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华盛顿运河公园

Washington Canal Park 迈克尔·米勒,斯奇普·格拉夫曼,卡尔-瑞纳尔·布鲁曼索 / Michael Miller, Skip Graffam, Karl-Rainer Blumenthal

景观绩效

收稿时间 Received Date: 2015-08-10 中图分类号 / TU986.2 文献标识码 / B

在最近几年,景观绩效作为一种对经由 设计的场所的价值进行理解、证明和衡量的 框架,已变得日益普及①。与可持续性一同逐 渐成为人们关注的热点话题。景观绩效涵盖 了三个独立但又相互关联的类别,即大家所 熟知的环境、经济和社会效益这三大领域。 就运河公园—一个位于华盛顿特区的 发展中的新兴公共空间—这个案例而言, 委托方以及社区希望该项目能够在环境、经 济和社会这三个方面都有所裨益。该公园旨 在促进和组织当地发展、减少雨水径流、降 低能源使用,并为多元化和不断变化的人群 提供一个共享场所。虽然这些目标在该项目 的招标书中及整个设计过程中都被重点强 调,但当时却缺乏正规的评级制度。

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运河公园南区内拥有灵活 的设施和高密度的活动安 排,使用者也较为多样 化,这使得南区成为了一 个成功的公共空间。 the south block of canal Park illustrates the physical flexibility, programmatic density, and user diversity that make it a successful public place.

不久后,随着2009年“可持续场地倡

例如,景观设计学基金会开 展的“景观绩效系列”项目 (landscapeperformance. org)以及《纽约市高绩效 景观导则》(http://www. nycgovparks.org/greening/ sustainable-parks/ landscape-guidelines)。

议”(SITES)这一景观绩效评级系统— 此系统参照了已在建筑评级领域成功应用 的L E E D框架—的问世,这种情况发生了 转变。运河公园成为首批S I T E S试点项目 © OLiN / Sahar coston-Hardy

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之一,并最终取得了三星的评级(最高四 星)。但诸如SITES和LEED这样的评级系 统必须,也不可避免地对项目的预计绩效进

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摘要 使用后评价(POE)作为一种对项目随时间变化的绩效 进行评估的方式,是对诸如可持续场地倡议(SITES)等评 级系统的补充。OLIN景观设计事务所对位于华盛顿的运河公 园这座SITES认证公园进行了为期一年的POE研究,通过运 用综合研究方法,记录了大量的社会绩效指标及设计意图所涉 及的具体问题。 关键词 使用后评价;景观绩效;城市公园 Abstract Post Occupancy Evaluation (POE) complements the predictive approach of rating systems like the Sustainable Sites Initiative (SITES) by evaluating performance over time. OLIN’s yearlong POE of SITES-certified Canal Park in Washington, DC documents broad metrics of social performance and specific questions of design intent using a mixed-methods approach. Key words Post-Occupancy Evaluation; Landscape Performance; Urban Park 译 孙一鹤 田乐 Translated by Robin SUN Tina TIAN


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国家大草地

美国国会大厦 国会山

运河公园位于华盛顿特 区东南部,介于阿纳 科斯蒂亚河与国会山之 间,由三个狭长的地块 组成。 canal Park occupies three long, narrow blocks in Southeast Washington, dc, between the anacostia River and capitol Hill.

② 美国人口普查局2000年 人口普查数据。第72号 人口普查区作为运河公 园周边社区的代表。收 入以2012年定值美元计。 ③ 美国人口普查局2012 年美国社区调查数据。 第72号人口普查区作为 运河公园周边社区的代 表。收入以2012年定值 美元计。 ④ 这些SITES评级指标包 括:指标6.5—交通、 可达性和道路标识;指 标6.7—心理治疗;指 标6.8—社会互动。值 得注意的是,在SITES 试点项目和现行的评级 系统(SITES v2)中, 指标的编号和要求有所 不同。

国家大草地

运河公园

华盛顿西南部

海军造船厂

华盛顿国民棒球场

十一街大桥

Location: Washington, DC, USA Area (size): 3 acres Landscape Architecture: OLIN Chief Designer: David A. Rubin Design Team: Sophie Robitaille, Shu-Fang Liu, Rebecca Popowsky, David Witte, Kathy Lynch, Josh Leaskey, Katy Martin Research Team: Michael Miller, Karl-Rainer Blumenthal, Skip Graffam Architecture: STUDIOS Architecture Sustainable Stormwater Design: Nitsch Engineering Lighting Design and Sustainable Design: Atelier Ten Maintenance and Operations: ETM Associates Public Art: David Hess Design Period: 2009 ~ 2012 Construction Period: 2010 ~ 2012 Completion Time: 2012

© OLiN, aerial imagery eSRi

阿纳科斯蒂亚河

项目地址: 美国华盛顿市 项目面积: 1.2hm2 景观设计: OLIN景观设计事务所 首席设计师: David A. Rubin 设计团队: Sophie Robitaille、Shu-Fang Liu、Rebecca Popowsky、David Witte、Kathy Lynch、Josh Leaskey、Katy Martin 研究团队: Michael Miller、Karl-Rainer Blumenthal、Skip Graffam 建筑设计: STUDIOS建筑设计事务所 可持续雨洪设计: Nitsch工程设计公司 灯光设计与可持续设计: Atelier Ten环境设计与工程顾问公司 维护与运营: ETM有限公司 公共艺术: David Hess 设计时间: 2009~2012年 施工时间: 2010~2012年 建成时间: 2012年

阿纳科斯蒂亚 波托马克河

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行评估,而非其实际绩效。根据现有的文献

言,尤为关键。

和成功的实践先例,它们制定了一份高绩效

运河公园与华盛顿东南部地区的改造

景观可能涵盖的特征和过程的清单。 这种预测方法至少需要回答这两个问

尺度规划成果和以开发商为主导的专项发展

是,招标书中列出了一份清晰明确的、包含

过渡的连续统一体。南区毗邻交通繁忙的M

景线中抬高升起,形成船舶形状,呼应了场地

措施共同作用的结果。2000年,在一项由

了方方面面内容的公园优先考虑要点的清

大街和一座地铁站,场地上有一个小酒馆、

曾作为通航运河的历史。凉亭上方为几个明亮

房地产开发与管理公司WC Smith制定的方

单。这个新的空间将不仅是一个社区公园,

一个溜冰场和一座喷泉,而且大部分地表为

的灯笼形状的照明设施,其作为一种视觉标

案中,首次对运河公园的场地进行了划定:

同时也是一个可供全市人民享用的目的地。

硬质铺装。中区拥有较多的植被,以及一系

识,旨在唤起人们对场地往昔岁月的记忆。

题:是否可行?是否在任何项目中都一样可

2000年,运河公园所处的华盛顿东南

场地由三个极为狭窄的地块组成—这里有

其将拥有一种不同于滨水空间的强烈特征,

列供儿童使用的空间和元素—并非正规的

行?回答这些问题需要对绩效进行监测。所

部社区拥有1 825名常住人口,通货膨胀调

着曾经与国会大厦连通的一条古老运河的遗

游人将在此获得多种体验。它将向人们提供

游乐场。北区主要包括一个大型的多功能草

评价过程

幸的是,SITES将这种跟踪式的绩效监测纳

整后的家庭收入中位数为1.1万美元 。截至

迹。运河公园旨在将从国会山到河滨地带的

溜冰场、餐厅、喷泉、公共艺术和儿童游乐

坪。这三个区域被紧紧连系在一起不仅是因

入了评价系统当中。为了取得SITES认证,

运河公园2012年开园时,社区人口已增长了

链状开放空间串联起来,并为新兴及现有的

空间等设施的同时,展示环境可持续性的

为它们具有相同的材料和设施,而且还因为

任何研究都是从提出问题开始,P O E

OLIN景观设计事务所决定对运河公园进行为

54%,达到2 817人,而且家庭收入也有了

开发区提供服务设施。

魅力。

这种线性元素所形成的链状空间能够唤起人

也不例外。因为我们的目标通常是对某一场

期一年的使用后评价研究。这种评价并不涉

显著增长,达到了8.9万美元 。此外,当地

2008年,运河公园招标书发布,这期

运河公园试图通过一个灵活的、最少程

们对那条同名运河的回忆。这一链状空间始

地的综合表现进行评估,而非对于单一的假

及项目的经济和环境绩效— 虽然这二者是

社区已引入了联邦政府办公楼、酒店、华盛

间经历了一个漫长的过程:进行了两次总体

度设计的方案来整合上述目标。为了实现使

于北区的一个雨水花园—该花园也是遍布

设进行结论性的检验,因此POE往往会提出

S I T E S认证中必不可少的考量方面— 而

顿国民棒球队球场,以及众多购物、餐饮设

规划、发起了一次设计竞赛,并针对利益相

公园拥有各式各样体验和活动项目的愿景,

整个公园的雨水管理系统的一部分。在中

大量问题。在运河公园这个项目中,我们从

是侧重于社会绩效,这一点对该项目能否

施。这种转变并非偶然,而是包括“阿纳科

关者关心的问题和设计竞赛优胜方案开展了

每个地块都被赋予一个鲜明的特征,从而形

区,雨水花园变为了一个细格网喷泉。到了

105个评价问题入手。虽然我们决定把研究

成功地服务并扎根于这个不断变化的社区而

斯蒂亚海滨框架计划(2003年)”在内的大

广泛的公共参与活动。这些公共参与的成果

成一个从活泼的城市空间向安静的绿色空间

南区,设有餐厅的凉亭和屋顶花园从这一水

重点放在社会绩效方面会缩小调查范围,但

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运河公园开发项目— 场地原为校车停车 场— 是一项更大型 的综合社区再开发计划 中的一部分,该计划带 来了当地人口的激增, 多座联邦政府办公楼也 入驻场地,其中包括与 公园隔街相望的美国交 通部总部大楼(图片 来源:aerial imagery Google earth)。 尽管公园的三个地块由 共同元素紧紧地联系在 了一起,但它们还是各 具特色。南区的铺装程 度最高,人工特色最为 明显,活动项目也最为 密集。中区以儿童设施 为特色。北区包括一个 大型的多功能草坪,以 及长势最茂密的雨水花 园植被。

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4.

K大街

第二大道

Before and after aerial. development of canal Park — formerly a school bus parking lot — was part of a larger mixeduse neighborhood redevelopment that resulted in a significant growth in residential population and the attraction of several federal office buildings, including the headquarters of the US department of transportation across the street from the park ( source: aerial imagery Google earth). Site plan. although tied together by common elements, the three blocks of canal Park were designed to have unique characters. the south block is the most paved, the most urban, and the most intensely programmed. the middle block features attractions for children. the north block includes a large, flexible lawn and the lushest, densest rain garden planting.

L大街

© OLiN / Sahar coston-Hardy / Karl-Rainer Blumenthal / Joey Hays

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N 0 5 10 20m 3

社会绩效和社会可持续性的内涵广泛,且包含

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组随后将这三个来源汇总为一份问题列表。

究方法进行初步检验,研究小组创建了一个

对面问卷调查来获取使用者的感知。

具有争议性的观点—从儿童的游戏体验到

这个列表的广度和深度— 从“有多

(3)重要知情人访谈:通过与管理、维

将问题和方法相互匹配的矩阵。随后,研究

支付建筑工人的薪资都可能包含在内。为了

少人使用屋顶花园?”到“不同背景的人都

护和零售人员的访谈来为观察提供佐证,并

小组进行了为期一天的试验研究,以对该方

厘清这些混乱的问题,并将我们评价的重点

会在公园中获得主人翁感吗?”,事无巨

获得其他观点。

法进行实地检验,并在开展全面调查之前,

放在项目的目标上,研究小组所提出的问题

细—形成了一种综合研究方式。最终,研

究小组决定采用4种方法,包括定量和定性

基于以下三个来源:1)在SITES评级指标

的基础上对项目进行监测,作为规范性指标 的基准;2)原始的招标书,作为委托方和社 区诉求的表达;3)对设计团队的主要成员所 进行的采访,作为设计意图的表达。研究小

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对调查问卷和采样程序做出了一些调整。

(4)环境监测:通过对光和声音进行监

对于景观所能提供的生活方式而言,

测,以补充使用方式数据。

因素: (1)观察:主要通过延时拍摄的方式来 记录使用者行为。 (2)问卷调查:通过网络问卷调查和面

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POE设计的目标是解决每个问题时至少

时间和季节变化都是至关重要的。研究团队

采用一种方法,理想情况下最好能进行三方

对运河公园进行了为期一年的实地调研,在

评价—例如,在观察到的行为和使用者所

春、夏、秋、冬四季都进行了走访。每一季

陈述的感知之间进行三方评价。为了对该研

的走访在周末和平日均会展开,调查会从上

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7.

雨水处理策略

ROOF RUN-OFF from surrounding buildings is piped to the clean water cistern. 从周围建筑汇集而来的屋 面径流经管道运输至净水 RAIN GARDEN FILTRATION 蓄水池中。 naturally filters (bio-filters) site runoff sent from the pre-treatment cistern and directs it to the clean water cistern. 雨水花园用生物过滤的方式净化预处 理蓄水池中的场地径流,并将其导入 净水蓄水池中。

PRE-TREATMENT CISTERN stores up to 40,000 gallons of stormwater prior to bio-filtration treatment in the rain garden. 预处理蓄水池在雨水被转移到雨水花 园中的生物过滤系统之前,可以存储 多达15万升的雨水。 CLEAN WATER CISTERN ENERGY stores up to 40,000 gallon of filtered EFFICIENT PUMPS storm water for re-use. are used to move 净水蓄水池可以存储多达15万升的过 water through 滤后的雨水,以对其进行再利用。 the storm water treatment system. 节能泵用于将水从雨 水处理系统中抽走。

HYDRO-DYNAMIC SEPARATOR removes sediment from captured storm water before it enters the cisterns. 动态液压轴承分离机在 雨水汇入蓄水池之前将 其中的泥沙去除。

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the middle block features diverse seating options and plantings designed to provide color and interest throughout the year. the middle block also caters to children, with a semi-enclosed play lawn, a climbable sculpture, and an interactive fountain.

© OLiN / Sahar coston-Hardy

SITE RUN-OFF is captured, filtered and piped to a pretreatment cistern. 场地径流被收集、过滤 并经管道运输至预处理 蓄水池中。

中区拥有多样化的座椅 设施和种植设计,一 年四季色彩变幻、景致 各异。 中区也拥有诸多儿童设 施,例如半围合式的嬉 戏草坪、可攀爬的雕塑 和互动式喷泉。

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雨洪管理示意图。尽管 环境绩效并不是随后进 行的POe的研究重点, 但设计过程仍对其进行 了优先考量,并制定了 一个成熟的雨洪管理系 统— 此系统获得了 SiteS三星评级。

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场地径流

IRRIGATION needs of the park are met primarily by captured storm water. 收集到的雨水可以基本满 足公园的灌溉需求。

雨水及

过滤后

待过滤

的水

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的径流

FOUNTAIN water is supplied primarily by captured storm water. 收集到的雨水可以基本满 足喷泉水供给。

TOILET FLUSHING needs for the pavilion are met primarily by captured storm water. 收集到的雨水可以基本满足 临时场馆的厕所用水供给。

ICE RINK make-up water is supplied primarily by captured storm water. 收集到的雨水可以基本 满足用于溜冰场的制冰 用水供给。

MICRO-FILTRATION & ULTRA VIOLET (UV) TREATMENT purify storm water before it is re-used. 在雨水被重新利用之前,微型 过滤器和紫外线处理系统将对 其进行净化。

© OLiN

TREE WELLS collect and absorb street runoff. 树坑收集并吸收街道径流。

© OLiN / Sahar coston-Hardy

屋面径流

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Stormwater diagram. although environmental performance was not the focus of the subsequent POe, its prioritization in the design process resulted in a sophisticated stormwater management system and a rating of three stars by SiteS.

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午8点开始,并一直持续到夜幕降临约一小时

分析成果,已经为原105个评价问题中的99

非常简单:人们使用这个地方吗?在运河公

后。除了对常规日子进行记录外,研究小组

个提供了初步答案。其也为这座成功的、深

园这个案例中,答案是肯定的—但也存在

还对包括电影之夜、农贸集市这样的既定活

受使用者喜爱的公园描绘出了更为全面的形

一些有趣的变化。正如我们预期的那样,运

动事件进行观察。在实地调研末期,研究小

象,尽管有时候人们并非完全按照设计师的

河公园在夏季最受人们喜欢。当天气适宜户

组已经累积了约100小时的延时影像,进行

设计意图来使用这座公园。下文将根据我们

外活动时,两个喷泉会吸引众多的游人,公

了217份问卷调查(其中193人为面访),采

的初步分析,简述一些重要的调研成果。

园的活动项目安排也最为密集。无论是平日 还是周末,从黎明到黄昏公园内的游客都络

访了7位重要知情人,并从公园的10个地点 采集了20组光和声音。实地调研由两名研究

主要结论

绎不绝。公园预设的使用梯度—南区使用 度高,较为热闹;北区使用度低,较为安

人员组成的核心小组完成,他们均来自OLIN

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事务所;在夏季人流量最大的时间内,其他

公园是受欢迎的,但取决于时间与地

静—也如期实现。冬季里,溜冰场作为一

几名工作人员予以了协助。对于这些数据的

点:我们设定的社会绩效的第一个评价标准

个固定保留场地,当附近的公共空间都门可

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闲置空地进行开发的话,将大大提高公园的

评价与改进

没有按此执行。我们的初步调查结果证实了

使用度。超过三分之二的受访者可以在5分钟

设计师们的担心:有略超过一半的受访者表

之内到达公园—在北美公园规划中,这一

对于一家设计公司来说,一项P O E研

示他们认为公园存在需要改进的方面,而其

步行范围常常被用来确定公园的服务半径。

究既有实践意义,也有学术意义:这是一种

中最常见的要求是“更多的树荫”。这一对于

11%的受访者到达公园的时间为5~10分钟;

从体验角度出发的严谨的、正规化的方式。

环境舒适性的基本需求制约了公园的潜力。

剩余的12%的受访者是来自于城市的其他区

一项P O E研究的经验可以应用到未来的设

随着调研的进行,公园的管理人员也在

域。如我们所料,使用者最远到达的地方是

计中,但能够拥有对一个项目在其生命周期

观察和倾听使用者的需求。他们发现有必要

溜冰场和小酒馆,而儿童设施—尤其是园

内进行适应性设计和管理的机会或许更加难

满足遮阴需求,并且随着游人的增多,还有

区的两个喷泉—却吸引了邻近社区以外的

得—我们知道,每一个场地都不尽相同;

必要在南区设立食品车。在我们于5月和8月

游人前来使用。

在不同的背景下,同样的策略也可能产生不

进行的调研期间,他们在南区安放了可移动

友好度:鉴于公园需要服务于一个多

同的结果。目前,鲜有设计合同涉及长期监

的桌椅和伞,解决了荫蔽和因食品车的引入

元化、不断变化的社区的要求,我们想知

测和改进措施,但这样做将会得到更好的结

而带来的午餐时间座椅缺乏问题。这些桌椅

道 使 用 者 是 否 在 公 园 的 每个角落都能获得

果,对委托方和设计师皆有所裨益;与此同

后成为了公园中最受欢迎的座椅区。尽管在

宾至如归的感觉。当被直接问到这个问题

时,这种更加流动的过程也为初期建设后的

这个项目中,POE并不能成为公园改变的动

时,90%的受访者都给出了肯定回答。我们

迭代和改进工作提供了可能。这一点在景观

因,但其记录了改进的必要性和所取得的成

还更巧妙地询问受访者:你们认为公园是为

设计中尤为重要—因为设计所处的环境是

功。如果没有POE,设计师可能永远不会知

谁设计的?最常见的回答(34%)是“为大

具有时间性的、不断变化的。

道这些变化,也不能证实其担心的必要性;

家设计的”。还有一些受访者则回答得更加

改进也可以不那么正式。在这个案例中,

我们也不会积累这么多的证据,以帮助我们

具体,也相对涵盖和反映了当地的人口统计

设计团队的成员担心,在最初几年中(树木成

在某个项目中遇到类似问题时做出判断。这

特征:为“社区”、“儿童”和“家庭”、

熟之前)铺装程度较高的南区将缺少树荫。

是众多评估和调查方式中的一种,它会支持

“上班族”和“年轻人”而设计。受访使用

在设计过程中,OLIN事务所建议临时搭建一

我们的设计实践,并最终令我们为公共创建

者的实际人口统计特征与该社区高度契合,

个遮阴设施来满足这一需求,但是委托方却

更好的场所。

© OLiN / Sahar coston-Hardy

这表明运河公园对于所有居民来说都是具有 吸引力的。

8

层次结构的最高愿景则可能是使该公园成为

社交:如果运河公园的所有愿景形成了 一个从简单的使用和享受,到身份认同和社 区改变等更大的问题的层次结构,那么这个 一个新的社会关系凝结融合之地。设计负责 人大卫·鲁宾希望游客感到“这是一个充满 乐趣而又人性化的地方”,这样他们便会自 发地与陌生人交流,而且只有这样,运河公 园才有可能成为一个通过对话的机会来改变

是,我们在春季和秋季进行的调研显示,园

“美丽”、“令人放松”和“棒极了”。我

区的吸引力和活动项目安排存在不足。例

们也询问受访者他们是否认为公园存在需要

如,11月的某个寒冷的星期六,其他一些公

改进的地方,结果44%的人说不需要。

园会设有儿童足球和保持滨水区继续运转,

地方性和地域性:如预想的那样,运

8,9. 在 冬 季 , 其 主 要 设 施— 溜冰场为公园带 来了诸多人气。

世界的场所。P O E调查询问使用者是否在

8,9. in winter, the ice skating rink proved a solid programmatic anchor, bringing life to the park.

肯定的。当被问及他们如何认识新朋友时,

公园中结交新朋友— 27%的人的答案是 得到的最常见的回答是因为孩子、狗和公园 员工。这种模式具有直观意义:从这三点可

河公园主要服务于附近的社区居民,但远距

以看出,使用者有打破界限的倾向。但考虑

满意度:我们的下一个评价标准是满意

离使用者也会因为特定的活动项目而前来。

到促进公园中的社交互动有时有赖于实体策

度:人们喜欢这个公园吗?有别于对受访者

五分之一的受访者来自于紧邻公园的三栋大

略,例如长椅的设计和布局,这一发现表

进行抽象的、李克特量表式的满意度调查,

楼。这一发现突显了建成环境对公园使用情

明,某些特定的社会形态以及对其进行支持

我们要求使用者们用两三个词来形容这个公

况的重要性;如果对公园东面和西北面的4个

的规划性元素,可能更加重要。

而运河公园的喷泉区内却空空荡荡。

048

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© OLiN / Sahar coston-Hardy

罗雀的时候,也能为公园带来诸多人气。但

园。86%的的受访者给出了肯定评价,例如

9

049


① See, for example, the

Landscape Performance In recent years, landscape performance has gained increased currency as a framework

for understanding, justifying, and measuring ①

the value of designed places. Coupled as it so often is with sustainability, performance suggests three distinct though interrelated

Landscape Architecture Foundation’s Landscape Performance Series (landscapeperformance. org) and the City of New York’s High Performance Landscape Guidelines (http:// www. nycgovparks.org / greening / sustainableparks / landscapeguidelines).

10.

11.

10.

categories: the familiar three-legged stool of environmental, economic, and social 11.

benefits. In the case of Canal Park, a new public space in a rapidly growing neighborhood of Washington, DC, the client and the community had ambitions for all three. The

“飘带”座椅是一个深 受游人喜欢的休憩、游 乐场所,游人在这里可 以观看到喷泉、溜冰场 和车水马龙的M大街上 的景致。 公园中的喷泉深受孩子 们的喜爱;家长会带孩 子穿越市区赶来玩耍。 the "ribbon" bench provides a view of the jet fountain, the skating rink, and busy M Street. it is popular for sitting, lounging, and play. the park's fountains were a particular draw for children; parents traveled from throughout the metropolitan area for them.

park was meant to catalyze and organize development, to minimize stormwater runoff and energy use, and to provide common ground for a diverse and changing population. Although these ambitions were articulated in the project’s Request for Proposals (RFP) and throughout the design process, no formal rating system existed at the outset. This soon changed, with the 2009 advent of the Sustainable Sites Initiative (SITES), a performance rating system for landscapes modeled on the successful LEED framework

050

© OLiN / Sahar coston-Hardy

© OLiN / Karl-Rainer Blumenthal

for buildings. Canal Park became one of

10

11

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051


© OLiN / Karl-Rainer Blumenthal

13.

12

12.

13.

通 过在临近建筑物的屋 顶上架设一个相机, 研究 小组收集了全部10 天内的POe延时摄影 图像。 季节性每小时延时样本 示意图。这些每小时延 时摄影快照叠加图反映 了公园的使用情况,每 一个点都代表一位使用 者。春季、秋季以及冬 季的地图中显示了与 预期相吻合的使用梯 度,从最热闹的南区 到最安静的北区。北 区夏季中游人较为密集 的区域为“电影之夜” 的举办地(夏季每周一 次)。在冬季地图中可 以明显看出溜冰场在冬 季使用中的重要性。在 秋季调研时,该溜冰场 还尚未投入运营,使用 人数也最少。 Using a camera mounted on the roof of an adjacent building, the research team collected time lapse imagery for all ten days of the post-occupancy field research. time lapse hourly samples by season. these maps represent composites of hourly snapshots from the time lapse imagery; each dot represents one user. the spring, fall, and winter maps show the intended gradient of use, from busiest in the south block to quietest in the north. the dense patch of use in the north block in summer reflects the high attendance for movie night, a weekly program in summer. the winter map illustrates the importance of the ice skating rink for winter use. the rink was not yet in operation for the fall study, which had the lightest use.

14.

大部分受访的公园使用 者来自于附近社区: 78%的使用者可以在10 分钟以内达到公园, 20%的使用者来自于紧 邻公园的三栋大楼。不 同的活动项目会吸引不 同距离远近的使用者。 最少出行者是那些遛狗 者以及会在办公休息时 段放松一下的日间工作 者;最多出行者是溜冰 场使用者和用餐人士。

14.

the majority of park users surveyed came from the surrounding neighborhood: 78 percent traveled ten minutes or less, and 20% came from just three buildings in blocks immediately adjacent to the park. distance traveled varied substantially with program. dog walkers and daytime workers on their office break traveled the least; ice skaters and restaurant goers traveled the most.

西北方

东北方

国会山

阿灵顿 西南方

阿纳科斯蒂亚

1英里

3英里 © OLiN, aerial imagery eSRi

12.

5英里 亚历山大

14

② US Census Bureau, Census 2000. Census Tract 72 used as a proxy for the neighborhood surrounding Canal Park. Income in 2012 constant dollars. ③ US Census Bureau, American Community Survey 2012. Census Tract 72 used as a proxy for the neighborhood surrounding Canal Park. Income in 2012 constant dollars.

the first SITES pilot projects, and ultimately

evaluation of Canal Park. This evaluation

and the income had increased far more

achieved a rating of three out of four stars.

did not address economic or environmental

dramatically, to 89,000 USD③. In addition,

But rating systems like SITES and LEED

performance, although both were essential

the neighborhood had attracted federal

must, by necessity, measure predicted rather

to SITES certification, but rather focused on

office buildings, a hotel, the stadium for the

than actual performance. Based on existing

elements of social performance, which were

Washington Nationals Baseball team, and

literature and best practices, they offer a

particularly critical to its success in serving

a broad array of shopping and dining. This

checklist of features and processes likely to

and anchoring a changing neighborhood.

transformation was deliberate, orchestrated

produce a high performance landscape. This predictive approach begs at least two questions: does it work, and does it work

through both large-scale planning efforts

Canal Park and the Transformation of Southeast DC

the same way for every project? Answering

© OLiN

these questions requires performance

Spring 春

Summer 夏

052

Autumn 秋

Winter 冬

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13

景观设计学 / 主题实践

like the Anacostia Waterfront Framework Plan (2003) and specific, developer-led initiatives. A 2000 plan by the property

In 2000, the Southeast DC neighborhood

development and management company WC

monitoring. Fortunately, SITES rewards

surrounding Canal Park had a residential

Smith was the first to identify the site for

this kind of follow up with a performance

population of 1,825 and an inflation-adjusted

Canal Park: three unusually narrow blocks,

monitoring credit built into the system. While

median household income of 11,000 USD .

the remnant of a historic canal that once

pursuing SITES certification, OLIN decided

By the time Canal Park opened in 2012, the

connected to the center of the Capitol. Canal

to conduct a year-long post-occupancy

population had grown by 54 percent, to 2,817,

Park was to link a chain of open spaces

Landscape Architecture Frontiers / Thematic practices

053


leading from Capitol Hill to the riverfront and provide an amenity for new and existing

Q: DO YOU FEEL WELCOME IN ALL PARTS OF THE PARK? 问题:您在公园的每个角落都能获得宾至如归的感觉吗?

qualitative elements:

Q: WHO DO YOU THINK THE PARK WAS DESIGNED FOR? 问题:您认为运河公园是为谁设计的?

(1) Observation, primarily using time-

development.

lapse photography, to capture behavior. (2) A questionnaire survey, conducted

无回

The RFP issued for Canal Park in 2008

答/不

was the result of a long process that included an extensive public engagement process

(3) Key informant interviews with management, maintenance, and retail staff

不是

stemming from stakeholder concerns with

online and in person, to reflect perception.

确定

不知道

two master plans, a design competition, and

to corroborate observations and provide

有人

the competition-winning design. As a result,

additional perspectives.

the RFP contained a clear and extensive list

(4) Environmental monitoring of light and

of priorities for the park. This new space

sound, to supplement use pattern data.

would be a neighborhood park, but also a

The goal of the POE design was to

上班族

destination drawing people from across

区 和社

address each of the questions with at least

办公

the city. It would possess a strong identity,

one method, and ideally more to allow

separate from the waterfront, but offer

for triangulation between, for example, 附

varied experiences within. It would showcase

observable behavior and stated perceptions.

As a preliminary check to the methodology,

environmental sustainability while providing

the research team created a matrix matching

Canal Park unifies these ambitions

15-1

within a flexible, minimal design. In

questions and methods. The team then

© OLiN

© OLiN

public art, and play spaces for children.

儿童/家

an ice-skating rink, a restaurant, fountains,

conducted a one-day pilot study to field-test

15-2

the methodology, making a few adjustments

response to the desire for varied experience

to the survey questionnaire and sampling

and program, each block was designed to

procedures before continuing with the full

project a distinct identity, organized along

study.

a continuum from active and urban to quiet

elements that evoke the namesake canal.

and green. The south block, near busy

This chain begins in the north block with

M Street and a Metro station, contains a

a rain garden, part of the park’s extensive

Any research begins by identifying

tavern, an ice skating rink, a jet fountain,

stormwater management system. In the

questions, and post-occupancy evaluation

15.“友好度”与“为谁设 计”调查。运河公园的 核心社交目标是令公园 能够服务于新老社区居 民,并让他们感受到友 好氛围。

and the most paving. The middle block

middle block, the rain garden gives way to

(POE) is no different. Because the goal

15.

features more planting as well as a series

a thin scrim fountain. In the south block, a

is often a synthetic picture of one place

of spaces and elements geared towards

pavilion housing the restaurant and a green

rather than the definitive testing of a single

children — without the constraints of a

roof rise from this line of water elements,

hypothesis, post-occupancy evaluations

formal playground. A large, flexible lawn

referencing the barges that once plied the

tend to ask many questions rather than

dominates the north. The three blocks are

canal. This pavilion is topped by one of

few. In the case of Canal Park, we began

tied together not only by common materials

several illuminated “lanterns” intended as

and furnishings, but also by a chain of linear

visual icons that evoke the site’s past.

054

The Evaluation Process

Welcome and designed-For charts. a central social ambition for canal Park was that it would welcome and serve both old and new neighborhood residents.

④ These were: Credit 6.5 — Circulation, Accessibility, and Wayfinding, Credit 6.7 — Mental Restoration, and Credit 6.8 — Social Interaction. Note that the credit numbering and requirements have changed between the SITES pilot and the current version of the rating system, SITES v2.

Knowing that temporal and seasonal

the inquiry, social performance and social

community’s aspirations; and interviews with

sustainability encompass broad and often

the primary members of the design team, as

variation is essential to the life of any

contested sets of ideas: anything from a

an expression of design intent. The research

landscape, field research was conducted

child’s play experience to the wages paid

team then synthesized these three sources

over the course of a year, with visits in

construction workers may be included. To

into a common list of questions.

spring, summer, fall, and winter. During

navigate this welter of concerns and focus

The length and breadth of this list —

each seasonal visit, research was conducted

our evaluation on the goals of the project,

everything from “how many people use

on both weekends and weekdays, from

the research team drew questions from

the green roof?” to “do people of diverse

8:00am until approximately an hour after

three sources: the SITES credits④ we were

backgrounds feel ownership of the park?”

nightfall. In addition to capturing ordinary

charged with monitoring, as a benchmark

— suggested a mixed-methods approach.

days, the research team observed scheduled

with 105. Although the decision to focus on

of normative metrics; the original RFP,

Ultimately, the research team settled on

events and programming, including a

elements of social performance narrowed

as an expression of the client’s and the

four methods, including quantitative and

movie night and a farmer’s market. At the

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055


end of the field research, the team had

popular in summer, when the weather

they would change anything about the park;

gathered approximately 100 hours of time

invites outdoor use, the two fountains are a

forty-four percent said they would not.

lapse footage, 217 questionnaires (193 of

strong draw, and the park’s programming

them conducted in person), 7 key informant

calendar is busiest. The park was well

Canal Park primarily serves the immediate

interviews, and 20 sample sets of light

attended on both weekdays and weekends,

neighborhood but attracts far-flung users

and sound, gathered from 10 locations in

and use continued from dawn to dusk. The

with destination programming. One-fifth

the park. Field research was carried out

park’s intended gradient of use — busier

of surveyed users came to the park from

by a core team of two researchers, staffed

to the south, quieter to the north — was

just three buildings in the immediately

from OLIN’s office, with an additional staff

also achieved. In winter, the ice skating

adjacent blocks. This finding underscores

member on the busiest summer days.

rink proved a solid programmatic anchor,

the importance of built context to a park’s

Analysis of this data has yielded at least

bringing life to the park when nearby public

use, and suggests that development of the

tentative answers to 99 of the original 105

spaces were empty. Our spring and fall

four vacant blocks to the east and northwest

evaluation questions. It has also provided a

studies, however, revealed gaps in the park’s

of the park could dramatically increase

more holistic portrait of a successful, much

appeal and programming calendar. On a

use. More than two-thirds of respondents

loved park, although one not always used

chilly Saturday in November, other parks

traveled five minutes or less to the park,

exactly as its designers intended. What

provided space for children’s soccer and

half of the ten-minute travel time commonly

follows is a brief summary of key findings,

waterfront running, while Canal Park’s jet

used to determine a service area in North

drawn from our preliminary analysis.

fountains played to an empty theater.

American parks planning. Another eleven

16.

人口统计特征契合度。 公园使用者的人口统 计特征与当地社区的人 口统计特征总体上来说 高度契合。引起一些变 化的原因可能是受活 动项目所吸引而前来 当地的日间员工和游客 人口(社区人口统计特 征来源:美国人口普查 局)。

16.

demographic fit charts. the demographics of park users reflect neighborhood demographics closely, if imperfectly. Some of the variation may be attributable to the area's daytime population of workers and the visitors drawn by destination programs (source for neighborhood demographics: U.S. census Bureau).

Local and Regional: As intended,

Welcoming: Given the park’s ambition of

intuitive sense: all three create situations

matured, the heavily paved south block

serving a diverse, changing neighborhood,

that tend to break down boundaries. But

would suffer from a lack of shade. During

we wanted to know if users felt welcome

given that discussions of fostering social

the design process, OLIN suggested a

in all parts of the park. When asked this

interaction in parks sometimes fix on

temporary shade structure to address this

question directly, 90 percent of users

physical strategies, such as the design

need, but the client chose not to implement

said yes. We also asked, more subtly,

and configuration of benches, this finding

it. Our initial survey findings supported

who respondents thought the park was

suggests that certain social configurations,

the designers’ concern: among the slightly

percent traveled between five and ten

designed for. The most common response

and the programmatic elements that

more than half of respondents who said

satisfaction: do people enjoy the park?

minutes, and the remaining twelve percent of

(34 percent) was “everybody.” The bulk

support them, may be more crucial.

they would change something about the

Rather than ask respondents to deliver an

users came from throughout the metro area.

of the remaining responses were more

abstract, Likert-scale rating of satisfaction,

As intended, users traveled the furthest

specific, but still relatively inclusive and

criterion for social performance was simple:

we asked them to describe the park in two or

for the ice skating rink and the tavern, but

reflective of the area’s demographics: the

do people use the place? At Canal Park,

three words. Eighty-six percent used positive

features aimed at children — especially the

“neighborhood,” “children” and “families,”

the answer is yes — with some interesting

terms like “beautiful,” “relaxing,” and

park’s two fountain — also drew visitors

“office workers,” and “young adults.” The

practical as academic: a rigorous,

park were also watching and listening.

variations. Unsurprisingly, the park is most

“awesome.” We also asked respondents if

from beyond the immediate neighborhood.

actual demographics of surveyed park

formalized way to learn from experience.

They noted the need for shade, as well as

users closely fit the neighborhood profile,

Lessons from a POE may be applied to

the growing popularity of food trucks in the

suggesting that the park is attracting the full

future designs, but the opportunity for

south block. Between our May and August

spectrum of residents.

adaptive design and management within

study periods, they deployed movable tables,

the lifespan of a project is perhaps even

chairs, and umbrellas in the south block,

hierarchy from simple use and enjoyment to

more compelling and valid — we know

addressing both the need for shade and the

larger questions of identity and neighborhood

that every site is different, and the same

increased demand for lunchtime seating

change, the top of this hierarchy might

strategy may produce different results

caused by the food trucks. These tables

be the ambition that the park becomes a

in different contexts. Currently, very few

and chairs proved to be some of the most

place where new social connections are

design contracts are structured to provide

popular seating in the park. Although in this

forged. Design lead David Rubin hoped

for a prolonged interval of monitoring and

case the POE was not the spur to change,

that visitors would feel “so much joy with

adaptation, but doing so could benefit both

it documented both the necessity and the

the humanity of the site” that they would

the client and designer through better

success of the adaptation. Without it, the

spontaneously engage with strangers, and

results and a more fluid process that

designers may never have learned of the

that the park might in fact become the site

allows for iteration and evolution after

change or confirmed their suspicion of its

of a chance conversation that changes the

initial construction. This is particularly

necessity. Nor would we have accumulated

world. The POE survey asked users if they

true in landscape architecture, given the

the evidence to support our judgment the

had made a new acquaintance in the park

temporal, mutable nature of our medium.

next time similar questions arise on a

Satisfying: Our next criterion was

Key Findings Popular, but not uniformly so: Our first

Social: If Canal Park’s aspirations form a

Q: WHAT IS YOUR ANNUAL HOUSEHOLD INCOME? 问题:您的年收入是多少?

Q: HOW OLD ARE YOU? 问题:您多大年纪?

社区居民

— and 27 percent said yes. When asked

运河公园游客

years old 年龄

USD in Thousands 千美元

056

Volume 3 / Issue 4 / AUGUST 2015

运河公园游客

© OLiN

社区居民

16

景观设计学 / 主题实践

park, the most common request was “more

Evaluation and Adaptation

shade.” The basic need for environmental comfort was limiting the park’s potential.

For a design firm, a POE is as much

Adaptation can also happen less

As it happened, the managers of the

project. This is one of the many ways that

how they had met new people, the most

formally. In the case of Canal Park,

evaluation and inquiry can support our

common responses involved children, dogs,

members of the design team worried

design practice and, ultimately, offer better

and park employees. This pattern makes

that in the early years, before the trees

places to the public we serve.

Landscape Architecture Frontiers / Thematic practices

057

Washington Canal Park - Landscape Architecture Frontiers  
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