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Time for a Perspective Change

Women think about and use mobility differently than men do. Considering those differences makes a huge difference. By Frieda Bellmann, Diana Polack, and Lieke Ypma


Mobility of the Future

A team of MIT researchers takes on what mobility will look like in the future and when that future might be.


Welcome Spring

A parking lot transforms into a beloved carnival at Carnegie Mellon University. By Michelle R. Porter, CAPP


The Richmond Pulse

A new BRT line offers a lesson in community. By Steven Bergin, CAPP



6 FIVE THINGS Great Productivity Hacks 8 THE BUSINESS OF PARKING The Nature of an Authentic Servant Leader By Julius E. Rhodes, SPHR

10 MOBILITY & TECH Why Aren’t More People Buying Electric Vehicles? By Barbara Chance, PhD

12 ON THE FRONTLINE Bouncing Ahead: The Importance of Workplace Resiliency By Cindy Campbell

14 THE GREEN STANDARD Small Steps to Going Green By Trevyr Meade

16 PARKING & MOBILITY SPOTLIGHT Changing Times: Embracing New Lighting Technology By Jeff Pinyot

20 ASK THE EXPERTS 46 IPMI IN ACTION Making the Most of IPMI’s Online Member Community By Kim Fernandez

47 IN SHORT 50 STATE & REGIONAL SPOTLIGHT Having Fun, Moving Ahead in the Mid-Atlantic By Anthony Jacobsmeyer



Or an e-bike, come to think of it. It’s not that they don’t look efficient and even fun (because they do), and it’s not that I don’t see them around (there’s a bike-share hub four blocks from my house and scattered scooters even in my suburban neighborhood). And it’s not that I haven’t needed to figure out that last mile between a Metro stop and my destination, because I have. It’s just, well, it hasn’t occurred to me to hop on something like that instead of walking or hailing a car. What do I do with my bag? And how do I ride in these shoes? I’m not alone—lots of women haven’t tried micro-mobility just yet. As it turns out, there are some solid reasons for that: Women tend to make more than one stop rather than going from point A to point B; we tend to carry more stuff with us; our business clothes aren’t conducive to pedals a lot of the time; and we often have with us or are responsible for getting to little people for whom twowheeled, single-occupant e-vehicles aren’t practical (yet). There’s science behind this—it’s also behind potential ways to get more women on board with micro-mobility. Three researchers presented it at the World Economic Forum Meeting a few months back, and they were thrilled to write up their research for IPMI members. We are equally thrilled to present it in this issue and found it eye-opening, to say the least; we suspect lots of operations haven’t thought about the differences between the genders when it comes to getting around. Read the research starting on p. 22 and then let us know on Forum—is it representative of what you’re seeing? Also in this issue is some more hard-hitting research—this time on the future of transportation, including a timetable, from MIT. Autonomy, electric, and more are included, with solid information on what’s happening now and what is about to happen. It’s a lot for parking and mobility professionals to think about. If I may put one more thing on your mind, the 2020 IPMI Conference & Expo is fast approaching and the time is right to reserve your spot at the Conference and in your hotel. Things are selling quickly, and we can’t wait to see you in San Antonio, Texas. More on this next month, but suffice to say, it’s going to be a fantastic experience! As always, my email is below, and I love hearing from you—maybe you can talk me onto that scooter! Until next month…




/ ENTRANCE Shawn Conrad, CAE

conrad@parking-mobility.org EDITOR

Kim Fernandez

fernandez@parking-mobility.org TECHNICAL EDITOR

Rachel Yoka, CAPP, LEED AP BD+C, WELL AP yoka@parking-mobility.org CONTRIBUTING EDITOR

Bill Smith, APR

bsmith@smith-phillips.com ADVERTISING SALES

Bonnie Watts, CEM

watts@parking-mobility.org SUBSCRIPTIONS

Tina Altman

taltman@parking-mobility.org. PUBLICATION DESIGN

BonoTom Studio

info@bonotom.com COPY EDITOR

Melanie Padgett Powers For advertising information, contact Bonnie Watts at watts@parking-mobility.org or 571.699.3011. For subscription changes, contact Tina Altman, taltman@parking-mobility.org. Parking & Mobility (ISSN 0896-2324 & USPS 001436) is published monthly by the International Parking & Mobility Institute. 1330 Braddock Place, Suite 350 Alexandria, VA 22314 Phone: 571.699.3011 Fax: 703.566.2267 Email: info@parking-mobility.org Website: parking-mobility.org Postmaster note: Send address label changes promptly to: Parking & Mobility 1330 Braddock Place, Suite 350 Alexandria, VA 22314 Interactive electronic version of Parking & Mobility for members and subscribers only at parking-mobility. org/magazine. Periodical postage paid at Alexandria, Va., and additional mailing offices. Copyright © International Parking & Mobility Institute, 2020. Statements of fact and opinion expressed in articles contained if Parking & Mobility are the sole responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent an official expression of policy or opinion on the part of officers or the members of IPMI. Manuscripts, correspondence, articles, product releases, and all contributed materials are welcomed by Parking & Mobility; however, publication is subject to editing, if deemed necessary to conform to standards of publication. The subscription rate is included in IPMI annual dues. Subscription rate for non-members of IPMI is $120 per year (U.S. currency) in the U.S., Canada, and Mexico. All other countries, $150. Back issues, $10. Parking & Mobility is printed on 10 percent recycled paper and on paper from trees grown specifically for that purpose.

What’s Trending By Mark Lyons, CAPP



on the exceptions rather than the rule, we learn nothing. Whether you agree with that statement or not, one thing is certain: In our industry, the exception tends to gain much attention. And yet, trends have changed the look of the parking and mobility industry, bringing countless advancements during the past few years. Trending advancements have come from gains in technology, enhanced services, training, and connecting people in ways we never thought would be possible. At the IPMI Conference & Expo, I have noticed more new startup companies and booths the past few years. There are clear signs that our industry is looking for the next great trend that we can all take back to our constituents and impress the world with our findings—wait until you see the Start-up Pavilion at this year's Conference. The next trending idea seems to gain all the focus. But where is the focus on our foundation—the basics of what it is we do day in and out? Are foundational ideals just relics of the past, or do they still play a key role in our industry? Focusing on auditing, maximizing utilization, proper money handling controls, ticket/ transaction accountability, mobility accessories and improved access, successful customer interaction, facility cleanliness and maintenance, and succession planning remain important elements of a good parking operation. Perhaps a less obvious trend is the expanding role of parking and mobility professionals to communicate at a high level with planners, architects, engineers, community leaders, executive directors, and boards of commissioners. Improving these skills will help us become more effective influencers. All the trendy ideas, gad-


gets, and software do little to improve our effectiveness unless we can help our decision-makers understand the benefits of the latest and greatest. IPMI plug: If you have not looked recently at training being offered by IPMI, do your organization a favor by exploring all the offerings (parking-­mobility.org/ professional-development). As a member of the Board of Directors, I support our organization’s continuing development for stronger, more in-depth training programs. Parking and mobility professionals are gaining seats at the table like never before. Enhancing our ability to communicate across a broad spectrum of issues and disciplines with other professionals might be the greatest and most overlooked trend taking place. As we move forward, we can anticipate great things from IPMI, cultivating our professional focus and still retaining the interest and foundational purposes of our business. There are great training sessions forthcoming in San Antonio, Texas. I’ll see you there! ◆ MARK LYONS, CAPP, is parking division manager for the City of Sarasota, Fla., and a member of IPMI’s Board of Directors. He can be reached at mark.lyons@sarasotafl.gov.



Great Productivity Hacks Enthusiasm for those New Year’s resolutions wearing off? Hit the dreaded 3 p.m. slump every day? It’s challenging to be productive all the time! But there are some simple tips that can help you stay forward-focused and motivated that haven’t been done and overdone already. Here are five of our favorite productivity hacks.

BREAK IT DOWN. Big goals or projects staring at you like really tall brick walls? We know the feeling! Marketing and social media expert Jeff Bullas says breaking down those huge things into smaller bites can turn those brick walls into mere bumps. Take the big thing and break it down by year, quarter, month, week, and day—even hours if that works for you. What can do you in each of those times? Before you know it, the big thing is done! Source: jeffbullas.com


GAMIFY YOUR DAY. Dreading a task? Set a timer for 10 minutes and see if you can beat the clock and get it done. Bigger job? Set it for an hour or block out several of those 10-minute blocks. Keep score and try to beat it as the week or month goes on. Turning it into a game can help flip a productivity switch in your brain. Source: fundera.com


SCHEDULE THINKING TIME. A daily walk, time with earbuds and music behind a closed door, a game of catch with the dog—unstructured time helps focus your brain and often leads to some great ideas. Put that time on your calendar and treat it like any other meeting (streamline those meetings—another great productivity-boosting exercise—to make this time happen). You’ll be refreshed, more energetic, and likely excited by what your brain cooks up when you’re not actively pushing it. Source: FastCompany



RECOGNIZE YOUR PRODUCTIVE TIME. Is your brain sharpest and raring to go first thing in the morning? Or are you a midday genius? Maybe it’s the late afternoon and evening that gets your productivity racing. Recognize those times and schedule your most important tasks then, says Ryan Smith, CEO of Qualtrics. Things like meetings, expense reports, and mundane, routine tasks get calendared for other times of the day so all that energy’s not wasted. Source: hive.com


SHUSH YOUR PHONE. Ding! Facebook alert. Ding! Slack notification. Ding! Calendar reminder. Enough with the dinging—cut back on your allowed notifications (do you really need to know that instant about every direct message?) and schedule some time every day when your phone goes on silent mode. All that dinging distracts your brain. If this stresses you out, schedule time every day to answer emails, accept calendar invites, and deal with all that noise at one time. Source: inc.com



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The Nature of an Authentic Servant Leader By Julius E. Rhodes, SPHR


HEN PEOPLE THINK OF A SERVANT LEADER, the mighty lion often comes to

mind. Many see this as analogous to Mufasa from “The Lion King,” who provided stability, wisdom, and guidance for his tribe. The reality is that this fictionalized account is just that—fiction. The lion, for all its majesty, is a very solitary and isolated creature who relies on the lioness to do the hunting and then enjoys the bounty of others’ efforts before anyone else can partake of the meal. The lion depends on the work of others to provide for its needs without giving much in return.

Anybody can do anything once, but doing something once doesn’t make you a success. A leader does things repeatedly, consistently, and at a high level.

Leadership We should expect every member of our team to accept leadership responsibilities in the execution of their roles and responsibilities, regardless of their level in the organization. A leader relates to who you are most consistently. It’s not a one-time thing; it’s an all-the-time opportunity, and it’s not dependent on your position, title, or tenure in an organization. A quote I enjoy that is attributed to Aristotle says, “We are what we repeatedly do. Excellence, then, is not an act, but a habit.” This gets to a central issue in being a servant ­leader: consistency. Anybody can do anything once, 8 PARKING & MOBILITY / MARCH 2020 / PARKING-MOBILITY.ORG

but doing something once doesn’t make you a success. A leader does things repeatedly, consistently, and at a high level.

Servitude Moving on, a servant is defined as a person who performs duties for others. I prefer a much more specific approach to servant that refers to a devoted and helpful supporter, defining this as a position of honor. Servant leaders are devoted supporters who delight in providing conditions for the success of others above their own desires. Additionally, servant leaders realize they cannot leave themselves out of the process. They clearly understand an old axiom that all of us have heard at some point during our lives: This world isn’t about you; it never has been and it never will be. Rather it’s always about the other, and in doing for the other, we get to bask in the reflected light of knowing we contributed to a job well done.


When I think of a servant leader, the noble goose in its flying V formation or even the humble cow that sacrifices daily for its calves offers a more palatable view. As a human resources practitioner and for those who have a formal position of authority or interact with others—and that’s all of us—being a servant and consistently displaying leadership should be a goal.


■  Egoless.

The next area we need to examine is the habits of an effective servant leader: ■  Empathy. The ability to understand and share the feelings of another. ■  Emotional intelligence. The ability to identify and manage one’s own emotions as well as the emotions of others. ■  Effective decision-making. The process through which alternatives are identified and selected on a timely basis and then managed to achieve identified objectives. ■  Engagement. Having one’s full attention. ■  Encouragement. The action of giving someone support, confidence, or hope. ■  Encompassing the whole. The process of looking at issues in a holistic manner. ■  Enthusiasm. Inspired, realistic, and sincere enjoyment.

The quality of not having an inflated view of one’s self. ■  Equal. Being the same as another in status and/or quality. ■  Embracing ease. Being at peace with one’s self and others. As you continue on your personal and organizational journey to achieve the tenants of being a servant leader, it is my hope that you will refer to these ideas and build upon them through your own experiences. I will leave you with this final quote from someone I believe epitomizes being a servant leader, Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.; “Anyone can be great because anyone can serve.” ◆ JULIUS E. RHODES, SPHR, is founder and principal of the mpr group and author of BRAND: YOU Personal Branding for Success in Life and Business. He can be reached at jrhodes@mprgroup.info or 773.548.8037.

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Why Aren’t More People Buying Electric Vehicles? By Barbara Chance, PhD



every magazine or newspaper these days. But much of the information is opinion, not fact. So here are some interesting survey results about why individuals in the U.S. are not rushing out to buy electric vehicles. Remember, this is just one slice of the EV set of issues. These issues outweighed the environmental concerns, willingness to pay extra for an EV, and possible lower long-term costs.

Mobility Confidence J.D. Power found quite similar results in its 2019 survey of more than 5,000 individuals about “mobility confidence.” Although most consumers thought EVs were positive for the environment, they only scored a neutral 55 out of 100 on the Mobility Confidence Index. Concerns about availability of charging stations (64 percent of those surveyed) and range traveled (59 percent) were the key issues, but 74 percent would wait only 30 minutes or less to get a charge sufficient to travel 200 miles. If you think these results are somewhat discouraging, it is worth considering that the Mobility Confidence Index for self-driving vehicles was only 36!


In May 2019, the American Automobile Association (AAA) surveyed 1,000 individuals in the U.S., weighting the sample by six variables to ensure representation of the entire population. Only 16 percent of those surveyed expressed an interest in buying an EV, a percentage unchanged from 2018. As you might expect, millennials (23 percent) and Gen X folks (17 percent) were more interested than boomers (8 percent) in considering an EV. The reasons for not considering EVs, and the percent for each reason, are: ■  Not enough places to charge (58 percent). ■  Fear of running out of charge while driving (57 percent). ■  Range not suitable for long-distance driving (57 percent).


Although most consumers thought EVs were positive for the environment, they only scored a neutral 55 out of 100 on the Mobility Confidence Index.

Autolist found that consumers are getting more realistic about the attributes of EVs, including the range of variously priced vehicles, but the three most prominent reasons respondents would not buy an EV were: ■  Range that could be traveled on a charge. ■  Price relative to a similar gas-powered vehicle. ■  Lack of charging infrastructure.

EV Drivers Say … AAA just completed a survey showing that owning an EV is the “cure” for worrying about the issues of driving range and charging. When surveying EV owners, 96 percent confirmed that they would buy or lease an EV the next time, even though overall costs were more than a gasoline vehicle. But 78 percent of them also have a gasoline-powered vehicle, and 43 percent of them say they are driving more now than they did before they had the EV to use. Can you spell “congestion”? One last factor to consider: The average age of light vehicles on the road in the U.S. has risen to 11.8 years. Drivers are keeping their vehicles longer, in large part because the vehicles last longer. This is true across all regions of the U.S., even though weather and road conditions vary, affecting how long vehicles last. What implications come out of this review of data? The reasons for not buying EVs are pretty consistent and have remained so for some time, even though these surveys are current. Range is a real issue in many parts of the country and for many types of driving. Perhaps marketing could be more direct for drivers that do not have serious range issues. The charging infrastructure issues will have to be addressed, perhaps linked to parking locations, and they won’t all be solved by plugging in at home. Finally, EVs will need to be more competitive in price compared to gasoline vehicles. Governmental subsidies are not the answer to this issue—better design and development of vehicles will be the answer over time. As for keeping gasoline-powered vehicles for lon-

ger periods of time, who knows whether EVs will ever be able to last as long. I’ll keep an eye out for EV changes revealed by future surveys, but I’m still hanging on to my 1995 Camaro! ◆ BARBARA CHANCE, PhD, is former president of CHANCE Management Advisors, Inc. She can be reached at barbara.chance@chancemanagement. com.


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Bouncing Ahead: The Importance of Workplace Resiliency By Cindy Campbell


T’S SAFE TO SAY THAT ANYONE WHO HAS EVER WORKED in our industry has experi-

enced some type of workplace stress. It could have been about inadequate staff or resources to complete a task, executing an unpopular parking directive, or simply having too much work to accomplish in a short timeframe. Sometimes, we lie awake at night thinking about our work, ruminating on how we might fix a problem while also feeling anxiety about the sleep we so desperately need and won’t get that night. Whatever the source of stress, the inability to effectively cope with it can have an effect on our health. A lack of resiliency may be an underlying issue. How widespread is this lack of resiliency in our workforce? A 2017 report by the American Heart Association indicated that U.S. workers experience a significant amount of chronic conditions related to workplace stress. Approximately 2 in 3 employees report work as a significant source of stress, while illnesses related to depression and anxiety affect 1 in 5 adults. Routine stress, job strain, and long working hours may contribute to serious health problems that include elevated risk for heart disease and stroke.

What Is Workplace Resiliency? Resilience is the ability to endure, recover, and even potentially grow in the face of stress and changing demands. While the concept of workplace resiliency isn’t new, our collective ability to fend off the effects of work stressors seems to be at an all-time low. The good news is that resilience isn’t a trait we’re born with—it’s a skill set we can learn and develop in time.



While the concept of workplace resiliency isn’t new, our collective ability to fend off the effects of work stressors seems to be at an all-time low.

Resilience is more than just learning ways to cope with negative situations— it’s also about helping us to avoid getting stuck in a mindset that is detrimental to our professional success and overall well-being.

Getting Started If job-related stress is having an effect on the quality of your life, consider these concepts to develop or improve your workplace resilience: ■  Try not to look at an issue as insurmountable. Stressful events will still happen at work, but you can change how you internalize and respond to them. It’s hard to recover when we assume that everything or everyone is bad. Do your best to look beyond the present situation and keep things in perspective. Keep an optimistic outlook and try to recognize when you may be blowing an event out of proportion. ■  Accept that change is going to happen and it’s not always bad. While it can be sad or uncomfortable, some goals may no longer be realistic or even applicable as a result of change (e.g., new leadership, organizational structure or direction, policies, practices, etc.) Whether you agree with the change or not, accepting a new direction may help you focus on situations where you have input. ■  Learn from experience. If we’re paying attention, there is usually a lesson to be learned from the stressful situations we’ve encountered. Hardship isn’t the goal, but it can help us develop our ability to problem-solve, stop our reactive behaviors, and maintain focus when the going gets tough. ■  Take care of yourself. Resilience involves maintaining flexibility and balance in your life. It helps you to develop confidence in your ability to

effectively address issues. Make sure you’re getting enough sleep, eating regularly, exercising, and talking with friends and loved ones. Create the time to engage in the activities you enjoy. Self-care can help you better deal with situations that require resilience. When we’re more resilient, we’re better able to address the mistaken concept that we have no choice or ability to avoid the stress we experience

at work. Resilience is more than just learning ways to cope with negative situations—it’s also about helping us to avoid getting stuck in a mindset that is detrimental to our professional success and overall well-being. ◆ CINDY CAMPBELL is IPMI’s senior training and development specialist. She is available for onsite training and professional development and can be reached at campbell@parking-mobility.org.

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Small Steps to Going Green By Trevyr Meade


HEN EVALUATING OPPORTUNITIES TO IMPROVE environmental performance, it’s easy

to jump to strategies that require a capital investment, such as lighting improvements, ­electric-vehicle charging station installations, or using regionally sourced materials during construction projects. But, that’s not where the journey to sustainability begins.

Educate Your Team on Best Practices Providing your team relevant content knowledge will enable them to

incorporate sustainability into daily operations. Educating staff can be as simple as sharing and discussing articles that highlight sustainability practices. (Check out the articles listed under “sustainability” within IPMI’s online Resource Library at parking-mobility.org/ resource-center.) More formal options include online courses at Education@ USGBC, IPMI courses, IPMI’s Parksmart Advisor Training, and the LEED Green Associate and LEED AP credentials. (Email professionaldevelopment@­ parking-mobility.org or parksmart@ gbci.org for more information.)

Develop an approach to keeping sustainability engrained in your culture. This could be as simple as sharing a relevant article monthly and hosting an open discussion on it or asking a team member to propose a new sustainability initiative each quarter.


Make Sustainability Part of the Conversation Encourage your team to make sustainability concepts an integral part of decision-making. When operational changes are evaluated, ensure sustainability implications are raised. Also, develop an approach to keeping sustainability engrained in your culture. This could be as simple as sharing a relevant article monthly and hosting an open discussion on it or asking a team member to propose a new sustainability initiative each quarter.


Environmental impact is everywhere and so, too, are the opportunities to lessen it. Simply adding the lens of sustainability into day-to-day ­decision-making will put your organization on the path to a more sustainable future. In just three easy steps, any business operating in the parking and mobility space can develop an environmental sustainability program.

BUSINESS VISION Deploy Visible Sustainability Strategies Implementing sustainability strategies as part of your program kick-off will demonstrate your commitment to sustainability to your employees. In addition, in time, these strategies will have a substantial environmental effect and serve to remind your team about your environmental strategy. A few strategies you might consider are: ■  Recycling. Place recycling bins where all trash bins are located. Include appropriate signage with each recycling bin indicating where each piece of waste or recycling should be deposited. Set recycling goals and perform periodic waste audits to measure performance. Communicate audit findings to your team and engage them in improving performance and increasing recycling goals. ■  Green cleaning. Choose environmentally friendly cleaning chemicals. Organizations such as Green Seal and UL have made this easy—simply look for their mark when choosing a cleaning product and you’ll know that it has been vetted for environmental impact. Always properly dispose of cleaning water! ■  Sustainable purchasing. Select products with less environmental impact. Look at the recycled content of products and purchase locally when possible. Also, transition to selecting items that can be reused in lieu of disposable alternatives (e.g., filtered drinking water instead of bottled water, reusable cups and mugs instead of paper or Styrofoam cups, etc.). ■  Green commuting. Identify ways for your team to lower the environmental impact of your commutes. Perform annual transportation audits to assess how employees are arriving at work and identify those employees who might be a fit for carpooling or using mass transit occasionally. Have some fun and host a bike to work day! As you can see, you can begin implementing sustainability into your operation with a few simple steps. As long as your team is familiar with sustainability concepts and there’s a strategy in place to keep environmental issues ingrained in your company culture, your sustainability program will grow organically. When capital projects arise it will be only natural for sustainability considerations to be raised. As the old Chinese saying goes, “the journey of a thousand miles begins with one step.” ◆ TREVYR MEADE is certification program lead with the U.S. Green Building Council and a member of IPMI’s Sustainability Committee. He can be reached at tmeade@ gbci.org.

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Changing Times: Embracing New Lighting Technology By Jeff Pinyot


FEW YEARS AGO, on a challenge by one of our industry’s top parking consultants,

our company created the first, well-performing, shielded LED parking garage lighting fixture by placing a single light fixture down the center of a drive lane instead of using multiple fixtures or a single unshielded fixture. Would the industry abandon the historical way of using two fixtures to trust that one would do the job, and would it accept the new methodology to light a parking structure? The issue was never whether we would use LED or not; we, like virtually all other lighting manufacturers and consultants, had already advanced to LED. It’s an obvious choice. LEDs are more reliable than historical solutions and can save about 70 percent of energy costs over traditional methods without sacrificing performance. We thought if we could use one LED fixture across a 60-foot span instead of two, wouldn’t that be a huge improvement and cost advantage?


If we could successfully achieve our goal, it would improve a project while cutting costs. Who would ever object? Today’s LED lighting is vastly different than the high-intensity discharge (HID) lamps and fluorescent lamps we previously used in fixtures. HID lamps were either in the form of metal halide or high-pressure sodium (yellow) lamps. Think of the shape of your old incandescent lamp at home beside your bed. If that



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The results of placing a single light fixture down the center of a drive lane instead of using multiple fixtures or a single unshielded fixture.

lamp were in a garage, because of the shape of the bulb with lighting coming off all surfaces of the bulb, only about 20 percent of the output would directly light the driving surface of a parking structure—the balance would go to the ceiling or walls or get caught up in the fixture. To increase the output on the floor, the balance of the output needs to be redirected by means of inefficient reflection out of the fixture, or you need to oversize the fixture to compensate. Think of an LED lamp as a laser. If I pointed an LED directly at the garage surface, 100 percent of the output would hit the mark, which is why we need to adjust garage lighting to match today’s technology. An HID lamp output can depreciate at a rapid rate. Some metal halides can lose close to half of their output in a single year. The depreciation continues year after year until the lamp fails; the fixture still draws the full initial energy even with the output severely reduced and looks more like the output of a birthday cake candle.

A Single Fixture While some remain handcuffed to these old design narratives, many are making the change to support the single fixture down the center—it works and without any sacrifice to lighting quality. Many feel that this new, type II center-run fixture is an industry game changer and an effective method for managing first cost and operational costs. Lighting manufacturers and performance contractors have done our industry an injustice by focusing too much on energy savings without explaining to the industry how we are saving energy and why we don’t need to overdesign lighting anymore. We can design garages differently and take advantage of the technology advancements with seriously good results.

The LED and Single Fixtures LED has come full circle. Initial fixtures were glary but were used just because of the sexy LED name. Reputable lighting manufacturers have shielded LED fixtures now. You’ve seen the plastic fixtures in


all kinds of cool shapes and form factors. Be wary: Plastic is what coolers are made of to keep beer and soda cold. You must use metals to transfer heat from the heat source—the LEDs and drivers in the core—to the external surface of the fixture to keep them cool and gain long life. There is nothing sexy about a light fixture that is burned out and needs to be replaced. All LED fixtures are not alike. Do your research. LED fixtures of the same wattage can cost from less than $100 each to close to $1,000 each. Cheap fixtures are cheap for a reason. Something is missing, and the something typically shows up as premature failure. The first reason we used two fixtures per bay, spaced at 18 to 30 feet, was depreciation of light output of HIDs. The second reason was effective light distribution from the fixture. When was the last time you used a key to get into your car? You don’t. You use a key fob (also known as the “Find my Car” feature). Lighting in garages was mandated to illuminate the keyhole in your door at, say, 36 inches off the floor. No more!

Details Today’s type II (wide) discharge LED garage lighting is perfectly designed to be placed down the center of the drive lane of a parking ramp that is 60+ feet wide while maintaining the lighting requirements of the Illumination Engineering Society of North America (IES). Critical for IES is a maximum to minimum ratio of no greater than 10:1—any area of the garage cannot be more than 10 times more illuminated than any other area of the garage. Today’s quality type II LED fixtures can do that with one arm tied behind their backs. Many new construction projects and retrofits over the past two years have successfully gone with a single light down the center with spacing from 18 to 27 feet apart. All meet the re-

quirements of IES while maintaining endof-life illumination of over 5-foot candles and beyond. Placing a fixture down the center results in the elimination of blocking critical light output from a large vehicle parked beneath a light fixture. Placing the light fixtures in the center pushes light between the cars to the fronts of the vehicles. Designers and lighting manufacturers do photometric layouts of parking structures. When a single type II fixture is modeled, one can use a single 80- or 100-watt fixture down the center and maintain the light levels previously mentioned (and above) while holding strong levels at the fronts of the cars. Two 45watt type V (broad) discharge fixtures

versus one fixture will also model well but at a significant cost increase over the single-fixture solution. After carefully reviewing the history of parking garage lighting techniques and hearing of the new LED options, today might be the time to consider embracing the new type II wide LED fixtures down the center. There is no sacrifice in performance, and you experience a decrease in cost. You also place the lights where they will perform the best. The parking industry isn’t stagnant—it’s all about innovation and embracing change. ◆ JEFF PINYOT is president of ECO Parking Technologies. He can be reached at jspinyot@ ecoparkingtech.com.

A podcast about parking, mobility, and the people who make it all go. Hosted by Isaiah Mouw with new episodes every other Tuesday at 10 a.m. Eastern. Listen on Spotify, Apple Podcasts, Google Podcasts, SoundCloud or any other major podcast provider. parkingcast.com

Strategic Partner




EXPERTS What is your operation rethinking now for the future?

David Onorato, CAPP

Nicole Chinea, CAPP

Executive Director Public Parking Authority of Pittsburgh

Senior Project Manager WGI

Quoting the mayor of Pittsburgh, “It’s not about parking cars. But it’s about marinas along the North Shore. It’s about a gondola system that allows us to get from different areas because of our topography in the most effective, efficient, and practical way. It’s about the use of driverless vehicles that run on electricity that are part of our inner mobility system. And yes, it’s about bikes because for a lot of people that’s their mode of transportation.”

More so than in than in the past, I am having to rethink the management and planning of on-street parking operations to accommodate clients that do not have the ability to dedicate parking resources to their operations.

Mark Lyons, CAPP Parking Division Manager City of Sarasota, Fla. We are rethinking the code parking requirements for the minimum number of car and bicycle spaces that must be built by developers. The city is actively pursuing plans to reduce parking spaces and entice city dwellers, park-goers, and residents to walk or bike into town or use an alternate means of travel. We are designing highly improved bike routes and walking paths and allocating space for more mobility connections and accessories.

Jennifer Tougas, CAPP, PhD

Roamy Valera, CAPP

Interim AVP, Business Solutions Western Kentucky University

CEO, North America PayByPhone

At Western Kentucky University, we’re looking for ways to meet our customers where they live—on their mobile devices. We want to create a first-class, integrated digital experience for our customers as they engage in our services.

The future will need to focus on the collaboration and integration of mobility-focused technologies for adoption to significantly increase. The consumer experience should continue to drive such collaboration and innovation. This includes continued reduction of the friction that still exists.

/ HAVE A QUESTION? Send it to editor@parking-mobility.org and watch this space for answers from the experts.

The opinions and thoughts expressed by the contributors do not necessarily reflect the opinions and viewpoints of the International Parking & Mobility Institute or official policies of IPMI.



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Women think about and use mobility differently than men do. Considering those differences can make a huge difference in how people get around.


By Frieda Bellmann, Diana Polack, and Lieke Ypma

RANSPORTATION DEVELOPMENT has long been driven by technical descriptions, often car-centric and male-dominated. Is our mobility ecosystem bias toward the male traveler? Taking the female perspective trains our empathy for diverse user motivations and alternative transportation, inspiring innovation. Literature shows women have different patterns, needs, and behaviors. Female mobility is characterized by trip-chaining and time poverty. The main reasons for this are that women do 75 percent of the world’s unpaid care work and because of the gender pay gap and women’s physical conditions. Women have a smaller range when traveling the same amount of time. Women carry luggage and accompany people more often on public transport and by foot. The car is less often the default solution. These facts were largely confirmed in a workshop with 40 female mobility professionals in Berlin, Germany, last summer. We jointly studied three use cases: traveling alone at night, combining family care with a paid job, and moving between business meetings downtown.

Use Case I: Traveling Alone at Night “We’ve come to accept the normal state of feeling unsafe at night and learned to work around it.” Apart from socially constructed roles, let’s not forget that women are more vulnerable in society. This affects which routes or means of transportation many women choose, such as when they are trying to be safe when out alone at night. Women are generally also more careful in traffic,

exercising a more cautious approach and exhibiting less need for speed. We know that more fatal car accidents are caused by men than by women. Our female interviewees unraveled the detailed planning women often undertake before a night out. The questions they ask themselves are: ■  How do I get there and back? ■  How safe is the location and the surroundings? ■  Is it possible to get home from there? ■  With which means of transport do I feel safe on the route at night? ■  Will I go home with others later or will I be alone? ■  How much money do I want to spend on my transportation? ■  Is the last mile of the night reasonable and the road illuminated? ■  How can I defend myself in case of an attack? Many women tell us that the last mile is most challenging. Streets may be poorly lit and empty. Some women take a detour to walk on busier and wider streets and to avoid parks. Others rustle with their bunch of keys so that a potential attacker thinks they live in that area and that the neighbors might be watching. In the subway, women tend to look for safe islands. They try to avoid waiting too long in the subway station downstairs. And if they have to they like to join groups that look trustworthy.


In another use case, we found many women combine unpaid care work with their paid jobs, especially with children. Being under time pressure is natural. Time pressure is felt not only in the morning when dropping off the kids at school to go to work, but also when returning home, as pickup slots are set. For a lot of mothers, trip-chaining is second nature. There is a lot of room for improvement when stopping along the way. This is regardless of which mode is chosen: micro-mobility or car, shared, private or public, or, in the future, autonomous modes. Shared services are considered a solid option for optimizing logistics, but we were told that it is too expensive for everyday use. Cost structures for parking a vehicle while running an errand are unclear and expensive. Without a vehicle, and with a bag

da Shared services are considere istics, solid option for optimizing log but we were told that it is too st expensive for everyday use. Co while structures for parking a vehicle and running an errand are unclear and with expensive. Without a vehicle, , in the a bag of groceries and a laptop result light of trip-chaining, this may s. in being late to pick up the kid

of groceries and a laptop, in the light of trip-chaining, this may result in being late to pick up the kids. We found an overarching mindset: If on the road, taking care of children and the elderly, or organizing the care work, women want to arrive on time and be kind—kind to our loved ones who travel with us and kind to other people who form part of the traffic. A system that is reliable is crucial in this perspective. With all obligations, women are still entitled to arrive on time; no matter what, the show must go on.

Use Case III: Moving Between Meetings “We want to get somewhere efficiently and be green traveling from A to B—and look good at the same time.” In another use case, we look at dealing with the scenario in which several meetings are distributed in unknown areas across the city. Various factors influence the choice of the right means of transport for both women and men: ■  Where are the venues? ■  What is the fastest and most comfortable connection? ■  What will the weather look like? ■  Can I park there? ■  How far is the walk from the parking lot to the venue? We must consider pros and cons of open versus closed vehicles, small versus large vehicles, and private versus public vehicles. Riding a bicycle involves the risk of ruining your business clothes, arriving sweaty, or affecting your professional appearance. Style is a purchase driver that makes an entire marketing industry go round. Do I dress adequately for

Forty female mobility professionals met in Berlin, Germany, to study why women aren't embracing micro-mobility as much as men.



Use Case II: Combining Family Care and a Paid Job “We handle toddlers, strollers, bags, and all we want is to arrive on time and be kind.”

Mobility professionals workshopped reasons for low micro-mobility use among females.

riding my bike or for business? Do I need rain protection? Where can I store it upon arrival? Some women in business experience a tension between status and impact. Their appearance is crucial, yet they also care for their impact on the environment. Hence, a shared e-scooter might create a young and urban appearance, and riding a bike might appear sporty and agile. Women under time pressure use their journey to business meetings as preparation time; an advantage of traveling by subway is that riders can work or organize their private life. Commute time in a car is often used for phone calls. These are the main tensions when attending several business meetings downtown: style versus safety, environmental impact versus status, reliability of on-time arrival, and being prepared, even if this means choosing the slower or less comfortable mode.

Opportunities of Female Mobility Our deep dive into how women move gives us an understanding of the concept of female mobility. Female mobility consists of shorter efficient multi-stop trips, sometimes inter-modal, definitely multi-modal, and not necessarily reliant on the car. It features typical female needs, such as dealing with encumbered traveling, and the need for reliable, efficient, and elegant solutions. Overall, working with this group of female mobility experts, there was a general agreement that we can’t solve wicked problems alone. Collaborations are vital to all mobility industries, be it the car industry, public transportation, micro-mobility, city planning, real estate planning, logistics, etc. Not only do we envision collaborations among companies, we also encourage

real collaborations between operations and management to inspire a healthy dose of pragmatism. And last but not least, we value participations between users and providers. Participative design, a proven tool in city design, can also enhance solutions in other mobility fields. If we face our users’ challenges daily, catering solutions efficiently to their needs becomes natural. 1. Build platforms. Standard commutes were the exception among our workshop participants. Women switch more often between modes and vehicles (multi-modal travel). Those users want to pick their modes or vehicles to fit their purposes. There is not one perfect new mode of transport. Offerings can be as diverse as people and their purposes are. When users want to find a suitable mode, the need for a reliable and inclusive platform is evident. Such a platform can be global—think of what Uber is doing when combining taxi, ride-hailing, and public transport—or local—think of Berlin platform solution Jelbi, which is also a good example of cooperation. The more collaborations on the platform, the more valuable it becomes. If we develop platforms, we are thinking of access rather than of single solutions. If we consider the sum of mobility solutions, they may already be ubiquitous. Platforms enable single solutions to enlarge their reach, potentially even beyond the city. PARKING-MOBILITY.ORG / MARCH 2020 / PARKING & MOBILITY 25

We don’t want to drive to the outskirts for that. We want to be in and out quickly, we want to arrive with all kinds of transportation, and we want to leave logistics to be solved by someone else. The Ikea store in central Vienna is planned without parking spaces and does just this. If trip-chaining is the standard, we can improve offerings toward more ease and efficiency in planning and executing multi-stop routes. There is even a chance to improve stopovers to such an extent that the total number of routes reduces. 3. Nurture our etiquette in a redistributed space. In our shared street space, we need to constantly evolve our etiquette. While in most countries, the distribution of space is driven by the cities, the way we use the space can be influenced by its citizens and entrepreneurs. We welcome etiquette in onboarding of new users on mobility services such as Bird. The ultra personal greeting on Uber, calling out first names, gives a nice touch to moving in traffic. We welcome areas in cities, where all signs and lines are removed to invite users to react to each other in traffic, such as the shared space at the central station in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Let’s take ownership! What can be done in your field to nurture our etiquette? 4. Focus on pedestrians. When we get out or off a vehicle, be it a car, subway, or bike, we are all pedestrians. Pedestrians need space and freedom to move. We need to prioritize pedestrians. When clearing snow in Sweden, the municipality of Karlskoga found out that it could save money when clearing the streets for pedestrians first. We need to cater to pedestrians with destinations that are within reach. Initiatives in Vienna are known for widening sidewalks and improving crossings. In the



2. Change the concept from single-trip to trip-chain. People who pursue multiple purposes in life move from A to B to C to D—a mechanism we call trip-chaining. This flips our perspective when we think of mobility. We see many opportunities for improvements if we consider all those stopovers. We can imagine better integration of stopovers in navigation systems, for instance. Not only should it be easier to schedule, in a stopover, we can also see intelligence to help us plan running errands. Cost structures for stopovers on shared modes should be optimized and made more transparent. The Hopperfare in London, England, is an excellent example. It is an improved offering in public transport, catering for circular and zig-zag-mobility. Logistics can be improved to solve luggage problems along complex routes. A Volvo study shows how to optimize vehicle design for luggage. Better curbside management could also improve the use of the available space. Running errands would be a lot easier if there was good availability of shortterm parking for all kinds of vehicles, close to our destinations where we seek to run our errands. It would also be a lot easier if the bus would stop directly in front of this destination. Ikea and the city of Vienna, Austria, may have understood how “running an errand” works. We live in an era where even shopping for furniture is something we do when we are on our way to something else. Going on a Saturday to Ikea and spending our time between Köttbullar and the kids area seems a yesterday’s experience.

Female m obility co nsists of efficient shorter multi-sto p trips, s inter-mo o metimes dal, defin itely mult and not n i-modal, ecessaril y reliant car. It fea on the tures typ ical fema such as d le needs, ealing w ith encum traveling bered , and the need for efficient, r eliable, and eleg ant solut ions.

Female professionals discussed the reasons behind slow micro-mobility adoption by women and what providers can do to get them on board.

Vienna Frauen Werkstatt and the Barcelona Superblocks, we can see how functions are grouped inside residential areas, allowing for more trips by foot. If we celebrate pedestrians, we relieve the strain on the transportation system and improve the quality of living in our cities. 5. Build communities. We’re seeing the advantages of communities in a wide variety of situations. Communities can help when it comes to transporting a cupboard, as well as in organizing family matters, such as picking up the neighbor’s kids from school, or accompanying a family member to the hospital. In critical situations where physical security is at stake, cohesion can be essential for survival. We see networks popping up around the world, be it in India, the U.K., or South America. Networks can also help women change their habits away from sub-optimal mobility, toward exciting new offerings. Adoption of new mobility has traditionally been low among women. Coup, a moped sharing service, offered driving lessons to lower the threshold for women. The Purple Ride Event in Berlin, on International Women’s Day, aims to bring women (back) to their bikes. If we bring people together and let users help users, we empower people to more quickly adopt to new mobility solutions.

Reliable, Efficient, and Elegant Solutions Women move differently, and that is OK. Diversity makes the world go round. Women in general have a

greater need for flexibility. They create multi-modal travel patterns choosing the mode to fit the purpose. Women also perform inter-modal trips, combining several modes in one stretch. And women are more likely to schedule a stopover (trip-chaining). To do so, they often rely on alternative transportation, be it public, shared, or private, or be it electrified or manual. Women also feel more vulnerable when out and about alone. Women are more likely to move away from privately owned cars, which is good for any city. If we would respond to this tendency, making alternative mobility modes more reliable, efficient, and elegant, we can enhance the quality of life in our cities. Described perspectives are not exclusive to women but can enhance our view on diversity and modalities in the mobility field and lead to solutions that improve life. ◆ FRIEDA BELLMANN is a service designer and researcher. She can be reached at hello@ friedabellmann.com.

DIANA POLACK works in city planning at the city of Berlin, Germany. She can be reached at diana.polack@gmail.com.

LIEKE YPMA works in user-centered innovation. She can be reached at mail@ liekeypma.com.


Mobility of the Future A team of MIT researchers takes on what mobility will look like in the future and when that future might be. The results are fascinating.




consumer preferences and behaviors, and transportation policies co-evolve over the coming decades, there is great uncertainty about both the pace of continued change and which mobility options will be adopted. A few things, however, are certain: as the world’s population grows and becomes wealthier, the demand for personal mobility, convenience, and flexibility will increase.


Mobility of the Future As the world urbanizes, mobility solutions will need sales in 2017 (OICA 2019a). We explore various to become more compatible with the density of activdrivers of light duty vehicle (LDV) ownership and ities concentrated in cities. As the world responds to use, including demographics, economics, policy, and environmental concerns, powertrains and fuels must consumer preferences. evolve to become more sustainable. And as disruptive For the U.S., we analyzed trends in population, technologies and business models develop, some conhousehold size, and socio-economic factors to estimate ventional lifestyles regarding car ownership, shopping, future demand for vehicles and vehicle travel. We also and commuting may yield to the shared economy, analyzed whether there are generational differences e-commerce, and telecommuting. The forces involved in preferences toward car ownership and use. Addiare complex and sometimes in conflict, but they have tionally, we measured the value of the car as a symbol the potential to shape a mobility landscape that looks of social status and personal image—“car pride”—and very different from today’s. its relation with car ownership in Houston, Texas and We undertook this study to explore some of the maNew York City, N.Y. jor factors that will affect the evolution of personal mo- ■  In the U.S., the LDV stock and the number of vehicle bility leading up to 2050 and beyond. Our aim was to miles traveled are projected to increase by approxprovide information that will help stakeholders anticiimately 30 percent over the next three decades. pate and navigate some of the These increases are mostdisruptions and changes that ly driven by population After controlling for lie ahead. We used a scenario-­ growth, as reflected in numsocio-economic factors, based approach to explore ber of households, and—to we do not find a significant how different factors—from a lesser extent—by income consumer preferences to powgrowth. However, we do difference in preferences for ertrain technologies—will play not attempt to account vehicle ownership or travel a role in shaping the future of for potentially disruptive between millennials and personal mobility. Our scenardevelopments, such as the ios were designed to address wide-scale adoption of moprevious generations. questions at different levels of bility services enabled by granularity, ranging from global and national markets autonomous vehicles. Such services could put downdown to individual mobility choices in different cities. ward pressure on the size of the private vehicle fleet, Two points are important to emphasize at the outbut we do not expect that they will reduce growth in set. First, we did not attempt to explore or consider vehicle miles traveled. ■  After controlling for socio-economic factors, we do all aspects of personal mobility; rather, we focused on personal motorized vehicles. not find a significant difference in preferences for Although we looked at interactions between vehicle vehicle ownership or travel between millennials and use and other travel modes, we did not investigate how previous generations. ■  Regarding car pride, or the attribution of social stathese other mobility options themselves might change. Second, this study does not attempt to predict the futus and personal image to owning and using a car, ture, nor does it offer a normative vision of what the we find that individuals who ascribe more symbolic future of mobility should be. Instead, we used historical value to their car have a much higher likelihood of trends, data-driven models, and scenarios to explore car ownership, even after controlling for other socio-­ the potential impacts of, and tradeoffs involved in, the demographic characteristics. In fact, our analysis near- and medium-­term evolution of technology, beindicates that the effect of car pride on car ownership havior, and policy. is as strong as the effect of income on car ownership. ■  Together, these findings with respect to car pride The Outlook For Vehicle Ownership And and generational preferences suggest that consumer Travel In The U.S. And China perceptions and behaviors are likely to reinforce the The report focuses on the world’s two largest auto status quo for personal vehicle ownership and use markets, the U.S. and China, which together accountunless they are changed by socio-economic circumed for 27.3 percent of global passenger vehicles in use stances or policies that proactively shape new social in 2015 and 43.8 percent of global passenger vehicle norms. In the case of China, now the largest market 30 PARKING & MOBILITY / MARCH 2020 / PARKING-MOBILITY.ORG

for new vehicle sales, we looked at how cities form transportation policies and the potential impact some of these local-level policies might have on the future size of the country’s vehicle stock. In contrast to the U.S., China is experiencing rapid growth in vehicle ownership, tied mostly to rising incomes. This growth is expected to persist for several decades and accounts for much of the projected increase in the size of the global LDV fleet by 2050. Furthermore, China is a world leader in the adoption of battery electric vehicles, with significant national-level policies promoting their manufacture and sale. ■  China’s cities are diverse in their urbanization and motorization patterns, leading to different local challenges and policy priorities. Primarily in response to crippling congestion and local air pollution, China’s cities have adopted a variety of car ownership and usage restrictions. ■  These city-level policies could have national-level impacts on the private vehicle fleet. Continuing the restrictions on car ownership that have already been adopted in six major Chinese cities could reduce the size of the country’s overall fleet in 2030 by as much as 4 percent (or 12 million vehicles) relative to the no-restriction scenario. If a recent national ban on the proliferation of these policies is retracted and these policies are adopted in 64 of China’s largest cities, the projected reduction in national fleet size

is 10 percent, or roughly 32 million fewer vehicles by 2030 relative to the no-restriction scenario. ■  Finally, in an examination of car pride across a variety of countries across the globe, we find that car pride is generally higher in developing countries (the U.S. is an exception among developed countries). Therefore, current projections may understate expected growth in car ownership in countries with rising incomes and a rapidly growing middle class.

Alternative Vehicle Powertrains and Fuels The report provides a detailed review of alternatives to internal combustion engine vehicles, including hybrid gasoline electric, plug-in hybrid electric, battery electric, and hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles. For each type of powertrain and fuel, we examined costs relative to a comparably sized conventional vehicle; vehicle emissions characteristics and associated emissions control technology costs; and full lifecycle carbon dioxide emissions, taking into account emissions associated with vehicle manufacture and fuel production and distribution, as well as vehicle use. ■  The current manufacturing cost gap between battery electric vehicles and internal combustion engine vehicles is on the order of $10,000 per vehicle for similarly sized models with ranges of more than 200 miles, presenting a major barrier to electric vehicle adoption. Though battery costs have declined substantially, pre-

Our analysis indicates that the effect of car pride on car ownership is as strong as the effect of income on car ownership.


Mobility of the Future dictions about future price declines must be approached with caution as they often fail to account for the cost of the raw materials used to make batteries. Based on a careful analysis of the cost structure of the battery supply chain—from materials extraction and synthesis to battery cell and pack production—we estimate that the price of lithium-ion battery packs is likely to drop by almost 50 percent between 2018 and 2030, reaching $124 per kilowatt-hour. Battery price projections beyond 2030 are highly uncertain and are likely to be disrupted by the development and commercialization of new battery chemistries. ■  Our cost analysis indicates that a mid-sized battery electric vehicle with a range of 200-plus miles will likely remain upwards of $5,000 more expensive to manufacture than a similar internal combustion vehicle through 2030. This suggests that market forces alone will not support substantial uptake of electric vehicles

The forces involved are complex and sometimes in conflict, but they have the potential to shape a mobility landscape that looks very different from today’s. through 2030 because cost differences with incumbent internal combustion engine vehicles will persist. ■  Although the manufacturing cost differential between electric and conventional vehicles is expected to persist well beyond 2030, lower operating costs help to offset the higher purchase price of battery electric vehicles. In most markets, these vehicles have lower operating costs than a conventional gasoline vehicle. However, this operating cost advantage is highly dependent on the price of electricity (at home and at charging stations), local gasoline prices, vehicle maintenance costs, battery life, and ambient temperature, which can handicap electric-­vehicle efficiency. ■  In plausible scenarios without government subsidies, the total cost of ownership for battery electric and conventional vehicles is likely to reach parity in many countries with high gasoline taxes before the mid2020s and in the U.S. around 2030 as battery prices decline. However, some consumers tend to value upfront costs much more than future savings; consequently, internal combustion engine vehicles may continue to be perceived as the more affordable powertrain well beyond these dates. Nevertheless, cost parity alone 32 PARKING & MOBILITY / MARCH 2020 / PARKING-MOBILITY.ORG

cannot be expected to drive widespread adoption of any new powertrain. Other factors besides total cost of ownership will likely shape the adoption of new vehicle technologies, including consumer familiarity and the availability and convenience of charging and fueling infrastructure. ■  If electric vehicles are deployed on a large scale, there will be new business opportunities and needs for developing cost-effective methods for recycling batteries on an industrial scale. ■  For similar-sized vehicles in the U.S. today, per-mile lifecycle (including vehicle and battery production) greenhouse gas emissions for battery electric vehicles run on the present U.S.-average grid electricity and are approximately 55 percent of the emissions from conventional internal combustion engine vehicles. Per-mile greenhouse gas emissions for hybrid, plug-in hybrid, and fuel cell electric vehicles (run on hydrogen generated by steam methane reforming) are all approximately 72 percent to 73 percent of emissions from conventional vehicles. These life-­cycle emissions are dependent on battery size and life, fuel cell life, fuel economy, and many other factors. ■  Lifecycle emissions for all vehicles are highly sensitive to the methods used to produce and distribute the fuels (or electricity) on which they operate. This means that a battery electric vehicle operating on green electricity will have much lower greenhouse gas emissions than a gasoline-powered hybrid vehicle, whereas a battery electric vehicle operating on carbon-intensive electricity (as in most of China and in some parts of the U.S.) will have higher emissions than a gasoline-powered hybrid vehicle. Likewise, the method used to produce hydrogen—whether steam methane reforming, with or without carbon capture, or electrolysis using current average electricity versus a “greener” electricity mix— can have a substantial impact on the lifecycle emissions of fuel cell vehicles. ■  Due mainly to projected reductions in U.S. grid carbon intensity and increases in fuel economy, lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions from all types of vehicles are projected to decline over the next three decades (to 2050): by 30 percent to 47 percent for battery electric vehicles, by 20 percent to 40 percent for internal combustion engine vehicles, and by 25 percent to 40 percent for hybrid electric vehicles. But if the grid carbon intensity declines dramatically and/or low-carbon production methods for hydrogen are developed and deployed, the carbon intensity of battery electric and fuel cell electric vehicles could be further reduced.

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Mobility of the Future

Infrastructure For Fueling And Charging

can be a major contributor in overcoming many of the challengThe buildout of infrastructure for fueling or charging will affect es of reaching net-zero emissions by providing (1) large-scale patterns and rates of adoption for alternative vehicle technolenergy storage required to support electric power systems with ogies. In the U.S. today, roughly 85 percent of plug-in electric high penetration of renewables, (2) low-carbon fuels for longvehicle charging is done at home. Increased availability of pubhaul freight, (3) decarbonization of major industrial processes lic charging stations could help expand the potential market including steelmaking and fertilizer production, and (4) decarfor these vehicles to individuals who do not have the option to bonization of building heating systems. Given hydrogen’s pocharge at home and to ameliorate concerns about vehicle driving tential role in decarbonizing multiple economic sectors, there range and charging convenience when away from home. is an opportunity to develop a massive hydrogen production, We used a system dynamics model to explore the co-evostorage, distribution, and utilization ecosystem. And this future lution of electric vehicle deployment and charging infrastrucecosystem could benefit hydrogen fuel cell LDVs by lowering ture. We also examined consumers’ sensitivity to the availabili- costs and increasing availability of hydrogen. ty of home charging and to charging rates at public stations. While hydrogen fuel cell LDVs are often the most discussed ■  Charging speed and proximity of application for a nascent hydrogen ecocharging stations to other common system, passenger vehicle travel is also destinations have more influence on the application that requires the largest Average travel time on electric vehicle adoption than the total distribution network, and the vehicle the road network can be market itself is more sensitive to capital number of public charging stations. ■  Home charging, at low power, is the expected to increase due costs than fuel costs. The more economic primary way owners of battery electric to congestion when a low- and pragmatic strategy for building out a vehicles power their vehicles as of hydrogen ecosystem might be to start with cost, on-demand mobility applications that have large fuel demands 2019. Long term, this could be a conservice is introduced. straint on electric-vehicle penetration that could be met with a smaller number since many U.S. households do not of fueling stations, e.g., vehicle fleets and have the space or power capacity needheavy-duty trucking. However, the time ed for home charging. Where available, workplace charging for deploying alternative fuel vehicles is already upon us. In can be a partial substitute for home charging, but this option the world as it exists today, even in California with its strong is also limited by space, power capacity, and costs. pro-hydrogen policies, fuel cell LDVs are at a disadvantage rel■  The proliferation of public “fast” (Level 3) charging stations ative to electric vehicles because public charging stations are is important for wider adoption of electric vehicles. Our mod- more abundant than hydrogen fueling stations and early adopteling suggests that modestly accelerating improvements in ers of electric vehicles can charge at home while adopters of charging rates at public stations could increase the number of fuel cell vehicles cannot. In California there are currently more new battery electric vehicles sold in 2050 in the U.S., as faster than 17 times as many public Level 3 charging stations as there charging speeds help alleviate car buyers’ anxiety about vehiare hydrogen fueling stations. Nevertheless, fuel cell electric cle range and charging convenience. vehicles have a clear advantage over battery electric vehicles in ■  For the electric vehicle market to mature, continuation of terms of fueling time and vehicle range for their owners. government-initiated policy incentives (for vehicles and for Both battery electric and fuel cell electric vehicles have a charging infrastructure) would be necessary. potential role to play in large-scale transportation decarbonWhile the existing electricity generation and transmission ization and in efforts to reduce air pollution. Both need coninfrastructure can handle the charging needs of current and tinuing support to overcome cost and convenience barriers, near-term numbers of plug-in electric vehicles, large-scale but of the two, battery electric vehicles face the path of lower deployment of electric vehicles in the LDV fleet would require resistance during the transition away from internal comsignificant investments to upgrade and reinforce the power bustion engines within the LDV fleet. The evolution toward distribution system. Our analysis does not account for these zero-­carbon ground transportation solutions may well include costs nor does it tackle the question of who will pay for them. hydrogen for long-haul and high-mileage applications (both Hydrogen is another important candidate for decarbonizheavy and light duty) that require fast fueling, while short-haul ing transportation. The potential use of hydrogen for LDVs is and low-mileage applications will more likely be captured by closely coupled with other sectors of the economy. Hydrogen battery electric vehicles. 34 PARKING & MOBILITY / MARCH 2020 / PARKING-MOBILITY.ORG

ad o nl ow w N Do ble ee aila r F v A

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Mobility of the Future Vehicle Automation And The Future Of Personal Mobility In Urban Areas According to United Nations projections, as much as 68 percent of the world’s population will live in urban areas by mid-century—up from 55 percent currently (2018). In absolute numbers this means that city populations will grow by tens of millions more people each year, with much of the increase concentrated in cities in the developing world. Mobility is just one of the many challenges that rapidly growing urban areas can expect to face, but it is a critical one—especially in light of the extreme levels of traffic congestion and growing concerns regarding air quality that already exist in many large cities around the world. At the same time, new business models, including the proliferation of on-demand, for-hire vehicle services and new technologies such as autonomous vehicles (AVs), promise to change the landscape of urban mobility. However, there is significant uncertainty regarding how these new technologies and services will evolve and interact with incumbent mobility systems in different urban environments. In our analysis, we characterized different types of cities and then modeled transportation scenarios to explore the impacts of introducing autonomous mobility on-demand services in select city types. We also examined regulatory and technological challenges for the deployment of AVs and analyzed public perceptions of AV technology using results from a global survey of mobility. ■  Autonomous vehicles are not nearly as close to widespread deployment as some companies and the media have claimed. Significant improvement is still needed before the technology reaches maturity, particularly with regard to correctly identifying objects, driving under difficult weather conditions, and negotiating complex mixed-use urban streets. While the frequency of AV disengagements— incidents when a human safety driver must take over for the autonomous driving system—has improved substantially in the past five years, recent data show roughly one disengagement for every thousand miles traveled. ■  A remote intervention system is required when there is no “safety driver” in the car to address these disengagements. In other words, AVs are likely to need human assistance given the likelihood and severity of certain “edge cases” that are not well handled by automated systems. A control center to support a fleet of AVs has the potential to provide a backstop for the AV, but the economics of this approach are only viable if each operator is responsible for monitoring multiple vehicles at the same time. This suggests that the profitability of commercial business models adds further uncertainty to prospects for widespread autonomous mobility on-demand deployment, in addition to the technological barriers. 36 PARKING & MOBILITY / MARCH 2020 / PARKING-MOBILITY.ORG

■  Both the U.S. and Chinese governments have encouraged

testing for AVs. But before these vehicles can become a mainstream transportation option, new regulations will be needed to address issues such as vehicle-to-operator ratios, sensor requirements (pertaining to both quantity and quality), communication network requirements for vehicle monitoring, liability, and sharing of data on autonomous vehicle disengagement and accidents. ■  Public perceptions of AV technology and safety are likely to affect how, where, and when the technology is adopted. Our analysis of international survey data suggests that optimistic public perceptions and predictions of AV safety may create a market for early adoption among individuals who are young, male, highly educated, high-income, urban, and car consuming, and among residents of developing countries where road safety is a major issue. The rest of the population remains more skeptical of the potential for AVs to offer a safe, alternative mode of transportation. ■  Once AV technology becomes mature, our analysis suggests that unregulated low-cost, door-to-door mobility services will likely compete with other modes of transportation, increasing energy consumption and vehicle travel. In the two city types we examined that are typical of auto-dependent cities in the U.S., a much larger fraction of mass transit trips switched to automated on-demand services relative to the fraction of car trips that made the switch to an automated service. These mode shifts were far smaller in our prototype city that is representative of extremely dense, wealthy, international hubs with extensive mass transit networks. ■  Average travel time on the road network can be expected to increase due to congestion when a low-cost, on-demand mobility service is introduced. The magnitude of this increase depends on the type of city. ■  Though some have argued that automated mobility on-demand services could replace mass transit altogether, in reality this would create a congestion disaster in large, dense cities. The physical constraints of road capacity simply do not enable autonomous, on-demand vehicles (even with high utilization) to offer a substantial improvement over the passenger capacity provided by well-developed urban mass transit networks. ■  A more promising scenario might be one in which automated on-demand services, using vehicles in various sizes, complement mass transit, especially in providing service to and from stations and in areas that are under-served by mass transit. An integrated first/last-mile solution, in which AVs support the mass transit network, could reduce both congestion and emissions by providing a viable alternative to car trips.

The current manufacturing cost gap between battery electric vehicles and internal combustion engine vehicles is on the order of $10,000 per vehicle for similarly sized models with ranges of more than 200 miles, presenting a major barrier to electric vehicle adoption.

Looking Forward Current trends in population and income, coupled with growing concern about the negative externalities of current mobility systems, point to a substantial and complicated set of technological and policy challenges in the decades ahead. Clearly, one of the central imperatives will be to develop and deploy more environmentally sustainable mobility options while also satisfying consumer requirements with respect to cost, convenience, flexibility, and preference. The findings of this study indicate the potential to reduce carbon emissions through continued improvements in vehicle fuel economy coupled with large-scale deployment of electric vehicles and concerted efforts to decarbonize the electricity grid. In the longer term, the development of a hydrogen production and fueling system, perhaps initially for applications other than the LDV market, offers opportunities to expand the role of fuel cell electric vehicles. These findings are based on research conducted by transportation engineers, mechanical engineers, chemical engineers, economists, policy experts, planners, computer scientists, and others, working with several detailed models, survey data, interviews with government officials, and other data sources. The outlook for autonomous vehicle technology and new on-demand mobility services is

less clear. Autonomous vehicle technology is not as close to maturity as is sometimes portrayed, and significant regulatory issues must still be addressed. New mobility services, on the other hand, are already here, but their impact on congestion and energy use seems more likely to be negative rather than positive. Integrating mass transit systems with on-demand mobility services using autonomous vehicles, especially if the autonomous vehicles are also low- or zero-emission, may hold promise for advancing multiple objectives, but significant technological and policy progress is needed to make this a reality. Further research is needed to explore the role of other forms of personal mobility beyond light-duty vehicles, such as public and non-motorized transport, and to develop a fuller picture of options for responding to the complex mobility challenges that lie ahead. But through careful consideration of the multifaceted impacts of new technologies, policies, and markets, such as those undertaken in this study, we can anticipate and shape a future of mobility that works better for people and for our planet. â—† Excerpted from MIT Energy Initiative. 2019. Insights into Future Mobility. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Energy Initiative. energy.mit. edu/insightsintofuturemobility. Download the full report at energy.mit.edu/research/mobilityofthefuture.



Spring By Michelle R. Porter, CAPP

A parking lot transforms each spring into a beloved carnival at Carnegie Mellon University, and despite the work, the parking people wouldn’t have it any other way.



S WE GEAR UP FOR THE START OF SPRING each year on Carnegie Mellon University’s (CMU’s) campus in Pittsburgh, Pa., there is no better way for our students to kick things off than to host Spring Carnival. Carnival is one of the most highly anticipated events for our students. Full of more than just rides, Spring Carnival brings excitement to the entire campus community and is a CMU tradition that began in 1915. There have been many changes over the years—the footprint and activities for Carnival have changed through the decades—but the excitement of what Carnival brings to campus remains. Historically, Carnival was held on one of our largest surface parking lots. Parkers in the Morewood Parking Lot, which held a capacity of 650 permit holders, had to vacate to other locations for one week so Carnival festivities could take place. We began discussions of the move process in January with the event committee so we could make certain every detail of the move was executed properly to keep our permit holders happy. What did the start of Carnival look like from a parking perspective? Permit holders were relocated to alternate parking locations, and some were offered incentives to park off campus for the week. This incentive, usually $50 off their monthly lease, was very attractive and eliminated up to 50 cars each year.


A New Location In 2017, the location of Spring Carnival was changed to accommodate campus construction. The once popular Morewood Parking Lot is the new home of the Tepper Quad Building, and parking there is reduced to only 250 spaces. Carnival now disrupts fewer than 200 permit holders as it has moved to what is now called the College of Fine Arts Parking Lot. That location represents the central part of campus and is close to CMU’s historic landmark known as “the fence.” The fence, which plays a huge part in CMU’s vibrant history, has a long tradition of being painted by different organizations. This tradition began in 1921 when CMU’s then-senior class decided to use its old wood surface as a way of advertising a party on campus. Since that time, the fence has become one of the most beloved traditions of Tartan school history and has been revamped several times. During Carnival week, each organization continues the tradition by painting and advertising its events leading up to Carnival. Carnival’s move to what we consider the central part of campus also impeded on another popular spot: “the cut.” Like the fence, the cut is known for many

exciting and historic events on campus. President Barack Obama held one of his campaign tours at the cut, and it’s home to a popular CMU event called Cans Across the Cut, which Staff Council hosts each year to collect food for a local food bank.

Student Fun There are many highlights of Carnival, but a constant is that student organizations must construct booths in line with whatever that year’s theme is. Plenty of effort goes into the construction of these booths. Because the footprint of Carnival has changed, so has the size of the booths. Booth design is a huge ordeal, and the competition is heated. Most organizations plan their booths very strategically. Students begin the build process in February, when each organization’s build design is reviewed and approved or denied by the Carnival Committee. After the approval process happens, student groups work tirelessly up until Carnival move-on to get as much of as the booth base constructed as possible. This happens in a parking garage. Our East Campus Garage has a basement area designated for a time for student groups to build their booths. Students use that area to meet, strategize, and build. It hasn’t been without challenges: Booth numbers were reduced by almost half when the location changed. This was a huge adjustment for the students, and some organizations had to combine their booths to participate.


Carnival booths come together in a parking garage before being moved to a lot just before the event.


When talking about Carnival, I cannot leave out the important activity of the buggy races. Buggy races, also known as “sweepstakes,” were started in 1920. They consist of an uphill relay race in which the baton of the vehicle and driver are pushed by runners. There is also a downhill race with exciting sharp turns and speeds of up to 40 miles per hour. Student groups construct and build a two-wheeled buggy in which the passenger, having to be no more than 4 feet, 11 inches tall and weighing 90 pounds or less, has to lay flat inside. Positioning is important, as it will allow more traction for the runner. Buggy races also affect parking areas as teams practice on Saturdays and Sundays, September through December and then again February to April. The focus of these practices is to provide experience to buggy drivers around the course, specifically the free roll down Schenley Park into Frew Street. Drivers must have experienced a certain amount of rolls in the buggies they would like to compete in to qualify to race.

Moving booths to their assigned spaces is a huge effort.

Races also affect abutting city roads. Safety is a huge concern as the buggy is so close to the ground that one pothole could damage the buggy or injure the driver.

Dunking for Good Several years ago, students added a dunk tank to the event. This has now become one of the largest highlights of Spring Carnival— so popular that the deans have renamed it Dunk-a-Dean. The event is sponsored by the campus university police department, and the funds raised benefit Special Olympics of Pennsylvania. You have to pledge to play, and the top three pledgers are given five minutes to dunk the dean as many times as they can. The deans of all nine of CMU’s colleges participate, and the competition between deans becomes healthy and fun for a good cause.

Making It Happen Weekly Carnival meetings are held with constituents of the university community as well as the committee to talk about all items that lead up to Carnival move-on. There are so many facets into planning this spectacular event! Students have to take responsibility for hiring outside contractors to deliver Carnival rides and concession booths and are responsible for ensuring the proper electrical permits are obtained. The weather plays a big part in the success of Carnival. It is always hit-or-miss in Pittsburgh with

the Carnival held in early April. There could be anything from rain to sleet and snow to sunshine to greet Carnival-­goers as the day opens. The most intricate details are necessary to consider, including city permits, electrical, trash pickup, and delivery of concession stands and Carnival rides. The student body puts in countless house of work and dedication to making the Carnival go off without a hiccup. When move-on day finally approaches, all the hustle and bustle begins. Students, who have been preparing for this event, now have to move their booths from the garage space cages to the Carnival parking lot plotted areas. Lots of hard hats and moving trucks are present as students prepare to move the booths and install their final touches and changes. This process is held the Friday before Carnival begins. Each organization has a plotted area to place and continue to build their booth in the next five days. There is a lot to be done, and busy students are equipped with their tools, hard hats, and safety glasses to make it all happen. Students work tirelessly day and night to get booths complete. From building to painting, each organization member has a task, similar to building a home. At the end, booths are judged, and monies raised are donated to a charity designation of the organization’s choice. Carnival opens on a Thursday afternoon, and many faculty and staff are excited to join in on the festivities. It opens with a bang, and the most exciting facet is watching the development of the booths. We watch in awe how a parking lot transitioned into a full-fledged Carnival setting with rides, cotton candy stands, and dunk tanks. The festivities of Carnival Weekend have also turned into alumni celebrations for graduating classes celebrating their 50th, 25th, 15th 10th, fifth, and first year. Many people do not understand the behind-thescenes work put into this event. The important factor is that this great event is also funded by the student activities fee and not by the university. Although parking leaseholders are never happy about the moves that have to be made, we are all excited by the time bagpipes begin to help celebrate this great tradition on campus. Welcome to Spring Carnival! ◆ MICHELLE R. PORTER, CAPP, is director of parking and transportation services at Carnegie Mellon University. She can be reached at mporter@andrew.cmu.edu.


e s l u P d n o m h c i R e h T y t i n u m m o C n i n o s s e L a —



ergin, CAPP By Steven B

t n e m e g a g n E


HEN THE FIRST RICHMOND PULSE BUSES started their routes in late June 2018, no one knew if the new bus rapid transit (BRT) project would be a success, but everyone in the city of Richmond, Va., certainly knew about the new service and the necessary changes to the roadway to accommodate it. The route on one of Richmond’s most iconic corridors, Broad Street, was an ideal selection for the BRT but also caused the most controversy because it required the removal of curbside parking. This was obviously a concern and brought a learning experience on the importance of upfront outreach, transparency, and community engagement and participation. But first, a bit about the project.

What Is BRT?

When asked what makes BRT different from regular bus service, Carrie Rose, director of communications at GTRC, says, “There are a number of key designs and technology features that make the service totally different from anything we offer; we’re able to have platform-level boarding, where it’s very easy to get on and off the bus through all doors. There’s something missing from the bus—the fare box. Riders pay their fare before boarding. That happens on the platform at the ticket vending machine. There is smart technology; all the buses are talking to every traffic signal along the 7.6 miles, which means if the bus is running behind, it can ask the traffic signal, ‘hey, can you give me some greens?’”

Bus rapid transit is a high-quality, high-capacity rapid transit service that offers many of the advantages of rail transit but at a more affordable cost. It provides fast, reliable service in dedicated lanes with frequent operation and dedicated stations that are typically located in the center About the Broad Street Corridor of the roadway. BRT buses are given priority Much of the Pulse’s 7.6-mile BRT route runs on at intersections, make less frequent stops than Broad Street, which is central to the economic acother buses, and have tivity of our metropolplatform-level boardThe overall goal is to make the BRT itan area. It links the ing and off-board fare residential areas east line accessible, attractive, reliable, collection. The overall and west of the corriand, above all, rapid. goal is to make the dor with government BRT line accessible, offices and commercial attractive, reliable, and, above all, rapid. activities downtown along with the industrial land The Greater Richmond Transit Company’s uses immediately north of the corridor. It also (GRTC’s) BRT line is called the Pulse and runs runs through Virginia Commonwealth University in central Richmond between Rocketts Landing (VCU) and is full of small and medium businesses. in the east to the Shops at Willow Lawn in the One of the goals was to improve economic west. It has 14 stations, is 7.6 miles long, and development along the corridor by creating runs along Main Street and Broad Street. connections between transit and centers of


employment, education, residence, shopping, culture, and entertainment, and we hoped it would serve as the spine to a growing Richmond transit system.

Designs and Parking In 2014, the city’s parking division was invited to participate in design discussions for the corridor. The original design team’s plan was to eliminate 100 percent of on-street parking along the corridor. Eliminating the parking was the easiest and most efficient strategy given the width of the street and the cost of the project. However, eliminating even a portion of the on-street parking—let alone all of the on-street parking on a busy commercial corridor—was a very hot button once word of the plan started to reach the public. Feeling a bit behind the curve, GRTC and city staff realized they needed a communications and outreach plan ASAP. “I was concerned that we were brought on a little late,” Rose says. “It would have been good to have been on board during design. Parking was already contentious at that very early stage.”

Public Outreach Public outreach and meetings began in earnest in 2015. Within a few months of meeting with business associations, neighborhood associations, and the greater public, it was back to the drawing board. The lesson here is that before developing a plan that will change the entire logistics of a business corridor, the concept should be vetted with the stakeholders, businesses, neighborhoods, and citizens most affected. The belief that we can plan it and build it and they will ride it without their ideas and input considered backfired on the project team and set us back quite a bit. 44 PARKING & MOBILITY / MARCH 2020 / PARKING-MOBILITY.ORG

In addition to having to redesign the BRT system to accommodate parking, we needed to regain the public’s confidence. With the value of public outreach renewed, Kimley-Horn—GRTC’s contractor that provided design, construction support, and integration services— along with GRTC and the City of Richmond teamed up and began monthly and quarterly meetings along with door-to-door, boots-on-the-street outreach. With the project team reorganized and a new approach launched, the consultants immediately performed a parking mitigation study to boost the supply of on-street parking along key segments of the proposed route, especially within the Museum District, the Fan neighborhood, VCU, and downtown areas. The study assessed the effects of changes in parking supply and identified opportunities for on-street parking. The parking study’s goal was to preserve as much current on-street parking along the proposed BRT corridor as possible, and it resulted in reduced parking capacity by approximately 40 percent instead of 100 percent as initially proposed. As the parking study was conducted, the GRTC marketing and public relations team, Kimley-Horn, and the City of Richmond held public meetings to address concerns about effects on traffic, businesses along the corridor, and bus operations. The team met with groups representing key interests and institutions along the corridor to provide further opportunity for input. Concerns and questions raised in these meetings shaped the analysis and screening of alternatives. “Our breakout sessions with engineers were especially helpful,” says Ashley Mason, GRTC outreach coordinator. “The technical experts gave us maps and numbers so that we could show people block by block, comparing current parking with what was planned. It was not final yet so there was an ability to have some give-and-take with the neighbors to make changes.” The second form of public outreach was in-person, door-to-door visits along the corridor. These outreach activities complemented our ongoing meetings with specific property owners, neighborhoods, and business associations, as well as the quarterly public meetings. The goal was to put stakeholders along the corridor in touch with the project. We provided packets of information that outlined the project designs, defined what a BRT system was, and explained the frequency of stops, off-board fare collection, etc. Records of each contact were kept, and feedback was documented after each outreach day. Concerns and feedback were forwarded to members of the project and study teams to address if necessary. The outreach team addressed any comments provided

during the meeting, which helped build relationships and two-way communication lines. “I enjoyed it, building those relationships with the residents and business owners on the corridor,” Mason says. “I felt like one of the things we did very well was that we were very consistent, and I think that the public appreciated that. They knew that on Fridays they would get the updates, that if they emailed us, we would respond; they relied on the fact that we were reliable and consistent.”

Social Media Another successful tool for GRTC’s outreach was social media and regular website updates. Twitter and Facebook were helpful and used to reinforce and communicate changes and service alerts and to alert the public that businesses in the middle of a construction area were open for business. “The GRTC construction webpage was visited often; we also created a blog that was a useful tool that accumulated quite a few followers,” Rose says.

The Pulse Launches On Sunday, June 24, 2018, GRTC launched the Pulse BRT. The opening week, GRTC encouraged people to give the Pulse a try by offering “Ride for Free” from June 24 through June 30—not just on the Pulse, but all the routes. The average daily ridership for the Pulse was 8,136. “DRPT (Virginia Department of Rail and Public Transportation) funded our free ride week for the first week, which was such a great success,” Mason says. “Families came with kids. It was summer—students were on it, parents and grandparents. It was a staycation kind of thing.” GRTC originally estimated serving 3,500 riders a day along the corridor. While the national trend of transit ridership has declined, the Pulse has become a model for success. GRTC says Pulse has seen a 17 percent increase in ridership since July 2018, and averages have doubled their initial daily ridership goal. The Pulse is now carrying an average of more than 7,000 riders every weekday. “We have been very busy with peer visits,” Rose says. “We have done a webinar. We expected the service to be successful but not to this extent. It has far exceeded our expectations on ridership—almost doubled our ridership goal. We have capacity buses almost every day. We are hiring more drivers. I don’t think we expected the community to so broadly support it. We have met a few people who hated the project and said they would never support it and now have humbly said they ride it and they were wrong.”

Other Developments In June 2019, VCU signed a three-year agreement to fund unlimited access on the Pulse and all GRTC routes for all VCU students and employees. The BRT route will connect the two campuses, which are approximately one mile from one another on the Broad Street corridor. Since the launch of the Pulse, VCU GRTC says Pulse has seen members have accounted for approximately 12 percent of GRTC’s total rida 17 percent increase in ership, averaging 87,400 trips a month. ridership since July 2018 Also in June 2019, GRTC was and averages have doubled awarded a bronze standard rating for the Pulse, putting it in a class with only their initial daily ridership seven other bus systems and making it goal. The Pulse is now among the top-rated rapid transit corricarrying an average of dors in the country, according to the Institute for Transportation and Develop- more than 7,000 riders ment Policy. The Pulse is one of only 10 every weekday. verified bus corridors in the U.S. Other U.S. transit systems with the same rating include the Orange Line in Los Angeles, Calif.; Emerald Express in Eugene, Ore.; and sbX in San Bernardino, Calif. Only two other bus systems have higher ratings: CTfastrak in Hartford, Conn., and Healthline in Cleveland, Ohio, both of which are rated silver. ◆ STEVEN BERGIN, CAPP, is parking supervisor with the City of Richmond, Va., He can be reached at steven.bergin@ richmondgov.com.

Timeline Here is a brief timeline of the development and launch of the Richmond BRT project: ■ Early 2000s: A study by the Virginia Department of Rail and Public

Transportation (DRPT) identified the need for a rapid transit system in the region.

■ 2009: GRTC and DRPT initiated an environmental assessment and

alternatives analysis of the Broad Street Corridor to study rapid transit improvements from Willow Lawn to Rocketts Landing.

■ 2014: The GRTC board approved the Broad Street Bus Rapid Transit

as the locally preferred option.

■ 2014: GRTC applied for a TIGER (Transportation Investment

Generating Economy Recovery) grant from the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). Later that year DOT awarded GRTC a TIGER grant in the amount of $24.9 million.

■ 2015: The engineering phase was completed, and the design build

procurement process started.

■ 2016: The contract was awarded and construction began. ■ 2018: Pulse BRT launched. The total cost of the project was

$64,916,000 and was funded by a DOT TIGER grant, DRPT/VDOT, Henrico County, and the City of Richmond.



Making the Most of IPMI’s Online Member Community By Kim Fernandez


VERYONE KNOWS THE HIGHLIGHT of the professional year is

the IPMI Conference & Expo—it’s where you can learn the most information, see and try the most new products and services, and network the most with your industry friends. Happily, all of those things go on all year online, and networking on Forum, our online, members-only community, is one of IPMI members’ favorite benefits.

You already get the daily Forum email, with every day’s blog post and discussions that have happened in the past 24 hours. But maybe you haven’t jumped in there yet. Today’s a great day to do it—it’s easy! Post a question, answer someone else’s query, share a document or resource, or search the directory for a new contact. It’s all at your fingertips just for signing in—use the same username and password you use to access all your member benefits at parking-mobility.org (and use the forgot password link if that’s not exactly at the tip of your tongue—we’ll hook you up with a new one). Ready to dive in there? Use our quickstart guide here to make the leap, and email us if we can make it easier. Point your browser to forum.parking-mobility. org, and ready, set, network! We’ll see you at Forum!

Quick-start Guide to Forum 1. Get started. Point your browser to

forum.parking-mobility.org. Click the orange “Log in for members-only content” box in the top right, and log in using your email address and regular parking-mobility.org password. Click “Can’t access your account?” if you don’t remember your password. 2. Build your profile. Click on the grey oval with a black triangle in it at the top right and navigate to “profile.” Here, you can import your information from LinkedIn and customize what industry colleagues see about you. Don’t forget to upload your favorite headshot to help your colleagues get to know you better. Have fun with this! You can also control who can see the information in your profile—just click “preferences.” 3. Participate in discussions. Scroll to “latest discussions” on the Forum home page or click on “discussions” in the red bar to get to the community. From there, click “post new message”


to start a new discussion or click on any existing discussion and then click “reply to discussion” to share thoughts. To include a document or other resource, click on “attach” at the bottom of the posting window—those resources will be added to Forum’s searchable library. 4. Share with or borrow from your peers. Need to write a job description or RFP? Want to develop a new policy? Perhaps your colleagues have posted theirs to the library. To find out, click on “library” in the red navigation bar and then browse by scrolling or entering keywords in the search box at the top right. Have a resource to share? Click on “create new library entry” to upload a document. 5. Find colleagues. Click on “directory” in the red navigation bar to search for your colleagues by name, organization, location, and more. From the search results page, you can view profiles, send a request to add someone to your network, or send a message directly to that person. 6. Set your preferences and delivery options. Click on your photo in the top right corner (you set this in step 2 above), and then click “my account.” From here, set your privacy preferences, email settings, notifications, and personalized signature that appears with all of your posts. It’s all up to you! 7. Need help? Email us at fernandez@ parking-mobility.org. ◆ KIM FERNANDEZ is IPMI’s director of publications and editor of Parking & Mobility. She can be reached at fernandez@ parking-mobility.org.



Highlights from the IPMI Blog

When Will They Ever Learn? By David M. Feehan I am going to be kind and not identify the exact location where the meter pictured in this photo is located. Suffice it to say that I was attending a meeting in a Washington D.C., suburb on a rainy evening. As usual, I was running late and did not have a pocket full of quarters. Surely the meters would either accept credit cards or would have a pay-bycell option. But after I parked and waded through a puddle of water along the curb. I found that the meter was totally unreadable. What to do? I inserted my credit card. There was no sign indicating a pay-bycell option. The meters didn’t seem to have a number code. It was rainy and dark. I work with parking companies and parking operators. I was also thinking about my wife and how she hates parking. She is not alone. In the research my co-authors Barbara Chance, PhD, and Carol Becker, a city official in Minneapolis, did for our book, “Design Downtown for Women–Men Will Follow,” the No. 1 thing most women hate about downtown is parking.

Gender would have made no difference on this rainy night. No one could read this meter. The choices? Enter the meeting late after trying to find a shop that would give me change and risk having to stand all evening as a latecomer; pull my credit card and hope that it somehow read the card and gave me time; or simply walk away and take a chance on a $40 citation. Today, I wrote the parking management office and sent them a note and the photo. I know how much it costs to replace a whole meter system. I also know that sooner or later these meters will be replaced. When that time comes, think about a cold, rainy night. Think about a customer standing in the rain, peering at an unreadable screen and wondering what to do. Think about how the new meters you are considering would function in rain, snow, and sleet. Be very user conscious and think about that out-of-town visitor without the right app on her cell phone or a pocket full of quarters. Think carefully when you replace those old meters.

DAVID M. FEEHAN is president of Civitas Consultants, LLC.

Ready for more? Read IPMI’s blog every business day in your daily Forum Ready for more? Read IPMI’s blog digest every business your daily digest email (10 a.m. Eastern) or at email (10day a.m.inEastern) orForum at parking-mobility.org/blog. parking-mobility.org/blog. Have something to say? Send post submissions to editor Kim Fernandez at Have something to say? Send postfernandez@parking-mobility.org. submissions to editor Kim Fernandez at fernandez@parking-mobility.org.


A Partnership for a Community Purpose By Alejandra “Alex” Argudin, CAPP, LEED AP Do you ever look at an underutilized parking lot and think to yourself, “There is so much potential to do something great for the community here!” As more and more high-rises transform the skylines and the hustle and bustle of cities are palpable, the need to help create a balance for residents has become a priority. In that pursuit, when Nick Katz, founder of a not-forprofit organization called Skate Free, approached us a few years back, we were delighted to be the conduit that created the partnership between our organization, the City of Miami, and the Florida Department of Transportation to support the vision of creating the first skate park of its kind in the heart of downtown Miami. Four years in the making, the Miami Parking Authority unveiled the free skate park on November 16, 2019 in an underutilized parking lot under Interstate 95. With a new unique use, delighted skateboarders from all over are flocking in record numbers to visit and exhibit their skills in the facility. We always saw this project as a great opportunity to build community by bringing people together, while

also serving as a catalyst for economic development by activating a less-frequented area of downtown Miami. The social value of a skate park is immeasurable. These facilities not only encourage physical activity and enhance wellness, but also serve to engage young people with adults who could potentially become role models and mentors.

ALEJANDRA “ALEX” Argudin, CAPP, LEED AP, is chief operations officer of the Miami Parking Authority.

Are You Too High Up to Bend Down? By Jennifer Carroll My management philosophy is to lead by example. If I can do it, you can do it too. In my first parking manager position, I worked in all the different positions we had– cashier, auditor, shuttle driver, etc. I remember when I trained with someone in maintenance, he said, “Now you can go sit in the office and take a break.” “Is that what you are going to do,” I asked. He said, “No, I am going to clean the bathrooms.” I said, “Well,

if you are going to clean the bathrooms, I am going to clean the bathrooms too!” So we did. Having a dirty parking lot is poor management, whether it is a restaurant, office building, department store, or airport. It sets the tone and gives the first impression of the building. It says either, “We don’t care how dirty things look or are,” or “We pride ourselves for being clean inside and out.” Maybe I am too picky, but I notice these things–if there are cigarette butts all over a restaurant parking lot, will the kitchen be dirty too? If there are food wrappers all around the parking lot of a hospital, do they care about how clean their instruments are? It’s important to set an example for your team and pick up some trash. Now I am not suggesting that you pick up all trash you see everywhere, but if a member of your team catches you doing it, they are more likely to do it, too. So let’s pitch in to be a great example and maybe even save some labor dollars while we do it!

JENNIFER CARROLL is regional director with REEF PARKING.




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Having Fun, Moving Ahead in the Mid-Atlantic By Anthony Jacobsmeyer


T’S BEEN A BUSY AND EXCITING YEAR for the Mid-Atlantic Parking Association (MAPA).

In June 2019, MAPA hosted a summer networking cruise for members aboard the Spirit of Washington in Washington, D.C. Sailing from the D.C. Wharf, MAPA members cruised the Potomac River and enjoyed a day of sunshine and networking with other parking professionals. Events July brought MAPA’s annual Parking & Baseball event at Nationals Park, where association members watched the Washington Nationals (now world champions) take on the Atlanta Braves. Starting with a lunch sponsored by PayByPhone, MAPA members enjoyed the time together (and the hot dogs too!).

In November, MAPA held its annual fall conference in Maryland over two days at the Lord Baltimore Hotel in Baltimore’s Inner Harbor area. Session topics included sustainability, technology in parking management, valet parking design, and unique case studies from successful municipal parking programs.

Webinars MAPA members were very excited to launch our inaugural webinar series in 2019. With three webinars during the year, MAPA members were able to engage with experts on a variety of topics: auditing practices, mobility, and transportation demand management. Check the MAPA website for dates of upcoming 2020 webinars.

Elections In January 2020, MAPA elected one new member to its board of directors: Jen Tankel of PayByPhone. Members also reelected four members for additional terms of service: Angela Hall, University of Maryland Baltimore; Dianne Harris, Revenue Authority of Prince George’s County; Howard Benson, Control Systems International; and Bill Boyle, Federal Parking. The board has many exciting events planned for this year and looks forward to growing membership and continuing to provide a place for parking professionals across the Mid-Atlantic to network, socialize, and advance their parking careers.

Other news highlights: At the MAPA fall conference in November, the association recognized long-time MAPA member and parking industry veteran Rick Sanford. Rick retired after 40+ years in the industry and will be remembered as a 50 PARKING & MOBILITY / MARCH 2020 / PARKING-MOBILITY.ORG

MAPA BOARD OF DIRECTORS great supporter of MAPA. He was celebrated with a cake decorated with a photo of his favorite collector car. Each year, MAPA awards a scholarship to support members of the organization, or their children, who are pursuing a higher education degree or a professional parking certificate program. Congratulations to John Cantor, CAPP; Spencer Nichols; and Sydney Amorosso, who were the recipients of the MAPA scholarship for 2019. Applications for the 2020 scholarship are available now on the MAPA website. For all the latest in MAPA news and events, visit us online at midatlanticparkingassociation.org. ◆ ANTHONY JACOBSMEYER is general manager with SpotHero. He can be reached at anthony@ spothero.com.


Mark Pace Montgomery College VICE PRESIDENT

Howard Benson Control Systems, Inc TREASURER

Brian Simmons University of Maryland, Baltimore SECRETARY

Anthony Jacobsmeyer SpotHero Angela Hall University of Maryland, Baltimore Bill Boyle Federal Parking Dianne Harris Revenue Authority of Prince George’s County Chuck Boddy University of Maryland, Baltimore County Jen Tankel PayByPhone

/ City of Manchester, N.H., Launches Passport Parking THE CITY OF MANCHESTER, N.H., announced the launch of Passport Parking for digital parking payments. The app can be used to pay for parking for more than 3,000 spaces throughout the city. Drivers can create an account, input payment information, and start a parking session on their smartphones. In addition to starting a parking session, users can: ■  Receive notifications when their parking sessions are ending. ■  Extend their parking sessions remotely without returning to their cars. ■  Access parking history and receipts. “I’m thrilled we are putting this app into action to make parking as simple as possible for residents and visitors,” says Mayor Joyce Craig. “With the implementation of Passport Parking, our community is continuing to develop a smarter city infrastructure and make city services more accessible.” “Our goal is to provide a positive parking experience for residents and visitors in Manchester,” says Denise Boutilier, City of Manchester parking manager. “The Passport Parking app improves the parking experience by giving drivers a convenient and easy payment option.” Passport works with nearly 1,000 clients to power their parking operations. “In today’s world, you can pay for almost anything on your smartphone, from a concert ticket to a sandwich to a ride home, and we want paying to park to be just as simple,” says Mollie Bolin, sales executive at Passport. “We’re excited to introduce the City of Manchester to Passport Parking so drivers can park, pay, and be on their way.”

New Book Explores Integrated Parking and Transportation Services IN “AUTONOMOUS AND INTEGRATED Parking and Transportation Services,” Amalendu Chatterjee outlines a robust web parking, truck, and transportation portal for integrating parking and transportation services—a revolutionary approach in contrast to incremental change for managing traffic congestion. Autonomous vehicle technology, artificial intelligence, the internet of things, and other interconnected hardware and software tools will assist autonomous parking and transportation services and provide next-century infrastructure for consolidated transportation customer services. The book highlights currently available autonomous parking and transportation technologies and the development of an integrated and intelligent transportation service/system platform, with specific use of technologies to reconfigure the transportation industry. Chatterjee also suggests many regulatory and policy changes to simplify data collection, traffic operation, the introduction of duplicate transportation system using light rails and high speed rails, and redistribution of parking spaces along such routes for using renewable energy.


New NextGen System Coming to Denver International Airport THE CITY AND COUNTY of ­Denver, Colo., awarded NextGen Parking a contract for replacement of the parking revenue control system at Denver International Airport (DEN). The $10.6 million contract calls for installation of new Designa Abacus equipment in 139 public and employee parking lanes as well as the implementation of iLogs Parking HQ software for control room operations, online employee registration, frequent parkers, as well as pre-booking and payment for advanced parking reservations. The system will support public and employee parking access using license-plate recognition and automatic vehicle identification credentials and feature integration with various internal DEN business functions.

ATI and Flowbird Have Gold Medal Performance in Lake Placid FLOWBIRD GROUP ANNOUNCED that the Village of Lake Placid, N.Y., home to the U.S. Olympic and Paralympic Training Center, has partnered with Access Technology Integration (ATI), Flowbird’s upstate New York distribution partner, to launch a new pay-by-plate parking system. Implementation of the system includes 32 Strada pay stations and Flowbird’s mobile parking payment application. The plan to replace the existing pay-and-display parking meters was spurred by aging technology. City officials estimate the current meters are reaching 10 years of age, causing a lapse in technological efficiency. The older technology requires drivers to print their payment receipt at a pay station, walk back to their vehicle, and place the proof of payment on their dashboard for compliance verification. By replacing these meters with Flowbird’s smart pay-by-plate system, drivers do not have to place a receipt on their dashboard and they can extend their time at the pay station or through the Flowbird app. While the Village’s pay stations have always had a coin and credit card payment option, the new system provides a better parking experience. The Strada features a 7-inch, full color display and QWERTY keyboard, walking the user through the transaction with a combination of text, graphics, and animation. For motorists wanting to skip the kiosks altogether, ATI supplied the Village with the Flowbird app, which allows payment on the Android and iOS platforms as well as on the Flowbird app website. The Flowbird solution was selected after an eight-month, head-to-head competitive trial in one of the Village’s municipal parking lots. During the trial period, the Village found the Flowbird solution, along with ATI’s response and service, to be superior to that of the other vendor.


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/ Propark Mobility Adds Joe Caputo to Leadership Team PROPARK MOBILITY (“Propark”) announced that Joe Caputo has joined the company as vice president of operations for the Southwest Region. “We’re excited to add Joe Caputo to our family of parking professionals as the latest member of the Propark leadership team,” says John Schmid, Propark’s chief executive officer. “Joe is an accomplished hospitality professional who will help drive operational improvement across our regional portfolio while enhancing service and profitability for our clients.” With an extensive background in the parking industry, Caputo joins Propark with 15 years of expertise in hospitality management. He began his career in 2005 as a cashier and quickly moved into management, working each posi-

tion along the way. Over time, he has built extraordinary relationships by providing service to some of the top hospitality locations throughout California.

Additionally, he oversaw the successful planning for and execution of parking operations for both the Emmy Awards and the Academy Awards. Prior to Propark, he served as a director of operations in the greater Los Angeles area, overseeing more than 60 hotel relationships and operations. “Joe is a world-class hospitality professional with an extensive and highly successful background in building large industry-leading teams, meaningful client relationships, memorable service, and growth initiatives,” says Rick DiPietro, Propark’s president. “He brings with him a unique awareness of the hospitality world that will harmoniously merge with our service-oriented business model, delivering exceptional results for our existing and future clients.”

Baltimore Mayor Applauds New Partnership between the Parking Authority of Baltimore City and SpotAngels FINDING A PARKING SPOT in Baltimore City just got a little easier. The Parking Authority of Baltimore City (PABC) announced its partnership with SpotAngels, the first free, community-based parking app that helps drivers identify parking that meets their needs, avoiding future parking citations. “I applaud the Parking Authority of Baltimore City for looking at new and innovative ways to address old struggles for drivers in Baltimore City,” says Mayor Bernard C. “Jack” Young. “This new partnership with SpotAngels will bring relief to residents and visitors alike as they travel across and around our city. I will always support innovative ideas and partnerships that benefit the residents of Baltimore, especially when those ideas aim to save our residents time and money.” By downloading the SpotAngels app, parkers can search for 54 PARKING & MOBILITY / MARCH 2020 / PARKING-MOBILITY.ORG

parking near their destination and compare prices, duration limits, and parking restrictions. Armed with this information, drivers can avoid parking in tow-away zones, or streets with street cleaning or residential permit restrictions. The goal of this partnership is to ease the parking headaches for both residents and visitors looking to enjoy the city. Over the past year, the app has provided 1.9 million drivers with information they used to make smart parking decisions.

Park Assist’s M4 System Chosen to Upgrade Parking at SouthPointe Pavilions PARK ASSIST® was selected by RED Development to install its M4 Parking Guidance System (PGS) at SouthPointe Pavilions in Lincoln, Neb. SouthPointe Pavilions is a bustling open-air shopping destination featuring over 55 shops, restaurants, and a movie theater complex. In addition to providing these traditional mall offerings, the shopping center is also designed to accommodate a variety of events, including outdoor summer concerts, fireworks, parades, and art fairs. With the latest addition of the 220,000-square-foot Scheels store, this already popular location has seen a significant increase in activity. The Pavilions’ new 819-space parking structure, complete with Park Assist’s proprietary camera-based smart-sensor PGS, will help alleviate the additional traffic for the estimated 4.5 million annual vehicles visiting SouthPointe Pavilions. The new garage, equipped with Park Assist’s M4 technology, will use color-coded smart-sensors to guide drivers to vacant spaces, decreasing traffic congestion and reducing the amount of time busy shoppers spend searching for parking. Upon returning to the garage, these customers will have an equally effortless experience finding their car by using Park Assist’s customer-centric Find Your CarTM software add-on. When guests

enter all or part of their license plate number into a Park Assist kiosk, this advanced vehicle locator feature will direct them to their vehicle’s exact location within the parking facility. SouthPointe Pavilions’ PGS will also be equipped with Park Assist’s Park AlertsTM module. This software extension will allow the Pavilions to set automated rules and alerts to help parking staff manage awareness and control of activity within the garage and create a more efficient, safe, and secure facility.

ParkHub Teams with HERE PARKHUB, the leading B2B parking technology company, has partnered with HERE, a global location data and technology platform, to help consumers easily find and pay for parking spots. “By combining precision location data with advanced indoor parking and venue services, the HERE platform sits at the center of the digitalization of end-to-end journey planning and user experiences,” says Jørgen Behrens, chief product officer at HERE Technologies. “We’re excited to bring together ParkHub’s real-time parking inventory and HERE Indoor & Parking solutions to bring intuitive and seamless navigation capabilities to drivers--from their home, to their vehicle, to their prebooked parking spot and on to their final destination.”

Data and services from the HERE platform are utilized by businesses across industries and by public sector transportation agencies around the

world to help reduce congestion and efficiently move people, goods, and services. During the past six years, the company has secured the top positions in Strategic Analytics’ Location Based Service (LBS) Benchmark report on platform completeness. Recently, the company launched HERE Indoor & Parking, combining its Indoor and Parking assets into an endto-end parking solution for parking operators and consumers. In partnering with ParkHub, HERE will integrate ParkHub’s network of

inventory into its platform to provide seamless navigation to parking spots. An initial pilot will focus on supporting Texas Rangers fans flocking to Arlington’s new Globe Life Field. HERE Indoor & Parking services optimize and enhance parking and indoor venue experience through multiple apps and channels, powered by HERE›s Mobile SDK and platform services. “ParkHub has proven itself as an event-based parking management platform, and our technology performs wonderfully in that capacity,” saus George Baker Sr., ParkHub founder and CEO. “However, the true crux of our offering is data. We are thrilled to work with HERE to maximize the wealth of data we hold and ultimately help consumers move efficiently and delight in their destinations.”


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2020 MARCH 2–4



Mid South Parking & Transportation Association Spring Conference and Trade Show

Online Parksmart Advisor Course Begins

IPMI Webinar: Reimagining a Sustainable, Resilient Workforce for Curbside Management


APRIL 22–24


Parking & Transportation Association of Georgia 2020 Annual Conference & Trade Show

JULY 22–24


Eugene, Ore.

South Walton, Fla.

Online, Instructor-led Course Begins: Analysis and Application of Technology


Rome, Ga.




#IPMI2020: Advanced Registration Closes Today!

Micro-mobility, Your Parking Garage, and Data: Fitting the Pieces Together IPMI Webinar


MARCH 18 New York State Parking & Transportation Association 2020 Annual Spring Event Pace University


APRIL 8–10 New England Parking Conference Spring Conference & Tradeshow Boston, Mass.


APRIL 13-16 Texas Parking & Transportation Association 2020 Annual Conference & Trade Show Dallas/Plano, Texas texasparking.org

APRIL 15–16


MAY 6–8 Pennsylvania Parking Association (PPA) 2020 Spring Conference & Trade Show Pittsburgh, Pa. paparking.org

MAY 31–JUNE 3, 2020 IPMI Conference & Expo San Antonio, Texas


JUNE 14–JUNE 15 MENA Transport Projects Forum

Pacific Intermountain Parking & Transportation Association 2020 Conference & Expo pipta.org

JULY 29–JULY 30 2020 Midwest Regional Parking & Mobility Conference hosted by IPMI Kansas City, Mo.


AUGUST 4 Online Parksmart Advisor Course Begins parking-mobility.org/parksmart

AUGUST 12 IPMI Webinar: Considering an Alternative to Adaptive Reuse parking-mobility.org/webinars


DubaI, UAE

IPMI Webinar: How to Increase Retention and Boost Team Culture





New York State Parking & Transportation Association Professional Development Summer Retreat

N. Charleston, S.C.

Syracuse, N.Y.


Southwest Parking & Transportation Association Mid-year Training



Wayland, Mass.

Palm Springs, Calif.


New England Parking Council Charity Golf Tournament newenglandparkingcouncil.org


Carolinas Parking & Mobility Association Annual Conference & Trade Show carolinasparking.org

SEPTEMBER 27–30 Campus Parking and Transportation Association Conference College Station, Texas cptaonline.org




2020 IPMI Leadership Summit (members only!)

Online APO Site Reviewer Course Begins

Florida Parking & Transportation Association Annual Conference & Trade Show

Raleigh, N.C.



OCTOBER 13 Online Parksmart Advisor Course Begins parking-mobility.org/parksmart

OCTOBER 14 IPMI Webinar: Enabling Daily Parking Decisions For Faculty and Staff: How More Granular Choice Has Reduced Parking Demand and Delighted Customers parking-mobility.org/webinars

NOVEMBER 17-19 California Public Parking Association (CPPA) Annual Conference & Trade Show Paradise Point Resort and Spa San Diego, Calif. cppaparking.org


Palm Beach Gardens, Fla. flapta.org

DECEMBER 9 IPMI Webinar: PARCS Replacement and Implementing the Latest Technologies—A Case Study of the American Dream Project in New Jersey parking-mobility.org/webinars

IPMI Webinar: A Portrait of El Paso Parking Using Geographic Information System (GIS) parking-mobility.org/webinars

Stay up to date on industry events and activities! Visit parking-mobility.org/calendar for the latest updates and additions.

/ Aims Parking. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

MEYPAR USA Corp.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

Southland Printing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

aimsparking.com 800.886.6316

meypar-usa.com 281.404.1667

southlandprinting.com 800.241.8662

Cambridge Architectural Mesh. . . . . . . C3

Park Assist. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9

Timothy Haahs & Associates, Inc.. . . . . .57

cambridgearchitectural.com 866.806.2385

parkassist.com 917.793.5400

timhaahs.com 484.342.0200

DESMAN. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .56

ParkMobile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

TNR Industrial Doors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

desman.com 877.337.6260

parkmobile.io 678.681.9433

tnrdoors.com 705.792.9968

International Parking Design, Inc.. . . . .56

PayByPhone Technologies, Inc.. . . . . . C2

Toledo Ticket . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

ipd-global.com 818.986.1494

paybyphone.com 877.610.2054

toledoticket.com 800.533.6620

IPS Group Inc.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C4

Rich & Associates, Inc.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .56

Walker Consultants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57

ipsgroupinc.com 858.404.0607

richassoc.com 248.353.5080

walkerconsultants.com 800.860.1579

Kimley-Horn and Associates, Inc. . . 5, 56

Scheidt & Bachmann.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

Walter P Moore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57

kimley-horn.com/parking 919.653.6646

scheidt-bachmann-usa.com/en/ 781.272.1644

walterpmoore.com 800.364.7300



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➚My E-scooter Rental Experiment, by Scott C. Bauman, CAPP. ➚Collaboration, by Robert Ferrin. ➚The Benefits of Funding Retirement Healthcare Benefits, by Scott A. Petri. ➚Are You Too High Up to Bend Down? By Jennifer Carroll. ➚Read the IPMI blog everyday in your Forum digest email or at parking-mobility.org/blog. ON THE FORUM

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MARCH 2020 


Profile for International Parking & Mobility Institute

Parking & Mobility March 2020  

Parking & Mobility magazine, published by the International Parking & Mobility Institute (parking-mobility.org).

Parking & Mobility March 2020  

Parking & Mobility magazine, published by the International Parking & Mobility Institute (parking-mobility.org).