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Behind the Keyboard How organizations can defend themselves against cybercrime




 FW Airport Parking D Guest Operations Success

A look at the operation’s efforts, past and present, to foster an engaged team and the results. By Gabriel Dennis, CAPP


The Double Parking Conundrum

Double parking has been a scourge of cities for generations. A team of researchers started using data to find out why and how it can be mitigated. By Jingqin Gao, Kaan Ozbay, and Shri Iyer


w Managing Urban Mobility

Leaders of some of the U.S.’s biggest cities came together to talk about parking, mobility, and the next generations of systems to get people from place to place. By Brett Wood, CAPP, PE


w Behind the Keyboard

How parking and mobility organizations can defend themselves against the growing threat of cybercrime. By David Waal


Experiencing No Evil

Loss prevention lessons from three wise monkeys. By Katherine Beaty, CFE



Retaining Good People

Through the Looking Glass By Pamela Corbin, CAPP

6 FIVE THINGS Five Ways to Retain Great Employees 8 THE BUSINESS OF PARKING Yes, You Can Still Chalk Tires By Michael J. Ash, Esq., CRE

10 MOBILITY & TECH Modernizing a Parking Program By Robert Ferrin

12 FINANCIAL MATTERS Financial Tasks for Divorcing Couples By Mark A. Vergenes

14 THE GREEN STANDARD Maintain the Momentum By Brian Shaw, CAPP

16 PARKING & MOBILITY SPOTLIGHT The Wedge Site By Michael Ortlieb, PE, and Gary Cudney, PE

19 ASK THE EXPERTS 44 IPMI IN ACTION The Battle for Talent in Parking, Transportation, and Mobility is On. By Rachel Yoka, CAPP, LEED AP BD+C, WELL AP

45 IN SHORT 47 STATE & REGIONAL SPOTLIGHT Parking. Mobility. Connected. By Mary Mabry, CAPP



out doing a lot of investigating into the corporate culture. What he found on his first day was something out of a handbook on bad management: hours that employees (including upper management) were required to physically be at their desks, a CEO who wandered through the suite every afternoon to bust unauthorized early departures, reports of who used their keycards to access what stairwell and when all day, inquisitions about the tiniest of expenses, managers who berated their staffs and those around them, and a generally negative, toxic attitude of non-trust that started at the top. It felt, he told me, like prison. My friend only lasted six weeks there, and the experience has become the bottom-rung benchmark for terrible jobs. Finding great employees can be difficult, but keeping them can be its own challenge. And it goes far beyond salary and benefits to the office culture, attitude, and a feeling that you’re both contributing to something worthwhile and your contributions are valued. I poked through some job ads while writing this piece to see who gets it and who might not. The biggest laugh and head-shake came from the ad offering free cereal as a top benefit. People really stay for cereal? The ads I imagine get the most responses from qualified candidates include much more than snacks, with flexible schedules when possible; health, retirement, and education benefits; and something about being congenial, friendly, and able to play nicely with others even when things get stressful. We look at employee recruitment and retention in this issue. It’s hard to onboard someone new! And it’s hard to watch someone with talent, a good work ethic, and a sense of humor walk out the door when they had more to contribute. I hope you get a lot out of this issue—maybe some new ideas for your own operation. We also take a look back at last fall’s meeting on managing urban mobility, where IPMI invited leaders from cities around the country to convene for conversations about transportation, mobility, and where we all go from here. It was a fascinating few days, and there’s much to glean from our wrap-up, on p. 32. Have thoughts after reading all this? Share them on Forum (forum.parking-­ mobility.org). We’d love to hear. Of course, you can always email me, too. Until next month…




/ ENTRANCE Shawn Conrad, CAE

conrad@parking-mobility.org EDITOR

Kim Fernandez

fernandez@parking-mobility.org TECHNICAL EDITOR

Rachel Yoka, CAPP, LEED AP BD+C, WELL AP yoka@parking-mobility.org CONTRIBUTING EDITOR

Bill Smith, APR

bsmith@smith-phillips.com ADVERTISING SALES

Bonnie Watts, CEM

watts@parking-mobility.org SUBSCRIPTIONS

Tina Altman

taltman@parking-mobility.org. PUBLICATION DESIGN

BonoTom Studio

info@bonotom.com COPY EDITOR

Melanie Padgett Powers For advertising information, contact Bonnie Watts at watts@parking-mobility.org or 571.699.3011. For subscription changes, contact Tina Altman, taltman@parking-mobility.org. Parking & Mobility (ISSN 0896-2324 & USPS 001436) is published monthly by the International Parking & Mobility Institute. 1330 Braddock Place, Suite 350 Alexandria, VA 22314 Phone: 571.699.3011 Fax: 703.566.2267 Email: info@parking-mobility.org Website: parking-mobility.org Postmaster note: Send address label changes promptly to: Parking & Mobility 1330 Braddock Place, Suite 350 Alexandria, VA 22314 Interactive electronic version of Parking & Mobility for members and subscribers only at parking-mobility. org/magazine. Periodical postage paid at Alexandria, Va., and additional mailing offices. Copyright © International Parking & Mobility Institute, 2020. Statements of fact and opinion expressed in articles contained if Parking & Mobility are the sole responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent an official expression of policy or opinion on the part of officers or the members of IPMI. Manuscripts, correspondence, articles, product releases, and all contributed materials are welcomed by Parking & Mobility; however, publication is subject to editing, if deemed necessary to conform to standards of publication. The subscription rate is included in IPMI annual dues. Subscription rate for non-members of IPMI is $120 per year (U.S. currency) in the U.S., Canada, and Mexico. All other countries, $150. Back issues, $10. Parking & Mobility is printed on 10 percent recycled paper and on paper from trees grown specifically for that purpose.

Through the Looking Glass By Pamela Corbin, CAPP


OW, IT’S 2020! Twenty years into the new millennium,

and it seems like just yesterday we were dealing with Y2K problems (remember the computers were going to crash because they would stop working on January 1, 2000, because of the new date format?). The new millennium was a big step for me as that was when I came to work with the City of Orlando, Fla., Parking Division and with the city’s new financial system, designed to last through the next 100 years. As we proceed into the second decade of the 21st century, there is so much to reflect on. Just examine the sheer numbers: At the turn of the new millennium, there were only 261 million internet users in the entire world—only 4 percent of the world’s population at that time—compared to almost 4 billion internet users (57 percent) now, with nearly a billion people using social media for work. I reflect back on my 20 years with the city and the changes this technology has created. We went from writing manual violations that were fat-fingered into the system to issuing violations with an Android with pictures that can be viewed online instantly by the customer. We had nearly 90 percent of payments for violations come in through the mail, compared with almost 75 percent being paid online today. We had mechanical meters on the street, and believe it or not, they were relatively new. There was a meter shop of technicians (meter mechanics) who physically worked on the mechanisms of the meters. Today, we have electronic meters that take credit cards and mobile payments, and we just implement-


ed an asset-free mobile payment zone for more than 200 spaces in our new downtown Creative Village. An entire book could be written about the evolution of the parking industry (in fact it has—check out parking-­mobility.org/textbook). Where does the industry go from here, and how do we stay abreast of the fastpaced changes? For me, being involved with and attending the Florida Parking and Transportation Association and IPMI conferences has been instrumental in my professional growth. The benefits derived from the educational sessions, the networking opportunities, and one-stop showcase for the numerous vendors in our industry cannot be overstated. If the next 20 years are anything like the past 20, you better hold on and get prepared for the ride. Hope to see you in San Antonio, Texas, this summer! ◆ PAMELA CORBIN, CAPP, is parking administration and planning manager with the City of Orlando, Fla., and a member of IPMI’s Board of Directors. She can be reached at pamela. corbin@cityoforlando.net.





2020 May 31- June 3

Mark your calendar! Save the date for the world’s largest parking, mobility, & transportation event – the 2020 IPMI Conference & Expo.


Ways to Retain Great Employees





CONDUCT “STAY” INTERVIEWS. You interview people when they start and again when they leave a job. Why not conduct interviews in between to find out what they like, would change if they could, and what the future holds for them, given a choice? Use that information to help make their good jobs even better. Source: guides.wsj.com/small-business/ hiring-and-managing-employees/how-to-retain-employees. PRIORITIZE WORK-LIFE BALANCE. “Busy” has become a status symbol, but it doesn’t have to be, and employees are happier when it’s not. Flexible schedules, remote work when possible, and getting help before workers are overwhelmed all help people decide to stay—and they often end up working more than their assigned 40 hours anyway. Source: talentlyft.com.


CREATE GROWTH OPPORTUNITIES. If a job’s opening up, make sure employees know about it so they have the chance to apply if they’re interested—it could be just the break they’re looking for somewhere else. Don’t forget professional development either, including industry-specific classes, webinars, and conferences. Source: forbes.com.


OFFER WELLNESS PERKS—and not just gym memberships, although those are great. We’re talking access to financial consultants, stress management classes, counseling, and yes, incentives for participating in healthy behaviors like eating right and working out. Source: roberthalf.com. START RETAINING EARLY. This means a clean, organized desk on an employee’s first day, a robust and long onboarding program, and clear communication about how an employee’s background and skills will most effectively contribute to the organization. In other words, make them feel valued from the first day. Source: shrm.org.


It’s not so hard to hire new employees (IPMI members can post openings for free at parking-mobility.org/careercenter), but retaining them? That can be a tougher order. Really great team members can—and do—move on to new opportunities with different organizations, and it can be difficult to know what spurred the change. But there are great, creative ways to help employees decide to stay. Here are five from some leading experts:



Parksmart, administered by Green Business Certification Inc. (GBCI), is the world’s only rating system that defines, measures, and recognizes high-performing, sustainable garages. Advisors provide valuable and in-depth expertise on the certification process, a cutting-edge competitive advantage for your organization.

2020 Online Training Schedule April 2020: April 21, April 23, April 28 and April 30; 11 a.m.-12:30 p.m. ET. August 2020: Aug. 4, Aug 6, Aug 11 and Aug 13; 3-4:30 p.m. ET. October 2020: Oct. 13, Oct. 15, Oct 20, Oct. 22; 11 a.m-12:30 p.m. ET. 9 GBCI Credit Hours for LEED APs and LEED GAs and 9 CAPP Points

Register today at parking-mobility.org


Yes, You Can Still Chalk Tires By Michael J. Ash, Esq., CRE

Last April, on-street parking enforcement was trending in the national news: “Lose the Chalk, Officer: Court Finds Marking Tires of Parked Cars Unconstitutional” —New York Times, April 25, 2019 “Chalking Tires to Enforce Parking Rules Is Unconstitutional, Court Says.” —USA Today, April 23, 2019 “What Does Chalking Tires Have to Do with the Fourth Amendment?” —Pacific Standard, May 3, 2019


ATIONWIDE COVERAGE was feverish to decry the end of on-

street parking enforcement by tire chalking. In reality, the news of the death of tire chalking has been greatly exaggerated. Tire chalking, in fact, has not been ruled unconstitutional. The Case The allegations are taken from the complaint in the lawsuit filed in federal court in the Eastern District of Michigan. Starting in 2014, a resident of Saginaw, Mich., received 15 parking tickets “for allegedly exceeding the time limit of a parking spot.” The tickets were issued by Saginaw’s “most prolific issuer of parking tickets.” Each parking ticket includes the date and time that the tire of the resident’s vehicle was marked with a “chalk-like substance.” The recipient of the tickets hired a lawyer who, rather than challenge the validity of the 15 parking tickets issued to his client, sought to challenge all tickets that used the “methodology of placing a chalk mark on one of the four tires of the vehicles to obtain information to justify the issuance of tickets throughout the territorial limits of the City of Saginaw.” The ticket recipient’s lawyer sought to frame the issue as a class-action lawsuit on the theory that the “chalk marks violate the Fourth Amendment of the United States Constitution.” On a motion from the city, the district court dismissed the complaint. The ticket recipient appealed to the United States Court of Appeals, Sixth Circuit.

The legal argument over the validity of tire chalking is whether the parking enforcement technique is a violation of the Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which prohibits unreasonable searches and seizures. The Fourth Amendment states, “the right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.” The Fourth Amendment review is a two-part test: 1. Did a search or seizure occur, and if so, 2. Was that search or seizure unreasonable? The ticket recipient tried to extend the holding of a recent case that decided the government’s installation of a GPS device on a target’s vehicle was a search under the Fourth Amendment because the physical installation of the device on the vehicle constituted a trespass of the car owner’s property rights. However, trespass alone does not qualify as a search; rather, there must be both trespass and “an attempt to find some-


The legal argument over the validity of tire chalking is whether the parking enforcement technique is a violation of the Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which prohibits unreasonable searches and seizures.

thing or to obtain information.” This was the key question reviewed by the court.

The Ruling


The court found that “despite the low-tech nature of the investigative technique, the chalk marks clearly provided information” to the parking enforcement officer. The chalk marks serve to identify the vehicles and when they parked. The court concluded that a “search” does likely occur when a tire is chalked. However, the analysis must also resolve whether the search is reasonable. As a matter of law, the search of an automobile is far less intrusive than the search of a person or building because cars exist on public streets in plain view to the public. Ultimately, the court concluded that because of the minor nature of the physical intrusion of tire chalking and the government’s undeniable authority to enforce parking meter time limits, even if tire chalking could be considered a search, it was reasonable. Accordingly, the complaint was dismissed in September 2017. However, this was not the end of the case. The ticket recipient appealed to the United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit. The appellate court disagreed with the trial court and found that the lower court applied the wrong legal standard to its decision and sent the case back for further proceedings. It was at this point that the media learned about the case and that the wrong conclusion—that tire chalking is unconstitutional—went viral. The media got it so wrong that the appellate court issued an amended opinion with the following additional language: “Taking the allegations in the complaint as true, we hold that chalking is a search under the Fourth Amendment, specifically under the Supreme Court’s decision in Jones. This does not mean, however, that chalking violates the Fourth Amendment. Rather, we hold, based on the pleading stage of this litigation, that two exceptions to the warrant requirement—the ‘community caretaking’ exception and the motor-vehicle exception—do not apply here. Our holding extends no further than this.”

The court did not decide that tire chalking is unconstitutional. The court disagreed with a very specific legal argument and revived the case for additional analysis. As of December 2019, the case is ongoing with no further decisions. Go forth and chalk tires! ◆ MICHAEL J. ASH, Esq., CRE, is partner with Carlin & Ward. He can be reached at michael.ash@ carlinward.com.


to the Southland Family



Modernizing a Parking Program By Robert Ferrin


HE SHORT NORTH ARTS DISTRICT, recently named a 2019 Great Neighborhood by

the American Planning Association, is a lively arts district along High Street between downtown Columbus, Ohio, and The Ohio State University. The district is home to destination shops, galleries, restaurants, and services—95 percent of which are small businesses. Popular historic residential neighborhoods with limited off-street parking border the district. To address competing interests and high parking demand, the Columbus Division of Parking Services took a fresh approach to previous efforts to achieve the right balance in meeting all users’ parking needs. Four goals guided the comprehensive, inclusive effort to create the Short North Parking Plan: ■  Customer-focused. ■  Equitable. ■  Consistent. ■  Leverage mobility options. The new plan, fully implemented in February 2019, successfully integrates the following modern parking strategies and the right user-friendly technology to improve customer service and overall access to the thriving district.

Prior to plan implementation, the District was made up of 13 unique permit districts with various restrictions that led to confusion and frustration among drivers and permit holders.

every step of the permit process—from application to payment to permit management—can be managed online. Residents no longer affix permits to vehicles, eliminating the need to purchase and mail physical permits. And now customers can conveniently manage permit accounts online, including assigning guest passes and providing visitors with validation codes that can be easily claimed through the Park­Columbus app. Since the plan was implemented, more than 13,500 virtual permits have been issued to residents and businesses, with nearly 70 percent of applications received online.

Mobile Payment The Short North is home to approximately 680 ­single-space meters on High Street and adjoining side streets. To provide customers with more payment options, the city worked with its vendor to offer the ParkColumbus app to all meters in the Short North. Furthermore, mobile pay-only zones were established on over 5,000 neighborhood side street parking spaces to facilitate visitor parking during the day when streets could be shared with permit holders.

Virtual Permit Program

License-plate Recognition

Prior to plan implementation, the District was made up of 13 unique permit districts with various restrictions that led to confusion and frustration among drivers and permit holders. Physical permits were issued by staff, and fulfillment was time-consuming. The new plan expanded the parking management footprint and consolidated the neighborhood into five permit zones with consistent parking restrictions. The city worked with its vendor to offer a digital solution in which

To effectively and efficiently enforce all of the new restrictions and permit programs in the Short North, the city worked with its vendor to implement nine license-plate recognition (LPR) units on patrol vehicles in the area. This technology integrates seamlessly into officer handheld devices and syncs with the existing permit and payment platforms. In addition, using LPR has generated additional data on how many vehicles are parking on-street; city staff can more accurately



calculate officer performance and customer compliance rates. In recent months, the city has maintained a 90 percent compliance rate among customers through proactive enforcement and education.

Demand-based Pricing To meet the goals of the program, the city implemented demand-based pricing as part of the parking plan. City staff gather parking occupancy data across multiple zones in the Short North every six months and make rate changes based on average parking occupancies. Streets with average occupancies above 80 percent receive a $0.25/hour rate increase, and those below 60 percent receive a $0.25 to $0.50/hour rate decrease. In October, the city implemented the first of many rate adjustments, with the average price decreasing $0.10 across all zones.

Parking Benefit District Adjustments to meter rates in the District have led to meter revenue generation that exceeds the city’s expenses. This excess meter revenue is being reinvested into the district through a Parking Benefit District. The city has partnered with the Short North Alliance to implement a number of parking and transportation de-

mand management strategies that support the overall goals of the plan. These strategies include a retail validation program for both on-street and garage spaces; an employee mobility fund to provide employees with alternative transportation choices to get to and from work; marketing, education, and outreach about the numerous parking and transportation options; and reporting and administration. This partnership has led to an increase in positive perception of parking in the district, increased use of parking garages, and increased foot traffic to support local businesses. The coordinated efforts of both local stakeholders, the Division of Parking Services, and its vendor partners led to a successful implementation of this parking management plan. The city will continue to evaluate and refine the plan to maintain access to the district and use the plan as a road map for future parking projects elsewhere in Columbus. You can learn more about the plan at parkcolumbus.com. â—†

Short North Arts District, Columbus, Ohio

ROBERT FERRIN is assistant director for parking services with the City of Columbus, Ohio, Department of Public Service. He can be reached at rsferrin@columbus.gov.



Financial Tasks for Divorcing Couples By Mark A. Vergenes


HEN PEOPLE FACE A DIVORCE, they are sometimes over-

whelmed. The emotional aspects of a split can be challenging and it’s easy to lose track of some of the economic implications. When you decide to dissolve your marriage, you’ll also need to end a complex monetary partnership. It will require a fair amount of paperwork to evaluate and amend your fiscal universe. Inventory Income and Assets


The first step in dividing possessions and valuables is understanding what exists and the value of all your combined wealth. To prepare for a divorce, you should put together a file with tax returns for the past two years (or more) and proof of income form, such as a 1099, W-2, or K-1. You’ll also want to gather statements that help you inventory assets

and debt, including bank account statements, investments, mutual funds, annuities, and college savings. Gather up your car and recreational vehicle titles, deeds, mortgage statements, and real estate tax bills. Include assessments on jewelry, artwork, and other valuables. And don’t forget to include the value of major purchases such as furniture, computers, and electronics.

Don’t forget about retirement plan and summary plan statements, including 401(k)s, 403(b)s, 457 plans, profit sharing, IRAs, pension plans, and deferred compensation plans. You’ll also need to assess and adjust insurance policies, including homeowners, renters, health insurance, health accounts, vehicle insurance, and life insurance. Finally, inventory personal agreements—including any marriage agreements such as prenuptials—employment contracts, and estate planning documents such as wills, trusts, power of attorney, and medical directives or living wills. When you have these types of documents in place, it will be easier to evaluate assets and debts and determine how these financial elements should be handled.


Protect Your Credit and Your Cash Flow

Update Your Beneficiary Designations and Estate Plans

If your separation is imminent, and you’ve decided to initiate proceedings, it’s time to take a few quick steps to prepare for the changes to come. Now is the time to close or freeze joint accounts or credit cards. Monitor your credit to ensure no major purchases or debts are left unnoticed. Change your security information, such as usernames and passwords, on bank accounts and credit cards. Bring in specialists when needed. A lawyer can help you create alimony and custody agreements. If you or your spouse own a business, you may need a business valuation expert. A forensic accountant can help you ensure that no assets or accounts are concealed.

A divorce or qualified domestic relations order (QDRO) will not negate the validity of an heir. You must request to change your recipients or they will remain in place on documents such as wills, retirement funds, medical directives, revocable trusts, living wills, and even on power of attorney.

Update Your Financial Plans Once your marriage is dissolved, it’s time to take a fresh look at your financial plans and savings strategies. It’s possible that the split dramatically changed your financial outlook as well as your personal

financial goals. This is a good time to meet with a financial adviser to help you reboot your financial and retirement plan and to work out smart goals that work with your new reality. ◆ MARK A. VERGENES is president of MIRUS Financial Partners. He can be reached at mark@mirusfinancial partners.com. MIRUS Financial Partners, nor Cetera Advisor Networks LLC, give tax or legal advice. Opinions expressed are not intended as investment advice and may not be relied on for the purpose of determining your social security benefits, eligibility, or avoiding any federal tax penalties. All information is believed to be from reliable sources; however, we make no representations as to its completeness or accuracy. All economic and performance information is historical and indicative of future results.

Changing Names? Once you’ve signed legal papers and have a qualified domestic relations order (QDRO) in hand, you still have a long list of tasks to complete. They include: ■  Changing names on bank accounts, brokerage accounts, IRAs, and qualified places such as a 401(k). ■  Changing the beneficiaries on such accounts, when applicable. ■  Changing the name on your driver’s license and Social Security card, if you decide to change your name. ■  Changing names on your vehicle, health, and homeowners/renter’s insurance. ■  Changing names and contacts on your employer records and professional licenses. ■  Changing information on credit cards. ■  Updating vehicle titles and property deeds. ■  Updating information on utilities.

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Maintain the Momentum By Brian Shaw, CAPP


AN PLANS AND GOD LAUGHS.” This translation of an

old Yiddish proverb succinctly explains what can happen when things do not go as planned. A change in leadership, the cost of a commodity, new regulations, new technology, an accident, global warming, or any unforeseen condition can derail the best-laid plans.

Fiduciary Responsibility I will suggest that as much as we can be invested both professionally or emotionally in our sustainability initiatives, we need to let the data and results speak for themselves. Keep in mind many of us have a fiduciary responsibility to report honestly, accurately, and in a timely fashion on the financial condition of our programs. If a sustainable practice is not meeting its financial goals, let your decision-­makers know and have a recommendation on how to move forward. Provide them with the consequences of making or not making a change to the sustainable practice. In some cases, the extra cost may be determined to be worth paying to avoid potential community backlash or voiding prior commitments.

Educate Leadership Decisions made by a prior administration can, and arguably should be, revisited when new leadership comes into place. The new leadership may have new directives, priorities, or concerns that could lead to a change in sustainability efforts.

When an organization determines to pursue sustainable practices, it should also decide why it is doing so. Is it to meet third-party standards? To improve public perception of the organization? To save money? Serve as an example to the community or industry? Or meet legal requirements? Document the priorities and ensure there is buy-in and support from decision-makers. Establishing those priorities will help if decisions need to be made to change direction and justify that decision to the community.

The Broader Agenda

Keep in mind that new leaders may not be able to simply accept prior decisions without a rationale. Getting them on your side will ensure successful sustainable practices are able to continue and hopefully flourish. If new leaders want to know why your program is making investments in sustainable programs, be ready to explain. Have your data available along with recognition, support or awards received, and potential effects of moving away from the practice. Keep in mind that new leaders may not be able to simply accept prior decisions without a rationale. Getting them on your side will ensure successful sustainable practices are able to continue and hopefully flourish.


Parking and transportation programs can help contribute to broader sustainability initiatives. LEED, Parksmart, and AASHE are all examples of recognition and certification programs that provide validation for an organization’s sustainability efforts. If a sustainability practice is part of a broader effort and needed to achieve certification, the effort can build support to keep it versus ending it. We cannot always accurately predict the future. Yesterday’s great idea might be tomorrow’s folly. But change and progress do not happen without risk and a willingness to try. The issue isn’t that we cannot afford to fail; the real question to ask is can we afford to not try? When the future of our environment is at stake, taking a risk on a sustainable practice should be worth it. By sharing our successes and our failures in our sustainable efforts, we can all help each other make our industry even more sustainable. ◆ BRIAN SHAW, CAPP, is executive director of parking and transportation at Stanford University. He can be reached at bshaw2@stanford.edu.


The issue is not what if our plans do not work out, but what happens next? How do we get back on track or salvage the situation? Do we need to go in a new direction? Can we get buy-in for a new approach or reassurance that the current course will work out? For those of us pursuing sustainability initiatives in parking and transportation, we can be taking the road less traveled. In some cases, the outcomes that justified our sustainable approach may not be realized for many years. Vendors we may have been using could go out of business. Or the cost savings anticipated may not be materializing.

Determine Priorities

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The Wedge Site A new way of considering parking development for the future. By Michael Ortlieb, PE and Gary Cudney, PE


HE 12,000-SEAT VAN ANDEL ARENA in Grand Rapids, Mich., opened in 1996 and en-

joyed tremendous success. The arena district has also seen significant restaurant, entertainment, residential, and retail development since then.

The six-level, 800-space Ottawa-Fulton Parking Structure also opened in 1996 to provide convenient parking for the arena district and downtown events. The most cost-effective parking structure design required the team to use only a portion of the irregularly shaped city-owned site, leaving a wedge-shaped parcel designated for access lanes and surface parking. Twenty-two years later, parking demand has grown significantly while much of the downtown surface parking has disappeared to development. Because parking demand was not met even with the growth of ride-share services and improved downtown transit, the city faced a dilemma: build expensive structured


parking needed to meet today’s demands or potentially sacrifice development momentum while awaiting evolving and uncertain technology.

FlexPark A parking structure’s life often exceeds 50 years, potentially resulting in a parking surplus before both the structure’s useful life ends and the city’s financial obligations are met. Thus, the city established a project goal to repurpose the Wedge parking structure at an undefined future date. But parking structures are unique buildings—much different from buildings designed for residential or office use. So how do we provide a solution for today’s problem with the flexibility to solve a potential future problem? WGI recommended a new approach for the parking structure design. Called FlexPark, it helped the city assess the opportunities for a flexible and adaptable parking facility designed to meet the increasing parking demand today and be able to flex in the future if parking demand decreases. These structures are initially designed so their parking area can later be converted to office, residential, retail, or education uses. By designing for these future adaptions, repurposing a structure, if and when needed, becomes far more sustainable and less disruptive. Primary design considerations include: ■  Floor Slope. An office or residential floor is level, but parking structure floors are not. • Vehicle Circulation. Vehicles must circulate to multiple levels, requiring a portion of the structure to be ramps that are not suitable for office or residential use.

Developing a plan for future flexibility is an important first step, but the added cost must also be considered.

• Drainage. Parking structure floors typically have a 1½ to 2 percent slope to floor drains. This is important to minimize potential pedestrian slip-and-fall risk. ■  Floor Loading. Buildings must support building code-mandated loads; to plan for repurposing, the required floor loading for future uses must be considered. • Building Code Floor Loading. The code-required parking live load (cars and people) is often much less than that required for office space. If the structure is used for office, residential, or educational space in the future, additional capacity must be provided. • Floor Leveling. Parking structure floor drainage may result in “flat” floors sloping 12 to 16 inches, which are unsuitable for office or residential use. ■  Vertical Clearance. Parking structures typically have a vertical clearance between floors of 7 feet to 8 feet, 2 inches. An office or residential building requires more clearance to account for higher ceilings, mechanical systems, and architectural treatment. Furthermore, leveling the floors reduces vertical clearances. Developing a plan for future flexibility is an important first step, but the added cost must also be considered. Minimizing ramped floor area and drainage slope, increasing story height, and increasing floor load capacity are important design considerations that enable future adaptation. However, this flexibility comes at a cost premium.


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The Wedge Parking Structure The arena district has flourished with new office, residential, and entertainment developments, and a new hotel is planned across the street from the Wedge site. There is private-sector interest in the Wedge site, and it may eventually return to the tax roll. However, to meet current parking demand, the city plans to build a flexible parking structure. The Wedge site is ideal for the FlexPark approach. Using the ramps in the adjacent parking structure allows the Wedge floors to be flat (sloped for drainage).

Other unique applications included in the design are: 1. Floor Ramping. Internal ramping is unnecessary because vehicle vertical circulation will be through the existing structure. 2. Floor Drainage. Additional floor drains will be installed to reduce the floor profile, lessening the fill depth necessary to flatten the floors. 3. Floor Loads. The design will use increased live loads for future residential or office use. 4. Vertical Clearance. The Ottawa-Fulton Parking Structure has 11 feet, 4-inch story heights that the Wedge must match. To maximize vertical clearance for office or residential use, a short-span structural system will be used that provides 10-foot clearance. 5. Future Building Tower. The structure will be designed to accommodate up to an eight-story vertical addition. 6. Building Services. To accommodate future office or residential uses, elevators and stairs must service the non-parking floors and trash disposal, deliveries, and utility access provided at grade. Furthermore, not all floors will be repurposed at the same time, so individual floor mechanical/electrical systems will be used. 7. Ground-floor Retail. Approximately 7,500 square feet of retail space will be provided with a vertical clearance of 15 feet—ideal for restaurant use. Integration with the adjacent parking structure, along with FlexPark principles, will result in a project cost premium of just 10 to 15 percent. However, this investment will preserve the city’s future flexibility to engage private development to economically repurpose this facility. ◆ MICHAEL ORTLIEB, PE, is vice president, parking solutions, at WGI. He can be reached at michael.ortlieb@wginc.com.

GARY CUDNEY, PE, is senior vice president, parking solutions, at WGI. He can be reached at gary.cudney@wginc.com.




EXPERTS What’s your best strategy to retain good employees?

Vicki Pero, SPHR Principal Marlyn Group Communication is key. This can be everything from providing positive or constructive feedback to taking the time to explain why we’re doing something or connecting each person’s responsibilities to the overarching mission and strategy of the organization. 

Scott C. Bauman, CAPP

John Hammerschlag

Casey Jones, CAPP

Manager, Parking & Mobility Services City of Aurora, Colo.

President Hammerschlag & Co., Inc.

Always treat your team the way you want to be treated—with courtesy and respect. Treating your employees with genuine civility, politeness, and authentic empathy fosters a professional and healthy work environment that inherently promotes loyalty, boosts productivity, improves morale, and decreases employee turnover. Also, respect is contagious.

Acknowledge and praise results, give honest and thoughtful feedback, empower without micromanaging, and maintain a sense of humor. Have a fun business that is profitable with a variety of tasks/activities and share the windfalls, pay abovemarket salaries, provide fully funded top-of-theline health and other benefits (e.g., 401(k)), and respond to specific needs with care and compassion.

Senior Parking & Mobility Partner DESMAN Design Management I had a supervisor who opened every conversation by inquiring about how my family was doing (by name) and ending by asking how he could help me be successful. Showing unwavering support for your employees and genuinely caring about them as people are the very best ways to retain them. (Thank you, RV.)

Mark Lyons, CAPP General Manager, Parking Division City of Sarasota, Fla. Care for your employees, truly stay interested in their well-being, and hire individuals who gain accomplishment through self-actualized efforts and goal setting.

/ HAVE A QUESTION? Send it to editor@parking-mobility.org and watch this space for answers from the experts.

The opinions and thoughts expressed by the contributors do not necessarily reflect the opinions and viewpoints of the International Parking & Mobility Institute or official policies of IPMI.


The Key to DFW Airport Parking Guest Operations’ Success A look at the operation’s efforts, past and present, to foster an engaged team and the results. 20 PARKING & MOBILITY / FEBRUARY 2020 / PARKING-MOBILITY.ORG


By Gabriel Dennis, CAPP


catchphrase, Dallas/Fort Worth (DFW) Airport Parking Guest Operations in Texas had programs in place to make its employees feel valued and encourage involvement. Under the leadership of Senior Manager Sherry Carter, fostering an engaged workforce has been a focus of the operation since I first joined the team more than three decades ago. Among the employee recognition programs in place when I came on board was the Employee of the Month award. The format for nominating employees and the rewards of receiving the honor have changed several times during the years, but one thing has remained constant: the award’s purpose of recognizing employees who go above and beyond in their performance, teamwork, and focus on customers. Supervisors on each shift make a case for their nominee, and their peers and managers vote to select the employee of the month for each of the two control plazas. In addition to receiving perks that include a designated parking

space close to the building for a month, each employee of the month is recognized with a nameplate on a plaque that lists the names of other employees who have received the honor during the year. Employee of the month plaques for the current and previous four years are displayed along the “Wall of Honor,” an area in the main corridor of both administrative buildings dedicated to recognizing outstanding employee contributions.

Attendance and Service Given the importance of attendance in a 24/7 service environment, recognizing employees who report to work on time every day as scheduled has also been in place for many years. Each month, a list of employees who attained perfect attendance during the previous month is posted on bulletin boards. The pride employees have taken in making this list is evident in the fact that, on average, 60 percent of the section’s employees do so monthly. Employees who attain perfect attendance for the entire year are also celebrated. In previous years, these employees were honored at a luncheon with the department leadership at a location away from the workplace. That event


ensuring each employee celebrating a birthday receives a card signed by all four members of the management team, a poster is displayed each month listing all birthdays for the month and encouraging co-workers to join in the well wishes.

Fun with a Purpose

has now been expanded to include exceptional contributions in other areas—we’ll discuss that more in a bit. We also, of course, recognize outstanding customer service. A staple of several ways that have been used to recognize employees who receive customer compliments has been posting a certificate of appreciation in the hallway with excerpts from the customer’s description of the exceptional service. Various on-the-spot awards have also been used to recognize outstanding employee contribution. This has included handing out “Carter Dollars” (and later tokens), named for our senior manager, to team members spotted going above and beyond. Employees could accumulate and redeem these at the gift store for trinkets priced in the current recognition currency.

Happy Birthday Of all the forms of employee recognition that have been in place since the early years, one of the least costly but most appreciated has been birthday cards. Carter likes to tell the story of an encounter with an employee many years ago who thanked her wholeheartedly for the card she received a few days earlier. Sensing Carter’s surprise at the level of gratitude, the employee explained that it was the only birthday card she received that year. In addition to 22 PARKING & MOBILITY / FEBRUARY 2020 / PARKING-MOBILITY.ORG

As the operation continued its focus on making employees feel appreciated, fostering ownership of employee engagement at the supervisor level became a priority. As part of this effort, supervisors were given responsibility for developing and implementing an employee engagement plan for their shift annually, beginning in the early 2000s. The resulting creativity led to the introduction of new types of engagement activities that I refer to collectively as “fun with a purpose.” Two such events are a pumpkin carving competition and a gingerbread house decorating contest. While such activities are not unique, what’s different about the Parking Guest Operations versions is that the judging is not just focused on the creativity and skillfulness participants demonstrate in carving a pumpkin or decorating a gingerbread house. Each team is required to complete a feedback card expressing what the experience meant to them, and their comments are a key consideration in judging the contest, which is done by department executives. The thoughtfulness of the feedback is consistently impressive and touching, with employees focusing on the value of working together toward a common goal. Another fun with a purpose event introduced three years ago is the End of Summer Pop. Team members are encouraged to dress in Hawaiian or other ­summer-type shirts for the carnival-style event held in early September. Multiple games, contests, and activities take place across the plaza buildings, and employees are treated to hot dogs, frozen treats, and popcorn. While some of the activities, such as miniature Skee-ball, bean bag toss, or striking a pose in the room decorated as a photo booth, are intended just for the fun of it, several have an underlying purpose.

A trivia contest between teams on each shift includes questions that test employees’ knowledge of the business and awareness of their surroundings; puzzles are created that follow this theme; a typing speed challenge encourages skills development in this area; and a contest to determine who can toss the most crushed water bottles in a recycle bin from a distance is intended to promote recycling.

Performance Awards While the above events take an indirect approach to promoting best practices and enhancing employees’ knowledge and skills by raising the fun quotient, the section’s performance awards program takes direct aim at encouraging operational excellence by recognizing exceptional performance in key areas of employees’ duties. Guest service agents (cashiers) are recognized for not incurring any shortage/overage in revenue collected or for maintaining the fastest average transaction processing time. Communications specialists in the operation’s customer support center are recognized for having the lowest abandoned call rate, the fastest average response to license-plate recognition (LPR) notifications, or the highest LPR correction accuracy. Employees recognized for speed of work must maintain satisfactory accuracy and vice versa. Recognition events are held quarterly and annually. Quarterly award events take place in the break room on each shift with as many employees as possible gathered. Each award recipient is individually recognized with a certificate for exceptional performance or for maintaining perfect attendance during the previous quarter. Management uses this opportunity to not only recognize award recipients but to express appreciation to the entire team for their contributions. The annual ceremony is a more formal event and takes place away from the workplace in an environment meant to convey to the employees that what they have accomplished is truly special. In addition to annual performance champs and those who attain perfect attendance for the year, honorees include all employees who were selected as employee of the month

or were recognized for their focus on customers during the year. The annual event is also where the award is paired with a reward.

Rewards In 2006, the section created a rewards program that assigned points to the various achievements included in its recognition program. Employees accumulate points throughout the year and receive gift cards in the equivalent dollar amount at the annual awards event. Regulations cap the amount that can be awarded to any single employee annually at $50, so the gesture is intended more as a token of appreciation than an incentive. Several star performers max out in accumulated points long before the end of the year due to achievements in multiple areas, but it doesn’t seem to matter as they continue to excel. Points are redeemable once a year to ensure all star performers receive the reward as they are recognized as the best of the best in the presence of their leadership, including department executives.

Feedback and Input These examples reflect the variety of ways in which DFW Parking Guest Operations shows appreciation to its team members for their contribution. Equally important to engaging employees is creating opportunities for feedback and acting on employees’ input. Despite the challenges of being a 24/7 operation with multiple employee schedules, meetings have been a PARKING-MOBILITY.ORG / FEBRUARY 2020 / PARKING & MOBILITY 23

control plazas. A diversity team was formed recently in support of the organization’s focus in this area and has been coordinating to promote diversity through education and celebration of the various cultures and backgrounds of employees throughout the year.

New Priorities

key part of this strategy. Daily, monthly, quarterly, and annual meetings of various types are just some of the avenues employees have for expressing their concerns or making suggestions. Team members are encouraged to draw on their experience in recommending process improvements, and several procedures have been implemented or enhanced as a result of such feedback. A visible sign of the value placed on employee feedback during the early years was the wooden suggestion lockbox that was affixed to a wall in the break room at both plazas. The slips of paper deposited with employees’ ideas were collected, reviewed, and responded to regularly. Today, employees submit their suggestions online as part of a department-wide program. Parking Guest Operations not only encourages employee input but empowers team members to take ownership of developing solutions in support of objectives. After “safe and secure” was added as the foundation of DFW Airport’s key results three years ago, the section created a safety action team made up of frontline employees to develop and coordinate section-level initiatives in this area. The team has been responsible for several key accomplishments, including conducting or coordinating safety-related training for all section employees periodically, facilitating resolution of safety concerns, and installing defibrillators at the 24 PARKING & MOBILITY / FEBRUARY 2020 / PARKING-MOBILITY.ORG

Parking Operations team members also play a significant role in department-level engagement initiatives. Employee engagement became a department priority with the arrival of Armin Cruz in 2005 as vice president of the Parking Business Unit. Prior to his arrival, department sections operated autonomously in many aspects, and the priority placed on employee engagement varied. Cruz immediately began putting into action his vision of igniting one engaged team focused on the same primary goals. A key strategy for accomplishing this was to empower frontline employees from across the department to develop and execute a department employee engagement plan. The online employee suggestion program mentioned earlier was among the accomplishments of the first employee engagement team formed for this purpose. Today, that program is coordinated by six employee committees, each responsible for a specific area of engagement. This includes an employee outreach committee that enhances engagement through print and media communication, including a department TV channel and newsletter; a suggestion committee that administers the department’s online suggestion program; and a step-up committee that encourages employees to maintain a healthy lifestyle and promotes the organization’s wellness program. Employees are invited to participate on one of the committees annually. Parking Guest Operations employees have been prominent on the teams, accounting for more than 50 percent of current committees’ membership. Granted, the section has the largest number of employees of the department’s seven sections, with 168 of its 316 employees. However, having the largest portion of the

workforce does not automatically translate into high participation. That the operation’s employees are so actively involved in section and department initiatives is a testament to their engagement. That engagement is also evident in team members’ involvement as volunteers at organization-sponsored employee events and in their support for DFW Airport’s community outreach programs. Section employees regularly lead the organization in donations to efforts such as the Salvation Army Angel Tree program, an annual school supply drive, and the American Heart Association Heart Walk. The strongest evidence of the level of engagement of Parking Guest Operations employees is in the results of employee engagement surveys the organization conducts annually. The section has consistently led the department and the organization with overall engagement scores in the mid-90s annually. The efforts the operation has put into making its employees feel valued and empowering them to take ownership have produced a team of employees that consistently demonstrates willingness to go above and beyond in supporting the strategic imperatives of the organization.

The success of the DFW Airport Parking Business Unit is evident in the recognition it has received in recent years for innovation, operational excellence, revenue growth, and focus on customers. This includes selection as IPMI’s Parking Organization of the Year in 2019 and recognition of Cruz as IPMI’s Parking Professional of the Year in 2018, as well as the organization's recognition as an Accredited Parking Organization in 2017. As the rapid advancement in technology has driven focus across industries on deploying the latest and greatest to gain a competitive edge, the Parking Business Unit has demonstrated recognition of the importance of leveraging these developments to accomplish its objectives and continue to lead the industry. There is no doubt, however, that the engagement of its employees is the key to its success, and the Parking Guest Operations team is key to this competitive advantage. ◆ GABRIEL DENNIS, CAPP, is assistant manager, guest operations, of the Parking Business Unit at DFW Airport. He can be reached at gdennis@dfwairport.com.





EW YORK CITY has long experienced traffic congestion as well as competitive

demand for curbside parking. We now see on-street parking competition from transit, bicycles, online shopping delivery trucks, shared mobility service companies, and a variety of other usages. People love convenience, but the rigid, daily demand for on-street parking has consequences, such as illegal parking like double parking. Anyone who has driven in a large city knows the frustration of encountering a street blocked by double-parked vehicles. Improving enforcement might be one of the solutions to discourage the practice, but knowing where to target is crucial, given finite resources and labor.

Figure 1. Data-driven framework using machine learning techniques.

Data-driven Solutions There is plenty of data to draw upon: Every year, more than 10 million parking violation tickets are issued in New York City alone. This information provides valuable data for developing parking models that can identify double parking hotspots and investigating the effects of factors such as time of day and vehicle type. Researchers at New York University’s (NYU’s) C2SMART Center have built a novel data-driven integrated machine learning model for estimating the actual frequency of double parking based on extensive data available in New York City, including parking citations, 311 hotline requests, social media, and street characteristics. This random, forest-based, data-driven approach offers an alternative method to estimate street-level double parking activity and identify hotspots. Using both microscopic and macroscopic models, area-wide effects of double parking can then be quantified.

By Jingqin Gao, Kaan Ozbay, and Shri Iyer

Double parking has been a scourge of cities for generations. A team of researchers started using data to find out why and how it can be mitigated. PARKING-MOBILITY.ORG / FEBRUARY 2020 / PARKING & MOBILITY 27

Figure 2. Spatial distribution maps of commercial vehicle double parking in 2015 and 2018 in Manhattan, New York City.

Spatial Distribution Parking Maps The violation data obtained by the research team was geolocated on a map by a custom-developed program to look for autocorrelation in the citation data. The results demonstrate that the double parking citation data has high spatial autocorrelation—in other words, double parking in one particular area is related to other double parking in the same area, and a clustering of similar high values indicates a hotspot. Spatial distribution maps based on this concept have important practical significance as they can identify promising locations over time for efficient enforcement in resolving conflicts over demand and supply of parking.

Using Big Data Big data is not new to traffic analyses, but understanding how to effectively use big data without bias to solve specific problems remains a challenge. On the one hand, parking citations may greatly underestimate the number of double parking activities, as many double parking incidences are not recorded. On the other hand, selection bias may exist based on differences in enforcement levels or coverage across different 28 PARKING & MOBILITY / FEBRUARY 2020 / PARKING-MOBILITY.ORG

regions. A prior study conducted by the NYU research team confirmed a relationship between parking ticket density and police precinct distance, even while controlling for variables such as traffic demand or commercial density. It revealed that spatial bias can arise due to different personal preference of patrol patterns or enforcement strategies. Considerable care must be taken when using the citation data. The number of commercial vehicle double parking citations has increased in time in New York City. In 2018, 386,842 parking citations were issued to commercial vehicles, which represents a 31 percent increase from 2015. Delivery trucks that double park on streets not only block traffic and bike lanes but can also create blind spots—a safety hazard for pedestrians and cyclists. The data-driven model allows us to create spatial and temporal profiles for commercial double parking on each street block; these are then used to evaluate the effectiveness of current parking management strategies. This quantitative approach provides supplemental information that can aid in future parking enforcement and management considerations and can also serve as incentives to encourage new, more efficient, delivery strategies such as off-hour deliveries.

What Are the Effects of Double Parking? Machine learning techniques have been successful in identifying influential factors related to double parking. By applying various feature selection algorithms, NYU’s research indicates that the top five relevant factors affecting the occurrence of double parking events in New York City are: 1. Number of hotel rooms. 2. Hourly traffic volume. 3. Size of commercial area. 4. Block length. 5. Number of curbside parking spaces. However, higher citations do not necessarily indicate areas where the double parking causes a great impact on traffic. Street and traffic characteristics, as well as network topology, should also be considered. To reconcile this problem, two types of models are developed to quantify double parking impacts on urban streets: a microscopic model—powerful for evaluating congested scenarios—and a macroscopic stochastic queuing model of lower complexity and higher computational speed. Both models are empirically validated via case studies in midtown Manhattan and downtown Brooklyn in New York City to measure the different effects of general vehicles and commercial trucks that are double parking. To evaluate the traffic effects of double parking, double parking events are simulated in a sub-area model from New York City Department of Transportation’s existing calibrated large-scale model Manhattan Traffic Model. Periodic events are created as single-lane incidents that are placed randomly in the network with actual frequency collected from the field or an estimated frequency of double parking activities from the aforementioned machine-learning estimator when no actual data is available. The results of the simulation illustrate how a given street may be subject to a higher double parking frequency compared to another street, yet the latter may be more affected by double parking in terms of congestion and impacts to traffic speeds and travel times. This may be due to the street geography or characteristics or the nature of the double parking incidents. For example, one high-density commercial block that experienced about 10 double parking instances per hour increased travel time by 17.8 percent while another that had 30 incidents per hour of short duration (e.g., passenger loading/unloading) only increased by 3 percent. These results are seen for streets in the study area.

By applying various feature selection algorithms, NYU’s research indicates that the top five relevant factors affecting the occurrence of double parking events in New York City are hotel rooms, hourly traffic volume, size of commercial area, block length, and number of curbside parking spaces.

Figure 3. Double parking index (DPI) for a case study in Midtown, Manhattan.

Figure 4. Increased travel time with/without double parking for a case study in Midtown, Manhattan.


Facts about Double Parking in NYC ■ 763,614 double parking violation citations were issued in

New York City in 2018.

■ 49.3 percent of those citations were contributed by

commercial vehicles.

■ The number of commercial vehicle double parking citations

increased by 30.9 percent from 2015 to 2018.

■ Double parking ranked No. 7 among all types of parking

violations in 2015. in Manhattan with highest double parking citations in 2018 were Midtown Manhattan, Hudson YardsChelsea-Flatiron-Union Square, Upper West Side, and Upper East Side. ■ Top five features related to double parking citations: • Traffic volume. • Block length. • Floor space of commercial area. • Available curbside parking spaces. • Number of hotel rooms. ■ Neighborhoods

The findings suggest that priority should be given to the locations that experience more significant traffic effects when considering parking enforcement. From the case study of Midtown Manhattan, the findings suggested that targeting enforcement and removing double parking from streets where it has the greatest effects can reduce average travel time in the morning peak by up to 20 percent.

Improving Policy Decisions The advantages of this data-driven approach are threefold: ■  It offers an alternative method to estimate street-level double parking severity based on different data sources. ■  It provides a useful screening tool to visualize double parking hotspots and identify variables that correlate with double parking citation density. ■  The impact study provides cities and transportation agencies valuable insights on identifying locations where increasing enforcement and removing problematic double parking will provide the greatest benefit. It is worth discussing the potential policy improvement revealed by the findings and future research. Policies ranging from economics to land use, parking planning, management, enforcement, and surveillance can be relevant to double parking. To improve policy decisions, the following should be considered: ■  The number of parking citations is not necessarily related to parking demand. Potential bias due to enforcement strategies or coverage should not be neglected when using citation data. 30 PARKING & MOBILITY / FEBRUARY 2020 / PARKING-MOBILITY.ORG

From the case study of Midtown Manhattan, the findings suggested that targeting enforcement and removing double parking from streets where it has the greatest effects can reduce average travel time in the morning peak by up to 20 percent. ■  There is a spatial gap between the parking demand

and current strategies targeted at commercial vehicles, such as loading zones or delivery windows. The spatial and temporal parking profile generated from the citation data can provide valuable information for policymakers when looking at extending time window or determining new loading zones. ■  Areas identified as having high travel time and congestion impacts by double parking events are where enforcement should be most concentrated. ■  The causes of double parking may vary from one city to another. However, similar feature selection methods introduced here that use machine learning techniques can provide transportation agencies insights into effective data collection strategies when managing and enforcing double parking events. ■  Information extracted from social media and 311 hotlines (double parking complaints) can be valuable supplemental data sources to drive policy decisions. ■  Machine learning/deep learning models used in ­real-time video processing can be potentially applied to detect and track double parking activities and compare them with the current citation data.◆ JINGQIN GAO is a PhD candidate and research assistant with the C2SMART Center, New York University Tandon School of Engineering. She can be reached at jingqin. gao@nyu.edu. KAAN OZBAY is professor and director of the C2SMART Center, New York University Tandon School of Engineering. He can be reached at kaan.ozbay@nyu.edu.

SHRI IYER is senior associate director of the C2SMART Center, New York University Tandon School of Engineering. He can be reached at shri.iyer@nyu.edu.

Bicycles and gate arms • Skateboarders • Dashboardstyle enforcement • Pigeons in ramps • Parking lot inspection sheet • Shift differentials • Overnight pay • On-street parking without time limits • Chalking tires • Citation counts with LPR • Shared parking • Airport

I’ll take my morning coffee with Forum, please.

employee parking benchmarking • EV planning ratio • Categorizing bikes, scooters • Mobile payments • Restoration services RFP • Parking garage fires • Ridesharing staging agreement • Using data effectively • Unbundled parking • Installing and removal of meter poles • Street sweeping operations • School permits in RPP zones • Customer loyalty programs • Meter hoods • Fees for EV charging • Parking enforcement of oversized vehicles • Ramp/garage speed signs • Art murals on garage facades • Parking revenue audit RFP • Pre-payments and reserved parking • Disabled parking • Cam-

Every day, the latest discussions on

eras on campus • Booting policies • Escalating citation

Forum, along with the daily IPMI Blog

fines • Budgeting for annual garage maintenance • Des-

post, are delivered to your inbox –

ignated on-street areas for rideshare • Space numbering

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with colleagues, stimulating ideas, and energizing your work life. Look under the coffee cup to get a taste of the stimulating topics swirling about lately.

nership agreements • On-demand shuttle RFP • Parking deck agreements • Donor parking privileges • Gate arm unattended facility intercoms • Rotary car carousels • Bike-sharing polices • Reverse back-in parking • Boot and tow • Suicide in garages • Snow emergency plans • Passenger counting systems • Salaries • Sample RFPs • Collection agency recovery rates • Car fire SOP • Compact car definition • Game day operations and tailgating • Capitalization rate for on-street spaces • Fireworks viewing atop parking garages • LPR retention

Open 24/7


policy • Pavement marking tape • Motorcycle parking ordinance • Alternative transportation apps • Expectant mother parking • Left side ADA parallel parking • Smartphone lot • Depreciation model for asphalt maintenance

s gest citie ig b s .’ .S y, he U g, mobilit ome of t s in f k r o a s p r t e abou Lead s to er to talk h t e g o t of system s n came io t a r the ext gene lace. And p o t and the n e c la le from p get peop s. continue n io t a s r conve E d, CAPP, P o o W t t e r By B




with the introduction of new mobility options, sharing economy advancements, and a general desire to find more sustainable driving patterns. Nowhere is that change more evident than in America’s urban centers, where mobility is affecting not only the way people move, but how we park, how our curbsides are structured, and how we make decisions on working, commuting, and playing. Municipal parking managers throughout the U.S. are likely dealing with some subset of these changes in their day-to-day lives. With the exception of peer connections and the occasional interaction at an industry event, the decisions being made to manage and mitigate these changes are done on a case-by-case basis. While the solutions are likely successful and context-sensitive for the communities they serve, a more collaborative industry-driven approach might yield sustainable and scalable results that can drive change and improve the interaction between parking strategies and mobility advancements. With this collaborative approach in mind, IPMI worked with some of America’s largest urban areas to facilitate its “big cities summit” in New York City, N.Y., this past November. The summit, Managing Urban Mobility, brought together representatives from more than two dozen cities from around the United States with the intent of discussing some of the biggest challenges and opportunities facing municipal parking and mobility providers today.

The Big Picture The summit began with a discussion of how the rapidly changing transportation ecosystem is changing the way cities manage parking and mobility. What was once all about access, cars, and

congestion has quickly morphed into more critically defined strategic plans that focus on leveraging technologies, creating meaningful collaborations, and using data-driven processes to support community growth and mobility needs. Highlights: ■  In New York City, much of the recent focus has been on creating a holistic approach to managing transportation and curbside assets. As areas adapt to the changing populations and uses around them, the need to have unique curbside strategies rooted in all forms of mobility services is becoming more and more critical to manage demand and support balanced access. ■  In Chicago, Ill., an emphasis is being placed on creating stronger first- and last-mile connections and using parking assets as mobility hubs rather than vehicular storage. ■  In Detroit, Mich., parking management is leaning on a stronger use of data to define policy, adapt to neighborhood needs, and craft a message around the importance of mobility and parking investments. In all three examples, creating meaningful collaboration is key. The cities are leveraging relationships with the private sector, academic institutions, neighborhoods and downtown groups, and partner agencies to create implementable, scalable, and sustainable mobility improvements.

Maximizing Mobility for Economic Development The second topic area focused on how to leverage these comprehensive transportation solutions to achieve economic growth in our communities. With the rise in


Managing Urban Mobility brought together representatives from more than two dozen cities to discuss challenges and opportunities for parking and mobility.

mobility options in urban areas, the ability to promote equitable and varied access has the opportunity to help our neighborhoods, communities, and urban areas thrive like never before. The discussion included: ■  Miami, Fla.’s parking management team is focusing on how to leverage smart curbside management to support the many varied transportation modes and create the access businesses need to grow. ■  The New York City Economic Development Commission is focused on leveraging all of the available modes of transportation to connect neighborhoods and commercial areas effectively. ■  In Pittsburgh, Pa., the Pittsburgh Downtown Partnership is helping to organize mobility strategies to reduce reliance on single-occupant vehicles and create more balanced access into the Downtown Pittsburgh area. One theme that emerged from this discussion was the need for meaningful and integrative datasets. This begins with efforts such as the Alliance for Parking Data Standards and the Mobility Data Standards that are meant to help create datasets that can be merged, analyzed, and compared to make more informed decisions on how and when to adapt policy and practice.

of the mobility ecosystem. As our communities and their populations change, the transportation network needs to adapt with them. Effective use of design, management, and policy tools can lead to better allocation of needs throughout the transportation system. Highlights: ■  The Complete Streets Coalition is working to help communities throughout North America create a better approach to design and implementation of street improvements to support reduced congestion, community growth, and multimodal needs. ■  The City of Denver, Colo., is using data-driven analytics to define how curbs and streets should be designed to support adjacent user needs. ■  The City of Philadelphia, Pa., is using a combination of design practices and policies to drive change and promote compliance with transportation needs. One key aspect to holistic street design is defining how to prioritize street and curb decisions to support users. Each of the entities acknowledged that prioritization changes frequently by area type or community goal. Effective and transparent communication strategies create better opportunities to change behaviors and support the goals of the prioritization.

Designing Streets for All Users

Driving Real Progress

The third topic area focused on how the design of streets and curbside environments can be catalysts for community growth, commute choice, and efficient use

The fourth topic area focused on intensive research and analytics activities, as presented by faculty and graduate resources from Cornell University and C2Smart, a


research engine of New York University (see p. 26 for a feature from them). Both sessions focused on the impacts of policy decisions in the transportation, parking, and curbside management sectors. While the outcomes of the research were quite divergent —health-related impacts of policy decisions and identifying ingredients that cause double parking activity—the purpose was very singular: The work being performed by these institutions, as well as thousands of institutions around North America, is critically important to the continued advancement of parking and mobility decisions in our urban communities. By linking practitioners with academic expertise, there is a greater likelihood we will find advanced solutions and practices to counter new problem areas that arise as transportation choices evolve. Practitioners can bring to the table operational expertise, usable data streams, and opportunities to pilot test and analyze in a living environment. Academic experts provide resources for critical thinking, analytical experience, and alternative perceptions to what seem like standard problem areas. This partnership has the likelihood of both advancing our industry and supporting more efficient management in cities and downtowns.

Monetizing Curb Space and Revenue Generation to Fuel Successful Cities The fifth and final topic area is one of the most consistently mentioned concepts in our industry today:

monetizing access to the curb for all uses to more equitably distribute the burden of curb management and create new sustainable funding streams to offset a loss of parking as the mobility spectrum evolves. Monetization of curb activity should focus on how to effectively manage the changing curb, balance access and demand, and support the evolving needs of the uses around the curb. The discussion included: ■  In Seattle, Wash., the introduction of performance­ based parking pricing almost a decade ago has been a catalyst to more engaged and transparent conversations about how and why to manage the curb. Those practices and policies are beginning to find their way into commercial loading and transportation network company (TNC) activity at the curb, helping manage a new and dynamic demand. ■  In Houston, Texas, paid parking practices are being used to manage changing demands associated with mobility-as-a-service options. The effects of extended paid parking hours drove changes in ride-share use, which in turn allowed for a prioritization of spaces for parking, TNCs, and loading. By using measurable data from the curbside environment, Houston is continuing to adapt its program and curbsides to support efficient use. ■  The National Renewable Energies Laboratory is leading research on how to use behavioral strategies to improve sustainability and create commute Maximizing Mobility for Economic Development— Building and Refining Our Toolbox: Moderator: Lenae Storey, TransLoc; Chris Watts, Pittsburgh Downtown Partnership; Adam Meagher, New York City Economic Development Corporation (EDC); Angel Diaz, Miami Parking Authority


■  Mobility. The intent with mobility is to define how

Conversations around parking and mobility carried on throughout the event.

change. The intent of its research is to create equity of allocation in commute decisions, support better access for users and communities, and reduce environmental impacts associated with congestion and energy consumption in the transportation sector. All three entities identified that effective access and demand management begins with design, policy, and communications practices. The design elements need to effectively allocate space at the curbside to create equitable access and support area needs. Policy needs to promote manageable usage through allocation strategies and monetization policies that balance the burden for all users. And communications need to be transparent and continuous, allowing the managing agency to define the what and why of monetization practices up front and the successes of the program after implementation.

Putting It All Together After two days of interactive and engaging discussions, the representatives from America’s big cities were tasked with brainstorming concepts and practices that could drive further evolution of the parking and mobility industry. The intent was to think of concepts or strategies that the group could design, test, and adapt collaboratively, with the purpose of driving real change relative to some of the biggest challenges our industry faces today. Concepts included: ■  Curb Management. The intent with curb management is to normalize some of the more intriguing concepts that are being implemented today, including dynamic curb space allocation, communication of curb messaging in a dynamic environment, balancing monetization against demands, and prioritizing access for multiple user types. 36 PARKING & MOBILITY / FEBRUARY 2020 / PARKING-MOBILITY.ORG

the curbside should support the introduction of new and unexpected Mobility-as-a-Service options, including bikes, scooters, mopeds, ride-share vehicles, personalized transport devices, and more. Both sides of the curb are being inundated with mobility options, and the effective management of space, enforcement, policy, and practice will drive how these options affect our industry moving forward. ■  Electrification. As more and more of the new fleet of vehicles making their way to our roads and streets are electric, it will be critically important to think about how they interact with our parking and mobility systems. Whether that is provision of charging stations, preferential space allocation, or alternative payment/policy arrangements, our industry needs to begin to drive the outcomes of this near-term reality. ■  Pilot Testing. While all of these concepts have multi-faceted management, policy, codification, and implementation needs, the collaborative approach of the big cities group has the opportunity to drive real change through the introduction of specific pilot testing opportunities. These opportunities include data collection and analytics, communication, monetization, enforcement, and many more. By collaborating as partner cities and engaging the support of the industry’s technology expertise, there are real opportunities to drive change and create scalable solutions for everyone involved.

What’s Next The big cities group is beginning to take more shape and find a path toward driving real change. The goal of this group is to create strategies that are realistic, scalable, and implementable by cities of all sizes. The expectation is continued collaboration throughout 2020, culminating in another summit-style activity in Miami, Fla., in the fall. In addition, the group will be publishing a more refined summary of the discussion, including case studies, lessons learned, and considerations for urban parking managers of all kinds to consider. Be on the lookout for a new publication of case studies on mobility and more. We welcome feedback from all IPMI members—feel free to reach out to share your thoughts on these trends and more! My email address is below. ◆ BRETT WOOD, CAPP, PE, is a parking and transportation planner with Kimley-Horn. He can be reached at brett.wood@kimley-horn. com.

ad o nl ow w N Do ble ee aila r F v A

JUST PUBLISHED: A Guide to Accessible Parking Table of Contents ◗ The Problem ◗ IPMI and the Accessible Parking Coalition ◗ The 2018 National Survey on Accessible

Parking and Placard Abuse

◗ A Closer Look at Placard Abuse ◗ How Placards Can Slip into the Wrong

Hands—Or Cars

◗ Will Eliminating Free Parking End

Placard Abuse?

◗ ADA Meters and Other

Technological Solutions

◗ Making the Case for Reform ◗ Beyond Disabled Placard Abuse—Other Issues

Related to Accessibility

◗ Citizen Activism ◗ Empathetic Signage ◗ Not All Mobility Impairments Are Obvious ◗ Meet Chris Hinds: What People with a

Disability Want You to Know

◗ The Importance of Listening ◗ Shopping Issues and the Role of Retailers ◗ Streetscape Issues ◗ Resources

The mission of the IPMI-led Accessible Parking Coalition is to eliminate disabled placard/plate abuse and improve access to parking for people with disabilities.

Developed for parking and mobility professionals like you, this groundbreaking, 24-page publication is the perfect starting point for addressing challenges related to accessible parking in your community.

Download your free copy now accessibleparkingcoalition.org/resources



UR LIVES HAVE BECOME DOMINATED BY TECHNOLOGY. Our homes and offices are always connected to the internet, many

of the appliances on which we rely are available at a moment’s notice via the web even if we aren’t home at the moment, and most of us carry powerful computers in our pockets and purses every day. This year, there will be 25 billion connected devices, and most office and commercial buildings are becoming more and more connected, including HVAC systems, elevators, tenant

Keyboard connections, and security systems.


How parking and mobility organizations can defend themselves against the growing threat of cybercrime. By David Waal

Parking is no different. During the past generation, parking has become incredibly technology-centric with the introduction of parking guidance technology, frictionless parking suites, and more advanced parking access revenue control systems (PARCS) making parking more convenient and manageable than ever before. Parking professionals just a generation ago could never have predicted the evolution of parking technology would lead us here. The technification of parking has a dark side, too. As parking becomes increasingly automated, parking operations grow more vulnerable to cyberattacks and digital terrorism. There are many different threats, they come from a multitude of directions, and it’s essential for parking professional to understand where the threats lie, what the criminals are looking for, and what they are trying to accomplish.

Wave of Attacks Of course, cybercrime isn’t just a parking problem. There have been numerous cases of large organizations being targeted by hackers. Perhaps the best-known case occurred in Baltimore, Md., last year, when a ransomware attack brought the city government’s technology to a virtual standstill that cost more than $18 million to rectify. Another damaging instance of hacking saw attackers break into the City of Johannesburg, South Africa’s network and demand a ransom or risk that the hackers would share stolen personal and financial data. PARKING-MOBILITY.ORG / FEBRUARY 2020 / PARKING & MOBILITY 39

If you’re reading this and thinking, “sure, but we are safe,” you are wrong. You’re already under attack—every organization is. Cybercriminals are constantly flooding organizations with malware, and the only things standing between your organization and disaster are your security processes, your antivirus software, and the common sense of your employees.

Why Parking? There are a number of reasons parking organizations are attractive targets to hackers. Most importantly, parking payment typically happens with credit cards, and PARCS, pay-on-foot, and online payment equipment are typically accessible via the internet. A successful attack can lead to the theft of patrons’ personal and payment data. Also, because automation is so common, a ransomware attack that shuts down parking equipment can bring operations to a standstill—both within an individual facility and throughout an entire organization. There are many different types of attacks against which parking managers need to be vigilant: ■  Ransomware attacks, which happen when hackers take control of a system and demand ransom in return for returning operations to the organization. ■  Malware, in which attacks occur when hackers introduce a virus or file infectors into a system. ■  Phishing attacks, in which hackers try to trick users into giving up their passwords or other sensitive information. Other types of attacks include session hijacking, eavesdropping attacks, and password attacks. In fact, there are dozens of different ways hackers attack systems. The challenge in protecting parking and mobility organizations from these attacks is that every employee who works online is a potential entry point for hackers. You can’t expect everyone in your organization to be a security expert who can recognize every type of threat out there.

Best Practices What can you do to protect your systems? First, and most importantly, make security part of your organizational culture. It’s not enough to lecture your employees about security; you need to make it part of your organization’s DNA. This means offering regular security training and implementing an internal communication program through which you can keep your employees up to date on the most pressing security risks and how to avoid them. 40 PARKING & MOBILITY / FEBRUARY 2020 / PARKING-MOBILITY.ORG

The challenge in protecting parking and mobility organizations from these attacks is that every employee who works online is a potential entry point for hackers. You can’t expect everyone in your organization to be a security expert who can recognize every type of threat out there. Next, give your staff the tools they need to be security heroes, and make sure those tools are easy and convenient to use. If the security tools that protect your technology are too difficult to use, people won’t use them. The most common threats revolve around passwords. Phishing schemes designed to trick people into giving up their passwords are common, and when employees fall for them, they run the risk of opening up their technology—and your entire network—to cyberterrorists. There are simple strategies for protecting passwords. A password manager, through which

random passwords are assigned, can eliminate the risk that repeated use of the same passwords will leave multiple pieces of equipment vulnerable. Role-based access control (RBAC) can also be useful, particularly in large organizations. RBAC limits system access to authorized users by restricting access based on the employee’s role in the organization. Picture it as the online version of RFID technology that’s used to control access to certain areas in high-security offices. One challenge that often gets overlooked is the risk posed by employees working from home. Remote work has been embraced by employers and employees alike, and more people than ever are working from home. While there are many advantages to letting employees work remotely, most organizations miss the security risks associated with the practice. Remotely working employees are often able to connect directly to their employer’s networks, which brings with it the risk of compromised home equipment infecting the office network as well. Additionally, personal phones and tablets can increase risk when they are connected to office networks. To protect against these risks, it’s advisable to extend office security processes to employees’ personal equipment and, when possible, centrally managing those security processes. This means installing the organization’s virus checkers onto personal equipment and extending lock-down permissions (the settings that manage which websites employees can visit) on personal equipment, if possible. Obviously, employees may not want their employers dictating what they can do on their own time and on their own equipment, so managing this aspect of the security effort can require some give and take.

Looking Outside Your Organization Cyberthreats don’t only come from within, though. Parking has become increasingly automated, and that automation often requires third-party solutions. You aren’t in a position to monitor your vendor’s security status, though, so how do you ensure that your technology partners aren’t putting your organization’s network at risk? First and foremost, always include security in your RFPs. Never hire or partner with an organization that can’t demonstrate that it has robust security programs. This means requiring encryption, ensuring that there are no backdoors through which cybercriminals can gain access to your network, requiring the use of failto-ban intrusion prevention software, and requiring

the organization to pursue the principal of “least privilege” to make sure that everyone with access to its systems has appropriate access rights. It’s also advisable to conduct security audits of your vendors. Organizations often aren’t as secure as they like to think. The process should include an independent “whitebox audit,” which tests whether software is secure. Independent penetration testing of vendor equipment is also advisable to determine whether unauthorized access or other malicious activity is possible. You’re only as secure as your weakest link, so it’s essential to make sure that the equipment tied to your system is fully secure.

Ongoing Security After all your testing has been done and your security measures are in place, it’s still necessary to constantly monitor and update your system to ensure that it remains secure. Automated software patches should be implemented to make sure that your security measures are keeping up with the evolving capabilities of cybercriminals. Security systems should also be designed to provide regular reports so you’ll know whether you’ve been targeted and how the system responded. Even if you do everything right, there’s still a chance that the cybercriminals will be able to overcome all of your security measures. Criminals are constantly seeking new paths around security technology and procedures, and, unfortunately, sometimes they succeed. That’s why it’s essential to have a response plan in place in case you are successfully attacked. How do you recover from a successful attack? How do you deal with staff ? How do you communicate with your partners and customers? These are all questions that must be answered before an attack occurs so you’ll be able to respond immediately. Remember, you are already under attack—every moment of every day. Take the necessary precautions, including training your staff, implementing the most advanced anti-virus technology, remaining vigilant, and preparing for the worst. If you do, you can significantly reduce the chance that a cyberattack on your organization will succeed. And if one does succeed, you will be prepared to respond appropriately. ◆ DAVID WAAL is co-founder of Parking Sense USA. He can be reached at davidw@ parkingsense.com.


Loss prevention lessons from three wise monkeys.

By Katherine Beaty, CFE


OU MAY BE SCRATCHING YOUR HEAD wondering what monkeys have to do with loss prevention. They definitely do. But you should

know I’m actually referring to the proverbial three wise monkeys’ principle of “see no evil, hear no evil, speak no evil.” The philosophy is said to have originally arrived in Japan from China in the eighth century; it was popularized by a 17th century carving over a door of the famous Tōshō-gū shrine in Nikkō, Japan. The three monkeys are Mizaru, covering his eyes, who sees no evil; Kikazaru, covering his ears, who hears no evil; and Iwazaru, covering his mouth, who speaks no evil. The idiom “see no evil, hear no evil, speak no evil” originally focused on not dwelling on evil thoughts, but in the Western world, it now generally refers to a lack of moral responsibility on the part of people who refuse to acknowledge a wrong, looking the other way and not speaking out. As parking professionals, we all know that it is best to catch loss or fraud as soon as possible, but of course it is even better to prevent it. Too often in the parking industry we suffer from the “see no evil, hear no evil, speak no evil” syndrome. We are afraid to raise the topic of loss 42 PARKING & MOBILITY / FEBRUARY 2020 / PARKING-MOBILITY.ORG

because we may be afraid of what we may uncover. We think it may inspire employees to attempt to commit loss or it may mean we are acknowledging that a large fraud already occurred. However, studies have proven that discussing loss and fraud with employees is a proven way to help prevent it. Fraud is like when you work on a car. If you are good about preventive maintenance, then the car will run longer and stronger and then if you do have a repair, it will be manageable, with less time in the shop and less cost. However, if you do not do the preventive maintenance and you ignore the check engine light, then your damage is going to be more extensive and costly and take longer to repair, if it can be repaired.

Loss Prevention There are many ways to help prevent loss in our industry, but let’s start with these four basic questions: 1. Is ongoing anti-loss training provided to all employees at all levels in your organization? Ongoing training is a critical part of the prevention process. According to the Association of Certified Fraud Examiners’ (ACFE‘s) “2018 Report to the Nations,” organizations that conducted fraud training for employees

“The biggest single weakness in all management is not doing what we said we would do … talk without commitment cannot win.” —Stanley J. Goodman, past president and CEO, May Department Stores

3. Is there an effective mechanism in place to report loss? The most effective way to detect loss is through tips, which makes our employees the best resources for fighting loss. They must have a way to report what they observe. An anonymous hotline is the most obvious and easiest way to accomplish this objective. In addition, it can be used beyond our employees and provided to customers, vendors, and other outside parties. Again, this must be a safe process to protect the person providing the tip from retribution. Another thing you can do is publicly reward whistleblowers who are willing to come forward and report fraud openly. Let people know that you commend this commitment to the honesty and integrity code of ethic of your organization. Do not “hear no evil” to what is being said and reported.

NO EVIL saw a 41 percent reduction in money lost per fraud instance and a 50 percent reduction in how long the frauds continued before being discovered. Do your employees understand what type of fraud could occur? Do they know the cost of fraud (lost revenue, lost profits, potential loss of clients, potential job loss, decreased productivity)? Do your employees feel they can speak freely without fear of retribution? Do they have someone they can go to for advice or guidance if faced with an ethical conflict or question? 2. Are honesty and integrity represented from the top down? According to the ACFE’s 2018 report, a strong code of conduct resulted in the greatest reduction (56 percent) as related to loss prevention. There’s much power in leading by example. Employees mimic what they see and take cues from the culture of the organization and the people who surround them. Conduct surveys of your employees to determine if they believe management acts with integrity and honesty. Are they practicing what they preach? In addition, organizations should incorporate loss prevention goals into evaluations and performance incentives. Do not “see no evil” to what is going on in your operations. Sometimes leaders are so far removed from the people that do the day-to-day jobs that they do not know the morals or culture. It’s easy to get so lost in the overall tasks and responsibilities of their positions that they forget to interact with the levels of their teams.

4. Do employees perceive that detection of loss will be detected? If employees feel that they can get away with it, loss may increase. Transparency is your friend. Be open about the anti-loss controls in place at your organization. Let them understand that actively seeking out loss through surprise audits, monitoring software programs, and reviewing reporting/reconciliations processes is a priority. Leave them with the impression that if loss is occurring it will be found. Speak up about loss and what is being done about it. Do not “speak no evil.” Be vocal about what happens to those that are caught such as job termination and criminal prosecution. This can also apply to your clients. Do they perceive that detection of loss will be not only detected, but reported to them openly and honestly? If fraud occurs, report the loss to the client, reimburse them for the loss quickly, and then be transparent about your process to correct the issue and explain what preventive measures will be put in place to reduce future risk going forward. As you think about your parking operations, remember the three wise monkeys. Don’t be afraid to look under the rug of your operation as it pertains to fraud and loss. Make sure your employees and stakeholders have a way to report fraud and make sure they are heard. And don’t be afraid to start the conversation with your employees about loss prevention. If your organization does not have an anti-fraud department or procedures, then start the dialogue to get one started. Evaluate where you are at risk and start to take steps to limit, mitigate, or eliminate the risk. ◆ KATHERINE BEATY, CFE, is director of loss prevention for REEF Parking. She can be reached at katherine.beaty@reefparking.com.



The Battle for Talent in Parking, Transportation, and Mobility Is On By Rachel Yoka, CAPP, LEED AP BD+C, WELL AP


ASSIVE DISRUPTION IN OUR INDUSTRY means that organizations are looking for

Yes, of course that involves timeless leadership qualities and communication savvy—but organizations are also searching for people with the ability to think differently and manage changing technology and decision-making frameworks. Per Deloitte’s April 2019 release, “The Future of Work,” “the jobs of the future are expected to be more machine-powered and data-driven than in the past, but they will also likely require human skills in areas such as problem-solving, communication, listening, interpretation, and design.” These abilities include crunching data, leading brand new programs and initiatives, and leading multiple generations in the workplace.

Finding the Right People A few suggestions on where to find great people for your team: ■  Connect with your network and their networks. It’s not quite “six degrees of Kevin Bacon,” but it’s also not that far off. Everybody knows somebody. ■  Look beyond your typical network. Experience outside the industry can be extremely valuable, as 44 PARKING & MOBILITY / FEBRUARY 2020 / PARKING-MOBILITY.ORG

these candidates may bring a diverse perspective. But look within too—your greatest asset might already be a part of your team. Make sure you are investing in your current employees as well as new hires. ■  The best candidates may still be with another organization, but they may be thinking about their next steps. Look for those CAPPs, who have the skill sets you need, and stay current on all things parking, transportation, and mobility. ■  Attend events and be social. Follow up. As they say for business development and sales, half the battle is showing up, and the other half is following up (because your competition likely doesn’t do either). IPMI's Leadership Summit and Conference & Expo are excellent opportunities to meet people face to face—saving time and money in the interview process. ■  Use your resources, including the newly created IPMI Career Center. Members post job opportunities for free. These postings appear on parking-mobility. org and are published in our monthly IPMI Insider newsletter. But wait, there’s more: IPMI shares all these postings on social. IPMI members told us they needed great new people—and we responded. Check out the Career Center today, and complete the quick form to share all of your current opportunities. And be sure to tell us when you make that brilliant new hire so we can share it with our IPMI community: parking-mobility.org/careercenter. ◆ RACHEL YOKA, CAPP, LEED AP BD+C, WELL AP, is IPMI’s vice president of program development. She can be reached at yoka@ parking-mobility.org.


new people with different and innovative skill sets and leaders who can roll with the punches and create successful teams and programs.



Highlights from the IPMI Blog

Transformation by Communication By Blake Fitch, CAPP

THE CITY OF ASPEN, COLO., Parking Department was recently assigned the task of addressing a section of town and transforming it into an enforcement zone. The city has four residential parking zones–A, B, C, and D–that have been in effect since the inception of paid parking in 1995. Initially, we had to determine the boundaries of the new zone. After many site visits and map creations, these boundaries were identified. To change this area into a new zone required input and buy-in from area residents, who first received a letter explaining the proposed changes. The next step was to hold an open house to understand how the residents felt about the changes. To the staff’s surprise, much of the feedback received was positive. Residents voiced frustration that the area had been used to store vehicles, including trailers, for quite some time, and said it was difficult to find available parking for themselves and their guests.

Upon approval from the city council, a proposal was implemented. After a couple of weeks, installation of new signage was complete. For the first week, we placed fliers on vehicles and trailers informing the owners of the newly implemented regulations. The second week, warning citations were issued to those that hadn’t moved. The third week of enforcement, regular citation were issued. By the third week of enforcement, we learned that very few citations were issued. We credit this to the staff’s hard work, detailed planning, and public outreach that took place prior to implementation. What we learned is that an effective and repetitive public outreach program can make policy change go smoother. BLAKE FITCH, CAPP, is parking operations manager

for the City of Aspen, Colo.

Ready for more? Read IPMI’s blog every business day in your daily Forum Ready for more? Read IPMI’s blog digest every business your daily digest email (10 a.m. Eastern) or at email (10day a.m.inEastern) orForum at parking-mobility.org/blog. parking-mobility.org/blog. Have something to say? Send post submissions to editor Kim Fernandez at Have something to say? Send postfernandez@parking-mobility.org. submissions to editor Kim Fernandez at fernandez@parking-mobility.org.


Parking Tax Repealed By Jim Sayre, CAPP On December 20, the so-called “parking tax,” more formally known as Section 512(a)(7) of the IRS code, was repealed. This tax was enacted as part of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act in 2017 and was imposed on “qualified transportation fringe benefits.” In many cases, this was a significant new expense for nonprofits, including universities. For my institution, it was a multi-million-dollar peryear expense for which we hadn’t planned. The interpretation of the law varied widely. In some cases, the entirety of the value (net cost to the employer to provide parking and/or transportation) was interpreted as being taxable, and in some cases, organizations interpreted the law as simply applying to pre-tax deductions that were offered for parking or transportation. At my former institution of employment, the interpretation was that the 21 percent tax included the value of the subsidy to employees to park. In all cases, the tax no longer applies. In fact, if you paid

actual or estimated taxes, your non-profit organization is owed a refund, as the repeal is retroactive. It’s my understanding that the IRS will soon release instruction on how to claim said refunds. Please know that I’m not an expert on the subject, so I’d encourage you to reach out to your tax attorney or other organizational resource if you have questions. JIM SAYRE, CAPP, is executive director, parking and

transportation, at the University of Arizona.

Working the Holidays By Jennifer Carroll, CAPP How do you spend your holidays–the same way your team does? The holidays are usually very busy or very slow for many of us. In my part of the parking world, most locations are 24/7/365. Sure, we inform all perspective

employees that we are open holidays, but when it comes right down to it, working on holidays is not that fun even if you are lucky enough to get paid time and a half. It could be a big morale booster if they saw “the boss” working on those holidays, too. I am not saying go work a double on Christmas, but maybe do a quick drive-by to cover a lunch break on Christmas Eve, maybe have a team lunch delivered on a holiday, or even cover a shift on Thanksgiving. There were a few big holidays I spent directing traffic, collecting money, or driving shuttle buses in rainy weather in the muddy overflow lot when all other lots were full. I assure you that all of these will make an impact on your team members, probably more than you can imagine, and it could cost nothing but a bit of your time. I know I would love it if my boss did it. How about you? JENNIFER CARROLL, CAPP, is regional director

with REEF Parking.



Parking. Mobility. Connected. By Mary Mabry, CAPP


INCE 1987, the Texas Parking & Transportation Association (TPTA) has been a vehicle

for individuals engaged with parking and transportation businesses in municipalities, hospitals, airports, universities, and parking authorities. We promote the mutual interests of the membership in the provision and operation of adequate, safe, efficient, convenient, and economical public parking and transportation as a proper and necessary function for the economic and social well-being of our members. TPTA works hard to educate members and their customers about the importance and effects of parking and transportation in general and promote industry best practices. TPTA’s new vision: parking. mobility. connected. The following sums up our key priorities and ongoing objectives: ■  Expand membership. Expand regular membership by 30 percent in the next two years within Texas and surrounding states through personal engagement and professional marketing. ■  Enhance the annual conference. Expand conference offerings and create a marketing strategy to target all parking and transportation professionals in Texas and surrounding states.

■  Enhance outreach and communication. Improve

member outreach and communications by connecting members and vendors, establish member volunteer committees, launch annual formal engagement survey, and formalize membership communications vehicles. ■  Enhance roundtable program. Enhance the roundtable program by instituting social/networking events in conjunction with the roundtables, identifying topics that appeal to different facets of parking and transportation, and creating a volunteer committee.

2019 Conference and Tradeshow The 2019 TPTA 2019 Conference and Tradeshow was held in downtown Houston at the Marriott Marquis. This year proved to be a record-breaking one for attendance. Again in the spirit of competition, teams were pulled together to build makeshift LEGO structures. We included some industry-oriented specifics such as multi-purpose housing and retail in our unique creations. Once the completion of these amazing little structures were admired and judged, all of the LEGOs were donated to Houston charities. The networking and educational sessions were the big draw as we had a nice selection of presentations covering topics for curb management strategies, business and personal strategic development, and adaptive parking design, mobility at large, scooter communication, smart cities, and sustainable parking, just to name a few. TPTA would like to thank all our presenters, sponsors, and vendors for their generosity and support of our association and conferences. Without their backing, we as an association would cease to be able to provide the beneficial assistance that we have offered over the years.



Maria Irshad, CAPP, MPA ParkHouston, City of Houston VICE PRESIDENT

Mary B. Mabry, CAPP Cardinal Tracking, Inc. TREASURER


2019 Roundtables and Networking Sessions: 29–30, 2019, University of ­Texas-Austin. Event Parking and Smart Cities. ■  November 4–5, 2019, University of ­Texas-Arlington. Planning Mobility and the Lessons Learned.


2020 TPTA Conference and Tradeshow

Peter Elliott City of Fort Worth Parking Services Division

■  July

2019 Awards: ■  Distinguished Service Award:

Dean Ahmad, assistant vice president for DFW International Airport. ■  Employee of the Year: Carlos Medel, ParkHouston. ■  Parking Structure—New: East Campus Garage, University of Texas at Austin. ■  Parking Structure—Restoration Project: Silos Harvesting Partners-Campus at Legacy West Garage and Site Modifications. ■  Parking Program: University of Texas at Arlington MAV Mover Program. ■  Parking Equipment and Technology: Memorial Hermann Medical Plaza Garage—PARCS Upgrade.

Dennis Delaney, CAPP University of Texas at Austin

This year’s event will be at the Hilton Dallas/Plano-Granite Park, April 13–16. You still have time to register to attend one of the best attended state association shows in the U.S.: texasparking.org/ conferences. More events will be planned throughout the year. Keep an eye on ­texasparking.org or email TPTA@­ texasparking.org. ◆ MARY B. MABRY, CAPP, is product manager/client advocate-parking solutions with Cardinal Tracking, Inc. She can be reached at mmabry@cardinaltracking.com.


Peter Lange Texas A&M University BOARD MEMBERS:

Dean Ahmad DFW International Airport

Michelle Morris Toledo Ticket Company Paul Stresow City of El Paso, Texas Jaime Snyder, CAPP Walter P Moore Clay Haverland University of Texas at San Antonio

/ A New Chief for the Abu Dhabi Parking Division MUBARAK RASHED AL NUAIMI, was named as the new executive director of Abu Dhabi Parking (otherwise known as MAWAQiF) - Integrated Transport Center (ITC). Al Nuaimi joins ITC from his previous executive management role in a public sector organizations in the United Arab Emirates. With his team of parking professionals, he seeks to progress the achievements of the MAWAQiF and deploy innovative ideas to increase the efficiency of parking services in Abu Dhabi. He is a graduate of the California State University where he majored in International Business Management.

BMW Extends INRIX Driver Services INRIX, INC., announced the extension of its collaboration with BMW Group to provide INRIX driving services, including real-time parking, traffic, and travel alerts. Powered by the INRIX network of hundreds of million connected vehicles and devices, BMW ConnectedDrive® with Real-Time Traffic Information provides drivers with real-time and predictive traffic for routes, travel times, and accident and incident alerts. INRIX also provides its award-winning on-street parking service, which uses historical and up-to-the-minute parking data to predict the availability of parking spaces. Beyond traffic and travel alerts, Intermodal Navigation and EV Range Spider services for BMW’s electric vehicles are also included in the extension. Intermodal Navigation integrates lo-

cal public transportation schedules into the route planning and monitors real-time traffic conditions, alerting drivers to faster alternative modes of transportation when major delays occur along their routes. EV Range Spider gives drivers an accurate estimation of how far they can travel, taking into account local traffic conditions, route topography, and current battery charge. Reinhard Richthammer, vice president of automotive, EMEA at INRIX, says, “The extension of our partnership with BMW is testament to the strength of the innovative and dynamic breakthroughs in technology we provide to most of the world’s premium car brands. We’re thrilled to be part of the journey in next generation connected car services that will continue to enhance the experience for BMW drivers around the world.”


Parker Technology Closes $2 Million Seed Round with Elevate Ventures PARKER TECHNOLOGY recently announced an investment of $2 million as a series seed round, led by Elevate Ventures and several investors, including a strategic investor. The influx of capital will be used for building out a fully robust product and expanding sales and marketing efforts. Elevate will take a seat on the newly formed Parker Technology board of directors. “We are very encouraged by Parker Technology and their role in helping to drive innovation in the rapidly changing parking industry,” says Chris LaMothe, CEO, Elevate Ventures. “Parker Technology’s values and dedication to customer satisfaction have proven to be successful to maximize customer acquisition as they continue to scale and advance their product.” Brian Wolff, president and CEO of Parker Technology, adds, “I appreciate the confidence that Elevate has shown in Parker by leading this round and the tremendous support we have received from the technology community. We’re building a company that delivers a world-class customer experience with authentic concern, through our people and our technology platform. This capital will be crucial in helping us mature our technology and build repeatable sales processes for sustained growth and profitability.” Data suggests that the challenge for parking operators is not to make machines or technology more reliable. The fact is that only 15 percent of requests for help in parking facilities are driven by equipment malfunction. Eighty-five percent of the time, a human is confused or has failed in some other way, and the only way to save that customer experience is with a patient, well trained, knowledgeable human being. To date, Parker Technology does business with 74 management companies in more than 900 lanes across the U.S. Due to the increased interest from various verticals within the industry, Parker Technology is forming an advisory board to better serve each market and to further guide the company’s growth and influence.

PSX Is Exclusive Amano McGann Provider to the Big Easy and All of Louisiana

AMANO MCGANN, INC. announced the opening of the new PSX New Orleans, La., office. PSX is now the sole provider of sales, service, and support for Amano McGann parking solutions in Louisiana. This year, PSX is celebrating 50 years of excellence in the parking and access control sectors. For more than 35 years, PSX and Amano McGann have partnered to present clients and the parking public with robust solutions in parking access and revenue control. For the past 15 years in a row, PSX has been recognized as one of Amano McGann’s top performers and recently received the Diamond Award in recognition of outstanding performance. “We are thrilled to start another chapter in the longstanding, thriving partnership between PSX and Amano McGann,” says Wade Bettisworth, senior vice president of indirect and dealer sales and operations at Amano McGann. “PSX’s practice of exemplary customer service and well-engineered system design will be a boon to the Louisiana market.” Leading the new venture for PSX in New Orleans is Roger L. Strange. Much like several others at PSX, Strange joins the PSX family with an extensive background in parking operations. He possesses the experience, drive, ambition, and tenacious attitude needed to launch startup operations in Louisiana. “PSX is extremely excited to open up our seventh office in the New Orleans market,” says Paul W. Hutchison II, PSX president. “We look forward to working with the parking community in helping them to achieve and improve their parking initiatives.”


Eberle Design Announces Death of Tony Eberle ANTHONY (TONY) F. EBERLE , 69, passed away at his home in Casa Grande, Ariz., in late 2019. Eberle was born on September 16, 1950, and earned a bachelor’s degree in electronics from Arizona State University (ASU). He had a natural aptitude for electronics and began his working career at Deno’s Music Center while in high school. His engineering skills and keen business sense afforded Eberle a varied career that encompassed music, mining, aerospace, and the traffic control electronics industries. For 30 years, he ran the manufacturing side of Eberle Design, Inc. (EDI), guiding the company from a two-man operation (along with his brother Terry), with electronics assembly beginning on the living room coffee table, to a global market-leading manufacturing firm that provides mission-critical

motorist and pedestrian safety monitoring devices at more than 95 percent of all signalized intersections in the United States and Canada. He served as the company’s vice president, man-

ufacturing, from the time of the company’s founding in January 1980 until it was purchased by a private equity firm in 2010, at which time he retired. He loved to fly and earned his private pilot’s license while attending ASU as an incentive for completing his degree. Later on, he discovered the thrill of helicopter flight and thoroughly enjoyed flying his “aerial jeep.” He had a passion for collections: cars—of which there were many—radios, watches, art glass, and life-long friendships. He loved to explore the back roads of Arizona and traveling across country by train and automobile. He especially loved sharing these adventures with his family. He is survived by his wife, Sue Eberle of Casa Grande; his children, Crel Vogel, Nathan Vogel, Eric Eberle, and Kathryn Eberle-Sero; and five grandchildren.

ABM Awarded Tennessee Green Fleets Certification ABM WAS AWARDED Tennessee Green Fleets Certification for outstanding leadership in fleet sustainability at Nashville International Airport. The ABM team operates a fleet of 28 shuttles and buses at the airport that all run on compressed natural gas (CNG). Additionally, ABM operates a large CNG station to refuel the fleet. The move to CNG fuel vehicles has eliminated approximately 369 tons of carbon dioxide emissions per year, according to Tennessee Clean Fuels. An organization dedicated to promoting cleaner alternative fuels and vehicles to improve air quality and curb dependence on petroleum, Tennessee Clean Fuels announced ABM’s threestar certification—the highest level achievable—during the annual Sustainable Transportation Forum & Expo. “We are very proud to achieve this certification in partnership with Nashville International Airport,” says Scott Hutchison, senior vice president of operations, landside, ABM. “This demonstrates ABM’s commitment to help our clients achieve their sustainability-related goals.” As part of the ABM GreenCare® program, which provides

clients sustainable business solutions that can have a positive impact on the environment, ABM offers clients innovative and environmentally friendly parking solutions. This includes providing natural gas or propane shuttles, electric-vehicle charging ports, solar panel installation, shuttle service, recycling and green cleaning in parking structures, and more.


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2020 FEBRUARY 10–12


JULY 22–24

Texas Parking and Transportation Association Winter Roundtable

New York State Parking & Transportation Association 2020 Annual Spring Event

Pacific Intermountain Parking & Transportation Association 2020 Conference & Expo



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APRIL 8–10


New England Parking Conference Spring Conference & Tradeshow


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MARCH 2–4 Mid South Parking & Transportation Association Spring Conference and Trade Show South Walton, Fla. mstpa.org

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Southwest Parking & Transportation Association Mid-year Training

Carolinas Parking & Mobility Association Annual Conference & Trade Show





Online Parksmart Advisor Course Begins parking-mobility.org/parksmart

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N. Charleston, S.C.

Campus Parking and Transportation Association Conference College Station, Texas cptaonline.org

Parking & Transportation Association of Georgia 2020 Annual Conference & Trade Show




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2020 IPMI Leadership Summit (members only!) Raleigh, N.C.

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Florida Parking & Transportation Association Annual Conference & Trade Show

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Stay up to date on industry events and activities! Visit parking-mobility.org/calendar for the latest updates and additions. PARKING-MOBILITY.ORG / FEBRUARY 2020 / PARKING & MOBILITY 55


In Case You Missed It... ON THE FORUM

➚Special events: ticket duration. ➚Meter money collection. ➚Evening enforcement strategies. ➚Struggling mall valet. ➚RPPs and RFPs. ➚Join the conversation: forum.parking-mobility.org. ON THE BLOG

➚Parking Takes Flight, by Casey Jones, CAPP. ➚Non-paying “Parkers” Causing Real Problems, by William R. Conner, CAPP. ➚Parking Tax Repealed, by Jim Sayre, CAPP. ➚From Tesla to Parking: An Executive’s Bold Move. ➚NYC Begins Placard Abuse Crackdown posts and submit your own—parking-moblity.org/blog and in your daily Forum ➚Read email. YOUR MEMBER BENEFITS

➚Post and browse jobs for free: parking-mobility.org/careercenter. ➚Post and browse RFPs for free: parking-mobility.org/rfps ➚Submit press releases and member news. ➚Read past issues of Parking & Mobility. ➚Search the Resource Library for research, articles, and information. ➚parking-mobility.org All from your desk, on your time, at parking-mobility.org. 56 PARKING & MOBILITY / FEBRUARY 2020 / PARKING-MOBILITY.ORG

An exciting, new revenue stream is at hand:

Introducing AIMS MobilePay. Today’s drivers demand pay-to-park transactions via their smart phones. We listened: By adding AIMS MobilePay (or AMP Park, for short) to our growing suite of reliable and proven, AIMS Parking Management solutions! Compatible with iOS and Android smart phones – or accessed via a desktop – AMP Park lets your customer: Identify available parking spaces in your AIMS Parking Management service area Streamline payments: No need to exit the vehicle, transact with cash, or interact with a parking meter, kiosk, or parking attendant Access their account to set parking session reminders, review transaction history, manage payment methods, and more! Like all AIMS solutions, AMP Park benefits your organization, too! Increased revenue, since mobile payment convenience encourages paid parking Better and more efficient use of your parking-space inventory Improved revenues relative to 3rd party mobile-pay apps To learn more about the advantages of AIMS MobilePay – and how easy it is to migrate your paid-parking system to AIMS – schedule a free, 1-hour demo for your team today at aimsparking.com/go-mobile-with-AMP-park

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Smart Meters | Enforcement | Sensors | Permitting | Big Data Request a demo at ipsgroupinc.com/demo © IPS GROUP, INC.



Profile for International Parking & Mobility Institute

Parking & Mobility, February 2020  

Published by the International Parking & Mobility Institute, parking-mobility.org

Parking & Mobility, February 2020  

Published by the International Parking & Mobility Institute, parking-mobility.org