topic with the majority of mobile transactions being conducted as one-off transactions and not using the mobile wallet offered by providers. This trend will likely continue with consumers not wanting to tie up their money into an escrow account they may not ever use. The less discussed topic regarding the mobile wallet is the fee charged to the customer every time a mobile wallet


Luckily for city parking operations, there are plenty of options to choose from. In addition, virtually all parking meter and pay station providers have developed their own parking apps, translating into various options for cities. One recent entrant provides a centralized parking payment database with a fully-integrated, multi-app payment management system. Whether your parking operation currently runs a pay-by-cell program or you are planning to go out for RFP in the near future, there are various pieces to the mobile payment process every operator should be aware of.

Look around the U.S. today and the majority of the cities that have implemented a pay-by-cell parking program have chosen to work with specific providers. If you are a frequent traveler, you probably have a parking folder on your smartphone with a minimum of three to four mobile parking apps. Is this the best solution for the city and the consumer? Should consumers have multiple options no matter where they park? The post COVID-19 push to contactless payment will likely encourage cities to offer multiple parking app options with the end goal of driving adoption rates as quickly as possible. In addition, as cities rely more heavily on contactless/pay-by-cell solutions, there is more risk of lost revenue if their chosen payby-cell app has a technical issue.

transaction is conducted. For those transactions, there is a $0 cost basis with no merchant processing fees being assessed on each transaction. Fees charged for mobile wallet transactions should certainly come into consideration with any RFP for parking pay-by-cell.

Who Handles the Merchant Account? Now that we have discussed the convenience fee, we can move onto the merchant account. The decision as to who should be the merchant of record (MOR) will continue to be debated. Larger cities will typically be required to use their own merchant services provider and pay the merchant account fees themselves. Small to medium cities will often have the pay-by-cell provider handle the merchant account for them and be remitted funds on a weekly or monthly basis. Working with a merchant service provider who fully understands the parking industry and the card-not-present payment process will enable cities to make the best decision for their operation and save money.

knowledge base to make the most educated decision. Talk to your colleagues in other cities and towns that have already implemented a solution and utilize their best practices. Price should always be a consideration in choosing a vendor but never the sole factor. When exploring what pay-by-cell provider will serve you best, look at stability, functionality, and who delivers a fair price to the consumer. Most importantly, look at how merchant processing fees can impact your operations. It may be a way to reduce the cost to the consumer and promote a safer way to park for your customer. â—† MICHAEL MINTZ is chief strategy officer for AMG Payment Solutions. He can be reached at michael@ amgpay.com.

Visa Transaction Integrity Fee (TIF) Many of you may have no idea what the Visa Transaction Integrity Fee is or how it negatively affects your pay-by-cell merchant processing fees. At $0.10 per transaction, VISA automatically charges the TIF fee when a transaction fails Custom Payment Service (CPS) qualification. These fees can add up very quickly and cost your operation thousands of dollars per month. Without any question, cities large and small are negatively affected by the TIF regardless of which pay-by-cell platform they choose. There are various options to prevent this significant charge to your pay-by-cell merchant account. It all depends on whether your merchant services provider is just a salesperson or your merchant processing consultant and advocate. As I write this article, one big pay-by-cell provider has gone out of business and customers may never recover their mobile wallet balances. RFPs for parking pay-by-cell implementations are being written and published by cities across the country to offer contactless parking. Vendor decisions will be made, and City Council votes will put the wheels in motion to quickly introduce the pay-by-cell parking program. As with all aspects of parking, it is critical that parking operators have the right




The More Things Change By Cindy Campbell



a global pandemic, so too must our approach to customers and our changing relationship with them. Service delivery has been significantly affected as we respond to a multitude of changes in the ways we conduct business. New procedures, safety measures, methods of delivering modified services, staffing plans, financial outlooks… the list goes on.

Patience and empathy for others—both customers and co-workers— will always work to our professional advantage.

Some organizations have adapted relatively well in this climate while others are struggling to keep up with the rapidly changing pace. Which description best describes your organization? In the scramble to respond, have you invested time and attention to retooling your team’s attitude and understanding of what our customers need? As a team, are we recognizing the ongoing shift in what we do and how we do it? We’ve all been touched by the global pandemic. How we live, work, attend school, shop, socialize, relate to others—it’s all been affected to some degree. 12 PARKING & MOBILITY / SEPTEMBER 2020 / PARKING-MOBILITY.ORG

Our work life may look and feel very different: where we work, how we work, when we work. For many, the situation has been quite fluid. We strive to be responsive to the decisions being made around us and on our behalf.

Helping Our Teams With all of the upheaval, there’s been a dramatic increase in customer emotion, anxiety, and anger, making a difficult job even more challenging. So then, how do we positively influence our teams and help them be more effective? Providing your team with options that

Our customers still need us to be effective problem solvers, appropriately responsive, open to options (because sometimes we tend get in our own way), active listeners, and effective communicators.

may help them to reduce the level of effort and frustration for customers is a good place to start. Recognize the effects of disruption. Patience and empathy for others—both customers and co-workers—will always work to our professional advantage. Are we as empathetic as we could be? We need to recognize that the interruption to life as we knew it affects each of us differently. With many continuing to work from home, the reality of the virtual office team brings challenges, including communication consistency (reliable phone and internet connectivity), limited access to off-line resources, immediate support from co-workers and supervisors, and limited opportunities for collaboration, mentoring, feedback, and observation. Be aware that some remote team members may have dedicated workspaces and can easily focus on tasks while some must share their workspaces with other working adults or children attending classes online. Find opportunities to empower staff. The ability to make exceptions, even minor ones, may help to solve the customer issue while also helping team members feel empowered—and empowered staff tend to feel more confident. When an exception can’t be made, we can still provide customers with an explanation or reasoning, delivered in a professional tone. While we can’t ensure they’ll like the message, we need to make the effort to reduce customer frustration. Review and identify outdated policies and procedures. What worked two years (or two months) ago may no longer apply. Yes, it might feel like a moving target, but it’s ultimately the roadmap we need to accomplish our purpose. Never underestimate the importance of updated references to ensure continuity. Embrace creativity. Now more than ever, addressing new challenges requires an open mind and bit of creativity. What’s changed? What service changes are required? Are we open to new ideas? Is there a better way to do what we do? These questions may have you considering a change in the organization’s culture. While changing the culture is never easy, now may be the perfect time to make the effort. Don’t forget the standards. With so many changes happening around us, there are few things that remain unchanged. Our customers still need us to be effective problem solvers, appropriately responsive, open to options (because

sometimes we tend to get in our own way), active listeners, and effective communicators. When we think about customer experience and our ability to have a positive effect on outcomes, keep this thought in mind: Our personal challenges may not be that different from those of our customers. As service organizations, we must learn to adapt and provide the service required—however it changes—with each new day. ◆ CINDY CAMPBELL is IPMI’s senior training and development specialist. She is available for onsite and online training and professional development and can be reached at campbell@parking-mobility.org.



Five Straightforward Tips to Successful Curb Management By Carmen Donnell, CAPP



tion needs, and perhaps nowhere is this more evident than with curb management. With the increase in pedestrians, bicycles, personal vehicles, traditional taxies and new ride-hailing companies, public transit, delivery drivers, and paratransit, it’s more difficult than ever to provide access to congested curbs while accommodating pass-through traffic. Recent years have seen a great deal of research about curb management, which has led to many new strategies and policies to improve mobility and functionality. The challenge is that no two scenarios are identical. Consequently, each municipality faces unique situations that need to be prioritized and addressed. To keep on track for creating and implementing functional, effective, and efficient curb management, here are five tips for managing the curb.



Align Stakeholder Needs with Mobility Goals and Benchmarks

Focus on Stakeholder Buy-in Municipalities exist to serve the people who use them. So it is best to begin by considering the people who will be affected most by policy changes. Plans and policies should be designed to accomplish the needs of the community and the system as a whole. This will improve user adoption and compliance, and in turn, system success. To begin, get to know your stakeholder. Know their needs and patterns. Understand how the curb is currently being utilized, what is working, and what is not. Next, identify multiple ways for stakeholders to be compliant and multiple solutions for maximizing the usefulness of the curb. Then employ methods to encourage compliance that focus on changing behavior long-term vs. short -term. It’s often wise to institute a grace period regarding new codes and mandates to allow stakeholders time to adjust their behavior without penalty.

Once you know your stakeholders’ needs, how do you determine how to address them? Data. Search for and develop methods to acquire good, useful data that can be analyzed from multiple angles. When seeking technology partners, choose vendors that provide visual data as it is more easily understood by a wider range of people. If budget allows, employ a data analyst to observe historical trends and to predict future trends. Often, cost savings and revenue increases based on policy decisions can justify the cost of this position. Strong data analysis can provide insights into policy decisions by not just looking at the data, but also looking through it to discern the bigger picture and make the most of the information. Pro Tip: Develop a business plan to justify this investment in top-level data analysis.


Pro Tip: Consider incentive programs that reward compliance vs. penalize for poor behavior. 14 PARKING & MOBILITY / SEPTEMBER 2020 / PARKING-MOBILITY.ORG

Seek Out New Revenue Streams With the multitude of stakeholders needing curb access, it is likely that single-space and private-vehicle parking inventories will be reduced or reassigned for other uses. When doing that, it is best to again look to stakeholders and plan to meet needs as best possible. Also, consider the replacement of lost revenues from metered parking with other streams of revenue. (i.e. short-term fees for passenger loading and unloading or delivery trucks, or altering pricing of parking on neighboring streets.) It’s essential to understand your stakeholders and their pricing tolerances and build programs tailored to what individual groups are willing

to pay. This will not be a one-size-fits-all approach across verticals or markets, and flexibility and creativity will need to watchwords of policy and planning development.

the day for shopping and commuting/ business purposes, pick-up and drop off tends to be more frequently used in the evening hours for dining and nightlife purposes. Can this space be shared?

Pro Tip: Be creative in developing strategies for replacing lost revenues.

Pro Tip: Employing flexible technology that can keep pace with flexible policy will also be key to implementation and to the functionality of the curb.


Future-proofing About creativity: throw out the handbook! Be open to change and to new ideas. Curb use is constantly changing, hence the need to have policies and codes in place that allow for flexibility. Changing code language to discuss more general technologies, approaches, and even pricing will allow you to be nimbler in adapting to change. Run pilot programs with clear goals and paths to implement. Allow administrators to experiment and test their plans before wide scale roll-out. Accept that some of the best plans will fail but commit to learning. Be systematic and diligent in your testing and your data collection and acquisition, so that when an idea does not perform as anticipated, you may assess why and gain insights.

To Sum Up

functionality. Gain and maintain a strong understanding of how different stakeholders use the curb and what they need from it, and then work diligently to find or create functional, cohesive plans and policies. These measures coupled with considerate compliance & roll-out strategies will put you on the road to successful curb management and that can greatly improve the overall experience and usability of any parking, mobility and transportation system. ◆

Acknowledge how important proper curb management is to the overall mobility of the transportation system. And while parking plays an essential role and will need to be accommodated, it need not be prioritized at the cost of overall

CARMEN DONNELL, CAPP, is vice president of sales, west, with PayByPhone and a member of IPMI’s Mobility Task Force. She can be reached at cdonnell@ paybyphone.com.

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Pro Tip: Create a culture of rewarding creative thinking.


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Experts say micro-mobility will emerge as a major form of transportation, especially in cities and on campuses, as we re-open after COVID-19. How do you think the industry could best take advantage of this trend?

Kelsey Owens Director of Municipal Sales Passport The industry should focus on the equitable distribution of scooters and relationship-building with mobility providers. By following the rules of parking management— paying for idle time at the curb— cities can develop policies to regulate curb space, incentivize desirable distribution of scooters, and create a foundation for strong partnerships with innovative mobility providers.

Melonie Curry, MBA

Kim Jackson, CAPP

Staff Analyst ParkHouston

Director of Parking and Transportation Princeton University

Municipalities should work closely with agencies repurposing parking lanes to bike lanes. Other agencies do not normally consider the impact of overflow parking in neighborhoods and the economic cost of the loss of parking for businesses that may not have an off-street option. Facility operators could look at repurposing parking spaces for scooters and bikes. Garages can provide safe and secure parking.

Personal micro-mobility will be critical as more cities, colleges, and universities re-open. Usage will increase as many commuters do not want to ride transit, or worse, cannot ride transit due to reduced capacity. Policies, parking and storage are key along with organizational flexibility.

Erik Nelson, PCIP

Sharada Strasmore

Director of Operations and Technology Consulting Walker Consultants

Shared Micromobility Planner District Department of Transporation

Parking industry professionals should educate themselves on how these programs could fit into their broader transportation systems by learning how micro-mobility companies operate, how the services work for end users, and how they could best work in each individual’s situation. Parking professionals deserve a seat at the table in defining and executing micro-mobility offerings.

Organizations need to refine their operational model and invest in behavior change and ongoing rider education to reduce friction in their relationships with the community and their regulators. Ideas include ongoing training in how to park and operate vehicles supplemented by appropriate balancing and staging that reflects the permit restrictions and needs of the residents.

/ HAVE A QUESTION? Send it to editor@parking-mobility.org and watch this space for answers from the experts.

The opinions and thoughts expressed by the contributors do not necessarily reflect the opinions and viewpoints of the International Parking & Mobility Institute or official policies of IPMI.


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Our world has changed— so too should our thoughts about and management of parking. Here’s why it all matters so much. By David Mepham, PhD HROUGH 25 YEARS OF PROFESSIONAL AND ACADEMIC LIFE, I have worked across the

urban and transport planning spectrum and find the issue of parking stands out very clearly as the most frustrating—but also the most fascinating—issue. In a profession that respects validated evidence, reliable economic and scientific facts that should shape parking outcomes are often overlooked. The result is poorly planned and designed parking, and carpark access that is damaging the form and function of our cities, centers, and local places.




Poor parking outcomes affect the attractiveness of the place, subordinate local access, and undermine the desire to stay and spend time and money in that place. This is at odds with areas that balance the car and parking with walking and cycling and the associated investments that enable these outcomes—these are places that feel more interesting, inviting, engaging, and have the capacity to succeed economically where they entertain the money out of people’s pockets. These are the places that are thriving at a time when many are barely surviving. In the end, poor-quality parking outcomes only ensure easy, cheap access to places not worth visiting. If the answer is so obvious, why do we keep getting it wrong? This question has led me to develop the Rethinking Parking project to unpack the thinking (and feeling) about parking. This is done using five viewing themes—the impact of parking on place, policy, politics, professional practice, and pricing; let’s call them the 5Ps. The ideas are discussed on the Rethinking Parking YouTube channel, but here is the gist:

Poor urban parking outcomes are an impediment to place quality and local access, and this has social, economic, and environmental consequences.

Parking Impacts on Place A century ago, a privileged few had access to cars and wanted to park in the city center—I think we all get that. A lot has changed since then. The way we live, work, play, and consume are different. Our population size and demographic profile is different. Notions of access are different. Our cities and places are different—some are failing, others are surviving, even thriving. Almost everything is different, except that we still expect to park our car in the center. The status of cities and towns was once a consequence of the exceptional place experience and their urban beauty—great places tend to attract and hold people and investment. The place is still the destination, but the value of the local place and access experience is often trumped by demands for cheap, easy car access and parking. Poor urban parking outcomes are an impediment to place quality and local access, and this has social, economic, and environmental consequences. It is useful to understand and address the parking/place problem; this is examined via four subthemes: 20 PARKING & MOBILITY / SEPTEMBER 2020 / PARKING-MOBILITY.ORG

■  The effect of parking on the place and local access

experience. It is interesting that, in the past several decades, we have created drive-in shopping centers that locate parking on the edge and protect the amenity of the core for shopping/leisure. In those same decades we have atomized the core of traditional centers, reducing density and accessibility and the amenity of the place with more and more parking. Active and animated edges with physical and visual permeability activate the place, increase passive surveillance, and make us feel safer and better. Offstreet parking, at grade or structure, on Main Streets and key side streets and laneways has replaced these desirable edges with car park entries, blank walls, or a lack of edge completely. ■  Does the type of parking reflect local access or place objectives? The problem may not be the existence or amount of car parking but the duration and location. Locating high-turnover parking in urban centers/ cores reduces the capacity for other land uses. Access to these car parks, with lots of vehicle movements in and out, affects the quality of the street level/footpath access. ■  Parking increases local traffic and contributes to peak period congestion. Providing car parking in the walkable core draws extra traffic onto congested roads. In peak periods, parking related traffic congestion, with the typical delays, annoyance, anxiety, and frustration, often leads to poor driver behavior, and this is related to road rage and the bullying of others. It also slows those vehicles that have a legitimate need to be in the center. Some drivers are cruising for free or cheap parking and their contribution to congestion is exacerbated with static signage that draws other drivers into full car parks. Cities that subsidize public parking in the center may lack the economic resources to invest in smart parking technologies that are shown to be effective in reducing parking related congestion. ■  Parking traffic also affects local access and walkability, access to transit, and cycling. When off-street parking is located in the core, it is common to access the car park via public side streets and laneways. These are often streets that also provide access for pedestrians coming and going from parking—also adjoining transit. We therefore find these particularly busy walking routes on narrow streets with minimal footpaths and typically poor disability access and a low pedestrian level of service. The problem is not necessarily the car park; rather, it is

It is interesting how often significant land use planning visions that deal comprehensively with almost every land use issue tend to overlook one of the most significant land uses of all— parking is the elephant in the room for urban planners. the access to the car park. This problem is exacerbated where vehicles cross into these side streets across the busier Main Street pedestrian path. It is on these paths, with many pedestrians and turning vehicles, that we find a larger number of pedestrian/vehicle right-of-way conflicts and unnecessary accidents and fatalities.

Parking and Place Case Studies It is interesting how often significant land use planning visions that deal comprehensively with almost every land use issue tend to overlook one of the most significant land uses of all—parking is the elephant in the room for urban planners. In relation to policy there are two considerations: ■  Consider if/how the local parking policy is integrated with local land use planning/design policy objectives and outcomes. It is evident that a key barrier to balanced parking outcomes is dealing with parking in a silo or at best, an extension of a transport/traffic planning problem. This is a policy process that leads to parking subordinating the place/access outcomes and those problems flagged previously. ■  Consider a range of parking/place examples, including beaches, recreational precincts, malls, traditional/modern, transit-­ oriented places, and urban/country centers. It is at the local level where people live, work, and play that the drive for innovation comes up against the institutional resistance to change, to maintain the status quo, the established process, the vested interests, and so on.


The Politics of Parking It is worth noting that local level thinking (or feeling) about parking may also be part of the challenge. There is always politics in parking, but it is not always obvious. Our values and beliefs are so deeply ingrained that we rarely step back to question their truth. Values and beliefs are substantially embedded in our subconscious and they run deep, and we can easily become emotional in defending them. We will have values and beliefs about driving and parking, and now we are thinking about inalienable personal rights. This is frequently a feature of parking policy debate and underpins the tendency toward irrational populism, making it difficult to develop rational, evidence based parking policy. Unpacking these values and beliefs, we can see there are significant historical, cultural, and economic drivers that underpin the significance of the car in western society. We can see the events that established the right to drive the much faster automobile on the road and to enjoy easy, cheap parking at the destination. These were contested historical battles, effectively championed by elites with the resources to privately own cars, organized into influential lobby groups and auto clubs in the early 20th century. One hundred years later, it is no longer a privileged minority demanding to park their cars in the center. Our culture has entrenched a redundant sense of entitlement about driving and access to parking. Today, with mass car ownership, this has radically different, and often damaging, consequences for our centers. These ideas should be seen as a barrier to addressing early 21st century urban challenges and opportunities.



Parking and Professional Practice Where does parking sit in the planning profession? Urban parking is typically treated as a transport/­traffic planning issue, although it has a critical effect on the form and function of our cities, centers, and local places. In spite of the significant land area and place amenity impacts associated with urban parking, it is rarely dealt with in urban planning and design policy or the planning documents that set out desirable land use outcomes and the visioning for the city.

Urban parking is typically treated as a transport/traffic planning issue, although it has a critical effect on the form and function of our cities, centers, and local places. In ‘Rethinking Parking’ we need to ask: Is parking a land use or transport planning issue? Where are the integrated planning processes that are necessary to achieve integrated place and access planning outcomes? Is there a bigger institutional problem here? Do we need to rethink beyond dysfunctional structures based on inwardly focussed silos? There may be a larger problem here with the way modernist urban planning and design has become atomized and siloed. Transport was once part of the urban planning puzzle; today transport and land use planners are often located in separate departments working in competition for their respective departmental objectives.

The Pricing of Parking The new technologies that have given real effect to the idea of demand responsive parking has been one of the most significant breakthroughs since the parking meter in the 1930s. There is now a fair, equitable and rational solution to urban on-street parking and Donald 22 PARKING & MOBILITY / SEPTEMBER 2020 / PARKING-MOBILITY.ORG

Shoup has nailed it. That work will hopefully continue to overcome the bad local politics and policy to further develop and expand. There is an adjoining policy area that must change— the practice of free and subsidized public parking on high-value, high-access public land in the center, often adjoining transit. These are land assets that have a cost and a potential benefit that is often not transparent to the asset owners—the public. In major cities, we may be talking in terms of hundreds of millions in vaguely listed or unlisted assets and in the larger capitals—billions. Any community survey of attitudes will confirm that car parks are not like public parks and gardens that are available to and enhance the whole community. Understanding the cost-benefit of free or subsidized public parking assets at least enables a rational discussion about what the community wants to achieve and what it is prepared to subsidize, and to carefully consider the merits or otherwise of subsidizing parking. Questions might include: What is the market value of public parking assets? What are the costs of maintaining the parking asset, including appropriate maintenance, safety, security, signage? It could be argued that significant public parking assets should be subject to cost/benefit analysis to inform the wider discussion on what public services are to be subsidized and why? It could be argued that high-value, high-access land assets, used or proposed to be used for free parking, should be subject to a highest and best use analysis. How does free parking impact on the ability to fund the use of new parking technologies that minimize parking traffic congestion in the center, such as real time signage/apps and related initiatives? I hope this very brief summary of the 5Ps of Rethinking Parking will at least spark some discussion about parking and how it affects urban place and access outcomes. My bottom-line argument is that the end game cannot be the car park; it must be the destination. As participants in the creation of parking outcomes, we need to ensure we are contributing to making places/destinations actually worth visiting. Our local places are changing, some are failing, others are surviving, some are even thriving—local access, including smarter parking, is a key element in the success of these places. ◆ DAVID MEPHAM, PhD, is an urban access consultant based in Melbourne, Australia. He can be reached at mepham.consulting@gmail. com.


Sizing Up Multi-modal Parking Violatio


Scooters, bikes, and cars all have different effects when they’re illegally parked. Here’s what we learned about those violations and cities, and how planners can work to prevent them. By Anne Brown, Nicholas J. Klein, and Calvin Thigpen




dockless electric scooters and bicycles appeared on city streets and sidewalks around the globe. These micro-­mobility transportation services bring new transportation options for residents and visitors, but also raise questions for local planners and regulators; chief of these are concerns about safety and where the scooters and bikes park.

We believe that cities should expand their parking policy reforms beyond just scooters and bikes to ensure traveler access to city sidewalks and streets. SHUTTERSTOCK/ SIMONE HOGAN

In a new open-access publication in Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives, we gathered parking data in five cities in the U.S. to begin to understand where bikes and scooters are parked, how often they block access by other travelers, and how their parking behaviors compare to the dominant mode on city streets: cars (Brown et al. 2020). Most planners in larger U.S. cities are likely familiar with the problems that can be caused by misparked micro­-mobility vehicles. They, too, have likely seen news reports and received complaints about e-­scooters and shared, dockless bicycles blocking sidewalks. These improperly parked vehicles may be a nuisance to many residents, but they are a much more serious concern for travelers with mobility challenges. Those with low vision may trip over a scooter parked in the middle of a sidewalk, or someone in a mobility device may be unable access a sidewalk if a bicycle is blocking the curb ramp. San Diego even faced a lawsuit from a disability rights group for allowing scooter companies to use the sidewalks for parking. Within this context, many cities are regulating where and when micro-mobility services should be used and how they should be parked. Yet these new regulations seem to be grounded in anecdote and motivated by public complaints rather than based on systematic data identifying where and how most scooters or bikes are parked.



Parking and Micro-mobility We spent much of the past year researching where micro­-mobility users park bikes and scooters. Our main questions were: ■  How often are micro-mobility devices improperly parked? ■  How do these rates of improper parking compare with motor vehicles? We chose to compare micro-mobility to motor vehicles because cars have reigned as the dominant mode on most American streets for many decades. Despite their long tenure as the prevailing mode of transportation, planners and policy-makers continue to grapple with motor vehicle parking and have yet to settle on a consensus solution, even with lengthy parking regulations written into zoning regulation and police dedicated to monitoring street parking. Adding to the complexity of this situation is the recent arrival of other innovations, including ride-hailing companies such as Lyft and Uber and food delivery services, which are much more likely to need curb space on a short-term basis compared to personal cars.

We found that nearly one-quarter (651 out of 2,631) of motor vehicles were improperly parked. This included cars and trucks double-parked, parked in no parking zones, and blocking driveways, bike lanes, bus stops, and turning lanes.


To understand how and where micro-mobility vehicles were parked, we collected data in five American cities with high micro-mobility use: Austin, Texas; Portland, Ore.; San Francisco, Calif.; Santa Monica, Calif.; and Washington, D.C. In each city, we hired local researchers and sent them out with a clipboard, data collection sheets, and a tape measure to record the location and duration of every parked scooter, bicycle, and motor vehicle on a busy commercial street. We counted bikes and scooters as improperly parked if they blocked access to either a crosswalk or a pedestrian curb ramp or if they reduced sidewalk right-of-way below 32 inches, which the American with Disabilities Act of 2010 Accessible Design Guidelines define as the minimum width required for an accessible sidewalk. In each city, our assistants collected data on both sides of a single busy commercial street on Thursday, Friday, and Saturday from 11 a.m. until 7 p.m. In total, we collected data on over 3,600 parked bikes, scooters, and cars.

Improper Parking We found that cars and trucks frequently park in ways that impede others’ access, while scoters and bicycles rarely block sidewalks or other travelers’ access. Of the 865 scooters and bikes we observed, seven (0.8 percent) were improperly parked, meaning they made the sidewalk or curb ramp impassable to someone on foot or in a mobility device (see Figure 1). Motor vehicles had much higher rates of improper parking. We found that nearly one-quarter (651 out of

2,631) of motor vehicles were improperly parked. This included cars and trucks double-parked, parked in no parking zones, and blocking driveways, bike lanes, bus stops, and turning lanes. We also observed that ridehail, taxi, delivery, and commercial vehicles account for a disproportionate share of motor vehicle violations. Ride-hail, taxi, delivery, and commercial vehicles comprised one in every four parked motor vehicles we observed, yet accounted for nearly two in three motor vehicle parking violations (see Figure 2). How should policy-makers and transportation planners act on these findings? We believe that cities should expand their parking policy reforms beyond just scooters and bikes to ensure traveler access to city sidewalks and streets. Cities should consider adjusting curb uses by the time of day and varying parking polFigure 2 Improper parking by city (Brown et al 2020). icies block by block. Some cities have already adopted more dynamic curb management systems. For example, the City of Seattle implemented flex zones that prioricar parking into bike and scooter parking is further supported by tize curb space to different motor vehicle uses based on street research from the Portland Bureau of Transportation and other type. Washington, D.C., now allows delivery companies to recities that has found that about one-quarter of scooter trips reserve curb space ahead of time. place trips made in cars and other motor vehicles. Our observations also showed that bike and scooter riders use Our findings represent just a few city streets, times of day, micro-mobility parking infrastructure when provided. We do not days of the week, and weather conditions. To provide cities with suggest that cities require micro-mobility riders park at racks or in the tools to conduct this research for themselves—when and corrals, given the advantages of the free-floating model compared where they want to—we made all of our research tools and methto its docked predecessor, but instead provide additional supportive ods openly available to other researchers, transportation planinfrastructure at more frequent intervals along a block. We anticiners, activists and others who may want to replicate or expand pate these measures may encourage people to park in micro-mobili- on our research. We posted all the material needed to replicate ty-designated places and further reduce parking violations. this research on the Center for Open Science website. We also This hypothesis is supported by evidence from Seattle, Wash.: include videos of a training session with research assistants, the share of dockless bike parking violations fell precipitously in data collection instruments, the data for this research, and code 2019 after the city built nearly 1,000 bicycle parking spaces, even to analyze the data. We hope the shared tools enable others to without mandating riders to park in these spaces. Cities wishing broaden this research to other places and contexts. ◆ to test if additional micro-mobility parking reduces improper micro-mobility parking could borrow or adapt our methodology to ANNE BROWN is assistant professor at the School of observe parking behaviors before and after micro-mobility racks Planning, Public Policy, and Management, University of Oregon. She can be reached at abrown33@uoregon.edu. or corrals are installed on a street.

Parking for Micro-mobility To date, cities have typically provided bike and scooter parking via parking corrals either in the furniture zone or in designated parking spaces on streets, often in former car parking spaces. While on-street parking corrals entail taking space away from cars, we found that micro-mobility vehicles accounted for 24.7 percent of all parked vehicles, yet limited formal space is provided for them to park. Turning one car parking spot into a micro-mobility corral can comfortably accommodate up to 12 bikes and scooters and help provide safe and predictable sidewalk travel for all. Converting

NICHOLAS KLEIN is assistant professor at the Department of City and Regional Planning, College of Architecture, Art, and Planning, Cornell University. He can be reached at n.klein@cornell.edu,

CALVIN THIGPEN is director of policy research at Lime. He can be reached at calvin.thigpen@li.me.



R e c o G n i z e d A c c o m p l i s h m Yo u R i n d u s t

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o u R i n

f o R e n t s R Y




entRies open now


– A wA R d s

octobeR 30 of

excellence –

– p R o f e s s i o n A l R e c o G n i t i o n A wA R d s – – m A R k e t i n G A wA R d s –

TIME TO SHINE. SUBMIT YOUR BEST PROJECTS, PEOPLE, AND PROGRAMS. New categories and criteria recognize excellence in our changing industry – find out more today.

Visit parking-mobility.org/awards for details.

IPMI Lauches Revamped Awards & Recognition Programs



individuals and organizations in the parking, transportation, and mobility industry. Winners in three major award categories—Awards of Excellence, Professional Recognition, and Marketing—exemplify industry excellence.

Awards of Excellence Showcasing outstanding parking and transportation facilities and innovative programs in a number of categories, the Awards of Excellence require a formal entry submission and judging process. Many winning projects receive state, regional, national, and international media coverage. Owners, operators, and all project team members may submit their projects in these categories: ■  Best Design of a Mixed or Multi-Use Parking & Transportation Facility. ■  Best Design of Parking Facility. ■  Best Design/Implementation of a Surface Parking Lot. ■  Innovation in Mobility, Transportation, or Parking Program. ■  Best Parking/Transportation Facility Rehabilitation or Restoration. ■  Award for Excellence in Sustainable Design. ■  NEW: Award for Excellence in Sustainable Management. ■  Award for Excellence in Architectural Design. ■  NEW! Award for Excellence in Innovation (in Mobility and Parking Planning).

Professional Recognition Awards Professional Recognition Awards recognize the individual contributions of parking, transportation, and mobility industry professionals—our industry’s best. Entrants for these prestigious awards may be self- or peer-nominated. Nominees must be IPMI members in good standing and there is no nomination fee. Categories include: ■  Industry Professional of the Year. ■  Organization of the Year. ■  Emerging Leader of the Year. ■  NEW! Professional Excellence Award. This new category recognizes all staff, from the frontline to management. Awards will recognize outstanding performance in a variety of areas, which may include Customer Service, Operations, Marketing, etc.

The awards submission process will close October 30, 2020. Submit today!

Marketing Awards These awards recognize outstanding marketing, public relations, and communications programs with the parking and mobility sector. Organizations may submit multiple submissions, but can only win one marketing award. IPMI encourages submissions in all marketing endeavors, and possible categories include: ■  Best Mobility Marketing Program ■  Best Parking Marketing Program ■  Best Social Media Program ■  Best Rebranding Campaign

IPMI offers a streamlined awards entry process via a sophisticated online platform. We encourage entries from all market segments and sectors; all IPMI members are invited to submit in all categories. Submit your best people, programs, and projects—and be sure to share great pictures and visuals as part of the process. Download comprehensive awards details and entry criteria at parking-mobility.org/awards.



Roadmap to Recovery A COVID-19 Industry Update





IPMI releases pandemic industry response and impact benchmark survey results.


HE COVID-19 CRISIS HAS AFFECTED EVERY INDUSTRY around the globe and parking, transporta-

tion, and mobility have been no exception. IPMI launched a comprehensive survey to quantify and characterize these impacts during the first half of 2020, to share industry insights, experience, and inform our Roadmap to Recovery efforts. Thank you to each of our members and colleagues who have shared their experience through our online industry Shoptalks and all of our efforts to stay connected. Find out more about the ongoing effort here.

The Survey

blended in observations from our independent survey of commercial operators, suppliers, and consultants.

Critical survey questions addressed:

■  Date affected by stay-at-home, lockdown, or other restrictive

measures; date of re-opening or loosened restrictions.

IPMI collected and aggregated data to benchmark and share the effects of and industry response to the ongoing COVID-19 crisis. The survey will form the foundation of our ongoing initiative to address considerations parking and mobility organizations face during the re-opening process, and next steps for the industry as a whole. The survey was open to all industry organizations, including municipalities, cities, and public agencies; academic institutions, colleges, and universities; commercial operators, suppliers, and consultants; airports and transit operators; healthcare organizations and hospitals; and related suppliers. We have also

■  Ways organizations have been affected by the COVID-19 crisis. ■  Measures organizations have implemented for safety and well-

ness programs as a result of the COVID-19 crisis. ■  New programs organizations have implemented as a direct

result of the COVID-19 crisis. ■  Initiatives organizations are currently planning to address in

the near-term (next six months). ■  Organizations’ predictions on anticipated parking demand

(based on pre-COVID-19 levels). ■  Opportunity to share additional detail on your experience and

to tell us what will be most useful to you as an IPMI member.

Survey Respondents by Sector

Academic/University  33%

Vendor  5%

Airport  6%

Commercial Operator  11% Municipality/City/ Public Agency  40%

Healthcare/Hospital  4% Mobility Services  2%



Our Findings

We have summarized our findings in the following charts and data, followed by insights and observations gained from comments and additional information provided, as well as data gathered during Shoptalks and Roadmap to Recovery discussions by sector.

Total Spaces/Annual Riders Represented for Municipalities, Universities, Airport, and Healthcare The following table shows the breakdown of assets managed by survey respondents in four specific markets. Sector Municipality, City, and Public Agency Academic/University



Fixed Route Riders

On Demand Riders



















Assets, Services and Programs Offered by Respondents 100%






On-street Parking

Off Street Parking (Lots)

Micro Mobility Programs

Transit & Shuttle Systems (Fixed Route)


Transit & Shuttle Systems (On Demand)

Transportation Demand Management Programs

Other (Bike share, Carshare, Scooters, etc.)

Data from Academic Institutions Revenue Effects

The following series of charts addresses overall revenue shortfalls in 2020 as a percentage of fiscal year budget due to the COVID-19 crisis, as well as a look forward at anticipated impacts through 2021.

Most significant factors contributing to revenue loss for sector: ■  Issuing permit refunds (either in whole or prorated). ■  Temporary suspension of parking enforcement. ■  Temporary suspension of parking fees (providing free parking).

Leadership and decision-making spanned a range of options: ■  In most cases (42%), decisions were made in collabora-

tion with university leadership and parking and mobility departments. ■  In 28% of the cases, university leadership led the decision-making process. ■  In 26% of the cases, parking and mobility departments led the decision-making process.

Factors contributing to revenue recovery: ■  People returning to work in person on campus.

■  Research and healthcare institutions re-opening.

Academic Results by Closing Date

■  Permit sales initiated (tied to locations that re-opened and

planned for fall in-person education).

Staffing impacts, including layoffs and furloughs:

■  Most respondents indicated a low percentage of layoffs or

furloughs for everyday staff (with generally higher impacts for student, contractor, and part-time staff ). ■  Most respondents are optimistic for minimal impacts in 2021, independent of closing/re-opening or projected revenue impacts.

Academic Revenue Recovery by Opening Date



Data from Municipalities, Cities, and Public Agencies Revenue Impacts

Leadership and decision-making spanned a range of options: ■  In most cases (49%), program decisions were made in col-

laboration between city leadership and parking and mobility departments. ■  In 28% of the cases, city leadership led the decision-making process. ■  In 23% of the cases, parking and mobility departments led the decision-making process.

Factors contributing to revenue recovery:

■  Public health orders relaxed, with restaurants and businesses

re-opening. ■  Initial shifts from transit commute to vehicle commute, in-

Municipal Results by Closing Date

creasing demand from single-occupant vehicles. ■  Meters and paid parking re-instated, whether in whole or in


Staffing impacts, including layoffs and furloughs:

■  Most respondents indicated a lower percentage of layoffs for

full-time staff. Many applied staggered furloughs (shorter work weeks, mandatory days off, staggered staffing) or reduced subcontractor staff. ■  More respondents are expecting an increase in layoffs and furloughs in 2021, but not at a widespread level.

Revenue Recovery by Opening Date

Most significant factors contributing to revenue loss for sector: ■  Temporary suspension of parking enforcement.

■  Temporary suspension of parking fees (providing free parking). ■  Suspension of booting/immobilization programs.


Data from Airports

Data from Healthcare Institutions and Hospitals

Revenue Impacts

Revenue Impacts

Most significant factors contributing to revenue loss for sector:

Most significant factors contributing to revenue loss for sector:

■  Temporary suspension of parking fees and enforcement.

■  Deeply lessened activity (outgoing flights and associated activ-

ity largely due to drop in business travel.)

■  Temporary facility closures. ■  Limitation of visitors for routine hospitalizations.

■  Temporary and long-term facility closures.

Leadership and decision-making:

Leadership and decision-making:

■  In most cases (75%), programmatic decisions were made in

■  In most cases (80%), it was the parking and mobility depart-

collaboration with hospital leadership and parking and mobility departments. ■  Remaining decisions were led by hospital leadership.

ment making decisions about programmatic changes. ■  In 20% of the cases, in collaboration with city, state, airport leadership and parking and mobility departments.

Factors contributing to revenue recovery:

Factors contributing to revenue recovery:

■  Re-instatement of elective surgeries.

■  Increased passenger volumes and flight activity (slowly grow-

ing, including shift from typical business travel to leisure/ personal travel). ■  Re-opening of local economies in response to public health orders lifted. ■  Airport experts indicated that they don’t anticipate a full recovery before 2023.

■  Re-opening of local economies/public health orders lifted.

Staffing impacts, including layoffs and furloughs:

■  Respondents did not indicate a major staffing impact for 2020. ■  Some respondents indicated wage reductions (in lieu of layoffs

or furloughs). ■  Respondents do not anticipate 2021 staffing impacts.

Staffing impacts, including layoffs and furloughs:

■  Respondents did not indicate a major staffing impact for 2020

despite revenue losses. ■  Respondents do not anticipate 2021 staffing impacts.



Biggest Impacts on Parking, Transportation, and Mobility Departments by Sector

Safety & Wellness Provisions Implemented Across All Segments


Programmatic Changes in Support of the Community by Sector

Planned Changes and Programming in the Next Six Months



77% Distribution of personal protective equipment (PPE). 60% Enforcement warning tickets or relaxed enforcement. 35% COVID-19 Testing Sites. 34% New mobile pay solutions and contactless payment

68% Increased cleaning protocols. 55% Contactless payment concepts. 47% Pricing changes, including increases, decreases, and variable pricing measures.

34% Curbside pickup for restaurants.

37% Planning for future flexible parking arrangements. 32% Planning for future electric vehicle accommodations.

Municipality Sector

Municipality/City/Public Agency

86% Distribution of personal protective equipment (PPE). 77% Enforcement warning tickets or relaxed enforcement. 70% Expanded curbside dining areas into on-street parking

61% Increased cleaning protocols. 48% Pricing changes, including increases, decreases, and vari-


able pricing measures.


68% Curbside pickup for restaurants. 57% Curbside pickup for other retail. 50% Open Streets, slow streets, or street closures to traffic for other purposes.

Academic Sector

45% Planning for curb management, including mapping,

digitization, monetization, or similar evaluation of curb usage.

43% Contactless payment concepts. 41% Planning for future electric vehicle accommodations. Academic/University

84% Distribution of personal protective equipment (PPE). 73% Enforcement warning tickets or relaxed enforcement. 46% COVID-19 testing sites. 43% New mobile pay solutions and contactless payment

76% Increased cleaning protocols. 57% Contactless payment concepts. 51% Planning for future flexible parking arrangements. 51% Pricing changes, including increases, decreases, and vari-

41% Online/virtual payment options for customers.

35% Maintenance (deferred).

Airport Sector



able pricing measures.

71% Distribution of personal protective equipment (PPE. 57% Priority parking for essential workers. 29% Marketing/Outreach Campaigns. 29% New mobile pay solutions and contactless payment

86% Contactless payment concepts. 71% Increased cleaning protocols. 57% Pricing changes, including increases, decreases, and vari-

29% Repurposing off-street surface parking assets.


Healthcare Sector

100% Staffing increases/rehiring. 75% Contactless payment concepts. 75% Increased cleaning protocols. 50% Planning for future flexible parking arrangements. 50% Pricing changes, including increases, decreases, and vari-


100% COVID-19 testing sites. 100% Distribution of personal protective equipment (PPE). 50% Repurposing off-street surface parking assets. 50% Repurposing off-street structured parking assets (garages).

able pricing measures.

43% Planning for future electric vehicle accommodations.

able pricing measures.

50% Planning for future electric vehicle accommodations



Demand Change Predictions Industry-wide Prediction on Anticipated Demand Change Other  10%

Anticipate continued decreases from preCOVID-19 levels next year  20%

Anticipate a return to preCOVID-19 levels in 2021  28%

Anticipate continued decreases from preCOVID-19 levels this year  32%

Anticipate a return to preCOVID-19 levels this year  10%

Insights from the Industry

What community milestones occurred that increased demand?

Open-ended responses shared include: ■  Our county was issued a variance from the state, due to low numbers of infection and outbreak, that allowed for restaurants to operate under a limited capacity as well as the City’s partnership with the Downtown Development Association, allowed for outdoor dining and extended sidewalk and parking space use, and curbside pick-up. ■  Public health orders relaxed, which allowed restaurants to reopen as 50% capacity. ■  Restaurants re-opened, street closures to facilitate social distancing, and on-street spaces re-purposed for dining parklets, state-wide mask requirements. ■  Shift from public transit usage and shared mobility to solo driving and parking. ■  Lifted free metered parking, began enforcement of meters, and creation of outside dining areas. ■  Fall semester permit sales began. ■  Reopening of the county, with a slow return of staff with announcement of fall in-person classes, return of contractors with resumption of campus construction projects.

How can IPMI help you and your organization (and the industry at large)?

Comments from respondents included: ■  Continue to offer options to learn and benefit from parking, mobility and transportation programs/agencies. ■  The COVID crisis has been an accelerator of change in the parking industry, and we need to start thinking and planning for how we evolve, grow, and thrive as an industry and as a community as COVID slips into the rearview. What is in front of us will look very different from how we did business in the past. If we don’t pay attention to and plan for what is coming, we would have done everything right to survive the crisis, and left ourselves unprepared to be economically viable after the world reopens. ■  Forums to share pandemic solutions to impacts/challenges. ■  Continue to provide insight into the creative solutions that others in the industry are coming up with to re-imagine the future of parking and the ongoing effects of COVID-19. ■  Show how other parking professionals are reinventing their role in parking. ■  Provide helpful data on how recovery efforts are going for other organizations, avenues in which we can connect with our peers to discuss ideas and potential solutions. ■  Keep supplying the information for our industry and continue the fight for federal government funding. ■  Keep momentum with #stayconnected campaign. Provide virtual venues for members to trade ideas. ■  The COVID-19 crisis has shown us the importance of working together as an organization, as a a city and with your peers in the industry. This crisis cannot be solved alone, it’s critical that IPMI continue to take the lead for our industry and keep members connected and up to date on the most current trends.

What’s Next

IPMI will utilize these results and insights to shape our continuing Roadmap to Recovery Initiative, informing our members of best practices, and sharing them through all of our media channels. We will survey the industry again to assess how our members are handling the crisis, and distribute what we learn. We will continue to host free online Industry Shoptalks, scheduled for September 24, November 4, and December 16. You can access previous Shoptalk recordings here to gain additional industry insights. Look for continuing coverage of the crisis and our roadmap efforts in monthly issues of Parking & Mobility magazine.


BUSINESS VISION Additional Resources

Share your resources in the IPMI COVID-19 Information Clearinghouse, and be sure to check out the featured resources, events, and education, including the following: ■  Center for Disease and Control Prevention: COVID-19 Critical Infrastructure Sector Response Planning ■  American Public Transportation Association(APTA): Public Transit Response to Coronavirus or COVID-19 ■  Institute of Transportation Engineers(ITE): COVID-19 Resources ■  National Association of City Transportation Officials (NACTO): COVID-19 Transportation Response Center ■  Smart Growth America: Complete Streets + COVID 19 ■  Center for Disease and Control Prevention: COVID -19 Staffing Resources ■  IPMI Releases Roadmap to Recovery Special Edition, July 2020 ■  Walker Consultants Shares New Guide: Curbs, Streets and Parking for Reopening ■  Data-driven parking management strategies to curb expenses and kickstart recovery. ■  LAZ Partners with US Healthy Work, Parsons &; Vizsafe to Launch LAZ PreScreen, a Groundbreaking COVID-19 Health & Safety Screening ■  Transit technology firm Passio highlights contact tracing tool to fight the pandemic spread ■  Industry Effort to Support $30B in Additional Municipal Funding during Pandemic ■  European Passenger Travel Response to COVID Speed and Trip Data Provide Insight into the Pandemic’s Impact on Transportation, Shared by Inrix ■  Beyond the Curve: Post-Pandemic Back to Work for Employees and Employers, Shared by NEPC & NYSPTA ■  City Tech Launches New Resources to Understand Community Impact of COVID-19, shared by CityTech ■  COVID-19 and the Impacts on Future Travel: What’s Next for the Summer and Beyond, Shared by Mobility21 ◆

We seek to streamline and optimize control of your parking structure, its management, productivity and security. Our differentiation and competitive advantages enable you to improve the level of service, while exploring new business opportunities.

BRETT WOOD, CAPP, PE, is president of Wood Solutions Group and chair of IPMI’s Research & Innovation Task Force. He can be reached at brett@woodsolutionsgroup.com.

RACHEL YOKA, CAPP, LEED AP BD+C, WELL AP, is IPMI’s vice president of program development. She can be reached at yoka@ parking-mobility.org.

MEYPAR USA Corp. 21755 I45, Building 11, Suite D 77388 Spring, Texas Tel.: +1 346-220-4619 (Sales) www. meypar-usa.com · info@meypar-usa.com


Parking Lots, Public Spaces, Social Distancing,



By Warren C. Vander Helm and David Vogel

Repurposing parking for new public services during a pandemic presents its own dangers. Fortunately, safety measures can help.




volunteering with a food drive at First Southern Baptist Church in Los Angeles on April 17. It was the end of a week that saw a staggering number of deaths and unemployment claims across the U.S., due to the swift spread of COVID-19. According to CBS Los Angeles, 58-yearold Melendez had been a volunteer at the food bank for years and was doing his part to help with an increase in demand. As he was loading items into the back of one car, a driver behind him mistakenly accelerated. Melendez was pinned between the two vehicles and killed.




A tragic accident at a food bank in Miami Gardens, Fla., on March 11 resulted in one death and multiple injuries after a driver unintentionally reversed into a line of people waiting outside. And on May 4, a 13-yearold boy was injured when he was pinned between two vehicles while volunteering at a food drive in Ligonier, Ind.

Safety Cannot Be Delegated As consultants in the parking industry, our team is sadly familiar with accidents like these. With unfortunate frequency, we are asked to serve as expert witnesses on vehicle-caused deaths in parking lots and other areas where cars are close to pedestrians, such as walkup ATMs, outdoor seating areas, and drive-through services to name a few examples. Often, they happen due to pedal confusion, incidents where a driver hits the gas instead of the brake and jumps a curb, drives through a storefront, or as we have seen in the instances above, pins people between two vehicles. Unfortunately, we see a lot of resistance to preventative safety measures. Often, it’s not until an accident occurs and the owner of a parking lot is facing a lawsuit that these issues are addressed.  42 PARKING & MOBILITY / SEPTEMBER 2020 / PARKING-MOBILITY.ORG

There are a host of new risks to consider following the repurposing of public spaces for a variety of uses in response to COVID-19. Instead of indoor or walk-up food banks, church and school parking lots are transformed into drive-through distribution sites. Drivers are asked to stay in their cars while groceries are loaded for them to minimize contact. Curbsides are also increasingly active as pickup locations for retailers and as restaurants and businesses expand out onto sidewalks and streets. Before COVID-19, the U.S. experienced an average of 50,000 accidents, 60,000 injuries, and an estimated 500 deaths each year in parking lots; the vast majority of those were pedestrians. We know that whenever you bring pedestrians and cars closer together, those numbers go up. In repurposing parking lots, curbs, sidewalks, and streets as added commercial space or use as semi-­ permanent distribution points, it is important not to mitigate one risk while ignoring another. 

Physical Distancing as Safety Concern COVID-19 has forced all of us to rethink how we interact with public spaces. But this increase in physical distancing is also leading to a decrease in space between people and cars.

Food banks and COVID testing sites in parking lots came first. Now we are seeing businesses reopen, but often only if they can guarantee enough space for their customers to appropriately spread out. For restaurants and shops, this can mean expanding into parking lots, sidewalks, and newly closed streets. “A business owner has to be mindful of parking lot safety,” says Rob Reiter, a consultant in curbside and parking lot safety and co-founder of the Storefront Safety Council. “When he or she finally has the chance to reopen and expand outdoor seating areas, consulting with an expert might not be the first thing that comes to mind, but it absolutely should be.”  Cities are also under pressure to create the conditions under which businesses can reopen. Coast-to-coast, cities including Portland, Ore.; Los Angeles, Calif.; and New York City have streamlined the process for restaurants to open or expand outdoor seating. In Oregon, the Liquor Control Commission expedited the process for restaurants to apply for sidewalk liquor licenses. And in Los Angeles, Mayor Eric Garcetti announced L.A. Al Fresco, a program that will help restaurants reopen faster “by temporarily relaxing the rules that regulate outdoor dining.” On top of approving outdoor dining permits, cities are considering applications to close down streets to vehicles. Ashland, Ore., which suffered a significant economic blow in the cancelation of the town’s flagship attraction, The Oregon Shakespeare Festival will close a large stretch of Main Street each weekend for much of the summer to make room for businesses and visitors to spread out.  In this rush to reopen and repurpose, we see the potential for disaster.

vehicles from entering these newly created pedestrian-only areas. A small sign on a safety cone saying “street closed” or redirecting drivers to alternate routes may not prevent someone—who may be alcohol-impaired or simply caught off guard by the new traffic pattern—from crashing into a crowd of people. Liability for businesses and cities increases as taking measures for prevention of foreseeable tragedies decreases. Some important recommendations for property owners and organizations re-purposing parking lots and outdoor spaces for these services: ■  Safety bollards should be installed around new sidewalk or parking lot seating for restaurants. ■  Parking spots should not face outdoor seating areas, but if there are no other options, safety bollards should be installed between the front of vehicles and seated customers. ■  Make a traffic circulation plan with safety in mind. Faster moving vehicles entering or exiting an area should be separated from stationary vehicles in line for services. ■  Design pickup lines for cars to pull in parallel to each other, rather than bumper-to-bumper, reducing the risk of people getting pinned between vehicles. ■  If a pick up line must be employed, create a loading pull-out where the vehicle being loaded is situated parallel to, but one lane to the left or right of the line of vehicles. 

Taking Measures to Avoid New Risks

■  Map out access points where cars and volunteers interact and

Many aspects of our day-to-day lives have changed very quickly in recent months. We have adapted to wearing masks in public and washing our hands more frequently. We set up offices on our dining room tables and learned to cook more at home. But some changes require more in-depth considerations. When it comes to the repurposing of parking lots, sidewalks and streets, we must take the time to do it right.  “Vehicles in parking lots are a lot like sharks in the ocean,” says Reiter. “Shark attacks are unlikely when you are sitting on the sand. But if you wade out into the water, your risk goes up.” Reiter says curbside pickup lines and outdoor seating areas set up in parking spaces are essentially shark territory. “If people are seated in the same areas where vehicles are moving, the likelihood for tragedy is simply going to increase.”  There are simple and relatively inexpensive measures that can be taken to keep both drivers and pedestrians safe. Even as we move forward with reimagining our cities and towns now and for physical distancing in the future, we do not have to trade one risk for another.  When temporarily closing streets for the expansion of businesses, crash tested barriers should be put in place to prevent

clearly mark “no go areas” for vehicles to prevent intrusions where volunteers are staging. ■  Train staff and volunteers in safety and traffic plans, clearly communicate with signs, and clearly delineate lanes so that drivers are not confused. And remember—speed kills. As we continue to adjust to this new reality of the pandemic and repurpose our public spaces, we must also continue to develop safety measures that will prevent accidents. And we must continue to have these conversations as we all venture into new territory and invent the temporary new normal.◆

■  Ease congestion by designating pickup and drop-off points that

are separate from traffic circulation.

WARREN C. VANDER HELM is a partner at Parking Design Group, LLP. He can be reached at warren@ parkingdesigngroup.com.

DAVID VOGEL is managing partner at Parking Design Group, LLP. He can be reached at david@ parkingdesigngroup.com.



More th an 250 r egistere Sign up d. to join t hem!

Re-imagining Everything By Rita Pagan


PMI’S HAS RE-IMAGINED OUR ANNUAL Leadership Summit in a whole new way. The 2020 Leadership

Summit will include everything you love about the event in year’s past: top-notch education on leadership development and networking and collaboration with your expanding network, including subject-matter experts and peers. As a virtual event, we will offer a broader range of education that leaders need now, more than ever. What’s Different? Our world has forever changed and our industry faces disruption on a grand scale. IPMI has opened registration for this event beyond our members as well as our colleagues and prospective members in the parking, transportation, and mobility industry. This signature event, normally limited to 100 in-person attendees, has been transformed to a virtual experience. Now more than ever, we need up-and-coming pros as well as seasoned veterans—leaders at every level—to stay at the top of their game. So we are breaking the mold, moving beyond the

100 to ensure every leader in the field has access to this event and the expertise and connections that come with it.

Two Education Tracks This year’s RE-IMAGINE event will also include two specific educational tracks to choose from, Building Resilient Leaders and Essential Industry Knowledge. Unlike years past, you don’t have to miss out on a single session—we will record and share with participants after the event so you can revisit your favorite sessions or view the ones you didn’t attend live.

Here’s a snapshot of some of the topics we will cover in these two critically important tracks: ■  Planning

for an Uncertain Future—Industry Response, Crisis Management, and Lessons Learned. ■  Managing Up, Down, and Sideways—Strategies, Tactics, and Takeaways. ■  Reinventing Cities: Trends, Challenges, and the Role of Mobility Services.

■  How

Authentic Concern Drives “Good Business.” and Achieving Resilience in the Face of Adversity. ■  Leading thru Volatile, Uncertain, Complex, Ambiguous Times. Join us for this year’s virtual event as we focus on a future that requires us to lead, innovate and exceed expectations. What are you waiting for? Register at parking-mobility.org/re-imagine ■  Building

Ashley Owens

Networking Concierge, Ashley Assists

Early-bird registration closes September 15

At the end of the day, no one cares WHAT you do, but do you know them, like them, or trust them? In an industry built on the power of connecting face-to-face, establishing and growing meaningful relationships is undeniably critical to long-term success. Dive in and engage with your peers in this highly interactive keynote where you learn how to balance your strengths, network strategically and with confidence, and craft an authentic, powerful, professional networking process to achieve a wildly successful career.

■  $149

Our Partners Support the Summit.

■  $79

for members for non-members

Regular registration ■  $119

with the code READTHEMAG for members ■  $229 for non-members ■  $149

Want to bring your whole team— at even more of a discount? Try this on for size—$199 for FIVE team members from the same member organization in good standing, throuigh September 15. Email us at Events@parking-mobility.org.

This event simply wouldn’t be possible without our amazing community of experts, volunteer speakers, and partners. Thank you to our early sponsors and supporters. A few great sponsor opps remain—reach out to us today to find out more. 44 PARKING & MOBILITY / SEPTEMBER 2020 / PARKING-MOBILITY.ORG

RITA PAGAN is IPMI’s events and exhibits manager. She can be reached at pagan@parking-mobility.org.



Highlights Highlights from from thethe IPMI IPMI Blog Blog

Returning to Work in the New Normal By Richard L. Bradley, CAPP The University of Mississippi has started inviting faculty and staff back to campus for work. We were well taken care of during our campus shutdown, which stretched from mid-March until July 1, and paid administrative leave was allowed for those with positions not conducive to a remote working environment. As we all found out, service industries find it nearly impossible to function during pandemics. Now we have been challenged with bringing staff back in a safe environment. Is that even possible for higher education campuses? College campuses share the same risk level during a virus breakout as cruise ships. Would you want to go on a cruise right now? Would you want to be staffed on one of those ships? Would you send your child on a cruise? These are the questions our staff members are wrestling with right now.

I work for a great university that ranks high on the Modern Think list of Great Colleges to Work For every year. We currently offer two programs to assist our staff during these times: Emergency Paid Sick Leave and Expanded Family Medical Leave. These offer relief to staff members who are sick or have a close family member who is sick with COVID-19, anyone that is quarantined by local policy, those considered high risk due to an underlying condition, or those with child care needs due to care provider and school closures. I consider us lucky to have these programs provided by our state. These programs provide equity and support for our staff. This will provide a sense of safety to our staff they often do not feel in other jobs. Providing information to employees is crucial. Without the information, opportunities might be missed and costly staff turnover could ensue.

RICHARD L BRADLEY, CAPP, is manager of administrative affairs, department of parking & transportation, at

The University of Mississippi.

Ready for more? Read IPMI’s blog every business day in your daily Forum Ready for more? Read IPMI’s blog digest every business your daily digest email (10 a.m. Eastern) or at email (10day a.m.inEastern) orForum at parking-mobility.org/blog. parking-mobility.org/blog. Have something to say? Send post submissions to editor Kim Fernandez at Have something to say? Send postfernandez@parking-mobility.org. submissions to editor Kim Fernandez at fernandez@parking-mobility.org.


Mastering the Art of Effective–Really Effective–Networking By Ashley Owens Networking is such a personal activity–it is not a one-size-fits-all practice. Most people get bogged down in the details and miss out on the foundation of how to build and retain an effective network. At the end of the day, no one cares WHAT you do, but do you know them, like them or trust them? In an industry built on the power of connecting face-to-face, establishing and growing meaningful relationships is undeniably critical to long-term success. During IPMI’s Leadership Summit this October, I’ll share ways to nurture your current business relationships so that you can create your own tactical, individualized approach. You will learn how to save time by recognizing the best strategic partners and effectively engaging contacts up using email, messaging, social media, and other digital tools. Dive in and engage with your peers in this highly interactive session, where you learn how to balance your strengths, network

strategically and with confidence, and craft an authentic, powerful, professional networking process to achieve a wildly successful career.

ASHLEY OWENS is a networking concierge and head of Ashley Assists. She will present on this topic during IPMI’s 2020

Leadership Summit, online, Oct. 6-8. For details and to register, click here.

Keep Calm and Carry On: The Power of Resiliency By Casey Jones, CAPP I’m currently reading Erik Larson’s “The Splendid and the Vile,” an account of the year that followed Winston Churchill’s appointment as British Prime Minister and the devastation brought by Hitler and Germany’s Luftwaffe against the island nation of Great Britain. The book details many harrowing experiences but an especially poignant account involves the industrial city of Coventry that in one raid, was subjected to intense and unrelenting aerial bombardment. According to Larsen’s account, during the course of 11 hours, 509 bombers dropped 500 tons of high explosive and 29,000 incendiaries, which destroyed 2,294 buildings and cost the lives of 568 civilians. Coventry was not alone as a target of the Germans and the level of destruction, despair and death sustained by Britain and its people is hard to fathom or fully appreciate. Through it all, the country, its leaders, and its citizens adopted immense resiliency and fortitude, which ensured they would not give in to the Germans even in the face of such calamity. Our current situation is different in many ways but one thing is certain: The need to be resilient most especially in the face of uncertainty is a must. We may live in an era where resiliency

doesn’t come as naturally as it may have for previous generations. We also have new tools and ways of thinking at our disposal that didn’t existing in the 1930s and ‘40s. Without resilience, it is not possible to cope effectively with the pandemic and its aftermath and avoid irreparable harm to our physical health, our relationships, and our positive outlook on life. Like the Brits in WWII, we need to learn how to keep calm and carry on.

CASEY JONES, CAPP, is senior parking and mobility planner with DESMAN. He will present on this topic during IPMI’s 2020

Leadership Summit, online, Oct. 6-8. For details and to register, click here. 46 PARKING & MOBILITY / SEPTEMBER 2020 / PARKING-MOBILITY.ORG

/ Miami Parking Authority Announces the Appointment of its Next Chief Executive Officer IN A UNANIMOUS VOTE, the Board of Directors of the Miami Parking Authority (MPA) appointed Alejandra “Alex” Argudin , CAPP, as its next chief executive officer. Argudin becomes the first woman CEO of the MPA in more than six decades of its existence, She brings over 13 years of experience at the Authority, nine of which have been as chief operations officer. In that capacity, she has led a number of forward-thinking initiatives that have positioned the Authority as a leader in the parking industry. One of the many initiatives that she shepherded includes the increase in the utilization of PayByPhone in Miami from about 23 percent five years ago to an impressive 93 percent adoption rate. This success story has placed the MPA as the leading parking organization in volume of PayByPhone transactions in all of North America. “Alex’s unique vision, experience and transformational leadership style make her an excellent candidate to take the reins of the MPA at a time when advances in the industry are dramatically changing

its operations,” says Dr. Thomas Jelke, chairman of the board. “She is prepared and uniquely qualified to step seamlessly into the role as CEO after successfully managing the operations of the MPA for the past nine years.” As COO of Operations, the department that fulfills the mission of the Authority, Argudin has managed a staff

of 150 and a budget of over $40 million. More recently, she led the complex task of applying for, and winning, the prestigious Accredited Parking Organization (APO) certification and, subsequently, the APO with Distinction. These awards, led by the IPMI, are presented solely to organizations that have excelled in all of the categories of parking operations. “I am deeply honored by the trust the board has placed in my abilities to lead the MPA in very exciting times in our industry,” says Argudin. “I will lead this organization, with the support of the board and our committed staff, with strength, transparency and conviction.” She takes over the position as CEO immediately, following Art Noriega’s appointment as City of Miami Manager, who served as CEO for the past 20 years. “I wholeheartedly applaud the board’s decision to select Alex as the next CEO of MPA,” says Noriega. “She is an extraordinary leader who will use her experience, knowledge and passion to successfully see the organization through the leading-edge changes that lie ahead.”


PayByPhone Debuts in Town Square of Ripley, WV PayByPhone, a leading global provider of mobile parking payment solutions, has partnered with Ripley, W.V., to provide contactless, simple parking experiences for residents and visitors. The city has begun using PayByPhone at more than 100 parking spaces surrounding its town square. Nestled in the Appalachian foothills at the junction of Interstate 77 and US Route 33, Ripley is home to 300 residents. It annually hosts the oldest parade and Independence Day celebration in West Virginia. “The Town Square is the hub for Ripley’s shopping, dining and entertainment,” says Carolyn Radar, mayor, City of

Ripley. “Our new partnership with PayByPhone provides all visitors with an easy contactless parking option.” With the launch of PayByPhone, visitors can enter the parking space location, length of parking, payment and parking session extensions all through PayByPhone’s app, website or the service number displayed on parking lot signs. The app even texts users when their parking session has expired. “PayByPhone provides simple parking solutions in over 70 American cities,” says Roamy Valera, CAPP, PayByPhone CEO. “It is our privilege to help Ripley provide improved, hassle-free parking experiences to visitors and residents.”


/ JIESHUN’s Smart Parking Applied in World’s Biggest Underground Parking LIVAT Centre Beijing is directly connected to the Xihongmen station of Metro Line 4 and is well connected with the 5th Ring Rd. It has a parking lot with more than 7,050 spaces, which won the Guinness Record title for world’s biggest underground parking lot (in 2016).The three-floor garage has a daily average passenger flow of nearly 100,000 and a peak traffic volume of 35,000 at weekend. Such a huge flow has made LIVAT Centre Beijing one of the busiest shopping centers in Beijing, and also has brought unprecedented parking problems. An annual customer survey showed that the underground parking lot faced a series of parking problems, such as difficulty parking and then finding one’s car later.

In order to completely solve these problems, the Centre carried out a comprehensive upgrade for the parking lot. Its 16-in & 16-out lane and more than 7,000 parking spaces have all adopted JIESHUN’s Smart Parking solution. The 32 lanes of the Centre are all equipped with JIESHUN’s C-series unattended parking dispensers with a more than 99.8% license plate recognition rate, reducing the hiring cost of sentry guards, and easing entry into the garage. JIESHUN fully supports online payment, such as WeChat, Alipay, and other online payment methods. Twenty-four automated payment stations accept cash for drivers who prefer to pay that way.

Introducing Easily digestible, highly detailed data at a glance. Customized conditional reasoning workflows catered to the demands of your facility. Automated alerts delivered on your schedule, tailored to fit your needs. Limitless potential for expanded functionality. The aggregator of all of your system data: INX.

Park Assist’s cloud-based INX software platform is the most sophisticated software the parking industry has ever seen. Developed by Park Assist data scientists in response to what our clients wanted most, INX is our latest game-changer in the PGS space. Find out why. +1 203-220-6544 www.parkassist.com



Passio Adds Contact Tracing Tool to Fight Pandemic Spread In the current pandemic era, a highly relevant solution on the rise is “contact tracing”—identifying and managing people who’ve been exposed to a disease and those who’ve come into contact with them to help prevent further transmission. Passio Technologies, an Atlanta, Ga.,-based firm providing intelligent technology solutions for transit, has announced the addition of their Contact Tracing module to their existing Gateway Solution platform. Touted as the newest tool for transit to use in the fight against pandemics. Contact Tracing, a new module in their flagship Gateway platform, works with existing passenger identification scanning systems to identify and alert transit operators on university, municipal, healthcare, residential, and corporate transit systems in which passengers may have been exposed to an infected fellow rider. Passio President Mitch Skyer says, “This system can give passengers confidence that if someone was identified as sick or contagious, there would be a plan of action to notify fellow passengers.” The program’s reporting system collects rider data from ID scans, letting transit agencies know which other cards were swiped on or off during the same timeframe. CFO Scott Reiser says, “Tracing and tracking are key first-line tools to help control and eventually beat pandemics.” Not only can the system record simple card information, but it can also keep track of detailed demographic information. Top benefits to riders include newfound peace of mind, confidence to ride transit, and quick access to information. For Passio clients, the solution offers fast and easy access to information, integrations with additional products like CAD/AVL, the means to communicate with riders, and new reporting trends and analysis opportunities. The new offering integrates with other Passio solutions to further boost its functionality. This proven product has even been tested and used in a variety of customer applications. In the uncertain times we’re all experiencing during COVID, observes Skyer, it’s easy to feel like we have no control, adding, “Just like wearing face masks and practicing social distancing, this is one more tool to provide more control in our lives.” Tools like Passio’s Gateway Contact Tracing can help transit agencies proactively work towards helping to slow transmission. This solution allows companies to move beyond just providing transportation services, and actually help protect the health and safety of their riders and operators. PARKING-MOBILITY.ORG / SEPTEMBER 2020 / PARKING & MOBILITY 49

/ Spectra Selects ParkMobile as Official Parking Reservations Partner

Tim Maloney Joins INRIX to Lead Parking INRIX, Inc. announced the hire of parking veteran Tim Maloney as vice president. In this role, he will lead strategy, product and operations of INRIX Parking. Prior to INRIX, Maloney held numerous positions at SpotHero, including leading sales and strategy partnerships that helped scale from 1,500 reservation and payment locations to over 8,000 today and roll out of new product lines. Previously, he built and ran Propark Mobility’s regional and national sales teams, helping the company expand its footprint from a regional operator to managing hundreds of locations around the country. He is a frequent contributor to parking publications, an industry disruptor and keynote speaker, and currently sits on IPMI’s Sustainability Committee. “Tim’s extensive experience working with cities, operators and developers is the ideal fit as the mobility landscape continues to shift,” says Bryan Mistele, president and CEO at INRIX. “He’ll have an immediate impact on our efforts as we continue to expand the scope of our product offerings across the world.” “I’m excited to join the INRIX team that is equipping drivers with innovative and dynamic connected parking services, including the ability to find, reserve, pay and drive to a parking spot,” says Maloney. “INRIX is already offering automakers, road authorities and businesses an unsurpassed solution for in-car parking and pay capabilities—so I’m thrilled to see where we take INRIX Parking.” INRIX Parking brings together availability, reservations and payments for both on-street and off-street parking into a seamless in-car navigation experience. INRIX Pay includes a wide network of on- and off-street parking payment companies and integrates with a variety of payment vendors to provide a one-stop-shop for frictionless payments directly from the dashboard. INRIX Parking currently includes street parking information in nearly 600 cities in 60 countries, and garage and lot information in almost 18,000 cities in 147 countries. INRIX is the preferred provider of transportation and parking services to leading automakers, mobile apps, transportation agencies and drivers around the world.

ParkMobile announced a new multi-year partnership with Spectra, industry leader in venue management, hospitality, and partnerships, to become the company’s official parking reservations provider. ParkMobile’s contactless pre-paid reservations and on-demand event parking will allow Spectra’s 185 venues to offer visitors a new way to park at events with an enhanced focus on guest safety and ease. Committed to enhancing the customer parking experience, ParkMobile’s app and website will allow Spectra guests to find available parking spaces, book parking spots ahead of time, and filter for specifications like tailgating, oversized vehicles, and more. For guests who elect not to reserve parking in advance, venues will be able to leverage ParkMobile’s drive-up parking solution, allowing guests a cashless option and improving a major component of the customer experience. The ParkMobile solution seamlessly integrates with most handheld scanning devices, parking barrier gates, and ticketing platforms. ParkMobile has over 19 million users in North America, and has been used at hundreds of venues, including Mercedes-Benz Stadium in Atlanta, Soldier Field in Chicago, Prudential Center in Newark, and T-Mobile Arena in Las Vegas. “Parking is our first opportunity to impress guests, and Spectra is excited to partner with the experts at ParkMobile to improve this crucial touchpoint at our venues across North America,” Bryan Furey, senior vice president of partnerships for Spectra, says, “As venues prepare to reopen in the coming months, it’s important that we offer a rethought parking experience that communicates our priority to keep guests and staff safe.” “This partnership with Spectra will make parking at their venues much easier and safer,” says Jon Ziglar CEO of ParkMobile. “The days of heading to an event without knowing where you’re going to park are over. Now you can make a parking reservation online and drive right to the lot where you have a guaranteed spot waiting for you.”


FIND A JOB | POST A JOB Free for IPMI Members! Explore your newest IPMI Member benefit and discover your great adventure or candidate in IPMI’s Career Center. Reach thousands of parking, transportation, and mobility professionals. New positions posted at every level.

Where will you go? Find out at: parking-mobility.org/careercenter

/ PARKING & MOBILITY CONSULTANTS Architecture | Engineering | Consulting Strategic Planning and Management Maintenance and Restoration Design and Construction Technologies www.kimley-horn.com/parking

The leading expert in developing structured parking solutions. www.ipd-global.com | 877 IPD PARK

Nashville International Airport Terminal Garage 2020 IPMI Award of Excellence

Parking Design Planning & Mobility Operations & Technology Forensics & Restoration Building Envelope

John Dorsett, AICP, CPP Senior Vice President 317.842.6890 jdorsett@walkerconsultants.com





Design Management


Innovation through Collaboration, Success by Design

Boston Chicago Cleveland Denver Ft Lauderdale Hartford New York Pittsburgh Washington, D.C.

866-808-7294 www.DESMAN.com

Parking and Transportation Planning

Traffic Engineering

Parking Design and Consulting

Civil Engineering

Structural Engineering

Intelligent Transportation Systems

Structural Diagnostics

Systems Integration

Brian Lozano, PMP





2020 AUGUST–OCTOBER 30, 2020 Call for Awards Open SEPTEMBER 9 IPMI Webinar How to Increase Retention and Build Team Culture SEPTEMBER 15 Leadership Summit Early-Bird Registration Closes. Attend for $79, or bring five team members for $199. SEPTEMBER 15 & 17, 2020 Online, Instructor-led Course: Finance & Auditing for Parking, Transportation, and Mobility Pros SEPTEMBER 23 Free Online Shoptalk Municipal Response & Recovery SEPTEMBER 29 Online, Instructor-Led Training: OCTOBER 8–9

OCTOBER 21 Free Members Webinar: Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion October 21 @ 2:00 pm - 3:00 pm EDT OCTOBER 27 & 29 Online, Instructor-led Training Wicked Problem Solving OCTOBER 30 IPMI 2021 Call for Awards Closes

NOVEMBER 18 IPMI Webinar A Portrait of El Paso Parking Using GIS DECEMBER 1–4 Florida Parking & Transportation Association Conference & Trade Show Palm Beach Gardens, Fla.

NOVEMBER 3, 5, 10 & 12 APO Site Reviewer online course begins

DECEMBER 9 PARCS Replacement and Implementing the Latest Technologies: A Case Study of the American Dream Project in New Jersey

NOVEMBER 4 Free Online Shoptalk Recovery and Next Steps for Parking, Transportation, and Mobility Industry

DECEMBER 16 Free Online Shoptalk Lessons Learned & Looking Ahead— Our Industry Response to COVID-19

Free Frontline Fundamentals for IPMI Members. Pre-registration required for these session taught by subject matter experts: SEPTEMBER 1 Maintaining Motivation in Times of Uncertainty and Change.

Presented by Julius Rhodes, SPHR SEPTEMBER 8 Building the Team: Ordinary to Extraordinary. Presented by

Melissa Yates, CAPP SEPTEMBER 15 At Your Service: A New Mindset for Enforcement. Presented by

Shawn McCormick

IPMI Leadership Summit OCTOBER 8 NEPC & NYSPTA Charity Golf Tournament Wayland Mass. OCTOBER 13, 15, 20, & 22 Parksmart Advisor Online, instructor-led training OCTOBER 14 IPMI Webinar Enabling Daily Parking Decisions For Faculty and Staff: How More Granular Choice Has Reduced Parking Demand and Delighted Customers

SEPTEMBER 22 Using Emotional Intelligence in the Workplace. Presented by

Tiffany Smith SEPTEMBER 29 When the Old Script Doesn’t Work: Customer Experience and the

NEXT Normal. Presented by Cindy Campbell

OCTOBER 13 LPR for Frontline Personnel. Presented by Victor Hill, CAPP.

OCTOBER 20 Flipping the Script on Customer Service. Presented by Vanessa

Cummings, CAPP. OCTOBER 27 Innovations in Parking. Presented by Robert Ferrin. NOVEMBER 3 Happiness at Work, It’s a Decision. Presented by Marlene Cramer,

CAPP. NOVEMBER 10 That’s Not What I Meant: Addressing Email and Text

Misunderstandings. Presented by Matt Penney, CAPP. NOVEMBER 17 Diversity, Equity, Race & Inclusion. Presented by Kim Jackson,


Stay up to date on industry events and activities! Visit parking-mobility.org/calendar for the latest updates and additions.


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Southland Printing�������������������������������������13

aimsparking.com 800.886.6316

meypar-usa.com 281.404.1667

southlandprinting.com 800.241.8662

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desman.com 877.337.6260

paybyphone.com 877.610.2054

tnrdoors.com 705.792.9968


Park Assist����������������������������������������������������48

Walker Consultants ���������������������������������� 52

flowbird.group 800.732.6868

parkassist.com 917.793.5400

walkerconsultants.com 800.860.1579

International Parking Design, Inc.�������� 52

ParkMobile �����������������������������������������������������5

Walter P Moore ������������������������������������������ 53

ipd-global.com 818.986.1494

parkmobile.io 678.681.9433

walterpmoore.com 800.364.7300

IPS Group Inc �����������������������������������������������17

Quercus Technologies, S.L.��������������������49


ipsgroupinc.com 858.404.0607

quercus-technologies.com +34977300377

WGInc.com 866.909.2220

Kimley-Horn and Associates, Inc������ 7, 52

Rich & Associates, Inc.������������������������������ 53

kimley-horn.com/parking 919.653.6646

richassoc.com 248.353.5080



In Case You Missed It... ON THE BLOG Study: National Review of Public Transit COVID-19 Delivery Programs, by L. Dennis Burns, ➚Case CAPP. on Miami: A COVID Safety Campaign with Smiling Undertones, by Alejandra “Alex” ➚Masks Argudin, CAPP.

➚Los Angeles Delays Micro-mobility Regulations Designed to Boost Equity. ➚Creating Alternatives to Adaptive Re-use. ➚Read a new blog post every day or submit your own for publication. parking-mobility.org. ON THE FORUM

➚Residential parking permit programs. ➚Municipality and authority enforcement agreements. ➚Tiered employee parking rates based on salary. ➚Suicide abatement. ➚On-street parking spaces converted to outdoor dining. ➚Ask questions, share your expertise, join the conversation! forum.parking-mobility.org. IPMI’S Leadership Summit Is Going Virtual: Oct. 6–8 Offering top-notch education on leadership development and—new for this year—industry specific topics. Here’s a snapshot of some of the topics we will cover in these two critically important tracks:

➚Planning for an Uncertain Future - Industry Response, Crisis Management, and Lessons Learned. ➚Managing Up, Down, and Sideways - Strategies, Tactics, and Takeaways. ➚Reinventing Cities: Trends, Challenges, and the Role of Mobility Services. ➚How Authentic Concern Drives Good Business. ➚Building and Achieving Resilience in the Face of Adversity. ➚Leading Through Volatile, Uncertain, Complex, Ambiguous Times. ➚Register yourself and your whole team: parking-mobility.org/re-imagine. All from your desk, on your time, at parking-mobility.org. 56 PARKING & MOBILITY / SEPTEMBER 2020 / PARKING-MOBILITY.ORG

Profile for International Parking & Mobility Institute

Parking & Mobility magazine, September 2020  

Published by the International Parking & Mobility Institute; parking-mobility.org.

Parking & Mobility magazine, September 2020  

Published by the International Parking & Mobility Institute; parking-mobility.org.

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