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Universitas 21 is an international network of twenty-four leading research-intensive universities in sixteen countries. Collectively, its members enroll over 830,000 students, employ over 145,000 staff, and have nearly 2.5 million alumni.  The network’s purpose is to facilitate collaboration and cooperation between the member universities and to create opportunities for them on a scale that none would be able to achieve operating independently or through traditional bilateral alliances. Each year, a member institution hosts the Universitas 21 Undergraduate Research Conference. Waseda University in Tokyo, Japan, hosted the eighth annual conference, organized with the theme of “Connecting the Future,” from July 1st to 6th, 2012. The University of Virginia’s student-run research journal, The Oculus, has the privilege of publishing research papers presented at the annual U21 undergraduate research conference. For more information regarding Universitas 21, visit www.universitas21.com. The Oculus Co-Editors-in-Chief: Michelle Choi and Janet Shin Layout Editor: David Wu Cover Designer: Steve Kim University of Virginia Charlottesville, Virginia United States of America


U

ni ndergr v eraduate sita s 21 Research Conference: Tokyo U Table of Contents

(1)

Understanding Couple Dynamics in Cancer Survivorship: A Pilot Study Courtney Marie Beyes, University of Connecticut

(4)

Ephemeral Culture in the Age of Digital Reproduction: Exploring the Need for a Legal Reconstruction of Artistic Identity Eli J. Boulton, University of Auckland

(9)

Jeju Language Preservation from the Viewpoint of Ecoanarchistic Linguistics Seongha Cho, Korea University

(13)

The Future of Space Exploration: Mankind’s Necessity to Venture beyond the Solar System Benjamin Giblin, University of Birmingham

(19)

EU Diplomacy in South Korea and Japan Min Woo Hong, Waseda University

(26)

Improving Walking Symmetry in People With Stroke: A Pilot Study Alvin Ip, Zhen Chen, Tania Lam, University of British Columbia

(32)

Won’t Somebody Please Think of the Children? Arun Jain, University of Auckland

(37)

The 1965 Treaty on Basic Relations Between Japan and Korea and the Different Perspectives on Treaty Interpretation of Each Country Kyung Lee, Waseda University


(42)

The Effect of Ethanol Additives on Improving the Stability of Bio-oil Ran Ling, Shanghai Jiao Tong University

(47)

Nuclear Strategy of North Korea: Approach by International Relations Theory Koshiro Nagai, Waseda University

(53)

The Luminous Efficiency of LED and its Application Qinkai Song, Fudan University

(57)

Corruption and Imports: Is China Different? Elina Svensson, Lund University

(62)

The Nuclear Energy in Japan: The Historical Analysis of its Installment Nanoko Ueda, Waseda University


U21 Undergraduate Research Conference: Tokyo 2012 List of Participants University Of Auckland Eli James Boulton* Arun Jain*

Qiliang Liu University of Birmingham Benjamin Martin Giblin*,5 Elizabeth Hannah Mann3

Lund University Julia Kristina Arvidson Rebecka Fingalsson Elina Josefina Mia Svensson* McGill University Ross Clarke Kettleson Casey Mcdermott Steven John Payette

University of British Columbia Alvin Ip* Benjamin Patrick Macleod Robert Ryan Trenholm2

University of Melbourne Katherine Louise Hauser Scott Stephen Limbrick

University of Connecticut Courtney Marie Beyers* John Peters Ethan Anders Sarnoski

University of New South Wales Damian Lee Ying Jun (Lydia) Luo Xu (Kate) Xu

University College Dublin Darragh Patrick Hall Eimear Aideen Nolan4 Ariane Watson

University of Nottingham Chun Chen Zheyang Xuan Jing Zu

University of Edinburgh Rachael Jane Boyd Felicia Cucuta Rory James Piper

University of Queensland Rachel Emily Colbran Abbey Mawby Eugene Jian Liang Quek

Fudan University Qinkai Song* Xinzhu Wei Yue Wu

Shanghai Jiao Tong University Ran Ling* Chun Wu Shiyue Zheng

University of Glasgow Pawel Krzysztof Drewniak Faith Tayamika Hodgins

National University of Singapore Vu Huy Quang Bui Michelle Virgiany1 Liang En Ian Wee

University of Hong Kong Cheuk Wing Chow Shui Ying Kwong Siu Chu Lee Korea University Seongha Cho* Hyunsoo Kim Juho Ma

Waseda University Min Woo Hong* Kaho Ito Kyung Lee* Te Kuan Lin Koshiro Nagai* Hiroshi Sugino Nanoko Ueda* Sangmin Yu

Best Oral Presenter, 2first runner-up, and 3second runner-up  Best Poster Presenter and 5first runner-up 6 Student Volunteer Group Special Awards *Author’s publication featured in this journal 1 4


The Oculus: Proceedings of the U21 Undergraduate Research Conference

Understanding Couple Dynamics in Cancer Survivorship: A Pilot Study Courtney Marie Beyers University of Connecticut

Abstract

Previous research literature reveals that many cancer survivors report negative, and often positive, shortand long-term impacts of their disease and also, in some cases, partners of cancer survivors may report equal or even greater impact on themselves. To be specific, impacts may include sexual changes, psychological and identity changes, resilience and psychological growth, psychological distress, health effects, health behaviors, marital satisfaction, and quality of life. The primary goal of this pilot study it to first examine how those who are diagnosed with and treated for cancer, as well as their partners, deal individually and as a couple with the experience and related impacts. The secondary goal of this pilot study is the demonstration of feasibility for test instruments employed, in preparation for the development of a more extensive research program. Both positive and negative impacts will be considered. This pilot study includes both quantitative and qualitative research (mixed) methods. To generate quantitative data, 100 couples completed a questionnaire with a series of scales and several open-ended questions. Questionnaires considered both the participant’s own point of view and the point of view of their partner. Therefore, the perceptions participants have of partners’ point of view are addressed. Ten couples were also interviewed to provide complementary qualitative information. I personally focused on the analysis of qualitative data and coding for major themes through my research practica in the Department of Human Development and Family Studies. This work represents my contribution to the larger interdisciplinary and collaborative teamwork of the University of Connecticut Cancer Survivorship Research Program. This research will make a significant contribution to knowledge of cancer’s effects on survivors and their partners, and provide pilot data necessary to inform future, and more extensive, longitudinal research.

Introduction

T

he purpose of this research study is to understand how cancer survivors, at a range of times from their diagnosis, feel that they have been impacted by their cancer experience. This may be in either negative or positive ways, and we want to understand both. Also, some research shows that often partners are as affected, again in both positive and negative ways, as the survivors (Hagedoorn et al, 2008; Manne & Bayr, 2008). To our knowledge, the degree to which each partner understands the impact on the other has not yet been considered. At this initial stage there is no precise hypothesis testing, but rather, the research questions can be framed as the following: do survivors and partners of survivors report equally large levels of impact?; do survivors and partners report more positive or more negative impacts?; how well can survivors and their partners perceive/predict the amount of impact on the other person?; does the “quality” of perception of the other’s impact affect marital quality and wellbeing?; do couples who have symmetry on impact (both high or low) report different impacts or have differential well-being? A cancer diagnosis can be life-changing, both for an individual as well as for his or her partner. Along with the physical changes that can occur such an event, emotional and cognitive shifts are also present. Cancer diagnosis, treatment, and survivorship all have the potential to affect the

relationship, as well as individual distress levels. For example, several researchers refer to prostate cancer as a “relationship disease,” due to its significant impact on the patient’s partner (Banthia, Malcarne, Varni, Ko, Sadler, & Greenbergs, 2003). Recent reviews (Hagedoorn et al, 2008; Kim & Given, 2008; Manne & Bayr, 2008) have revealed how couples deal with cancer and its impact. For example, caregivers for a spouse with cancer often experience negative psychological effects and distress to equal or higher degree than the patient (Cliff & MacDonagh, 2000; Harden, 2005; Kim & Given, 2008; Kornblith, Herr, Ofman, Scher, & Holland, 1994; Northouse, Mood, Templin, Mellon, & George, 2000; Peleg-Oren & Sherer, 2001; Pitceathly & Maguire, 2003). At the same time, one’s spouse can serve as the main source of support during this experience in several types of cancer (Davison, Goldenberg, Gleave, & Degner, 2003; Ell, Nishimoto, Mantell, & Harnovitch, 1988). Distinct gender differences regarding the perceptions of male cancer survivors and female caretakers have been reported by existing studies. Marital satisfaction and the amount of support perceived can often be viewed in a different manner by husbands and wives (Baider & Bengel, 2001). Previous research suggests that women who care for a male partner with cancer experience higher levels of psychological distress than their husbands (Hagedoorn, Buunk, Kuijer, Wobbes, & Sanderman, 2000; Hagedoorn, Sanderman, Ranchor,

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2 Brilman, Kempen, & Ormel, 2001; Harden, 2005; Hodges, Humphris, & Macfarlane, 2005), while men themselves appear to experience significantly less psychological distress than their wives perceive them to have. Thus, research indicates: significant effects on both the cancer patient/survivor and his or her partner; at least sometimes the partner reports experiencing more impact from the experience than the survivor; gender differences in both marital satisfaction and impact of cancer. However, almost no studies have looked directly at the relationships of impact on both partners and their perceptions of impact on the other. Also, almost all studies have focused on distress, with no attention to positive outcomes.

Research Questions and Plan

This pilot research asks each individual to provide his or her perceptions of the degree of impact on the partner. In this way, qualitative information generated will provide a broader picture of impacts on oneself and partner. We can then examine degree of accuracy in predicting/perceiving the impact on the other person and categorize couples by the degree of accuracy or concordance (survivor is accurate in view of partner and partner is accurate in view of survivor; one is accurate and one is not; neither are accurate) and see whether that then predicts different well-being outcomes. We can also categorize couples into those in which both report high impact (symmetrical high), neither experiences or reports high impact (symmetrical low), or one does and one does not (asymmetrical) and can analyze whether that kind of agreement is important for either marital satisfaction or well-being outcomes.

Methodology

Participants included cancer support group members and individuals in the University of Connecticut community, utilizing the university listserv. Because of the emphasis on adult cancers and on partnered relationships, all participants will be adults; age is expected to vary considerably, but since most cancers are diagnosed in middle-age to later life, the sample will be skewed toward older persons. Time since cancer, type of cancer, and treatment will not be restricted, in order to obtain fullest preliminary descriptive picture. Length of relationship will also not be restricted; most will be in relatively long-term relationships. Every attempt will be made to include diversity of types of partnered relationships, although it is most likely that most of the participants will be in marital relationships.

Measures and Analyses: Interviews

Semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten couples. The interviews focused on the individual perceptions of the effect of cancer

self. In other words, cancer survivors were asked about impact on them as individuals and on their relationships, including to their partners. In the same manner, partners were asked about the impact of their partner’s cancer on them and their relationships to the survivors. Interview topics ranged from diagnosis and decision-making to current situation and projection to the future. Both the impact of the cancer itself and of long-term treatment effects were included, such as sexual function and body image. This interview protocol is patterned after interviews with prostate cancer survivors conducted by the PI previously and standard approaches to interviewing (e.g., Merton, Fiske, & Kendall, 1990). Data analysis will follow approaches detailed in Crabtree and Miller (1992), Le Compte, Millroy, and Preissle (2001), and Strauss and Corbin (1990). It will proceed in an iterative fashion. At least four iterations will be followed, the first two within an interview transcript or pair of transcripts and the subsequent two steps examining themes across interviews/couples. The initial examination of data will develop a broad picture of the impact on each interviewee and across partners in the couple. The second step of looking for patterns within interviews or couples involves a more inductive approach to content analysis, often referred to as grounded theory. The third stage is to look for themes and patterns across individuals/ couples. The final stage will be to develop the themes into subthemes across the entire sample. These analyses will be facilitated by use of AtlasTi qualitative analysis software package.

Significance

This research, even at this preliminary stage, is significant at two distinct levels. First, as indicated in the literature review, while there is considerable interest in impact of cancer on family members and some valuable research has already been conducted, by and large the research focus has continued to be individualistic. Most existing studies have also used a restricted range of impacts, focusing almost exclusively on negative impacts (especially on “caregivers�), despite considerable parallel literature on the frequency and importance of positive impacts. Thus, this research, by explicitly including both positive and negative impacts, using multiple measures (and even limited use of qualitative measures), using analytic tools designed to explicate the couple level of analysis, and directly focusing on perceptions of impact on the other as well as on the impact each individual reports, will make a unique contribution to the research literature. Even though the sampling may be limited, this uniqueness makes it highly likely that the data from this research project will be of sufficient value for publication in major outlets related to cancer and psychosocial oncology.


The Oculus: Proceedings of the U21 Undergraduate Research Conference Second, the results will be invaluable pilot data to provide a starting point for a larger study. Family impacts are indicated as one of five focus areas by the National Cancer Institute Office of Cancer Survivorship because of the relevance of “impact of cancer on functioning and well-being of millions of family members” and “impact of social support on well-being of cancer survivors.” will adopt a broader perspective on family dynamics in adaptation to cancer, using a longitudinal design from soon after diagnosis and including multiple family members and emphasizing diversity of experiences.

References

1. Baider, L., & Bengel, J. (2001). Cancer and the spouse: Gender-related differences in dealing with health care and illness. Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology, 40, 115-123. 2. Banthia, R., Malcarne, V. L., Varni, J. W., Ko, C. M., Sadler, G. R., & Greenbergs, H. L. (2003). The effects of dyadic strength and coping styles on psychological distress in couples faced with prostate cancer. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 26, 31-52. 3. Cliff, A. M., & MacDonagh, R. P. (2000). Psychological morbidity in prostate cancer: II. A comparison of patients and partners. BJU International, 86, 834-839. 4. Davison, B. J., Golderberg, S. L., Gleave, M. E., & Degner, L. F. (2003). Provision of individualized information to men and their partners to facilitate treatment decision making in prostate cancer. Oncology Nursing Forum, 30, 107-114. 5. Ell, K. O., Nishimoto, R. H., Mantell, J. E., & Harnovitch, M. B. (1988). Psychological adaptation to cancer: A comparison among patients, spouses, and non-spouses. Family Systems Medicine, 6, 335-348. 6. Hagedoorn, M., Buunk, B. P., Kuijer, R. G., Wobbes, T., & Sanderman, R. (2000). Couples dealing with cancer: Role and gender differences regarding psychological distress and quality of life. Psycho-Oncology, 9, 232-242. 7. Hagedoorn, M., Sanderman, R., Ranchor, A. V., Brilman, E. I., Kempen, G. I. J. M., & Ormel, J. (2001). Chronic disease in elderly couples: Are women more responsive to their spouses’ health condition than men? Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 51, 693-696. 8. Hagedoorn, M., Sanderman, R., Bolks, H.N., Tuinstra, J., & Coyne, J. (2008). Distress in couples coping with cancer: a meta-analysis and critical review of role and gender effects. Psychological Bulletin, 134, 1-30. 9. Harden, J. (2005). Developmental life stage and couples’ experiences with prostate cancer. Cancer Nursing, 28, 85-98.

10. Hodges, L. J., Humphris, G. M., & Macfarlane, G. (2005). A meta-analytic investigation of the relationship between the psychological distress of cancer patients and their carers. Social Science and Medicine, 60, 1-12. 11. Kim, Y., & Given, B. (2008). Quality of life of family caregivers of cancer survivors: across the trajectory of the illness. Cancer, 112, 2556-2568. 12. Kornblith, A. B., Herr, H. W., Ofman, U. S., Scher, H. I., & Holland, J. C. (1994). Quality of life of patients with prostate cancer and their spouses: The value of a data base in clinical care. Cancer, 73, 2791-2802. 13. LeCompte, M. D., Millroy, W. L., & Preissle, J. (2001). Handbook of qualitative research in education. New York: Academic. 14. Manne, S., & Bayr, H. (2008). Intimacy and relationship processes in couples’ psychosocial adaptation to cancer. Cancer, 112, 2541-2555. 15. Manne, S. L., Norton, T. R., Ostroff, J. S., Winkel, G., Fox, K. & Grana, G. (2007). Protective buffering and psychological distress among couples coping with breast cancer: The moderating role of relationship satisfaction. Journal of Family Psychology, 21, 380-388. 16. Merton, R., Fiske, M., & Kendall, P. (1990). The focused interview: A manual of problems and procedures (2 ed.). New York: Free Press. 17. Northouse, L. L., Mood, D., Templin, T., Mellon, S., & George, T. (2000). Couples’ patterns of adjustment to colon cancer. Social Science and Medicine, 50, 271-284. 18. Peleg-Oren, N., & Sherer, M. (2001). Cancer patients and their spouses: Gender and its effect on psychological and social adjustment. Journal of Health Psychology, 6, 329-338. 19. Pitceathly, C., & Maguire, P. (2003). The psychological impact of cancer on patients’ partners and other key relatives: A review. European Journal of Cancer, 39, 1517-1524. 20. Strauss, A., & Corbin, J. (1990). Basics of qualitative research: Grounded theory procedures and techniques. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

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Ephemeral Culture in the Age of Digital Reproduction: Exploring the Need for a Legal Reconstruction of Artistic Identity Eli J. Boulton

University of Auckland

Abstract

Copyright law is a legal framework that needs to be drastically overhauled in our modern digital age. It needs to be overhauled due to its stifling effect on artistic freedom which has intensified with the emergence of digital cultural reproduction. Combining Marxist political economy with reader-response theory, I contend that the conflict between copyright law and digital artists is but the latest conflict in a long history of struggle that inevitably occurs new technologies emerge that threaten entrenched social, legal and cultural hierarchies. The category of individual author and reader is but just another cultural hierarchy, a socially specific category endemic to a certain stage of technological development within the wider context of modern capitalism. In other social, historical and cultural contexts, authorial identity has had the tendency to be far more ephemeral and collective in nature. This can be demonstrated by the use of both history and modern-day ethnography. The difference between these two cultures lies in the differing nature of their cultural production. With the emergence of digital technologies has come new artistic spaces where ephemeral culture has flourished. Copyright legislation has not yet adjusted to this new social reality, resulting in increasingly draconian legal measures taken against artistic expression. For healthier artistic space, we need to reconceptualise our embedded ideas surrounding the notion of legal authorship.

Introduction

W

hat has been ostensibly labelled the ‘copyright wars’ in modern discourse can be a daunting issue to take a principled stand on. This is because both sides of the debate accuse the other faction of stifling creative processes. One of the biggest opponents to copyright law, Richard Stallman once delineated between two separate valuejudgements that proponents for software copyright law generally expound, an emotional argument and an economic one1. The emotional argument argues that the ‘personality of the author’ is imprinted on the program, and therefore the author should have a right over how the program is distributed. The economic argument argues that the author should be able to derive profits from the program as an incentive for their labour. These pro-copyright arguments have been applied not only to software, but also to all commodities produced by creative labour. They are also far more interlinked than one would first assume, as both of these arguments are culturally specific to the property relations and technological capacities of Western modernity.

The Social Construction of Authorship

Art was not always so individualistic. The cultural theorist Henry Jenkins refers to ‘folk cultures’ being a type of ‘cultural production’ that ‘occurred mostly on the grassroots level; creative 1  Stallman, Richard. 2002. Why Software Should Be Free. Intellectual Property: Moral, Legal and International Dilemmas, edited by Adam D. Moore. Lanham: Bowman & Littlefield, pp. 283.

skills were passed down mother to daughter, father to son’2. The multimedia artist Candice Breitz describes it as a state which occurs in the ‘absence of written culture’, where ‘stories are histories are shared communally between performers and their audiences, giving rise to version after version [as it is] inflected through the collective’3. Jenkins argues that these cultural artefacts ‘circulated broadly, well beyond their point of origin, with little or no expectation of commercial compensation’4. The reason for this lack of commercial interest rests upon the nature of their cultural mode of production, one that is far removed from our own. This productive mode is heavily ephemeral in character – being rooted in language and not being tied to any physical commodities that would fix in space and time the definitive ‘author’ of a work. In contrast, the cultural mode of production for Western capitalist modernity is heavily rooted in cultural artefacts being tied to physical commodities – such as the printed words on a physical page, or images imprinted onto a film reel. 2  Jenkins, Henry. 2006. Convergence Culture: Where Old and New Media Collide. New York: New York University Press, p. 135. 3  Lessig, Lawrence. 2008. Remix: Making Art and Commerce Thrive in the Hybrid Economy. New York: Plenum Press, p. 7-8. 4  Jenkins, Henry. 2006. Convergence Culture: Where Old and New Media Collide. New York: New York University Press, p. 135.


The Oculus: Proceedings of the U21 Undergraduate Research Conference As Lessig has argued, technology fundamentally shapes the way we relate to culture5, as both the physical and commodified characteristics of Western cultural goods promotes a far more static conception of cultural production than in orally based cultures. The first copyright statute was passed in 1710 in England in the face of the recently emerged economy of bookselling, in which individuals began to purchase books for their own private enjoyment. This meant that people could now make a living from writing books, causing the name of the author to begin appearing on book covers, which had not been the case as books were predominantly published anonymously. Copyright began as an attempt to safeguard the fruits of creative labour from the ‘cut-throat marketplace of rogue booksellers, illicit book smugglers, and foreign publishers trading in illicit, pirated editions’ - legally encoding the conception of author as producer6. This particularly conception was but the specific artistic embodiment of emerging modernist notions of ownership, as John Locke once articulated: Whatsoever then he removes out of the State that Nature hath provided, and lift it in, he hath mixed his Labour with, and joined to it something that is his own, and thereby makes it his Property7. Copyright law delineated the previously intertwined author/reader relationship into a more separate and static producer/consumer binary. This historical observation leads us to two conclusions about Richard Stallman’s notion of moral and economic arguments for copyright – that the moral argument for copyright originated from economic concerns, which leads us to the second conclusion that the static author-producer identity we know today is not at all morally universal but is rather specific to Western modernity. If one is to examine the characteristics of artistic authorship, or even just the characteristics of art in general, one finds that it does not possess any intrinsic teleological characteristics that dictate across space and time who its author is, or even if it is necessarily a work of art. This is because notions of art and authorship are extremely subjective and culturally specific. This is the general position of the reader-reception criticism, a strain of literary theory that is strongly opposed to modernist Enlightenment conceptions of authorial intention. It instead places a greater emphasis on 5  Lessig, Lawrence. 2008. Remix: Making Art and Commerce Thrive in the Hybrid Economy. New York: Plenum Press, p. 25. 6  Littau, Karen. 2006. Theories of Reading: Books, Bodies and Bibliomania.Cambridge: Polity Press, p. 18. 7  Locke, John. 1967. Two Treatises of Government. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

the reader in determining the meaning of a text8. Reader-reception criticism argues that readers are constantly drawing from their own cultural referents in the process of ‘making sense’ of the texts they engage with9, 10. With every reader comes a different interpretation of the work, as different cultural conceptions foreground different issues in the text and obscure others. Any given artwork is essentially made up of a system of signs, signs that change over time as cultural meanings evolve. These abstract literary theories can be demonstrated by ethnographic practice – particularly the seminal ethnographic Laura Bohannan’s Shakespeare in the Bush11. Bohannan wanted to demonstrate to a sceptical colleague that some stories were such ‘classics’ that they possessed culturally universal characteristics, citing Hamlet by William Shakespeare as such a work. When she communicated this story to the Tiv tribe of West Africa, she found to her dismay that this tribe did not consider Hamlet a credible story, as the tribe did not possess several cultural referents that the story rested its narrative assumptions on, such as not having any conception of what a ‘ghost’ was. Hamlet is only a great story because readers of a specific culture deemed it to be great, not because of its inherent characteristics. The reader defines what an artwork inherently means, as a work of art without a reader to interpret it as such is a contradiction in terms. Art is an intrinsically interactive phenomenon.

Copyright Law and the Cultural Deconstruction of the Author /Reader Binary

When art falls outside of various acceptable social norms, social struggles can ensue. Particularly, when art falls outside of the accepted social norm of the author-producer/reader-consumer binary, this is when the power of copyright legislation is invoked. The legal wrangling surrounding the work of Candice Breitz is one such example. Her artistic pieces could be described as unconscious explorations of reader-reception theory, as they are generally concerned with exploring the ‘other side of the equation’ in the fashioning of pop icons – the very audience which gave these icons their social significance in the first place. Her artwork features multiple plasma televisions mounted on the wall depicting fans from various life backgrounds singing 8  Littau, Karen. 2006. Theories of Reading: Books, Bodies and Bibliomania.Cambridge: Polity Press, p. 103-124. 9  Culler, Jonathan. 1975. Structuralist Poetics: Structuralism, Linguistics and the Study of Literature. New York: Routledge Classics. 10  Fish, Stanley. 1980. Is There a Text in This Class? The Authority of Interpretive Communities. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. 11  Bohannan, Laura. 1966. Shakespeare in the Bush. Natural History, 75: 28-33.

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6 entire albums by these artists from start to finish12. Unfairly or not, she has had to deal with much legal wrangling as a result of her artistic message, often having to rely on ‘authorial permission’ from the owners of the works she reappropriates. Even outside of the realm of ‘high art’ that Brietz operates in, television shows such as Beavis & Butthead13, Mystery Science Theatre 3000 14 and Charlie Brooker’s Screenwipe 15 have all faced difficulty in obtaining full DVD releases due to their engagement with the meaning of copyrighted cultural goods such as music videos, B-movies and other television shows. With the emerging popularity of online videos, many practitioners of this new form began to release their own video series that were in the spirit of these television series and have too attracted the ire of copyright claims. One of the most popular online video stars, Doug Walker a.k.a. The Nostalgia Critic16, faced this when he attempted a 25-minute review of The Room17 laden with clips from the film. The Room is a classic example of the reader shaping the meaning of the work, as the film has become popular entirely for reasons outside of its original authorial intention. It has become a massive cult success entirely due to audience reinterpretation – intended as a serious romantic drama ingrained with the ‘passion of Tennessee Williams’ by its ‘auteur’ Tommy Wiseau, the film has instead found popularity as a cult comedy due to its unintentionally humorous aspects. Due to the film’s unprecedented cult popularity, Walker reviewed the film despite the fact it was outside his usual video subject matter, as he usually only reviews ‘nostalgic’ movies of poor quality for comedic value. When he released the review, he was met with a copyright notice from Wiseau-Films18. Thinking outside of the usual modernist logic of copyright legislation, one could speculate that maybe the audience that ascribed the film’s ultimate 12  Lessig, Lawrence. 2008. Remix: Making Art and Commerce Thrive in the Hybrid Economy. New York: Plenum Press, p. 7-8. 13  Judge, Mike. [Producer]. 1993-1997. Beavis & Butthead [Television Series]. USA: MTV. 14  Mallon, Jim. [Producer]. 1988-1999. Mystery Science Theatre 3000 [Television Series]. USA: Best Brains. 15  Brooker, Charlie. [Producer]. 2006-2008. Charlie Brooker’s Screenwipe [Television Series]. UK: Zeppotron. 16  Walker, Doug. & Walker, Rob. [Writers]. 2007-2012. Nostalgia Critic, The [Online Series]. USA: Channel Awesome. <http://thatguywiththeglasses.com/ videolinks/thatguywiththeglasses/nostalgia-critic/> 17  Wiseau, Tommy [Director]. 2003. The Room [Motion Picture]. USA: Wiseau-Films. 18  Masnick, Mike. 2010, July 22. Pissing Off A Movie Critic By Claiming Copyright Over A Video Review… Probably Not Smart. Retrieved July 24, 2012: <http://www. techdirt.com/articles/20100721/15284610310.shtml>

comedic meaning are the true ‘owners’ of the work, not Wiseau-Films, and therefore they have a greater right in how the film should be reappropriated. This is not a position that copyright advocates would endorse. Copyright is founded on the same aesthetic assumptions that reader-reception theory has criticised, and is in fact one of the central social instigators for these assumptions being so pervasive in Western culture. The advent of even harsher copyright law has turned artists such as Breitz and Walker into what Lessig refers to as ‘collateral damage’19, as it has placed arbitrary institutional limits on cultural processes that reappropriate artistic meanings. Many artists have now ceased to view copyright law as a guardian of cultural processes as it once debatably was, but rather as a ‘hegemony of financial interest that presents an insurmountable hindrance to the freedom of creation’20. The reasons for this shift in perception is because the authorial notions that copyright law helped bring about have become increasingly irrelevant with the emergence of digital technology. As we have seen, notions of individual authorship emanate from the cultural mode of production of Western modernity, and as Karl Marx & Friedrich Engels once argued, production technologies sustain the social relations of human societies21, such as industrial technology allowing for the possibility of a wage-labouring class, or the author/reader relation and its producer/consumer mirror-image. However contradictions periodically form when new technologies emerge that threaten the existing social order and this is precisely what is happening with the modern-day ‘copyright wars’. Boyle even goes as far to argue that imposing copyright legislation (in its current form) on digital reproduction is the historical equivalent of feudal lords imposing titherates on industrial machines, a legal restraint carried out by an increasingly irrelevant social hierarchy22. Ever since the author-reader relation was first established in Western culture, there have always been artistic dissidents, such as the ironically massproduced art of Andy Warhol, or the audience interactivity in the plays of Bertolt Brecht. However, while Warhol required a factory and Brecht required 19  Lessig, Lawrence. 2008. Remix: Making Art and Commerce Thrive in the Hybrid Economy. New York: Plenum Press, p. 18. 20  Dusollier, Severine. 2003. Open Source and Copyleft: Authorship Reconsidered? In Columbia Journal of Law and Arts 26, p. 282. 21  Marx, Karl & Engels, Friedrich. 1978. Manifesto of the Communist Party. In The Marx-Engels Reader, edited by Robert C. Tucker. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, p. 476. 22  Boyle, James. 1996. Shamans, Software, and Spleens: Law and the Construction of the Information Society. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, p. xiv.


The Oculus: Proceedings of the U21 Undergraduate Research Conference a stage, the modern-day ‘authorial dissident’ needs only a computer with the required software. The increasingly draconian turn that copyright legislation has taken in the past two to three decades can be attributed to how digital technology has made cultural reappropriation more accessible to artists in less privileged positions. Digital technologies have returned cultural production to the ephemeral authorial uncertainty present in oral cultures, a return from what Lessig refers to as an individualised ‘read-only’ culture back to an egalitarian ‘read-write’ culture that exists or has existed in alternative socio-historical contexts23. However, there are some important differences between an ephemeral culture reinforced by digital technologies and an ephemeral culture that is not. While oral cultural reproduction was entirely dependent on reciting stories or songs from subjective human memory, digital cultural reproduction is dependent on much more objective digital memory. This means that artwork stored on digital devices still contain ‘solid’ characteristics such as images, recorded sounds and source code. Whilst predigital eras of amateur copying usually resulted in a degradation of quality, the transferral of cultural goods into digital storage devices means that perfect reproductions can be achieved infinitely24. However, the similarities lie in the fact that both physical devices these artworks are attached to – the human brain and computer hardware respectively – means they are both extremely ephemeral and easily transferable from one physical device to another. This has meant while it was previously only possible for ‘read-only’ culture to reappropriate from ‘readwrite’ culture, digital technology has allowed for ‘read-write’ culture to reappropriate from ‘readonly’ culture, to the chagrin of the media industry. The Enlightenment notion of individual authorship has become increasingly tenuous as cultural commodities have begun to evolve such ephemeral characteristics. The logic of copyright law is based on far less ephemeral storage mediums – one cannot easily transfer words from one book to another, so therefore it is far more simple to legally control and maintain. Marx & Engels argue that in regards to the contradiction between forces of production and the relations of property is that the newly emerged forces generally end up fashioning new sets of social relations to more efficiently manage the social changes these technologies have 23  Lessig, Lawrence. 2008. Remix: Making Art and Commerce Thrive in the Hybrid Economy. New York: Plenum Press, p. 18. 24  Yar, Majid. 2007. Teenage Kicks or Virtual Villainy? Internet Piracy, Moral Entrepeneurship, and the Social Construction of a Crime Problem. In Crime Online, edited by Yvonne Jewkes. Portland: Willan Publishing, p. 97.

brought about25; this is because societal relations are far more dependent on technology than the other way around and therefore are not usually the ones that end up being socially victorious. Due to the need for capitalism to constantly expand into new markets, this results in a constant ‘revolutionising the instruments of production’ and therefore the relations of society26.

Towards a Legal Reconstruction of Artistic Identity

What we need is a new set of social relations that is more accommodating towards these ephemeral cultural practices that have emerged with the onset of digital technologies. The cultural industries are unlikely to crumble in the face of some perfectly anarchistic and ephemeral digital culture of reproduction, yet they cannot continue on the path they are going, defending an increasingly outmoded property relation which is no longer backed up by the necessary technological constraints. The common theme that manifests itself among all the theoretical business models that various opponents to present-day copyright law have suggested - is a reintegration of the ephemeral culture of the digital world into wider capitalist property relations. The musical re-mix artist Greg Gillis, who performs under the stage name Girl Talk, has suggested a business model in which large media corporations make their albums far more interactive and remixable, making them ‘more like a game and less like a product’27. Trent Reznor of Nine Inch Nails fame has taken this approach to album distribution ever since his 2005 release With Teeth28 , releasing multitrack versions of all his songs that can be remixed on amateur music-mixing programs. Fan remixes of his songs can now be officially uploaded onto the Nine Inch Nails website29. The enormous success of individual endeavours from the likes of Reznor shows the potential such an approach has for the wider culture industry. This approach has been encoded into the legal framework of the Free Art License agreement, where the ‘original’ author grants consumers of a cultural good the right to reappropriate their work and do whatever they want with their contents, provided they attach the same license to their new work and credit the previous authors of the work. 25  Marx, Karl & Engels, Friedrich. 1978. Manifesto of the Communist Party. In The Marx-Engels Reader, edited by Robert C. Tucker. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, p. 476. 26  Ibid., p. 476. 27  Lessig, Lawrence. 2008. Remix: Making Art and Commerce Thrive in the Hybrid Economy. New York: Plenum Press, p. 15. 28  Nine Inch Nails. 2005. With Teeth [Album]. USA: Interscope. 29  <http://remix.nin.com/>

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8 As Dusollier points out, such an approach in fact rests on copyright relations, as ‘copyright is a right against the world, as opposed to contractual rights enforceable only against a party’30. If the consumerauthor doesn’t credit previous the authors, he has essentially violated copyright, and it is entirely the original producer-author’s prerogative over whether they want to give their works such a legal status in the first place. Yet whilst the Free Art License is relatively underutilised at the moment, mostly a tool of artists outside the official media conglomerates, the growing contradiction between the old ways of producing cultural profit and the new ways of cultural production will inevitably point itself towards legal approaches that operate on less static authorial binaries. This at first may seem as an overly optimistic proposition, but is in fact far more realistic than both copyright and the media industries as we know it completely disintegrating; even Lessig’s free market approach lead to the rather blunt conclusion that corporate giants ‘always fall to a better way of making money’ and that new digital technologies provides numerous ways that producers of cultural content can do so31. Even discarding that argument, the best way to make money precludes antagonising your own consumer base.

Conclusion

Copyright law is a legal framework that needs to be drastically overhauled. The author/ reader binary in its current static form is crumbling in on itself in the face of digital technologies, yet copyright law has not yet caught up with these social changes. Combining Marxism with readerresponse theory, one can conclude that the conflict between copyright law and artists is one of the latest social contradictions that inevitably emerge when new technologies emerge that threaten entrenched social, legal and cultural hierarchies. Whilst the author/reader binary had been subverted in previous technological eras, digital technology has democratised cultural production to an extent never seen before. 30  Dusollier, Severine. 2003. Open Source and Copyleft: Authorship Reconsidered? In Columbia Journal of Law and Arts 26, p. 286. 31  Lessig, Lawrence. 2008. Remix: Making Art and Commerce Thrive in the Hybrid Economy. New York: Plenum Press, p. 45.

References

1. Bohannan, Laura. 1966. Shakespeare in the Bush. Natural History, 75: 28-33. 2. Boyle, James. 1996. Shamans, Software, and Spleens: Law and the Construction of the Information Society. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. 3. Brooker, Charlie. [Producer]. 2006-2008. Charlie Brooker’s Screenwipe [Television Series]. UK: Zeppotron. 4. Culler, Jonathan. 1975. Structuralist Poetics: Structuralism, Linguistics and the Study of Literature. New York: Routledge Classics. 5. Dusollier, Severine. 2003. Open Source and Copyleft: Authorship Reconsidered? In Columbia Journal of Law and Arts 26, p. 281-296. 6. Fish, Stanley. 1980. Is There a Text in This Class? The Authority of Interpretive Communities. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. 7. Judge, Mike. [Producer]. 1993-1997. Beavis & Butthead [Television Series]. USA: MTV. 8. Lessig, Lawrence. 2008. Remix: Making Art and Commerce Thrive in the Hybrid Economy. New York: Plenum Press. 9. Littau, Karen. 2006. Theories of Reading: Books, Bodies and Bibliomania.Cambridge: Polity Press. 10. Locke, John. 1967. Two Treatises of Government. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 11. Mallon, Jim. [Producer]. 1988-1999. Mystery Science Theatre 3000 [Television Series]. USA: Best Brains. 12. Marx, Karl & Engels, Friedrich. 1978. Manifesto of the Communist Party. In The Marx-Engels Reader, edited by Robert C. Tucker. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, p. 476. 13. Masnick, Mike. 2010, July 22. Pissing Off A Movie Critic By Claiming Copyright Over A Video Review… Probably Not Smart. Retrieved July 24, 2012: <http://www.techdirt.com/ articles/20100721/15284610310.shtml> 14. Stallman, Richard. 2002. Why Software Should Be Free. Intellectual Property: Moral, Legal and International Dilemmas, edited by Adam D. Moore. Lanham: Bowman & Littlefield, pp. 283. 15. Walker, Doug. & Walker, Rob. [Writers]. 2007-2012. Nostalgia Critic, The [Online Series]. USA: Channel Awesome. <http://thatguywiththeglasses.com/ videolinks/thatguywiththeglasses/nostalgiacritic/> 16. Wiseau, Tommy [Director]. 2003. The Room [Motion Picture]. USA: Wiseau-Films. 17. Yar, Majid. 2007. Teenage Kicks or Virtual Villainy? Internet Piracy, Moral Entrepeneurship, and the Social Construction of a Crime Problem. In Crime Online, edited by Yvonne Jewkes. Portland: Willan Publishing, p. 95-108.


The Oculus: Proceedings of the U21 Undergraduate Research Conference

Jeju Language Preservation from the Viewpoint of Ecoanarchistic Linguistics Seongha Cho

Korea University

Abstract

Murray Bookchin’s ecoanarchism, criticizing the modern hierarchy, basically aims at equal and multi-centric standards and asserts the importance of community. This concept, perceived in relation to ecolinguistics, which focuses on the interaction between the language and environment, gives us extensive implications of regional language disappearance. Specifically, it reminds people of the value of languages and suggests efficient ways for preservation.

Introduction

N

ot long ago, the UNESCO recognized Jeju language as a ‘critically endangered language’ with its severe level of disappearance (Moseley). Also, the National Institute of the Korean Language1, in its report on the ecological situation of Jeju language written in 2008, concluded that the number of Jeju language speakers in real life is declining day by day. Fortunately, the awareness has increased after the UNESCO’s recognition and the language’s status was upgraded from a mere dialect to a language with high cultural and historic values. This paper will discuss the importance of Jeju language preservation from the viewpoint of ecolinguistics centered on Murray Bookchin’s2 ecoanarchism. Ecolinguistics can be simply defined as ‘the interaction between the language and environment’ (Crystal 98). So the importance of Jeju language can be attached to cultural aspects accumulated in this process of interaction, and this fact justifies its preservation. On the other hand, the ecoanarchism complements the above concept by proposing the importance of language within the context of one community or region. This theory particularly accuses the social hierarchy of bringing about the ecological crisis and promotes the equality and liberty observed in the direct democracy. With this reasoning, it suggests the autonomous community as an alternative to current vertical social structure. Also, it basically advocates the postmodernistic norms of multicenteredness and plurality and the interactive and cooperative way of thinking (Koo 13). The ecological viewpoint combining the two concepts above, with its emphasis on equality and diversity, allows us to appreciate the regional language as a valuable cultural asset in communal sphere. 1  Institute under the control of the Ministry of Culture and Tourism 2  Murray Bookchin is acknowledged as the founder of social ecology movement.

Comparison between Breton and Jeju language – Disappearance from Above

Breton and Jeju language both have been subject to the disappearance from above, which is a kind of voluntary shift, one of the three types3 of language disappearance (Nettle and Romaine 156). After the French revolution, the government enforced using the national language for unity and implemented the suppression policy regarding regional languages. This atmosphere continued even after the Second World War.4 As a result, the number of Breton speakers decreased with the language being perceived as an inferior to French, less urbane and more past-oriented, thus leading to its social and economic devaluation and eventually, to voluntary shift (Kuter). As in the case of France, Korea’s language standardization policy led regional languages to disappearance from above. This policy, primarily having had the purpose to efficiently urbanize and modernize the country, was problematic in the fact that it denied the diversity and fixated the hierarchy among languages. Consequently, the cultural and economic value of regional languages was demeaned and some of them came to be in danger of disappearance, including Jeju language (The National Assembly of Korea 27).

Comparison between Breton and Jeju language – Efforts for Preservation

The improvement of people’s awareness on Breton has been largely affected by the government’s effort to acknowledge the value of regional languages and treat them almost as equally as standard French.5 For example, since 1950s, the 3  Population loss, forced language shift, and voluntary language shift 4  For example, in the 1970s Breton region, children with Breton names were refused of the issuing of birth certificates and identity cards (Nettle 238). 5  In 2001, the title of the national language institute under the ministry of culture was symbolically changed from the ‘Délégation générale à la langue française’ to the ‘Délégation générale à la langue française et aux langues de France’ in order to mark the government’s

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10 government has gradually amended the law to allow teaching Breton in schools. Presently, Diwan schools in Brittany6 teach Breton with the national assembly’s subsidy. Public and private organizations have also worked in harmony to academically systemize the language while creating literary works and dictionaries (Kuter). Also, within a cultural context, by incorporating Breton with other forms of culture, such as dance or music, the language has become more accessible. Other preservation methods employed are broadcasting programs in Breton via media and Internet and simultaneously using Breton and French on signs. To take a look at Jeju language preservation, the law ‘Jeju language preservation and promotion’ passed the plenary session in provincial council. Also, various educational institutions are teaching the language with different methods like drama class, and have also held writing contests. Moreover, as in Brittany, different institutions have investigated the actual speakers and developed the database and dictionaries in order to systemize the language. Alongside the academic efforts including research projects and seminars, there have been projects targeting the general public, such as developing smartphone applications for language learning. In short, the direction of Breton and Jeju language preservation is similar in the fact that various institutions have coordinated in harmony; schools’ education, central government’s funding, and regional government and institutions’ research and diffusion projects. However, there are some shortcomings of Jeju language preservation in regards to education in schools and systemization. In Brittany, proficient teachers are placed in schools whereas in Jeju, there is a lack of educators fluent in language, set aside limited teaching materials. Resultingly, the method of teaching remains limited; simple in-class presentations, club activities, or speech contests in which few students actually participate. As regards the language systemization, Breton has been reestablished as Neo-Breton (Timm 454) while the orthography of Jeju language is yet to be fully established.

Jeju Language Preservation and its Direction from the Viewpoint of Ecoanarchistic Linguistics

Ecolinguistics and ecoanarchism both aim at diversity and equality; the former in stressing the cultural importance of each and every language in linguistic ecology, and the latter with its postmodernistic concept of abolishing the imbalanced hierarchy. Based on this similarity, the ecoanarchistic linguistics specifically combines the notion of cultural acknowledgement of the linguistic diversity of France. (General Delegation for the French Language and the Languages of France) 6  English name for Bretagne

importance of language in ecolinguistics and the concept of community in ecoanarchism. Applying this new integrative framework to Jeju language, this section points out the importance and legitimacy of preservation from the aspect of culture and identity and suggests the directions for preservation.

The Importance of Jeju Language Preservation from the Ecolinguistic Viewpoint

An ecological viewpoint respects dynamic interactions among different elements (Haugen 60) and actively opposes the imbalanced modern hierarchy while recognizing those once positioned at the bottom of it (The National Assembly of Korea 31). Applying this in linguistics, the interaction between the language and culture can be recognized, and based on this, we can re-evaluate languages. At the same time, we can achieve the legitimacy to protect minority languages which have been subject to the disappearance from above under the influence of threatening modern policies. Any language is a repository of lives and customs of many generations (The National Assembly of Korea 25). Linguistic elements reflecting cultural or environmental aspects accumulated through interaction process could be appreciated as cultural heritage.7 So the extinction of one language not only influences the overall linguistic ecology comprising all languages but also the mankind’s cultural and social ecology constructed based on languages. From this perspective, the disappearance of Jeju language is an ecologically critical matter. Before taking a closer look at the cultural importance of Jeju language, it should first be noted that the geographically isolated island environment8 allowed Jeju language to well preserve the results of interaction between language and cultural environment. Specifically, the linguistic heritage could be divided into two parts; ancient forms preserved along the course of history, and word forms produced in relationship with the natural environment. Firstly, ancient forms observed in Jeju language go back to the era of Shilla Dynasty (BC 57 to AD 935). For instance, the modern word ‘sanghoi-ddok’ (a kind of rice cake) is derived from ‘ssanghwa’ which referred to a kind of dumpling in that era. Another example would be ‘gara-mal’ (black horse) 7  The philosopher Fritz Mauthner pointed out the significance of interaction between language and culture in the ecolinguistic context by saying, “One will have to get used to see, in each history of a word, a monograph on the cultural history mankind. Linguistic history, the history of words is always cultural history.” (Mauthner 15) 8  Jeju Island lies approximately 80 km south of the Korean mainland between the East China Sea and the Korea Strait.


The Oculus: Proceedings of the U21 Undergraduate Research Conference with its root in the Mongolian word ‘gara’ (black) which seems to have been introduced during the period of Mongolian rule (14th Century). We can also find words from the Medieval Era before the creation of Korean letter system. For example, ‘olle’ (an alley) has its origin in the word ‘ora’ (door). In phonetic aspect, pronunciations used more than 600 years ago are still present, whereas the same phonemes have disappeared in the standard Korean language. Jeju language, abundant with linguistic legacies from the flow of history, is itself a historic legacy. Next, in Jeju language, we can find word forms produced in relation to its unique natural environment. Life in Jeju Island has always been accompanied by strong winds and the language is rich in expressions for describing different kinds of winds, like ‘san-bu-sae’ (wind from mountains) and ‘seo-ma’ (west wind). Also, due to the Island’s distinct soil, the main source of living for farmers has been dry-field farming and there are specific words related to it, such as, ‘gum-jil’ (to weed). Another predominant environmental factor is the sea and there is a rich stock of words related to work in the sea and marine life. It includes ‘tae-woo’ (a traditional ship in Jeju) and ‘ba-rut’ (seafood). Words formed in interaction with the environment are especially creative and also phonetically peculiar. Lastly, distinct vocabulary and expressions in Jeju language are core elements of the region’s cultural legacy like traditional music, which gives us all the more reason to preserve it for the sake of cultural sustainability. The traditional song ‘sumbisori’9, for example, laments a female diver’s fatiguing work in the sea and her hard life living with her inlaws, which was a particular way of living for women in Jeju Island. It was also registered as national intangible cultural asset with the recognition of its cultural and linguistic value. We could say that this song is an exemplary outcome of interaction among the environment, culture, and language. The peculiar linguistic elements discussed above prove that Jeju language has been formed within dynamic interactions among various elements and accordingly contains valuable historic and cultural resources. Especially, the Island’s natural ecosystem has been ingrained into the language via active environmental interactions, which makes it an invaluable environmental asset, too. Moreover, the community’s cultural sustainability enhanced by preserving Jeju language will have an enormous significance in the overall diversity of cultural ecosystem. The unique linguistic properties, on the other hand, enrich the global linguistic ecosystem. All in all, it is ecologically just to preserve the language and it should be done with respect for interactions among different elements. 9  The name of the song symbolizes the sound of a female diver getting her breath back after floating above the Sea.

Direction for Jeju Language Preservation from Ecoanarchistic Viewpoint

As mentioned earlier, Bookchin’s postmodernist ecoanarchism sets its goal in breaking down the hierarchy for equality and diversity. With this viewpoint, we can achieve the ecological legitimacy to liberate regional languages from the reign of standard languages so as to foster the multicenteredness in linguistic ecosystem. Bookchin also put an emphasis on the autonomous polis-type community to replace the totalitarian and centralized political system.10 Focusing on this notion of community, we can imagine the role of regional language as a tool to enhance the historic and cultural identity of a community and to maintain communal ties. We can also think about the importance of voluntary involvement of community people in the preservation process. Regarding the hierarchical linguistic ecosystem, there is a need to re-examine the standardization policy. The modern nations, with its priority on establishing a unitary identity, enforced the usage of standard language, treating it as a language of ‘culture’ and ‘intelligence’. On the other hand, regional languages were seen as ‘wrong’ and ‘inappropriate’, requiring oppression. As a consequence of this tendency, Jeju-language faced with the threat of extinction. There should first be a change on this modern way of perceiving a language along with the revision of standard language law, in order to recognize anew the value of once excluded and oppressed languages with an equal viewpoint. We can further think about the importance of Jeju language preservation with the notion of autonomous community based on its unique identity and ties among members. The identity of Jeju community is ingrained in its regional language, which is a historical product of close interactions with culture and environment. Jeju language therefore works as a core instrument through which the spirit of community is maintained. Also, even in the standard language community, people from the same region have a strong tendency to use the regional language among them, which could, in some way, be seen as an expression of their sense of community and bond (The National Assembly of Korea 31). From this aspect, we can assume the function of Jeju language as a means of maintaining communal bond. In regard to the direction of preservation, voluntary effort is required from the part of Jeju community well aware of its own identity. A regional language community, even though its solidarity is less evident than in a polis-type community 10  Jeju Island, of which the official title is ‘Jeju Special Self-Governing Province’, is partly self-governed and is under the relatively weak influence of the central government. This fact implies that Jeju language community has freedom to a certain degree in decision making and policy implementations, which are in line with Bookchin’s ideal autonomous community.

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12 suggested by ecoanarchism, the communal ties in it could, to a certain degree, play an important role in the preservation process. It is only when the language community takes own efforts based on its identity that the regional language preservation can surpass the superficial level, that is, protecting the linguistic elements and structure just as a specimen in a repository of a museum. With active involvement of community people, we will be able to truly preserve the cultural identity of language and encourage the actual practice of language in real life.

Conclusion and Specific Directions for Jeju Language Preservation

The combination of ecoanarchism and ecolinguistics; the former promoting the multicentric ecological order, and the latter putting an emphasis on the diversity among languages and interrelatedness of various elements constituting a language, makes possible the effective re-evaluation of regional languages from a postmodern viewpoint. Specifically, we could achieve the justification of regional language preservation by recognizing its value within the cultural ecology and regional community. If we could improve people’s awareness with these ecological grounds and involve different parties in the preservation process with an increased interest, there may be hope to stop or at least slow down the regional language extinction. To propose specific directions for Jeju language preservation, taking into account of the ecological realizations discussed above, we should first teach language to the younger generation within each small community or household based on the sense of connectedness, which will eventually bring the sustainable linguistic movement from generation to generation.11 The whole regional community, in a broader sense, should set its goal in forming and protecting the communal ties and identity and encourage various grass-root and bigger institutions to plan preservation projects which include the participation of the general public. In schools, we should place educators fully proficient in language as in Breton schools and develop programs through which students can learn complex aspects of language. We also need to expand the language education for the older generation lacking knowledge in language, which hinders the natural handing down of language. To talk about teaching methods, the programs that are now receiving attention are, in general, short11  In one research survey on Jeju language usage targeting middle and high school students conducted by the Jeju Special Self-Governing Province, the question asking about being in contact with grandparents divided the respondents into three categories; those who are in frequent contact with them, those who are in regular contact with them, and those who are not in contact with them. The result showed that the first group had a greater vocabulary knowledge (Kang).

term events or activities such as Jeju language writing contest or play competition for children, which simply require the memorization of some words and expressions. Taking into account of the interactive dynamics in language, we should develop comprehensive educational programs in which cultural aspects of language are also considered. This kind of method, respecting the ecological nature of language, will effectively promote the sustainability of culture and language at the same time. Also, the preservation process should not remain at the stage of raising the awareness in the cultural sustainability and in the sense of community related to language. We should actively include the general public, prospective speakers of language by providing them with practical motivations for learning, for example, like creating jobs in culture and tourism requiring competence in Jeju language.

References

1. Crystal, David. Language Death. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2002. Print. 2. Haugen, Einar. The Ecology of Language. Stanford: Stanford UP, 1972. Print. 3. “General Delegation for the French Language and the Languages of France.” Délégation générale à la langue française et aux langues de France. The French Ministry of Culture and Communication, n.d. Web. 26 Jul 2012. <http://www.dglf.culture. gouv.fr/dglf_presentation_anglais.htm>. 4. Kang, Jeongman. “Middle and High School Students in Jeju Ignorant of their Language.” NEWSIS [Jeju] 10 Mar 2011, n. pag. Web. 26 Jul. 2012. <http://news.naver.com/main/read.nh n?mode=LSD&mid=sec&sid1=102&oid=003&a id=0003734742>. 5. Koo, SeungHwe. “Environmentalism Ideology and Murray Bookchin’s Social Ecology.” World Political Economy Review. 3 (1996): 13. Print. 6. Kuter, Lois. “Breton, An Endangered Language of Europe”. International Committee for the Defense of the Breton Language, May 2004. Web. 26 Jul 2012. 7. Mauthner, Fritz. Wörterbuch der Philosophie, vol. 1. Leipzig: Felix Meiner, 1924. 8. Moseley, Christopher (ed.). 2010. Atlas of the World’s Languages in Danger, 3rd edn. Paris, UNESCO Publishing. Online version: http://www.unesco. org/culture/en/endangeredlanguages/atlas. 9. Nettle, Daniel, and Suzanne Romaine. Vanishing Voices. Trans. JeongHwa Kim. EJBOOKS, 2003. Print. 10. The National Assembly of Korea, ed. How to Preserve and Promote Regional Language. 6 Nov. 2008. Seoul: The National Assembly of Korea, 2008. Print. 11. Timm, Lenora. “Transforming Breton: A Case Study in Multiply.” Proceedings from the Eighth Annual Symposium about Language and Society. 2001. Print.


The Oculus: Proceedings of the U21 Undergraduate Research Conference

The Future of Space Exploration: Mankind’s Necessity to Venture beyond the Solar System Benjamin Giblin University of Birmingham

Abstract

This paper offers a basic discussion of the reasons that the human race must eventually seek a replacement for planet Earth if survival in the long-term is to be assured. Primarily, focus will be on the technological advancements required to facilitate this, the most ambitious mass immigration in known history. The method of rocket propulsion poses the most serious obstacle to overcome and a tremendous amount of research in physics and engineering is required before the technology is within our grasp, if indeed any proposal can ever be practically viable. Furthermore the conditions on the ship, with consideration of human beings’ capacity to endure prolonged periods of time journeying through space, must be carefully assessed and evaluated. Only one thing is for certain; travelling to a suitable planet is the most daunting challenge mankind has ever had to face and unless this mountain proves surmountable, mankind’s survival is very much in question.

Introduction

E

arth offers an ultimately precarious environment for humans; for one, there are increasingly pessimistic figures concerning the exhaustion of resources. For example, 1oil and gas diminishment is predicted by the year 2042, with coal optimistically lasting until 2112. Furthermore, 2recent Global Warming reports forecast the average temperature of Earth to have risen by 3oC by 2100, translating to a rise in sea levels between 20 and 60cm. The depletion of fossil fuels and the effects of Global Warming are a constant reminder that mankind’s destructive nature is making this planet less hospitable. Depletion of foodstuffs and living space is also a concern. This issue arises from the planet’s rising population; 3having exceeded 7 billion people for the first time in March 2012. This is a population increase by 700% since 1800 and is expected by 2050, to reach 10 billion; a figure that would 4require 70% more food to be produced each year. Although these obstacles are a serious threat to the modern way of life, they are not necessarily unconquerable. In the future they may be tackled through advancements in technology or renovations in the food production and social engineering industries. However there is one problem that will inevitably prevent mankind from remaining on this planet - the finite lifetime of the Sun. 5 The Sun has existed in a state of hydrostatic equilibrium for the past 5 billion years. This means that it has been fusing hydrogen to helium in its core, and radiating the energy produced into space. The crushing inward force of the star’s gravity is balanced by the outward radiative pressure of the energetic material of the Sun’s interior. Due to this equilibrium, the Sun remains a constant size and temperature. 5 The Sun will maintain equilibrium as long as it has hydrogen for fusing in its core. It is estimated that in approximately 5-7 billion years, hydrogen in

the core will be depleted and the outward radiation pressure will cease, causing the Sun to begin collapse under the strength of gravity. The contraction in turn will heat the interior and ignite hydrogen fusion in a shell surrounding the core. This will provide an outpour of energy, forcing the outer envelope of the Sun to expand dramatically; it will absorb Mercury, Venus and possibly Earth, as it becomes a Red Giant. When the Sun undergoes this transition, it will render every planet in the Solar System completely uninhabitable. Therefore, even if it were possible to terraform a nearby planet such as Mars to make it a suitable replacement for Earth, it could still not offer a permanent sanctuary for mankind. Ultimately it is unavoidable; humans must venture outside of the Solar System in order to survive. The death of the Sun may indeed be considered the distant future; it is a time period over 2000 times longer than the interval separating modern-day civilization from the first homo-sapiens. Regardless, this does not diminish the certainty of extinction or the urgency of the pressing crises facing mankind today. Moreover, the means by which humans may travel to distant planets currently lie woefully out of reach. In the future, ambitious space travel will no longer be a matter of interest, but one of necessity. For people to stand the test of time, the technology required to facilitate this migration must be researched and developed.

Time Dilation

The Theory of General Relativity is a quintessential guide for the interstellar explorer, setting strict rules and regulations. For example, it introduces the ‘cosmic speed limit’ – the fundamental maximum possible velocity – the speed of light in a vacuum. This restriction is an important one, as the speed of light is fairly leisurely where interstellar distances are concerned; it takes light over four

13


14 years to travel from the Solar System to the nearest star Alpha Centauri. Any manned expeditions, by definition, are likely to last decades. 6 However General Relativity offers compensation in the form of time dilation; the phenomenon by which time passes at slower rates for observers moving at greater velocities. This means that an astronaut in a spacecraft travelling at some significant fraction of the speed of light, will age less than a person remaining here on Earth. The equation below illustrates the relationship between the time t* that has passed for the astronaut moving at velocity v, and the time t passed for the earthbound person, where c is the speed of light.

Figure 1. Artist’s Depiction of IKAROS

By observation, with increasing v, the time t that passes for the individual on Earth, gets increasingly longer than the time that passes for the cosmic traveller, t*. For example, only 1.4 years pass on a spacecraft travelling at 99% the speed of light, for every ten years that pass on Earth. Therefore it is theoretically possible to traverse vast interstellar distances within the lifetime of an astronaut, whilst Earth might age hundreds of years.

Propulsion

The method of thrust for the spacecraft presents the greatest hurdle. The combustion of chemical fuel, favoured by NASA’s Space Shuttles and Apollo rockets, is fine for the relatively short flights into local space. However the inefficiency of this type of fuel is a crippling drawback; 7the Space Shuttle initially carries 835,958 gallons of liquid propellant. The quantity required to travel outside of the Solar System would be inconceivable. Moreover due to the relatively small amount of energy released in chemical reactions, it would be impossible to reach any useful fraction of the speed of light; travelling to even the closest stars could take hundreds of thousands of years. This paper presents an overlook of two of the most promising forms of propulsion; solar sails and antimatter engines. Both means suffer from technological immaturity though suggest huge potential for interstellar flight.

Solar Sails

8 Solar Sails rely on the fact that light is made up of particles called photons that have momentum. Photons themselves are massless, making the notion that they have momentum rather counter-intuitive with common sense. However General Relativity predicts that any particle that has energy must have momentum, even if it does not have mass.

Consequently, when photons are reflected by a surface, their momentum changes and a force is exerted in accordance with Newton’s second Law. 9 Therefore a spacecraft fitted with a ‘sail’ of reflective material, large enough to collect a great number of photons, could be propelled through space using pressure exerted by radiation. In this fashion, a spacecraft may sail through space propelled by the light emitted from the Sun in the same way a boat on the ocean is propelled by the wind. The concept is remarkably simple although manipulating the radiation pressure would be difficult in practice. Careful orientation of the ship’s solar sails would be required to harness the photons in space and use them to travel in a useful trajectory. For example, 10the spacecraft could initially build up speed by falling towards the Sun through gravity, before using a ‘gravitational slingshot’ to propel it in the desired direction, all the while using the sail to catch the photons at its back. This technique would be effective because of the extremely strong radiation pressure due to the high flux of photons close to the Sun. 10 The steering of the spacecraft could also be aided using super powered lasers on board. Lasers emit photons and therefore can provide thrust by the same principle conventional rockets gain thrust in ejecting chemical fuel. In doing so, the rocket would be able to change its trajectory. Solar sails, although a long way from application in manned spacecraft, have been demonstrated to work successfully. In May 2010, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) launched 11IKAROS (Interplanetary Kite-craft Accelerated by Radiation Of the Sun), the first manmade object propelled through space by radiation pressure. IKAROS consisted of a sail of 3,000 square-feet attached to a 700 pound drone. The sail itself was made of a 7.5µm polyimide membrane, also fitted with liquid crystal devices that


The Oculus: Proceedings of the U21 Undergraduate Research Conference

Figure 2. An Antimatter Engine. Positrons from the storage unit annihilate with electrons in the attenuating matrix. Liquid hydrogen is heated whilst circulating through the matrix. The hydrogen is fed through the nozzle and expelled into space.

could adjust their reflective properties, affecting the amount of momentum transferred by the photons. This allowed the trajectory of the craft to be altered with a reasonably large degree of control. IKAROS fulfilled all success criteria and 12by December 2010, had used radiation pressure to pass Venus, 80,800km from Earth. One of the most attractive benefits of solar sails is that they eliminate the need for a large supply of fuel to be carried by the spacecraft. This would greatly reduce cost and constraints associated with a large, heavy ship. For example, a less massive ship will experience greater acceleration from the radiation pressure and achieve the desired velocity sooner. This is a significant strength due to the vast distances and lengthy transit times concerned. Secondly, with solar sails there are no potentially dangerous chemical or nuclear reactions occurring aboard the ship, as would be the case with chemical or fission powered rockets. The relative simplicity of the application is also appealing over designs involving nuclear fusion, where the intricacies of the fusion apparatus leave more room for error and malfunction, which may be disastrous in deep-space. However, one major drawback of solar sails is the fact that the 14strength of the radiation pressure falls with the square of the distance from the source of photons. This means that if the distance between the ship and the source were to double, the radiation pressure falls by a factor of four; if it were to treble, the pressure falls by nine times. This makes the thrust magnitude extremely sensitive to distance and presents difficulties in planning a journey in which the ship has access to a sufficient supply of photons, to allow acceleration to a significant fraction of the speed of light.

Furthermore problems ensue from the relatively weak magnitude of solar radiation. This means that the acceleration of the ship could be fairly poor; increasing the time it would take the velocity to increase to an acceptable level. Two approaches have been suggested to combat this; the first being to construct larger sails to catch more photons. For distant interstellar flight however, a suitable sail might have to be kilometres wide, depending on the reflective properties of the material. The second approach involves a highly powered laser on Earth to continuously fire photons towards the ship’s sail, as well as an enormous 15 Fresnel lens situated in space focussing the photon beam. The figures are not promising; the laser would have to be of gigawatt strength and continue for years on end, whereas the lens would have to be comparable to the size of a planet. Needless to say, solar sails would entail a huge challenge of engineering and questions remain about their feasibility. Regardless this method of propulsion shows promise and if the obstacles can be overcome then the possibilities are endless.

Antimatter Engines

Antimatter is not such exotic material; scientists create and destroy it regularly in particle accelerators. An antiparticle has the ‘mirrorimage’ properties to the conventional particles of everyday experience. For example, an antielectron or ‘positron’ has the same mass as the negatively charged electron, but is positively charged instead. 16 The significance of an antiparticle is its behaviour upon contact with its corresponding ‘ordinary’ particle; when a positron encounters an electron, they are annihilated and the combined

15


16 mass of the particles is completely converted into energy in accordance with E=mc2. Therefore it is conceivable that this energy may be harnessed and used to power a spacecraft. In a sense, antimatter annihilation is similar to nuclear fission and fusion, both of which produce energy by mass conversion. However annihilation is a far more potent reaction; 17fission involves about 0.1% conversion of mass to energy, whereas 18fusion, approximately 1%. Annihilation is 100% conversion of mass to energy – the most efficient method of energy production known. An antimatter engine, of which there are typically three designs, is a system that utilises the energy released from annihilation to propel a ship. The first design is known as the 19beamed core configuration. It uses the annihilation of protons with antiprotons to produce gamma photons, some of which turn into charged pion particles. The pions are channelled by a magnetic field out of the rocket to provide thrust. A disadvantage of this method is that some of the energy from annihilation is not used in propulsion, as it is stored in the mass of the pions. An alternative design uses the energy from 20 electron-positron annihilation to heat an exhaust fluid, such as liquid hydrogen. The energetic fluid is then expelled from the ship providing thrust. Figure 2 illustrates an engine of this type. A final design uses the heated fluid to turn a turbine, generating electricity which could be used to power an electrical form of propulsion, such as an ion drive. Antimatter engines are an appealing concept because of their superiority over nuclear fission or fusion designs. The efficiency of annihilation 22 could theoretically produce speeds up to 0.5804c (c is the speed of light). Provided with sufficiently high acceleration, a spacecraft could reach Alpha Centauri, the closest star outside the Solar System (about 4.4 light years away), in under a decade, suggesting exciting potential. An important benefit of antimatter engines is the reduction in the amount of fuel the ship will carry. Estimates of the necessary quantity range from a few grams to a few tonnes of antimatter, but it will certainly reduce the mass ratio of the spacecraft – the ratio of the spacecraft’s wet mass (the fuel plus payload) to the its dry mass (the payload mass only). Therefore cost of the expedition would be reduced whilst feasibility is improved. However antimatter is extremely difficult and expensive to produce. Thus far, scientists succeed in creating antimatter in highly powered particle accelerators such as the LHC at CERN. The scale at which these particles have been produced is that of a few atoms of anti-hydrogen. This is a scale approximately 1026 times smaller than would be required.

Furthermore there is added difficulty in the storage of antimatter – it must be kept out of reach of ‘regular’ matter to avoid the fuel annihilating prematurely. Possible solutions include suspending it in powerful magnetic fields, although this would necessitate massive electromagnets and pose further engineering challenges. Alternatively, 23electrons and positrons can possibly be combined harmlessly to produce ‘positronium’ – an atom in which the two particles remain physically separate, but orbit each other due to the electrostatic attraction between them. This method would increase the stability of the fuel, making it easier to store. Regardless, antimatter production continues to pose a huge problem and the propulsion method suffers from technological immaturity. Significant advances in engineering and particle physics must precede antimatter engine viability.

Suspended Animation

Despite the efficiency of these propulsion methods, it is likely that the journey to a replacement Earth will be a lengthy one. Considering the transit time will be spent in a sunless environment devoid of greenery, it may be preferable for travellers to spend it in a state of dreamless slumber until arrival. This may do well to preserve the mental health of the passengers, avoid conflict and even increase life span. 24 Suspended animation refers to the process whereby an organism’s biological mechanisms may be safely slowed down or even stopped. Cold temperatures are usually implemented to help reduce the metabolic rate in mammals. However mammals respond to the cold by shivering in order to maintain constant body temperature, causing greater oxygen consumption. In order to induce suspended animation, the mammal’s demand for oxygen must be reduced alongside reduced temperature. Scientists at the Laboratory of Mark Roth were motivated by the fact that mammals exhibit degrees of metabolic flexibility, from the hibernation of bears to the survival stories of people trapped in ice. 25 They discovered that the core body temperature of mice, exposed to hydrogen sulphide, fell to 11◦C and their metabolic rate reduced ten-fold. The mice were then successfully reanimated after six hours without any damage whatsoever. This effect has been 26replicated in a number of other animals including frogs and zebrafish. 24Roth Labs’ research has advanced to human trials. In the near future induced suspended animation may become commonplace in medicine to help patients experiencing trauma. However in the distant future, theoretically this technique could be implemented in the lengthy interstellar journey associated with finding a planet outside of the Solar System. Artificial preservation of the body


The Oculus: Proceedings of the U21 Undergraduate Research Conference through retardation of bodily functions might allow passengers to survive an expedition lasting longer than a human lifetime.

Conclusion

The migration of the human race to another planet, orbiting another star, is the most daunting task it may ever face. The technological capabilities to achieve this goal lie currently out of reach, but the same does not hold for the determination and capacity. The Universe may not afford mankind the 7 billion years until the Sun begins its demise; disasters such as meteor impacts or Global Warming constantly pose a threat. In order to ensure survival, the necessary deep-space technologies must be developed sooner rather than later. There are many promising approaches towards preparation for an interstellar expedition beyond those mentioned here; other propulsion methods of note include nuclear pulse rockets and ion drives. The most effective option is likely to be a hybrid design of two or more. Moreover there are numerous different suggestions concerning the conditions for passengers on board the spacecraft. The sheer number of solutions offers good cause for optimism though there is much grafting to be done. “With so many theoretical possibilities for interstellar flight, we can be sure that at least one will be realized in practice. Remember the history of the atomic bomb; there were three different ways in which it could be made, and no one knew which was best. So they were all tried — and they all worked.” Arthur C. Clarke

References

1. Shafiee S, Topal E. 2008. When Will Fossil Fuel Reserves be Diminished? Energy Policy Journal, v.37, p.181. 2. Reay, D. 2007. Predictions. Green House Gases Online [Online]. Available: http://www. ghgonline.org/predictions.htm. [July 2012]. 3. Anon. 2012. Current World Population. Worldometers – Real Time World Statistics [Online]. Available: http://www.worldometers. info/world-population/. [July 2012]. 4. Economic and Social Development Department, Food and Agricultural Agency of the United Nations. 2008. The State of Food Insecurity in the World, 2008 : High food prices and food security – threats and opportunities. FAO Corporate Document Repository. p.2. 5. Freedman RA, Gellar M & Kaufman WJ. 2011. Universe Ninth Edition. Freeman and Company, New York. chap.20, p.525-527.

6. Cox B. & Forshaw J. 2009. Why Does E=mc2? De Capo Press, Cambridge UK. Chap.3, p.43-54. 7. Ryba J. 2008. NASA Frequently Asked Questions. NASA [Online]. Available: http://www.nasa. gov/centers/kennedy/about/information/ shuttle_faq.html#12. [July 2012]. 8. Young HD, Freedman RA & Ford AL. 2012. University Physics Thirteenth Edition. Pearson Education Inc., San Francisco. chap.38, p.12641265. 9. Wright JL. 1992. Space Sailing. Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, Berkshire. chap.1, p.9. 10. Dachwald B. 2004. Optimal Solar Sail Trajectories for Missions to the Outer Solar System. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. p.2-4. 11. Tsuda Y. 2011. Solar Sail Navigation Technology of IKAROS. JAXA Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency [Online]. Available: http://www.isas. jaxa.jp/e/forefront/2011/tsuda/index.shtml. [July 2012]. 12. Anon. 2010. IKAROS Blog – Daily Report. JAXA Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency [Online]. Available: http://www.isas.jaxa.jp/home/ IKAROS-blog/?itemid=783. [July 2012]. 13. Anon. 2012. Way to the stars: Space Sailing by Sunlight not Solar Wind. Sail World [Online]. Available: http://www.sail-world.com/UK/ Way-to-the-stars:-Space-sailing-by-sunlight-notsolar-wind/63185. [July 2012]. 14. Wright JL. 1992. Space Sailing. Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, Berkshire. chap.1, p.12. 15. Forward RL. 1983. Starwisp. Alternate Propulsion Energy Sources, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory. Sec.7, p.C-1 – C-4. 16. Young HD, Freedman RA & Ford AL. 2012. University Physics Thirteenth Edition. Pearson Education Inc., San Francisco. chap.44, p.1483. 17. Bethe HA. 1950. The Hydrogen Bomb. Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. p 99. 18. Miyamoto K. 2004. Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion. University of Tokyo Press. chap. 1, p.8.   19. Keane RL, Zhang WM. 2012. Beamed Core Antimatter Propulsion: Engine Design and Optimization. [Online]. Available: http:// arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1205/1205.2281.pdf. p.2. [July 2012]. 20. Smith G et al. 2006.  Positron Propelled and Powered Space Transport Vehicle for Planetary Missions. Presented at NIAC Phase I Fellows Meeting. Available: http://www.niac. usra.edu/files/library/meetings/fellows/ mar06/1147Smith.pdf. [July 2012]. 21. Steigerwald B. 2006. New and Improved Antimatter Spaceship for Mars Missions. NASA [Online]. Available: http://www.nasa.gov/ exploration/home/antimatter_spaceship.html. [July 2012].

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18 22. Crowl A. Date Unknown. Antimatter Rockets to the Stars. The British Interplanetary Society [Online]. Available: http://www.bis-space.com/ inf/space-travel/antimatter-rockets-to-the-stars. [July 2012]. 23. Anderson M. 2006. Antimatter-Rocket Plan Fuels Hope for â&#x20AC;&#x153;Star Trekâ&#x20AC;? Tech. National Geographic News [Online]. Available: h t t p ://n e w s . n a t i o n a l g e o g r a p h i c . c o m / news/2006/05/0504_060504_antimatter_2.html. [July 2012]. 24. Roth M. 2010. Suspended Animation is Within Our Grasp. Lecture given at TED Convention [Online]. Available: http://www.ted.com/talks/ mark_roth_suspended_animation.html. [May 2012]. 25. Blackstone E, Morrison M & Roth MB. 2005. H2S Induces a Suspended Animation-Like State in Mice. Science. Vole.308, p.518. 26. Anon. 2012. Metabolic Flexibility and Suspended Animation. Roth Lab [Online]. Available: http:// labs.fhcrc.org/roth/. [July 2012].


The Oculus: Proceedings of the U21 Undergraduate Research Conference

EU Diplomacy in South Korea and Japan Min Woo Hong

Waseda University

Abstract

This research is designed to facilitate the understanding of EU diplomacy in South Korea and Japan. It analyses the objectives of EU diplomacy in these two countries. It examines the EU’s diplomatic instruments that range from delegation to economic/political leverage. It measures the EU’s impact on human rights situations such as death penalty and gender inequality in these countries. Finally, it makes a short-term evaluation and extracts future implications of EU diplomacy. This research contributes to the field of European Union studies because it offers concrete evidence that reflects the impact of EU diplomacy in South Korea and Japan. It coincides with the theme of the U21 Undergraduate Research Conference – connecting to the future – because it scrutinizes the different ways in which South Korea and Japan connect to the EU, which is generally accepted amongst international relations theorists as the most futuristic political system in the world.

Introduction

O

n June 16, 2010, Catherine Ashton, EU High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy and Vice President of the European Commission, addressed the importance of human rights in her speech to the European Parliament: “For the EU, human rights matter. They are at the core of our identity and they are at the heart of what we do around the world. Our own history of entrenching human rights, democracy and the rule of law across 27 member states, is a success story and acts as a source of inspiration for others.” As Ashton indicated, the EU thinks highly of its role in promoting human rights in third countries like South Korea and Japan. EU diplomacy, for example, aims to abolish death penalty and improve gender equality in these countries. This research claims that EU diplomacy constitutes a cause of progress in human rights situations in South Korea and Japan.

Understanding EU diplomacy

It is important to understand the characteristics of EU diplomacy and the objective of EU in conducting diplomacy in South Korea and Japan. The EU’s founding treaties have played a significant role in shaping today’s EU diplomacy. They laid the foundation for the EU to conduct foreign policy. The analysis of the Lisbon Treaty, for example, illustrates two important dynamics of today’s EU diplomacy – solidity and human rights. The EU, as a part of its supranational ambition, tries to institutionalize its foreign policy instruments so that the EU can represent its member states effectively on the world stage. The Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP), whose role was redefined in the Lisbon Treaty, is an institution that encourages EU member states to take joint actions when conducing foreign and security policy.1 An institution like the CFSP that 1  Bomberg, Elizabeth. “Introduction.” In The European Union: How Does it Work? Oxford University Press, 2008.

is agreed upon by EU member states is what justifies EU sovereignty in diplomacy. It is evident from the EU’s path of development that the EU strives to establish a more solid “reference point” to step closer to its ultimate objective – diplomacy in one voice. Another characteristic of EU diplomacy is the EU’s commitment to promoting human rights in third countries. According to the European Commission, EU diplomacy must comply with the Charter of Fundamental Human Rights of the EU2 as the EU incorporated the Charter of Fundamental Human Rights into the European law under Article 6 of the Lisbon Treaty:3 The Union recognises the rights, freedoms and principles set out in the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union of 7 December 2000, as adapted at Strasbourg, on 12 December 2007, which shall have the same legal value as the Treaties……The rights, freedoms and principles in the Charter shall be interpreted in accordance with the general provisions in Title VII of the Charter governing its interpretation and application.4 As indicated in the statement, the EU recognizes the legality of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the EU. This means that EU diplomats and delegates can have a more solid ground of justification for their attempts to promote human rights in foreign countries. Furthermore, the Lisbon Treaty states that the clauses in the Charter ought to be interpreted strictly by pointing out that the Title VII shall set 2  European Commission. “Human rights and democracy at the heart of eu external action – towards a more effective approach.” 3  Ibid. Screen 1. 4  Official Journal of the European Union. “Amendments to the treaty on european union and to the treaty establishing the european community.” Europa.

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Figure 1. Death Penality in South Korea and Japan.

the criteria for interpretation and application.5 The Lisbon Treaty provides a legal way of interpreting the Charter of Fundamental Rights. In this regard, EU diplomacy can have a more solidified voice in projecting its human rights interests. As to the EU’s objective in conducting diplomacy in South Korea and Japan, this research refers to “Europe and Asia: A Strategic Framework for Enhanced Partnerships,”6 which is a diplomatic framework published by the European Commission in 2001. According to it, the EU’s core objective, which is reaffirmed later by the European Commission in 2007,7 is to achieve a balanced projection of economic and political influence in the region.8 To put it differently, the EU aims to extend its area of cooperation with Asian countries, in the field of human rights, for example.

EU diplomacy in South Korea and Japan

This chapter attempts to measure the impact of EU diplomacy on human rights situations in South Korea and Japan. In the context of this research, EU diplomacy includes any attempts by the EU institutions to build relationships with third countries. It mainly focuses on death penalty and gender inequality.

Death penalty

South Korea has not executed any inmates since December 30, 1997.9 The country is classified as “abolitionist in practice”10 by Amnesty International. Japan, on the other hand, has held 33 executions between 2007 and 2011, as shown in the Figure 111. As to South Korea, the issue at hand is in what measures EU diplomacy contributed to South Korea’s moratorium on death penalty. This research focuses on the European Council’s extradition treaties and EU-South Korea Free Trade Agreement. 5  Ibid. Screen 1. 6  European Commission. “Europe and Asia: A Strategic Framework for Enhanced Partnerships.” 7  European Commission. “Regional Programming for Asia.” Screen 1. Accessed 20 June 2012. 8  European Commission. “Europe and Asia: A Strategic Framework for Enhanced Partnerships.” Screen 1. 9  “건국이후 920명 사형… 살인범 최다.” Hankooki.com. Online Newspaper. 10  Amnesty International. “5000일, 이제는 죽음의 밧줄 위 에도 생명의 꽃이 피어나려고 한다.” 11  Amnesty International. “Death Sentences and Executions 2010.” Screen 1. Accessed 5 April 2012.

According to the letters from Terry Davis (Figure 212), Secretary-General of Council of Europe, which were later submitted to the South Korean Ministry of Justice,13 South Korean government promised the EU “non-appliance of the death penalty” on any criminals from the EU in exchange for its accession to the Protocol to the European Convention on Mutual Assistance in Criminal Matters.14 These letters are significant in the context of EU diplomacy in three ways. First, they imply that the EU can achieve a third country’s moratorium on death penalty by using its political leverage such as its extradition treaties. Second, the European Council sent these letters directly to South Korea’s Constitutional Court on September 1, 2009, which was a diplomatic move of the EU in the aim of abolishing South Korea’s death penalty system.15 Third, it is now difficult for South Korea’s Ministry of Justice to support death penalty on any deathrow inmates. The reason is that it is not fair if the Ministry of Justice only exempts the criminals who are brought in from the European Council from death penalty. In regard to the EU-South Korea FTA, the research also found evidence that shows the impact of EU diplomacy on South Korea’s death penalty system. In March and April, 2009, South Korea’s Ministry of Justice, after considered executing Eu Young-chul, Chung Nam-kyoo, and Chung Sung-hyun, and three other homicide murderers,16 submitted a proposal to the Blue House17 under review.18 At the time, Hae-jin and Ye-seul Incident, in which two children were brutally raped and murdered, sparked nationwide death penalty debate. The Korean public turned in favor of capital punishment.19 The Blue House, however, rejected the 12  Council of Europe. “European Convention on Extradition.” Screen 1. Accessed 25 May 2012. 13  “Letter from Council of Europe head is submitted in case to determine death penalty’s constitutionality.” thehankyoreh. Online Newspaper. 14  Ibid. Screen 1. 15  “법무부, EU에 "사형집행 안한다" 서약서 제출.” Views & News. Online Newspaper. 16  Yonhap News. “법무부, 유영철 등 3명 사형집행 검토했 다.” Chosun.com. Online Newspaper. 17  The Blue House is the executive office of South Korea, which is located in the central part of Seoul. 18  Yonhap News. “법무부, 유영철 등 3명 사형집행 검토했 다.” Chosun.com. Online Newspaper. 19  Ibid. Screen 1.


The Oculus: Proceedings of the U21 Undergraduate Research Conference

Figure 2. Letters from Terry Davis.

proposal, reasoning that executions would burden South Korea in the FTA negotiation with the EU.20 This example illustrates that EU’s conditionalitybased diplomacy was effective. According to Lee Ju-young,21 the EU has threatened South Korean government that any executions would put a hold on their FTA talks.22 There are other signs of EU diplomacy in South Korea’s death penalty moratorium. One needs look no further than European Parliament resolution of December, 1997,23 which demanded South Korean government to declare moratorium on death penalty.24 Although it did not speak out publicly, South Korean government has not held any executions since then. Another piece of evidence is a statement from Chun Myung-ho, a former Attorney General in South Korea: “When I was serving as Attorney General, ambassadors from the EU and the Great Britain, which is a country that represents the EU, regularly came to visit me and urged me to abolish death penalty.”25 20  Ibid. Screen 1. 21  Korean Congressman of the New Frontier Party 22  “법무부, EU에 "사형집행 안한다" 서약서 제출.” Views & News. Online Newspaper. 23  “유럽의회, 한국 사형집행 반대 결의안 통과.” 참세상. 24  Ibid. Screen 1. 25  “법무부, EU에 "사형집행 안한다" 서약서 제출.” Views & News. Online Newspaper.

Gender inequality

Addressing gender inequality is another assignment for the EU on the world stage. According to the 2005 European Development Consensus, the EU is obligated to consider gender equality issues in conducting foreign policy with developing countries:26 “……the EU will include a strong gender component in all its policies and practices in its relations with developing countries.”27 Likewise, the partnership between the EU and United Nations Women illustrates the EU’s commitment to promoting gender equality in third countries.28 Catherine Ashton, High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, reaffirms EU interest in combating gender discrimination when signing the partnership:29 “Discrimination against women and girls remains the most pervasive and persistent form of inequality. Together with UN Women we will work to improve the role of women in political and economic decision-making.” The EU’s willing to advance women’s rights worldwide is evident, especially in Japan. 26  European Commission. “External dimension.” Accessed July 20 2012. 27  Ibid. Screen 1. 28  EUROPA. “New partnership between EU and UN Women to enhance gender equality worldwide.” European Commission Press Release. 29  Ibid. Screen 1.

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Figure 3. The Global Gender Gap between 2000 and 2011.

Figure 4. The Global Gender Gap Sub-index between 2006 and 2011

Figure 5. The Global Gender Gap Sub-index between 2006 and 2011

As shown in the Figure 330, gender equality is improving in South Korea and Japan. Japan’s GGG Index increased by 0.0509 while South Korea’s GGG Index increased by 0.0636 between 2000 and 2011.31 In specific, the Global Gender Gap Index reflects the gender discrimination in four main categories: economic participation, educational attainment, health and survival, and political empowerment.32 According to the GGG sub-indexes between 2006 and 2011, the progress in Japan’s GGG Index attributes to Japanese women’s increasing economic participation and political empowerment. Japan’s sub-index in the category of economic participation increased from 0.5453 in 2006 to 0.5673 in 2011.33 In the category of political empowerment, Japan’s subindex increased from 0.0675 in 2006 to 0.0724 in 2011.34 South Korea’s sign of narrowing gap between men 30  World Economic Forum. “The Global Gender Gap Report 2011.” 31  Ibid. Screen 1. 32  Ibid. Screen 1. 33  Ibid. Screen 1. 34  Ibid. Screen 1.

and women also attributes to economic participation and political empowerment. In summary, the data above illustrates that first, the ratio of women to men in minister-level and parliamentary positions in South Korea and Japan increased between 2006 and 2011;35 second, women’s labor force participation, average income level, and advancement in their workplaces increased.36 EU diplomacy can explain for the increase in women’s political involvement in Japan between 2006 and 2011. For example, Japan has been an observer country in the Steering Committee for Equality between Women and Men (CDEG) of the European Council since November, 2001.37 With its observer status, Japan participates in CDEG meetings to share its gender-related policy measures and receive recommendations from CDEG members. On November 25, 2002, Japan’s Gender Equality Bureau of the Cabinet Office participated 35  Ibid. Screen 1. 36  Ibid. Screen 1. 37  Gender Information Site. “欧州評議会(CE)との交流.” Screen 1. Accessed July 20 2012.


The Oculus: Proceedings of the U21 Undergraduate Research Conference in the 26th Meeting of the Steering Committee for Equality between Women and Men, which provided recommendations on raising female participation in political and public working sectors.38 Another example is the Action Plan for EUJapan Cooperation on December 8, 2001. At the EUJapan Summit, both parties agreed on initiatives to be taken to promote their gender situations, which ranged from gender mainstreaming to policy comparison between the EU and Japan.39 It is worth noting that, in the Action Plan, the Gender Equality Bureau promised to collaborate with the EU in resolving gender issues: “Based on this Action Plan, the Gender Equality Bureau will cooperate with the EU in various ways, including creating opportunities to exchange information and views.”40 The Action Plan is significant in two ways: first, it provided the foundation for the EU-Japan Consultation on Gender Equality on November 29, 2002,41 in which both parties introduced new measures to raise “women’s participation in policy- and decision-making processes”;42 second, it established a direct channel between the EU and the Gender Equality Bureau which formulated the Second Basic Plan for Gender Equality.43 This legislation, approved by the Japanese government on December 27, 2005, contains a set of proposals that would raise the ratio of women to men in leadership positions to 30 percent by 2020.44 The Japanese government, as a part of the legislation, decided to assign 30 percent of career positions to female applications in top-level national civil service exams before 2020. The issues at hand are first, whether EU diplomacy has had any impact on the Gender Equality Bureau’s policy formation that empowers Japanese women politically; second, how the Gender Equality Bureau’s action plans reflect the progress in terms of Japan’s GGG Index. As explained above, there is a binding relationship between the EU and the Gender Equality Bureau under the Action Plan for EU-Japan Cooperation. Moreover, the Gender Equality Bureau has received policy recommendations in its policy dialogue and consultations with the CDEG.45 As to the second question, the Gender Equality Bureau’s primary objective is to increase women’s participation in 38  Gender Equality Bureau. “International Cooperation .” Screen 1. Accessed 20 July 2012. 39  Gender Equality Bureau. “Action Plan for EU- Japan Cooperation .” Screen 1. Accessed 20 July 2012. 40  Ibid. Screen 1. 41  Gender Equality Bureau. “International Cooperation .” Screen 1. Accessed 20 July 2012. 42  Ibid. Screen 1. 43  Ibid. Screen 1. 44  Ibid. Screen 1. 45  Gender Equality Bureau. “International Cooperation .” Screen 1. Accessed 20 July 2012.

Japanese politics and national government.46 Under the current plan, the female proportions among election candidates of the House of Councilors and those of the House of Representatives would reach 30% by 2020.47 EU diplomacy also accounts for the progress in women’s economic activities in Japan. The impact of EU diplomacy is evident in Japanese women’s increasing labor force participation, average income level, and advancement in their workplaces, in a similar way to the impact on Japanese women’s political empowerment. For example, the Third Basic Plan for Gender Equality, which was drawn by the Gender Equality Bureau and later approved by Japan’s Cabinet Office in December, 2011,48 places its emphasis on “revitalizing the economy and society through women’s active participation.”49 As to women’s job advancement, the Third Basic Plan for Gender Equality requires the female proportion among managers and any other positions above in private companies to reach 10% by 2015 from 6.5% in 2009.50 The central issue is the role of EU diplomacy in the formation of the Third Basic Plan for Gender Equality. As mentioned previously, the EU and the Gender Equality Bureau shares a binding relationship under the Action Plan for EU-Japan Cooperation of 2001. In a more concrete example, according to Professor Takashi Kashima at Jissen Women’s University, who also serves in the Council for Gender Equality at the Cabinet Office, the first draft for the Third Basic Plan for Gender Equality took in account of how European developed countries transformed an “M-shaped curve”51 of the female employment ratio by age group to a “trapezoidal shape.”52

Conclusion

This research illustrates how the recent progress in human rights situations in South Korea and Japan can be attributed to EU diplomacy. It is evident that the EU is trying all manner of solutions 46  Gender Equality Bureau. “Expansion of Women’s Participation in Policy and Decision-making Processes in All Fields of Society.” Screen 1. Accessed 20 July 2012. 47  Ibid. Screen 1. 48  Gender Equality Bureau. “Summary of Third Basic Plan for Gender Equality (Approved by the Cabinet in December 2010).” <http://www.gender.go.jp/english_ contents/category/pub/whitepaper/pdf/3rd_bpg. pdf>. Screen 1. Accessed 20 July 2012. 49  Ibid. Screen 1. 50  Gender Equality Bureau. “Expansion of Women’s Participation in Policy and Decision-making Processes in All Fields of Society.” 51  Instituto Cervantes, Japan Foundation. “International Conference on Empowering Women.” <http://www. jpf.go.jp/j/intel/new/1005/pdf/report_english.pdf>. Screen 1. Accessed 20 July 2012. 52  Ibid. Screen 1.

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24 to promote human rights in South Korea and Japan. The EU has implemented a variety of diplomatic instruments, political/economic leverage and political dialogue, to inflict a moratorium on South Korea’s death penalty. The EU has addressed sexual discrimination in Japan by extending its diplomatic channels with Japan for further cooperation in combating gender inequality since 2001. Whether South Korea’s moratorium on death penalty would continue is in question. The moratorium is still unofficial while death penalty is still constitutional despite the EU’s effort. The FTA can no longer serve as an economic leverage for the EU. Moreover, there is no guarantee that South Korea’s Ministry of Justice would maintain silence and not be swayed by the public increasingly favoring executions.53 As in Japan, the idea of genderbased quota in public and private sectors remains highly controversial.54 Also, whether there are enough female candidates to fill the positions left for women is also not certain.55 It would be interesting to find out in what measures EU diplomacy will maintain favorable human rights situations in South Korea and Japan in next several years. 53  Yonhap News. “법무부, 유영철 등 3명 사형집행 검토했 다.” Chosun.com. Online Newspaper. 54  Sanchanta, Mariko & Koh, Yoree. “Japan Considers Quotas for Women in Politics.” The Wall Street Journal. <http://online.wsj.com/article/SB100014240527023045 69504576403401964052630.html>. Screen 1. 55  Ibid. Screen 1.

References

1. Amnesty International. “5000일, 이제는 죽음의 밧줄 위에도 생명의 꽃이 피어나려고 한다.” <http:// blog.amnesty.or.kr/5275/>. Screen 1. Accessed 25 May 2012. 2. Amnesty International. “Death Sentences and Executions 2010.” Screen 1. Accessed 5 April 2012. 3. Bacon, Paul. “Human rights, the death penalty, and EU-Japan relations.” Waseda University. Accessed 5 July 2012. 4. Bacon, Paul. “Human rights, the death penalty, and EU-Japan relations.” Lecture. 5. Bomberg, Elizabeth. “Introduction.” In The European Union: How Does it Work? Oxford University Press, 2008. 6. Council of Europe. “European Convention on Extradition.” <https://wcd.coe.int/ViewDoc. jsp?id=1360253&Site=CM>. Screen 1. Accessed 25 May 2012 7. Delegation of the European Union to Japan. “Declaration by the High Representative, Catherine Ashton, on behalf of the European Union on executions in Japan.” <http:// w w w. e u i n j a p a n . j p /e n / m e d i a / n e w s / news2012/20120329/110000/>. Screen 1. Accessed 20 July 2012. 8. Europa. “Catherine Ashton EU High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy and Vice President of the European Commission Speech to the European Parliament on human rights European Parliament Strasbourg, 16 June 2010.” Press Releases RAPID. <http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction. do?reference=SPEECH/10/317&format=HTM L&aged=0&language=EN&guiLanguage=en>. Screen 1. Accessed 26 July 2012. 9. European Commission. “External dimension.” <http://ec.europa.eu/justice/gender-equality/ development- cooperat ion/i ndex _en.ht m>. Screen 1. Accessed July 20 2012. 10. European Commission. “Human rights and democracy at the heart of eu external action – towards a more effective approach.” <http://eurlex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=C OM:2011:0886:FIN:EN:PDF>. Screen 1. Accessed 10 June 2012. 11. European Union and United Nations. “Statement by HR Ashton on the death penalty in Japan.” European Union. <http://www.eu-un.europa. eu/articles/en/article_9995_en.htm>. Screen 1. Accessed July 20 2012. 12. European Commission. “Regional Programming for Asia.” <http://eeas.europa.eu/asia/ rsp/07_13_en.pdf>. Screen 1. Accessed 20 June 2012 13. Gender Information Site. “欧州評議会(CE)との 交流.” <http://www.gender.go.jp/eu/ce.html.> Screen 1. Accessed July 20 2012.


The Oculus: Proceedings of the U21 Undergraduate Research Conference 14. Gender Equality Bureau. “International Cooperation .” <http://www.gender.go.jp/ english_contents/category/pub/pamphlet/ women2003/inter/i02.html>. Screen 1. 15. Gender Equality Bureau. “Action Plan for EUJapan Cooperation .” <http://www.gender.go.jp/ english_contents/category/pub/pamphlet/ women2002/i06.html>. Screen 1. Accessed 20 July 2012. 16. Gender Equality Bureau. “International Cooperation .” <http://www.gender.go.jp/ english_contents/category/pub/pamphlet/ women2003/inter/i02.html>. Screen 1. Accessed 20 July 2012. 17. Gender Equality Bureau. “International Cooperation .” <http://www.gender.go.jp/ english_contents/category/pub/pamphlet/ women2003/inter/i02.html>. Screen 1. Accessed 20 July 2012. 18. International Amnesty. “Death Sentences and Executions 2010.” Screen 1. Accessed 5 April 2012. 19. “Letter from Council of Europe head is submitted in case to determine death penalty’s constitutionality.” thehankyoreh. Online Newspaper. <http://english.hani.co.kr/arti/ english_edition/e_international/374472.html>. Screen 1. Accessed 25 May 2012. 20. Official Journal of the European Union. “Amendments to the treaty on european union and to the treaty establishing the european community.” Europa. <http://eur-lex.europa. eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:C:2007:30 6:0010:0041:EN:PDF>. Screen 1. Accessed 10 June 2012. 21. Sanchanta, Mariko and Koh, Yoree. “Japan Considers Quotas for Women in Politics.” The Wall Street Journal. <http://online.wsj.com/ article/SB1000142405270230456950457640340196 4052630.html>. Screen 1. Accessed 26 July 2012.\ 22. The Korea Herald. “EU will come out of crisis stronger, envoy says.” The Korea Herald. Online Newspaper. <http://view.koreaherald.com/kh/ view.php?ud=20120506000299&cpv=0>. Screen 1. Accessed 20 June 2012. 23. Yonhap News. “법무부, 유영철 등 3명 사형집행 검토했다.” Chosun.com. Online Newspaper. 24. World Economic Forum. “The Global Gender Gap Report 2011.” <www3.weforum.org/docs/ WEF_GenderGap_Report_2011.pdf>. Screen 1. Accessed April 20 2012. 25. Yonhap News. “법무부, 유영철 등 3명 사형집행 검토했다.” Chosun.com. Online Newspaper. <ht t p://issue.chosun.com/site/data/ht m l_ dir/2010/03/22/2010032201326.html 26. “건국이후 920명 사형… 살인범 최다.” Hankooki.com. Online Newspaper. <http://news.hankooki.com/ lpage/society/200910/h2009101108074721950. htm>. Screen 1. Accessed 5 July 2012.

27. “법무부, EU에 "사형집행 안한다" 서약서 제출.” Views & News. Online Newspaper. <http://www. viewsnnews.com/article/view.jsp?seq=60845>. Screen 1. Accessed 25 May 2012. 28. “유럽의회, 한국 사형집행 반대 결의안 통과.” 참세상. <http://www.newscham.net/news/view. php?board=news&nid=1946>. Screen 1. Accessed 25 May 2012.

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26

Improving Walking Symmetry in People With Stroke: A Pilot Study Alvin Ip, Zhen Chen, Tania Lam University of British Columbia

Abstract

Over 80 million people in the world live with the effects of stroke. A stroke damages one side of the brain, resulting in motor impairments to the other half of the body. This leads to asymmetrical walking; the weaker leg is used less to propel and support the body compared to the stronger leg. Improving symmetry is critically important because asymmetrical walking leads to impaired balance, decreased bone strength, and increased falls. However, little research has looked at improving walking symmetry. This study tests whether applying resistance against the stronger leg can improve walking symmetry in people with stroke. To increase the use of the weaker leg, we make the stronger leg harder to use. Six participants were fitted into the Lokomat, a gait therapy device with a treadmill, harness, and leg-cuffs. The Lokomat was programmed to apply resistance, equivalent to 10% of the hip and knee flexorsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; maximal voluntary contraction, against the stronger leg. Subjects walked consecutively for 50 strides with no resistance, 50 strides with resistance against the stronger leg, and 50 strides with resistance removed. Applying resistance against the stronger leg may improve walking symmetry and increase the use of the weaker leg to propel and support the body. We demonstrated the feasibility of this novel intervention and uncovered aspects of the study design to be improved upon. This will inform further research on rehabilitation strategies to connect stroke survivors to a future where asymmetrical walking is no longer a threat to their health and well-being.

Introduction

E

ffective rehabilitation strategies are critical in promoting neuroplasticity and neural adaptations for people who have suffered neurological injury. There are over 80 million people in the world living with the effects of stroke. Stroke is a neurological disease that significantly impacts the health and quality of life of stroke survivors (Poole, 2002). A stroke damages one side of the brain, resulting in motor impairments to the other half of the body. A decrease in unilateral muscle activity leads to asymmetries in bilateral movement such as walking. Walking asymmetry is a hallmark characteristic seen in stroke patients (Patterson et al., 2008). Asymmetrical walking manifests with the weaker leg being used less than the stronger leg. Studies have shown that the weaker leg spends less time in single-support stance during walking, which is the time when only one leg is on the ground supporting the body (Beauchamp et al., 2009). Known as temporal asymmetry, the weaker leg is not used as much to support the body during walking. The weaker leg can also take a shorter stride, which is the distance that the foot travels when it lifts off the ground, moves forward, and lands on the ground again (Den Otter et al., 2007). This is known as spatial asymmetry, where the weaker leg is not used as much to propel the body forward during walking. Improving symmetry is critically important because there is strong evidence that asymmetrical walking leads to impaired balance (Platts et al., 2006), decreased bone strength (Jorgenson et al.,

2000), joint problems (Patterson et al., 2008), and increased falls (Poole, 2002). All of these have a negative impact on the health and well-being of people with stroke. Out of all impairments related to their stroke, the goal of improving walking function is most frequently pinpointed by stroke patients (Bohannon et al., 1988). However, there is a dearth of research looking at improving walking symmetry. Therefore, walking asymmetry is an important issue to address in stroke rehabilitation. The aim of my research is to improve walking symmetry in people with stroke by increasing the use of the weaker leg. This study tests whether applying resistance against the stronger leg can improve walking symmetry in people with stroke. The application of resistance against the stronger leg during walking may make the stronger leg harder to use. Therefore, the individual may then be forced to use his or her weaker leg more. The hypothesis of my research study is that when resistance is applied against the stronger leg, the patient will use his or her weaker leg more. This will be seen through increases in the single-support stance time and stride length of the weaker, or paretic, leg.

Methods

Six individuals (mean age: 66.3 yr; SD: 11.59 yr) who had a stroke that occurred at least six months prior and resulted in hemiparesis were recruited to participate in this study. Their characteristics are listed in Table 1. A trained physiotherapist and physiatrist classified all participants using the Chedoke-McMaster Stroke Assessment, which


The Oculus: Proceedings of the U21 Undergraduate Research Conference is a standard neurologic examination for people with stroke (Gowland et al., 1993). Specifically, the Impairment Inventory for the stage of recovery of leg and foot was completed to determine the presence and severity of physical impairments in the lower limb of the subjects. All subjects were ambulatory and able to walk at least 10 meters overground. The exclusion criteria included any other medical condition or cognitive disorder that would have prevented them from engaging in exercise, inability to walk before stroke, and spasticity that completely interfered with their ability to walk. Subjects who were taller than 6’1’’ or weighed more than 300 pounds were also excluded due to size limitations of the equipment used for the study. The University of British Columbia Behavioural Research Ethics Board approved all procedures, and all subjects gave their written informed consent.

Experimental setup

To assess overground locomotor capacity in the subjects, subjects were timed while they walked at their comfortable speed along a straight path of 10 meters for the 10-meter walk test (10MWT; Van Hedel et al., 2005). Three trials were collected and averaged together to determine gait velocity (Table 1). All subjects wore a body weight support (BWS) harness and were fitted to the Lokomat driven gait orthosis (Hocoma, Volketswil, Switzerland). The level of BWS provided to each subject (Table 1) was adjusted, if needed, to ensure that there were appropriate stance phase kinematics during walking, using clinical gait observation (no knee buckling during stance, hip extension through end-stance; Behrman et al., 2005). Subjects were strapped to the exoskeleton device by leg cuffs around the mid-thigh, upper shank, and lower shank, whereas a waist belt provided trunk support. Passive foot lifters were used to support the ankle as needed. The Lokomat was programmed to apply velocity-dependent resistance (viscous force field) against hip joint movement during walking (Lam et al., 2006). This resistance (M) can be defined by: M = B x velH, where B is the viscous (or damping) coefficient (N·m·s/rad), whereas velH is the angular velocity (rad/s) of the hip joint. When B is set to 0, no resistance is applied. Participants were given several minutes to familiarize themselves with walking in the Lokomat. During this time, no resistance was applied, and subjects were to walk of their own volition. The treadmill speed was set to each subject’s comfortable overground walking speed as determined by the 10MWT. This proved too fast for some subjects and therefore the speed was adjusted to one where walking could be sustained throughout the data collection process (Table 1). Subjects then underwent testing of their maximum voluntary contraction

(MVC) using isometric strength testing in the Lokomat (Bolliger et al., 2008). Three trials were performed to calculate average maximum voluntary force for the hip and knee flexors of the stronger leg. Training for each subject consisted of the consecutive periods of ‘Baseline’, ‘Resistance’, and ‘After-Effects’. For ‘Baseline’, subjects walked for 50 strides without resistance. The ‘Resistance’ period followed, in which subjects walked approximately 50 strides with resistance applied against the stronger leg. This was immediately followed by 50 strides with the resistance removed, which was termed ‘After-Effects’. During the ‘Resistance’ period, the Lokomat was programmed to deliver resistance scaled to 10% of the individual’s hip and knee flexors’ MVC (Table 1). The resistance was applied unilaterally against the stronger leg and all subjects could tolerate the resistance applied. For the ‘After-Effects’ period, the resistance was always turned off during mid-stance during which angular velocity is low compared with the rest of the cycle. Subjects were not told when the resistance was present or removed; they were instructed to walk regularly throughout the entire training.

Data collection

Data was collected throughout the entire training protocol for all subjects. Force-sensitive resistors (FSRs; Interlink Electronics, Camarillo, CA) placed under the heel of the foot and big toe allowed for detection of foot contact and toe-off times. These signals were sampled at 1,000 Hz and stored on a computer for offline analysis. Three motion capture cameras (Optotrak 3020; Northern Digital, Waterloo, ON, Canada) were used to track active infrared markers, which was placed over the fifth metatarsal head to record foot trajectory during walking. These data were collected at 100 Hz and synchronized to the other data with a synchronization pulse.

Data analysis

Gait parameters examined in the present study were single-support stance time and stride length of the weaker leg. Offline processing of the data was performed using custom-written routines in MATLAB (MathWorks, Natick, MA). Data signals were low-pass-filtered at 6 Hz using a digital zerolag fourth-order Butterworth filter. The single-support times of the weaker leg were calculated using the data from FSRs. The paretic stride lengths were calculated using the data from Optotrak infrared marker data. The kinematic data were divided into individual gait cycles as determined by the FSRs. Calculating single-support stance time and stride length allows us to quantify the utilization of the weaker leg throughout the training.

27


28 For the purposes of data analysis, we examined these variables at four specific time-points during the training protocol: ‘Baseline’ (first 50 strides without resistance); first 5 strides of ‘Resistance’; last 5 strides of ‘Resistance’; and first 5 strides of ‘AfterEffects’.

Statistical analysis

A one-way repeated measures ANOVA with a Greenhouse-Geisser correction for sphericity was performed on paretic stride length, non-paretic stride length, paretic single-support stance time, and non-paretic single-support stance time to ascertain if there was significant differences between the gait measurements during the ‘Baseline’ period that would indicate the presence of walking asymmetry in subjects with stroke. A one-way repeated measures ANOVA with a Greenhouse-Geisser correction for sphericity was performed on paretic stride length and paretic singlesupport stance time to examine if there were any significant differences between the 4 time-points of ‘Baseline’, first 5 strides of ‘Resistance’, last 5 strides of ‘Resistance’, and first 5 strides of ‘After-Effects’. All statistical tests were computed with a Bonferroni adjustment for multiple comparisons using IBM SPSS Statistics 19.0 (Armonk, NY, USA).

Results

Baseline walking asymmetry in participants with stroke

Figure 1. Study participant fully equipped and ready to begin training in the Lokomat.

In five subjects, the non-paretic stride lengths were on average 9.2% longer than their paretic stride lengths during baseline walking. The difference in stride lengths was found to be significant [F(1, 4) = 17.781; p = 0.01], thereby indicating the presence of spatial asymmetry. However, spatial asymmetry manifested in the opposite direction for one subject. His paretic stride length was 8.4% longer than his non-paretic stride length.

Table 1. Characteristics of research study participants.

Table 2. The Lokomat settings used for data collection for each participant.


The Oculus: Proceedings of the U21 Undergraduate Research Conference

Figure 2. Paretic single-support stance time at different timepoints during training. Bar graphs represent the mean. Error bars represent the 95% confidence interval of the mean.

Figure 3. Paretic stride length at different time-points during training. Bar graphs represent the mean. Error bars represent the 95% confidence interval of the mean.

Figure 4. Increases in paretic stride length in response to resistance. Each line represents individual subjects; thick lines represent linear functions that describe the data.

Figure 5. Increases in paretic single-support stance time in response to resistance. Each line represents individual subjects; thick lines represent linear functions that describe the data.

On average, subjects spent 28.1% more time in single-support stance on the stronger leg compared to the weaker leg during baseline walking. This temporal asymmetry was observed across all subjects and the difference in the time that each leg spent in single-support stance was found to be statistically significant [F(1, 5 = 14.071; p = 0.01].

resistance is initially applied. But during the last 5 strides of ‘Resistance’, the weaker leg is utilized more to propel the body forward, surpassing both stride length values measured at ‘Baseline’ and in the first 5 strides of ‘Resistance’. Once resistance is removed in ‘After-Effects’, stride length decreases back to near-baseline levels. We found no statistically significant differences in paretic stride length among the four conditions [F(1.347, 6.731) = 1.874; p = 0.221].

Increase in paretic single-support stance time when resistance is applied against the stronger leg

One indicator that the weaker leg is being used more is an increase in its single-support stance time. We can see that when there is resistance against the stronger leg, the single-support stance time increases (Figure 2). This effect is progressive because the weaker leg is used to support the body even more during the last 5 strides of ‘Resistance’. Once resistance is removed in ‘After-Effects’, the stance time decreases back to near-baseline levels. However, there were no statistically significant differences in paretic single-support stance time among the four conditions [F(1.235, 6.117) = 1.151; p = 0.341].

Increase in paretic stride length when resistance is applied against the stronger leg

Another indicator that the weaker leg is being used more is an increase in paretic stride length. In Figure 3, the stride length decreases a little bit when

Increases in paretic stride length throughout the entire ‘Resistance’ period

When analyzing the data for each stride taken by subjects during the ‘Resistance’ period, we found that the paretic stride lengths of all subjects increased throughout this specific training period where resistance had been applied against the stronger leg (Figure 4). By the last 5 strides of the ‘Resistance’ period, all subjects had demonstrated positive adaptations whereby the stride length of their weaker leg had increased by an average of 10.23% from the values obtained during the first 5 strides. A linear relationship was identified, where increases in paretic stride length were proportional to the number of strides taken with resistance (Figure 4).

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30 Increases in paretic single-support stance time throughout the entire ‘Resistance’ period

Looking at the changes in paretic singlesupport stance time throughout the ‘Resistance’ period, we found a positive linear relationship between paretic single-support stance time and number of strides against resistance in most subjects as well (Figure 5). By the last 5 strides of resistance, all but one subject had increased their paretic single-support stance time compared to the initial application of resistance (Figure 5). The average increase among these 5 subjects was 14.37%. However, one subject (shown by the dasheddotted line) adapted to resistance by decreasing paretic single-support stance time by 9.54% compared to the initial 5 strides of resistance (Figure 5).

Discussion

Acting on the listed priority of improving walking function in the stroke population (Bohannon et al., 1988), we have successfully developed and pilot-tested a novel therapeutic intervention to improve walking symmetry in 6 subjects with stroke. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to describe and examine the use of robotically-applied resistance against the stronger leg to improve walking asymmetry in people with stroke. This novel approach to gait training in stroke survivors manipulates the concept of adaptive interlimb coordination, through which a more normalized and symmetric walking pattern may be produced using specific rehabilitation strategies (Reisman et al., 2007). Task-specific gait training of bi-pedal walking was utilized to confer neural adaptations (Hesse, 2001) and transfer to overground walking (Savin et al., 2010). All subjects could tolerate the level of resistance applied and successfully completed the training session without any adverse events. The paretic stride lengths and paretic singlesupport stance times in almost all subjects increased steadily throughout the resistance period. A consistent linear relationship was observed, where increases in paretic stride length and paretic singlesupport stance time were proportional to the number of strides taken with resistance. This means that when resistance was applied against their stronger leg, subjects used their weaker leg more and more to propel and support the body. We believe that as the stronger leg gets more and more tired from walking against resistance, the weaker leg compensates and is used more and more to propel and support the body during walking. As positive linear trends were observed in most subjects, it was hypothesized a posteriori that taking more than 50 strides would result in even greater increases in paretic stride length and paretic single-

support stance time. This assumption was tested in one subject (shown by the dashed line), who walked 94 strides against resistance during the ‘Resistance’ period of training (Figure 4; Figure 5). We were very surprised to see that these linear relationships continued on. This uncovered something important; perhaps walking more than 50 strides against resistance is required to fully engage the weaker leg. We recommend that future studies employ a ‘Resistance’ period where resistance is applied against the stronger leg for more than 50 strides. For paretic single-support stance time, the performance of one subject was different than the others and his trend line was negative (dasheddotted line, Figure 5). Upon further examination to explain this discrepancy, we found that this particular subject responded differently than we had intended to resistance. He took smaller and smaller steps with his stronger leg, which decreased the support time needed from his weaker leg. This was another important observation. To account for this, we verbally cued the subjects after him to maintain normal stride length of their stronger leg throughout the training. Our data supported the hypothesis that applying resistance against the stronger leg can improve walking symmetry by increasing the use of the weaker leg. Increased usage and loading of the weaker leg during walking could reduce kinematic, neuromuscular, and limb load differences between the lower limbs of stroke survivors who tend to favour their stronger leg. The results of this pilot study indicate that it may be worthwhile to measure and examine the effects of multiple intervention sessions on the weaker leg. A limitation of our study was that our results did not reach statistical significance. One major factor was the small sample size, which resulted in the study being underpowered. Another reason was due to the nature of this experiment; as a pilot study, some aspects of the study design were unrefined and problematic. However, we believe that by conducting this pilot study, we have gained valuable knowledge regarding the feasibility of this novel intervention and on how to improve the study design.

Conclusion

We conducted a pilot study on a novel intervention to improve walking symmetry in people with stroke. We found that applying resistance against the stronger leg may improve walking symmetry by increasing the use of the weaker leg to propel and support the body during walking. The study demonstrated the feasibility of this novel intervention and uncovered aspects of the study design to be improved upon. The promising results of this pilot study signify that more research should be done on this intervention. We hope that our knowledge on how to improve the study design


The Oculus: Proceedings of the U21 Undergraduate Research Conference can be used to inform a larger study in the future. This will inform further research on rehabilitation strategies to connect stroke survivors to a future where asymmetrical walking is no longer a threat to their health and well-being.

Acknowledgments

We wish to thank Dr. Antoinette Domingo for her assistance and expertise with data collection. We wish to thank Jason Liang for his assistance with statistical analyses.

References

1. Beauchamp MK, Skrela M, Southmayd D, Tick J, Van Kessel M, Brunton K, Inness E, McIlroy WE. 2009. Immediate effects of cane use on gait symmetry in individuals with subacute stroke. Physiotherapy Canada. 61: ii154-ii160. 2. Behrman AL, Lawless-Dixon AR, Davis SB, Bowden MG, Nair P, Phadke C, Hannold EM, Plummer P, Harkema SJ. 2005. Locomotor training progression and outcomes after incomplete spinal cord injury. Physical Therapy. 85: ii1356-ii1371. 3. Bohannon RW, Andrew AW, Smith MB. 1988. Rehabilitation goals of patients with hemiplegia. International Journal of Rehabilitation Research. 11: ii181-ii183. 4. Bolliger M, Banz R, Dietz V, L端nenburger L. 2008. Standardized voluntary force measurement in a lower extremity rehabilitation robot. Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation. 5: ii23. 5. Den Otter AR, Geurts AC, Mulder T, Duysens J. 2007. Abnormalities in the temporal patterning of lower extremity muscle activity in hemiparetic gait. Gait & Posture. 5: ii342-ii352. 6. Gowland C, Stratford P, Ward M, Moreland J, Torresin W, Van Hullenaar S, Sanford J, Barreca S, Vanspall B, Plews N. 1993. Measuring physical impairment and disability with the ChedokeMcMaster Stroke Assessment. Stroke. 24: ii58-ii63. 7. Hesse S. 2001. Locomotor therapy in neurorehabilitation. NeuroRehabilitation. 16: ii133ii139. 8. Jorgenson L, Jacobsen BK, Wilsgaard T, Magnus JH. 2000. Walking after stroke: does it matter? Changes in bone mineral density within the first 12 months after stroke: a longitudinal study. Osteoporosis International. 11: ii381-ii387. 9. Lam T, Anderschitz M, Dietz V. 2006. Contribution of feedback and feedforward strategies to locomotor adaptations. Journal of Neurophysiology. 95: ii766-ii773. 10. Patterson KK, Parafianowicz I, Danells CJ, Closson V, Verrier MC, Staines WR, Black SE, McIlroy WE. 2008. Gait asymmetry in community-ambulating stroke survivors. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 89: ii304-ii310.

11. Platts MM, Rafferty D, Paul L. 2006. Metabolic cost of overground gait in younger stroke patients and healthy controls. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 38: ii1041-ii1046. 12. Poole KES, Reeve J, Warburton EA. 2002. Falls, fractures, and osteoporosis after stroke: Time to think about protection? Stroke. 33: ii1432-ii1436. 13. Reisman DS, Wityk R, Silver K, Bastian AJ. 2007. Locomotor adaptation on a split-belt treadmill can improve walking symmetry post-stroke. Brain. 130: ii1861-ii1872. 14. Savin DN, Tseng SC, Morton SM. 2010. Bilateral adaptation during locomotion following a unilaterally applied resistance to swing in nondisabled adults. Journal of Neurophysiology. 104: ii3600-ii3611. 15. van Hedel HJ, Wirz M, Dietz V. 2005. Assessing walking ability in subjects with spinal cord injury: validity and reliability of 3 walking tests. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 86: ii190-ii196.

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32

Won’t Somebody Please Think of the Children? Arun Jain

University of Auckland

Abstract

The regulation of advertising is a highly contentious issue. On one hand rest the interests of free speech, on the other the protection of the public from manipulating advertising. The battle between these competing interests is never as fierce as it is in relation to children. Children are not only far more susceptible to misleading and deceptive advertising than adults, but are far less equipped to understand the nature of advertising. Particularly significant is the potential for the innocent and trusting nature of children to be exploited for financial gains. Advertising is often accused of taking advantage of children, manipulating them, and lying to them. At the same time, advertising that elicits a response from its targeted customers is as old as commerce itself. Children form a huge and invaluable market for businesses. Their whims and desires as provoked by advertising are worth billions of dollars to the global economy. Enter law. The problem posed by this conflict, as it pertains to the law, is the extent to which advertising targeting children should be controlled, if at all. While this is far from a straightforward resolution, policy factors on both side of the debate indicate towards the proper balance that can be struck in a given jurisdiction.

Introduction

T

he innocence of childhood is constantly under attack in the modern consumer world. The nature of children is such that they form a target for advertising communications by marketers seeking to profit from their vulnerability and inexperience. Ultimately, how and whether at all the law should control advertising to children depends on a wide range of policy considerations. The approaches taken to regulate advertising by different jurisdictions indicate some possible forms of regulation, but ultimately the home society is the best gauge of what is and is not acceptable advertising in a given case. Some of the key issues surrounding the practice of advertising to children will be considered in this paper. An exploration of approaches taken to regulate advertising to children in various jurisdictions will then be conducted. The appropriateness of these approached will then be critiqued. Finally it will be concluded that a rigid approach such as a ban on advertising to children is generally not necessary, but rather that advertising in most societies warrants some form of control in the interests of children.

Ethical Issues Regarding Advertising to Children

As is the case with all advertising, the purpose of advertising to children is to raise awareness of a product, service or brand.1 In the case of commercial advertising, this can be equated to the intention to raise revenues for a company or organisation. It is in part this commercially driven motivation that differentiates advertising communication from other forms of expression, such as free press, that are often enshrined in a nation’s constitution or legislation.2 1  Roger Kerin and others Marketing (8th ed, McGraw Hill, New York, 2006), at 496. 2  Colin R Munro “The Value of Commercial Speech” (2003) 62(1) CLJ 134 at 142–144.

In the United States of America alone, children’s individual purchases are worth over $300 billion per year, not including the influences made by children on decision–making within their families.3 This indicates the level of appeal for marketers in targeting children as part of their commercial strategy.

Psychological criticisms

Key ethical issues regarding the practice of advertising to children focus on varying stages of psychological development of children. Alongside the observable physical changes that occur during childhood, children’s brains undergo similarly dramatic changes.4 Advertising is widely criticized for exploiting the limited psychological development of children.5 Psychologists often segment children into three broad groups based on their ability to comprehend advertising messages. The first of these three groups, known as the limited segment, is comprised of children aged 6 years and younger.6 In this segment children are generally able to distinguish truth and lies, but not exaggerations. They tend to see the world from their own point of view and may not understand the purpose of advertising, often mistaking it for 3  Kerin, above n 1, at 138. 4  Interview with Nigel Latta, child psychologist (the author, Auckland, 7 July 2011). Complex changes occurring in a child’s amygdala, hippocampus and prefrontal cortex can dramatically affect they way they receive and store information. 5  Elizabeth Handsley and others “Media, Public Health and Law: A Lawyer’s Primer on the Food Advertising Debate” (2007) 12 MALR 87 at 105. 6  Michael Solomon, Rebekah Russell–Bennett and Josephine Previte Consumer Behaviour (2nd ed, Pearson, Sydney, 2010) at 338–341.


The Oculus: Proceedings of the U21 Undergraduate Research Conference entertainment.7 They cannot help but assume that the representations that they observe are true, which gives rise to a potential for abuse.8 The second group, known as the cued segment, is constituted of children between the ages of 6 and 11 years.9 In this segment, children are more able to store information regarding differing perspectives, and can make purchase decisions based on previous experience and the usefulness of products.10 At this stage, children are still vulnerable to suggestion and will often do as they are told without question. The mere fact that they may be able to understand the persuasive intention of advertising does not mean they are able to decide independently whether to pursue the suggestion.11 The third group identified by psychologists is known as the strategic segment. These are children over the age of 11 and entering adolescence.12 Typically in this stage, children are finally able to understand and interpret the content of information presented to them. As they mature their thought processes become adult–like, and their wants and needs have regard to contextual factors.13 Therefore, it is not until at least the point of adolescence that children’s brains are fully equipped - individually and without parental assistance - to discern, judge and differentiate advertising messages. Given the varying levels of psychological development through which children progress, there is prima facie support for the notion that advertising to children may be unethical. Nigel Latta, one of New Zealand’s foremost child psychologists, advocates for stringent controls on advertising to children given the complex cognitive systems that develop during childhood. He indicates that children’s brains undergo such dramatic changes that it should be illegal for marketers to exert influence on them directly.14 Limited development of key brain structures, such as the amygdala, hippocampus and frontal lobe also help explain children’s trusting natures.15 These structures regulate emotions, learning and the ability to learn and discern different points of view, and may not be fully developed until the age of 16.16 The combination of limited brain development and the inexperience of children as consumers may leave them vulnerable to exploitation by advertising. 7  David Marshall (ed) Understanding Children as Consumers (Sage, London, 2010) at 25-26. 8  Ibid, at 117. 9  Solomon, above n 6, at 344. 10  Ibid. 11  Marshall, above n 7, at 224. 12  Solomon, above n 6, at 344. 13  Marshall, above n 7, at 26. 14  Interview with Nigel Latta, above n 4. 15  Ibid. 16  Paul A Young and Paul H Young Basic Clinical Neuroanatomy (Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, 1997) at 201–205.

These factors may also contribute to a generally much lower threshold of misleading advertising for children than for adults.17 Controversially, it has been argued that advertising plays a role in childhood learning. Such arguments indicate that a part of growing into adult society requires children to learn how to understand their wants and needs, and become future consumers.18 The problem with such an argument is that children, and especially younger children, tend to be highly trusting of adults. A child’s state of psychological development often renders them vulnerable and unable to weigh up factors such as costs, the utility they will actually derive from purchase, and wants versus needs.19

Social criticisms

The practice of encouraging children to spend their own or their parents’ money on certain products or brands can be considered unethical. This is especially the case given the often aggressive measures used to attract children, including calls– to–action and hyperbolic claims.20 Advertising to children has received its greatest publicity and censure regarding the promotion of products that could be of harm to children if consumed excessively, especially fast foods.21 Obesity in children is sometimes cited as a symptom of such advertising. Critics of the practice indicate that there may exist a causal link between the advertising of treat or junk foods and high levels of childhood obesity and diseases such as type II diabetes.22 It stands to reason that socially responsible advertising would not engage in practices likely to increase obesity in children, and advertisers who do so may be acting unethically. There are numerous instances of marketers of unhealthy food and drink taking advantage of children’s credulity and investing billions of dollars into targeted campaigns against them.23 However it does not stand to reason that the existence of childhood obesity alone renders the practice of advertising to children, and for every product or brand, inherently unethical. Some critics argue that viewing advertisements that implicitly or 17  Sarah Mackay “Food Advertising and Obesity in Australia: To what extent can self–regulation protect the interests of children” (2009) 35 Mon LR 118 at 123–124. 18  Marshall, above n 7, at 227. 19  Ibid. 20  Debra Harker, Glen Wiggs and Michael Harker “Responsive Advertising Regulation: A Case Study from New Zealand” (2005) 40 Aust J Polit Sci 541 at 542. 21  Handsley, above n 5, at 88–89. 22  Ibid. 23  Story and Simone French “Food Advertising and Marketing Directed at Children and Adolescents in the US” [2004] Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 3 at 4. Advertising in schools in the United States has particularly been blamed for health problems.

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34 explicitly encourage unhealthy behaviors constitute only one of many factors contributing to obesity in children.24 Other factors such as culture, physical activity, education and school curriculums may be at least as important in predicting childhood obesity.25 While a causal relationship between advertising unhealthy foods and childhood obesity may be questionable, there is also a strong argument that advertising at least ought not to contribute to such problems.26 Advertising to children has also been blamed for its contribution to issues such as hyperactivity, selfishness and materialistic aspiration in children.27 It is often criticized for encouraging children to desire new products, and to demand these from their parents. This is particularly so in relation to the use of famous personalities and sponsorship, as advertising employing popular role models is likely to appeal more significantly to children than to adults.28 Advertising is also criticized as unethical where it depicts or implicitly encourages children to behave in a detrimental manner, or in a way that may be harmful to themselves and others.29 This is especially the complaint that many critics raise regarding addiction of children and teenagers to smoking, alcohol and substance abuse.30 The cartoon frogs used to promote Budweiser and Joe the Camel for Reynolds’ cigarettes are examples of this practice in the United States.31 Finally, advertising to children has been accused of contributing to the sexualization of minors and for drawing them into consumerism at inappropriately young ages.32 Additionally, critics note that large corporations are often able to make parents feel as if they are failing their children by not giving in to the implanted desires from advertising.33 Some argue that these concerns warrant a ban on advertising to children, given the way in which it is carried out in the modern context.34 This argument represents an extreme point-of-view but nonetheless illustrates the ethical difficulties attached to any form of communication directly targeting children. 24  Interview with Nigel Latta, above n 4. The amount of time spent watching television, rather than the amount of advertisements viewed, may be more significant a factor in predicting child obesity. 25  Handsley, above n 5, at 88. 26  See Interview with Nigel Latta, above n 4. 27  Ibid. 28  Mackay, above n 17. 29  See Sanitarium Weetbix Television Advertisement [2010] ASANZ Decision 639. Depicting children engaging in a wide variety of dangerous activities deemed a breach of advertising standards. 30  Marshall, above n 7, at 229. 31  Ibid. 32  Philip Adams “Paedophilia Inc.” (2003) 35 Australian Children’s Rights News 13. 33  Mackay, above n 17, at 136. 34  Adams, above n 32.

Themes and the Law

From the criticisms surrounding advertising to children, a common theme is the vulnerability of children to misleading, harmful and exploitative advertising. As is the policy behind other forms of regulation, it is often argued that the law in this area ought to be sympathetic to children.35 The recognition of children as a particularly vulnerable and impressionable audience indicates that it is indeed reasonable for regulation to proactively protect them to some extent. For example, if the law recognizes the capacity for adults to be misled then it would be naïve not to extend similar protection to children that is in some way sympathetic to their heightened sensitivity, trusting natures and inexperience. At the same time, it would be overly critical to assume that all advertising which interests or targets children does in fact reach levels of exploitation or deception. Advertising allows companies to differentiate their products, inform and persuade customers.36 It does stand to reason that advertising that does not reach the levels of exploitation, deception or harm to children does not warrant strict regulation. As such, a case–by–case inquiry into the effects of disputed advertising may be favorable, and indeed warranted.

How is Advertising Regulated?

There has been no universally adopted approach for regulating advertising generally, such as an international convention or governing body. As such, the regulation of advertising is a matter for home-country determination, and the extent and effectiveness of regulation often varies widely from country to country.

Approach in the USA

In the US especially, advertisers often argue that the freedom to advertise is necessary in a democratic society in which free speech is a guaranteed right.37 The regulation in the US therefore tends to be more relaxed regarding advertising to children than in many other jurisdictions, and there are no specific nationwide laws protecting children from targeted advertising.38 Since American culture is heavily focused towards liberty and freedom of the private sector, this level of legal regulation is unsurprising.39 Advertisers may however be sued, and are therefore 35  Mackay, above n 17, at 122. 36  William Chitty, Nigel Barker and Terence Shrimp Integrated Marketing Communications (2nd ed, Cengage Learning, Melbourne, 2008) at 110–112. 37  Michael Blakeney and Shenagh Barnes “Advertising Regulation in Australia Evaluation” (1982) 8 Adel L Rev 29 at 29–30. See also US Const amend I. 38  Maxeiner and Peter Schotthöfer Advertising Law in Europe and North America (2nd ed, Kluwer Law International, The Hague, 1999) at 535. 39  Ibid.


The Oculus: Proceedings of the U21 Undergraduate Research Conference accountable for, misleading or deceptive claims in advertising as a number of cases have illustrated.40 Similarly the Federal Trade Commission has a Division of Advertising Practices, which has propagated certain regulations on advertising to children.41 These regulations are however limited in scope to advertising food, movies or video games to children which could be considered harmful or misleading. A notable exception to otherwise scant regulatory protection is the Children’s Television Act, which imposes a limit on the total amount of commercial time during children’s programming.42

Self-Regulation

The United Kingdom, and many of its former colonies such as Canada, Australia and New Zealand have laws that are often very similar in many respects. The regulation of advertising is no exception, with these four countries amongst others adopting a regulatory standard known as selfregulation. The basic idea behind self-regulation is that it is the industry itself, rather than the central government, that regulates what is acceptable advertising. In each of these jurisdictions, advertising to children is regulated on a case-by-case basis through this method.43 Codes are published that every advertiser agrees to adhere to. Advertising that is non-compliant with the codes may be removed from circulation by regulatory bodies that head the advertising industry in each country, such as Advertising Standards Canada, or the Advertising Standards Authority of New Zealand.44 The principal strengths of a system of self– regulation include inclusiveness and flexibility. These systems are often chaired by both industry and public representatives and may therefore be seen as respectful of both the purpose and importance of advertising, as well as negative consequences that may result. This is similarly advantageous for the industry and economy as a whole as funding for administration of a self-regulation system does not necessitate the use of public or government funds, rather is paid for by contributions from member organizations.45 40  See Ashley Pelman v McDonald’s Corp 237 F Supp 2d 512 (SD NY 2003). Landmark decision in which McDonald’s was held liable for misleading advertising leading to obesity in two teenagers. 41  Federal Trade Commission “Division of Advertising Practices” (2011) Federal Trade Commission <www.ftc. gov>. 42  Children’s Television Act 47 USC § 303(a)(b). Total commercial time must be less than 10.5 minutes per hour during weekends and 12 minutes per hour during weekdays. 43  See Harker, above n 20, at 543–544. 44  Ibid. 45  See Advertising Standards Authority Advertising Codes of Practice (Wellington, 2010).

Theorists have expounded certain problems too with the self–regulation approach to controlling advertising. Principally, the issues of non– compliance and lack of enforcement mechanisms have been identified.46 These concerns indicate that if not carefully monitored and controlled, systems of self–regulation are open to abuse by member advertisers. Contrarily, it has been argued that self-regulation allows for an industry to correct and avert future unacceptable advertising without involvement of sanctions imposed by general law.47 Similarly, self-regulation of advertising in these jurisdictions has tended to result in high levels of compliance by members since advertisers do not want to be seen to be in breach of standards, thereby damaging brand images.48

Bans on advertising to children

On the other end of the spectrum, the significant ethical concerns surrounding advertising to children have led certain jurisdictions to impose a complete ban on advertising targeting children. These include Scandinavian countries, notably Norway and Sweden.49 The Swedish legislature has imposed a complete ban on advertising to children under the age of 12 in telecommunications.50 The reasoning behind such policy is that children are unable to comprehend the purpose of advertising and are therefore vulnerable.51 The Parliament of Québec has taken a similarly aggressive approach to regulation through legislation that bans advertising to children under the age of 13.52 A Europe-wide ban on advertising to children is also under consideration in the European Parliament, indicating that this approach may be gaining traction.53

Critique

The selected jurisdictions provide a palate of approaches that have been adopted to regulate advertising to children, each with certain benefits and disadvantages. The protection for children within advertising than is presently accorded in the United States of America accords exceptional primacy to freedom of speech as protected under the Constitution, and subsequently the expression of businesses. However the system operating in the US gives no recourse for consumers aggrieved about advertising to children 46  47  48  49  50  51  52 

Kerin, above n 1, at 91. Harker, above n 20 at 543. Mackay, above n 36 at 125. See Story, above n 23 at 15–16. Marketing Practices Act 1998 (Sweden). See Story, above n 23, at 16. Consumer Protection Act 1971, ss 248–249. See also Irwin Toy Ltd v Québec [1989] 1 SCR 927 which upheld the ban under the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. 53  John Feldman “A child’s world without advertising?” Lexology (European Union, 29 July 2010).

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36 other than direct complaint to the advertiser, unless conduct is misleading or deceptive. While there are certainly good reasons for a laissez faire approach to the regulation of advertising, it is equally possible that lawmakers in the US may need to be more proactive to protecting children. The benefits of a system of self–regulation used in the UK, Australia and New Zealand are manifold, both for the public and for advertisers. These include an ability to respond rapidly to complaints without the need for litigation, the employment of advertising industry expertise in settling claims, and coverage extending to areas not covered by legislative controls.54 Similarly, critics have indicated that a system of regulation governed by legislation will tend to tolerate a practice until the legal limit prescribed in statute, whereas a dynamic system of self–regulation allows regulation to be maintained and improved.55 Additionally, codes promulgated under such a system allow specific mechanisms for complaints and breaches relating to areas requiring additional expertise and industry experience, including in the marketing of medicines and advertising to children.56 Such potential benefits of self–regulation can be seen to accord sensitivity to the discussed ethical issues while also recognizing the important role that commercial communication plays in business and society. Ultimately a blanket ban on advertising to children as imposed in Sweden and Québec does not appear justified, even given the significant ethical concerns of the practice. As indicated earlier, there are arguments that by viewing informative advertising, children learn to become consumers. Furthermore, advertising control is a necessarily dynamic process, especially when considering that some advertisements are more likely to impugn ethical standards of practice than others. For example, advertising to children that intends to inform might not be considered as repugnant as employing a direct call to action. Imposing a blanket ban indicates that children may never be the target of advertising, even though it can be difficult to distinguish between advertising to children and advertising with children in mind. Such complexities necessarily imported by the practice of advertising give credence to the notion that a case– by–case consideration of the impacts of regulation is appropriate.

Conclusion

Children have a unique place in society as the consumers and leaders of the future. Their lack of experience and psychological development does however mean that they can form a target for unscrupulous advertising. The significant and 54  Blakeney, above n 37, at 30. 55  Ibid. 56  Ibid.

wide–ranging issues relating to advertising to children indicate that some form of regulation on the practice is required. Conversely, the ability of organizations to publish information about promotions and product offerings is at the core of marketing strategy, and therefore commerce.57 Any attempts to regulate advertising in a free and democratic society should always take into account whether a legitimate goal is served in regulation.58 Therefore in the context of reform, a balancing act is required between the competing interests served by freedom of commercial expression and by its regulation. No form of regulation is infallible, and whatever approach is taken in a given jurisdiction must remain future-oriented and flexible. This ensures that law is grounded in solid policy, and is suitable for meeting the needs of those it governs. Ultimately it is impossible to conclude on what the best form of regulation of advertising to children should be, as this largely depends on the values held by a particular society. The dynamic nature of advertising does though indicate that a case-by-case approach to its regulation is sensible. In any event, given the multitude of criticisms surrounding the practice, the responsibility rests with advertisers and governments to ensure that children are not unreasonably the targets of commercial attack. To allow free reign may subject future generations to unscrupulous handling by advertisers, without the benefit of kid gloves. 57  See Kerin, above n 1, at 25. 58  Des Butler and Sharon Roddick Australian Media Law (2nd ed, Thomson Lawbook Co, Sydney, 2004) at [11.15].


The Oculus: Proceedings of the U21 Undergraduate Research Conference

The 1965 Treaty on Basic Relations Between Japan and Korea and the Different Perspectives on Treaty Interpretation of Each Country Kyung Lee

Waseda University

Abstract

Despite geographical proximity, relations between Japan and Korea has been historically complex and sensitive. Korean culture so called Korean Wave is getting popularity with fancy Korean idols leading K-pop, Korean food, visiting tourist attraction in Korea and so on. However, no matter how much both countries tend to maintain friendly relationship through exchanging their culture, still mutual trust based on sincerity seems blocked when political issue comes out occasionally such as Japanese Prime Minister’s Yasukuni shrine visits, territorial dispute, history text book, war reparation, Zainichi Kankokujin (在日韓國 人) who are Koreans residing in Japan and so on. These conflicts originated from different point of view have been continued and would be lasted for a long time unless Korea succeed to resists such an easy assimilation into deconstructive paradigm of Japan as a postmodern condition of national sublation into one empire of signs encapsulating the imaginable presence. The redemptive master narrative of empire is represented on two treaties. One is San Francisco Treaty ratified in 1951 dealt with independence of Korea and the other is Treaty on Basic Relations between Japan and Korea in 1965. Thus, in this paper, I would explain how relationship between Japan and Korea was represented on treaty comparing different translation version of same treaty on Japanese and Korean through semiotic analysis based on theory of ‘Imaginal Others’.

Introduction

T

he theme of Undergraduate Research Conference of the year of 2012 is ‘Connecting to the Future’ as many Japanese people realized the importance of personal and social relationship during the process of reconstruction by tsunami and earthquake disaster during the last year. For this reason, the word ‘KIZUNA’, which refers to connection, bond and relationship, became one of the popular expressions in Japanese society. However, in my paper, I would like to take the notion of ‘KIZUNA’ to the next level. Not just around the Japanese domestic society, but also in the level of international community, what Japanese government can do to maintain their strong relationship with other neighboring countries in Asia, especially with Korea. Despite of geographical proximity, history of relationship between Japan and Korea has been very complicated and sensitive. One of the biggest obstacles on their way to true reconciliation is different interpretation of Treaty on Basic Relations (1965). This treaty caused many arguments and criticism related with ‘misreproduced’ and ‘misrepresented’ image of others. Thus, in this paper, I would like to explain in which part they have different interpretation and how it influenced attitude of each government through connecting theories and current issues.

Theories Semiotics

According to Saussure, concept and sound image can be replaced by signified and signifier. Sign is endowed not only with a signification but

also value because they are part of the system in the view point of Conceptualism. The value of any term is determined by its environment. Signs function through their relative position instead of through their intrinsic value. Following the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, languages are inseparable from culture. And no culture can exist which does not have the structure of natural language. Thus, we need to understand sign in the perspectives of two axes. With the theory of semiotics, this paper examines how the treaty on basic relations between Japan and Korea was written with careful consideration from each countries national interest through finding out hidden meaning of ‘signifier’ and ‘signified’ through analyzing treaty in Japanese and Korean version.

Theory of Imaginal other

Rob Wilson explains how Americans encountered Korean culture within redemptive master narrative of global modernization and how Korean culture was produced and projected with cultural sign and occidental distortion. Americans believed that Western countries were more civilized than Non-western countries under the gaze of empire thus Non-westerners are inferior and barbaric compare to themselves. When Korea was occupied by Empire of Japan, Japan tried to understand relationship between Japan and Korea through looking into Western ideas and using Western concepts. These skewed assumption produced beliefs such as “if they cannot represent themselves, they must be represented”. Through this theory, Japan considered domination of Korea justice

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38

Figure 1. Treaty on Basic Relations, Article II

because Koreans were uncivilized thus inferior. However, the author asserts that there is no culture can ever fully articulate differential system and interiority of another culture because he does not believe that meaning of civilization is only depends on power or knowledge. Thus, this paper would examine how Japan justified Japanese domination over Korea through analyzing the article two of Treaty on Basic Relations (1965).

The Subject and Power

In the article ‘discipline and punishment (1972)’, Foucault explained how modern society exercises its controlling system of power and knowledge through everyday supervision called as ‘carceral continuum’ such as secure accommodation, probation, social workers, police and teachers. In ‘The Subject and Power’, he expands the idea of surveillance through supervising from individual level to state level. When it comes to power relations such as regulated and concerted system to control people, it blocks the adjustment of abilities and the resources of communication. Michel Foucault analyzes disciplines, which is utilized for efficient way to maintain the system. As an example, In Europe, the organization and institution such as barracks, schools, or prison appeared for productive play of power relations and make individual more obedient. In this paper, it would explain how academic institution during the occupied period educated Korean student and how it justified their domination over Korea.

Treaty on Basic Relations with semiotic theory

Article two and its different interpretation from both countries

Even though treaty on basic relationship was written in Japanese and Korean originated from original English version, each country has very

different interpretation of article. For instance, following the statement of article two, it is described in Figure 1. The expression of ‘already null and void’ has two different meaning of ‘signified’. Korean scholars interpreted ‘already null and void’ as a null and void from the 1905, so Japanese domination is illegal. On the other hand, Japanese scholars interpreted null and void from the year of 1945 when Japan surrendered unconditionally that annexation was justice dominance with legal background. Thus it created four different points regards interpretations. First difference is sovereignty of Korea. Korean government sees that Korea existed as a state with limited sovereignty instead of being ceased to be existed. However, Japanese government tend to acknowledge that state of Korea did not existed during the Japanese domination period and Korea was new born as a state from the year of 1948. Second difference is nationality of Korean. Korean government regards that Koreans have nationality of Korea from 1910 to 1945 but Japanese government insists that Koreans have nationality of Japan.Third difference is war reparation. Korean government remarks that Japanese government is responsible for economic and psychological damage during colonization period such as compulsory manpower draft, comfort women and explosion of atomic bombs as Koreans were foreigners. However, Japanese government argues that they are not in charge of any compensation because there was no national law compensating damage caused by governmental authority at that time. Fourth difference is dominium of Dokdo/ Takeshima issue. Since Korean government believes that being under the Japanese domination was illegal, Japanese dominium of Dokdo is illegal and injustice. However, Japanese government asserts that since the Japanese annexation of Korea was legal with legitimacy, it is obvious that dominium of Takeshima belongs to Japan.


The Oculus: Proceedings of the U21 Undergraduate Research Conference

Figure 2. San Francisco Treaty

Dokdo/ Takeshima Issue

Background of San Francisco Treaty

Before World War II broke out, relations between Japan and Korea were empire and colony. After the World War Second, Korea became independent from Japan but the struggle against the form of subjection because U.S changed its foreign policy from Antimilitarism into Anti-Communism. Until the Cairo Declaration (1943) and Potsdam Declaration (1945), main subject was limitation of Japanese sovereignty pointing out “in due course Korea shall become free and independent”. However, U.S felt threatened over growing power of Soviet Union and unexpectedly suffered from Vietnam War, security concerns in Asia became extremely important. In this process, San Francisco Treaty has characteristics of supporting Japan in a way that not stating clearly the problems among Japan and other Asian colonies.

disagreement that “The United States Government does not feel that the treaty should adopt the theory that Japan’s acceptance of the Potsdam Declaration on August 9, 1945 constituted a formal or final renunciation of sovereignty by Japan over the areas dealt with in the Declaration.”3

Image of Koreans in Japanese Society with theory of ‘Imaginal Other’ Japanese attitudes towards history

According to San Francisco Treaty in Japanese version, it states as if Japan approved(承認) independence of Korea and Korea is born as a new state which makes thirty five years of colonization is legal and just. For this reason, Korean government was not able to participate in treaty as a member of nation at war against Japan. More significantly, this signified suggests all the pain from exploitation as a victim of Japanese imperial rule1 entailing treaties, economics exploitation and brutality was denied. Korea requested U.S government to amend the article that the word “renounces” into “confirms that it renounced”2, but U.S government expressed their

Wada Haruka explains that “first chance to create a new relationship with Korea escaping from the history of violation and greed came up in August 15th, 1945”. However, Japan was in sorrow too deeply so they could barely understand Korean who were experiencing freedom and independence. At the same time, Japanese rather felt pressure and being victim of history to watch Koreans who are celebrating their sovereignty in exchange for Japanese defeat4. When Korean War occurred, Koreans living in Japan worried their country but it was an opportunity for Japan for their economic expansion. Wada also pointed out that second chance to improve their relationship happened in 1965, the same year Japan and Korea agreed to ratify the Treaty on Basic Relations. However, none of articles or affiliated documents mentioned ‘acquiring territory by force’ or ‘violation of international war’. Mainstream media such as Asahi even criticized that Japanese side conceded too much and only few newspapers covered apologize from Japanese side about colonization over Korea5.

1  Matray, James. Japan’s Emergence as a Global Power. Wesport; Greenwood Publishing Group, 2001. (pp. 47, 75~87) 2  My government requests that the word “renounces” in Paragraph a, Article Number 2, should be replaces by “confirms that it renounced on August 9, 1945, all reagent, title and claim to Korea and the islands which were part of Korea prior to its annexation by Japan, including the island Quelpart, Port Hamilton, Dagelet, Dokdo and Parangdo.” Request From Korea 1951.07.19, FRUS, Confidential U.S State Department: Special

Files, Japan 1947-1956) Reel#9 3  Rust note of August 10, 1951(NARA, RG59, and Lot.54 D423 Japanese Peace Treaty Files of John Foster Dulles. Box8, Korea) 4  和田春樹(Wada Haruka) 韓国民衆を見つめることー歴史 のなかからの反省 (Translated: Staring at Koreans, apology from inside of history),展望(Magazine tenbou) 1974, December 5  Public opinion Session of Asahi Shinbun May 15 1965, Nihon Keizai shinbun on July 23 1965.

Different interpretation on ‘recognizing’

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40 Another form of discrimination, requiring fingerprinting to Zainichi Koreans in 1980’s

The other issue which had significant impact on Japanese society was movement opposing to the mandatory fingerprinting for Koreans who are residing in Japan(在日韓國人, Zainichi Koreans). History of Zainichi Koreans was initiated from Japanese domination over Korea but Koreans were treated as minorities and even forced to be fingerprinted as a symbol of ethnic discrimination. Conservative Japanese felt resentment towards this movement. For example, Education minister Fujio Masayuki asserted that “Japan’s annexation of Korea rested on mutual agreement both in form and in fact” and ‘China or Russian would have meddled in the Korea peninsula if Japan had not annexed it’6.

University curriculum and academic institution system during the Japanese colonization period in Korea – Theory of Subject and Power

Manipulated power relationship through academic institution

Regardless of consistent resistance of Korea against empire of Japan, Japan was able to control Korea with various way of constitutional system such as army, police force, and state institution. Japan was able to manipulate power relations and make individuals more obedient7. Japan has been devoted in various fields to justify their domination over Korea and spread their ideology that Japan is superior and civilized. In 1924, Japan established Imperial University of Kyung Sung, to educate Korean students with ‘modern knowledge’. In this part, it would examine how the students of department of Korean language were educated and what kind of attitude Japanese scholars in the imperial university had in terms of Korean language at that time.

Imperial University and Japanese Linguistics

The original form of Imperial University of Japan is Imperial University of Tokyo (Tokyo University). Imperial University has major influence on development of Imperialism as its goal is academic development in response to demand of Empire8, which means Imperial University supplies its academic technology only when it fits for the demand of state.9 6  Jennifer M. Lind, Sorry States; Apologies in International Politics p.48 7  Michel Foucault. The Subject and Power. Critical Inquiry, Vol.8, No.4(Summer,1982), pp.788 8  帝国大学令(明治十九年三月二日勅令第三号), 第一条  帝国大学ハ国家ノ須要ニ応スル学術技芸ヲ教授シ及 其蘊奥ヲ攷究スルヲ以テ目的トス (Teikoku Daigaku Rei,Translated: Univesity Act of Empire 1887.3.2, Imperial Edits.3 Chokugo Kyoiku Kokyuto.) 9  世界敎育史硏究會 編, 1978

Imperial University was deeply related with politics and power relations manipulated by Japanese government. Especially, department of language and literature was one of the essential academic institutions as Japanese linguistics was deeply involved with formation of modernization and development of civilization.10 The characteristic of Imperial University is well shown in the features of professors, such as Oeda Kazutosi(上田萬年), who was the father of Japanese linguistics and literature11, imported modern methodology of comparative linguistics led to establishment of new linguistic system with an idea that state is composed of race, history and language, forcing the idea that Japanese language is superior and civilized.12 For example, he asserted that not only language but history of Japan and Korea shares the same ancestors13 and justified the ideology of Japanese imperialistic expansion.

Saussure’s ‘General Linguistics’ and its applied theory into Korean annexation

One of the influential professors who taught linguistics in the imperial university was Kobayashi. His teaching method was focused on general theory and scientific grammar of linguistics. Especially, he was interested in ‘General linguistics’ written by Saussure and translated Saussure’s work into Japanese which was the first translated version in the world. After Kobayashi’s work, Japanese scholars accepted Saussure’s linguistic ideas explaining that Language must be separated from ethnics or culture as natural phenomenon were gaining popularity in linguistic society14. Japanese ambition was growing up rapidly and Japanese scholars believed that theory of Saussure would justify their ideology of domination over other colonies. For instance, Saussure described that the value of just any term is accordingly determined by its environment. Whether we take the signified or the signifier, language has neither ideas nor sounds that existed before the linguistic system, but only conceptual and phonic differences that have issued from the system15. Theoretically, from the perspectives of Saussure, he denies any possibility for natives to resist against the language policy issued by Empire of Japan thus supported the idea of Japanese scholars to separate Korean language from center of the system is just and even deserves. 10  寺崎昌男, 成田克失 編, 1973:33 11  Lee, Yong-Suk(1996)國語という思想, 岩皮書店 (Translated: ideology called as a language) 12  日本語界統論, 方言調圈論, 現代思想, オリエンタリズム 『現代思想』, 1993 July, pp.209-17 Orientalism, gendaisisou 13  上田萬年(1975), 言語学 (新村出筆錄), 敎育出版. 14  石剛(1993), 植民地支配と日本語. 三元社 15  Saussure, F.de (1966), Course in General Linguistic, McGraw-Hill. Pp.85


The Oculus: Proceedings of the U21 Undergraduate Research Conference Conclusion

Until recent days, a relationship between Japan and Korea is still unstable. Sometimes it seems to be opened to each other by the growing popularity of Korean wave but it also seems tensions are reignited by issue of territorial dispute and diplomatic standing points. However, there is a fact that Korea and Japan is geographically the closest countries and new era of globalization requires both countries to corporate each other as a partner. Japanese government need to recognize that intertemporal law also evolves with development of international law.16’ However, to reach the true meaning of reconciliation, Japanese should acknowledge that most of social issues are originated from the denial that annexation period over thirty five year was justice and even deserved. This paper analyzed why it took longer than usual normalization process with three theories. The ambiguity of article two written on treaty, distorted image of imaginary Korea and academic institution influenced elite class from annexation period. Theories of ‘general linguistics’, ‘the otherness’ and ‘the subject and power’ could provided reasons why it took many years than usual to understand and represent the image of each other but the building the better of present and future relationship would be up to young generation of Japanese and Koreans. Not only entertainment, but also fields of studies related to politics, history, culture, diplomacy related to relationship between two countries should be dealt with various versions through mass media, books and internet. 16  Sakamoto Shigeki, Korea and Japan Should Not Fall in the Pitfall of the Old Treaties: An Answer to the Treatise by Prof. Yi Tae-jin, Sekai, No.652 (September 1998), 5.

References

1. Ferdinand de Saussure. “Cours de linguistique generale”(“Course in General Linguistics”). Translated by Wade Baskin; edited by Perry Meise and Haun Saussy. Columbia University Press, Pp.76-89 2. Hayden V. White. “The Burden of History”. Blackwell Publishing for Wesleyan University, History and Theory, Vol.5, No.2 (1966), pp.111-134 3. Ishizaka, Koichi. “Hankukinui daehankukkwan, mueoti dalrajeotna” (How has the perception of Korea changed?) Translated from Japanese to Korean. Kukjae Haksul Daetoron (International Academic Discussion), pp.31-45 4. Jon M. Van Dyke. “Reconciliation between Korean and Japan”. Oxford University Press. Chinese Journal of International Law (2006), Vol.5, No.1, pp.215-239 5. Kim, Yeong-su. “Hanilhoedamgua dokdo yeongyugwon: sanfrancisco peace treaty ganghwajoyakgua hanil hoedameul jungsimeuro” (“Meeting between Korean and Japan and dominium of Dokdo”). Hankuk jeongchihak hoebo (Korean Magazine of Politics), V.42, No.4, pp.113-129 6. Michel Foucault. “The Subject and Power”. The University of Chicago Press, Critical Inquiry, Vol.8, No. 4(Summer, 1982), pp. 777-795 7. Rob Wilson. “Theory’s Imaginal Other: American Encounters with South Korea and Japan”. Duke University Press, boundary2, Vol.18, No.3, Japan in the World (Autumn, 1991), pp.220-241 8. William J. Moon, Hyun-Seung Oh. “The 1965 Korea-Japan Treaty on Basic Relations: A New Perspective on the Normalization Process”. Hankuk kukbang gyeongyeong bunseok hakheo (The Military Operations Research Society of Korea), V.33, No.1 (Summer, 2007), pp.43-58 9. Yu. M. Lotman, B. A. Upensky, George Mihaychuk. “On the Semiotic Mechanism of Culture”. New Literary History, Vol. 9, No.2, Soviet Semiotics and Criticism: An Anthology, (Winter, 1978), pp. 211-232

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The Effect of Ethanol Additives on Improving the Stability of Bio-oil Ran Ling

Shanghai Jiao Tong University

Abstract

In order to determine the effect of ethanol additives on improving the stability of bio-oil, different concentrations of ethanol (0wt%, 4wt%, 8wt%, 12wt%, 16%, 20wt%) was added into the bio-oil produced by rice husk. Selected physicochemical parameters were tested each certain time and GC-MS method was also introduced to analyse the chemical composition before and after 70days’ storage time. The results indicated that ethanol additives had reduced the water content, acidity, density and viscosity of bio-oil when compared to the control group and 8wt% and 12wt% were considered to be most effectual and efficient concentration. The GC-MS results demonstrated the composition of bio-oil changed during the storage time and several new compounds were detected at high content after storage. And ethanol additive significantly change the internal reactions of bio-oil and led to different ultimate composition with control group.

Introduction

A

s the three major sources of energy fuel (oil, coal, natural gas) are under great insufficient situations, an energy consumption transformation is expected in the near future. Bio-oil is considered to be a promising renewable energy source as it requires for common biomass raw material and performs significant environmental advantages[1]. Fast pyrolysis is the main method for bio-oil production as it decompose biomass at a relative high temperature(500 °C). Typical raw materials for biomass fast pyrolysis are agricultural residue and sawdust. Raw materials along with fast pyrolysis conditions would ultimately be influential to the properties of bio-oil products. A relatively low heating value and low storage stability are two main limitations for the extensive application of bio-oil. Large numbers of experiments were performed to study the properties of bio-oil and improve their product quality[2, 3]. Several techniques were introduced into the shortage and refining of the bio-oil in order to achieve efficient utilization[4]. The investigation of additives into bio-oil has been proved to be effective to improve the stability of bio-oil for more than a decade[5] and a series of physical and chemical parameters were established to characterize the stability of bio-oil product. And this research will have a detailed discussion about the effect of ethanol additives. Selective physicochemical parameters were measured continuously to display the trend of change on product stability and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis were introduced before and after the shortage in order to have a comparison of the specific components of bio-oil and explain the mechanism of stability change.

Materials and Methods Bio-oil

Bio-oil was produced in fluid-bed reactor at a pyrolysis temperature of 500°C with the feeding materials of rice husk in Biomass Energy Engineering Research Center in Shanghai Jiao Tong University.

Parameter measurements

Water content: The water content of bio-oil is determined by Karl-Fisher titration (KFT TITRINO plus 870 moisture teller, Swiss Manthon Instrument Factory); pH value: The pH of bio-oil is determined by pH meter method.(PHS-3CT precise pH meter, Shanghai Lei Ci Instrument Plant) Viscosity: The viscosity of bio-oil is determined by capillary viscometry measurements (SYD-265H kinematic viscosity determinator, Shanghai Changji Geological Instruments Co., Ltd. ) Density: The density of the bio-oil is analyzed using a density meter (precision 0.0001 kg m-3) (Anton Paar, DMA 4100M, ASTM D 4502). GC-MS analysis: The GC-MS analysis is performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyzer (AutoSystem XL GC/ Turbomass MS, U.S. Perkin Elmer Company); Chromatographic column: DB-5MS (30 m×0.25 mm× 0.25 μm); Column temperature: 60°Cfor 4 minutes, then heating under 4°C/min until 240 °C and 20 °C/min until 300 °C, remain the temperature for 13 minutes. The injector temperature was 270 °C and the sample was controlled to exhibit constant flow at the rate of 1.0ml/min. Electron ionization spectra obtained at 70eV with the source temperature at 200 °C and interface temperature at 260 °C.

Experimental scheme

Different concentrations of ethanol additives were added into the bio-oil products(0wt%,4wt%,8 wt%,12wt%,16wt%,20wt%). The mixed samples were


The Oculus: Proceedings of the U21 Undergraduate Research Conference

Figure 1. Variation of water content with storage time.

Figure 2. Variation of viscosity with storage time.

Figure 3. GC-MS results of bio-oil before and after storage time.

stored in sealed bottles under the steady temperature of 25 째C for 70 days. Two parallel samples were prepared for each additive concentration. Four kinds of parameters (water content, viscosity, pH value, density) were determined every 7 days in the first testing period (0d, 7d, 14d, 21d, 28d ) and in the second testing period the time interval was increased to 14 days(42d, 56d, 70d). Besides, the GC-MS analysis was performed to control group and 8wt% ethanol group before and after the storage time.

Results and Discussion Water content

The variation of water content with storage is shown in Table 1 and Figure 1. The overall water content of this bio-oil is around 30%-40%, and the water content decreases with the increase of the ethanol concentration. The water content is the main index for the measurement of the bio-oil quality as a high water content always result in low heating value and viscosity[6]. And the experiment result indicated

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Table 1. Variation of water content with storage time.

Table 2. Variation of pH value with storage time.

Table 3. Variation of viscosity with storage time.

Table 4. Variation of density with storage time.


The Oculus: Proceedings of the U21 Undergraduate Research Conference that the water content in the control group kept increasing within the storage time, but the variation of water content in the experimental group showed a marked decrease compared to the bio-oil without ethanol additives. The increase of water content is mainly caused by dehydration reaction, esterification reaction and poly-condensation reaction of the organic components[7]. And the water content increase 14.2% in the control group within 70 days which is 3-5 times larger than mixed bio-oil with ethanol additives. When the ethanol concentrations were above 8%, the variation of water content was not significant. Thus itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s an effect way to improve the bio-oil stability by adding ethanol.

pH value

The variation of pH value with storage time is showed in Table 2. The overall pH of bio-oil with ethanol additives are larger than control group and increasing with the concentration of additives. And the change of pH value within the test time period exhibit gradually increasing trends. Compared to the control group, the mixed biooil with different concentration of ethanol performed smaller changing range of pH value. Particularly, the most significant increase of pH value happened in the first 7 days. After the first 7 days, the pH value of bio-oil with ethanol additives had tiny increase ranging from 0.03-0.26, while the increase of control group is much larger at 0.38. The decrease of acidity contribute significantly to lower the ageing rate of bio-oil as lots of ageing process can only take place under relative acidic environment. And the result indicated that the concentration of ethanol additives above 8% have better effect for the storage of bio-oil.

Viscosity

The variation of viscosity of bio-oil with storage time is showed in Figure 2 and Table 3. The measurement of kinetic viscosity is the most commonly used method in the research of the stability of bio-oil[5, 8]. The viscosity is considered to increase with the storage time as the polycondensation of the components significantly increased the molecular mass (weight) of bio-oil. Radlein studied the microscope mechanism of bio-oil viscosity[9] and Oasmma had proved that alcohol has contribute to the reduction of viscosity by its stabilizing effect on water-insoluble fraction of bio-oil[10]. In this experiment section, the final result showed that the ethanol additive have enormous function of decreasing kinetic viscosity of bio-oil. Compared to the viscosity increase of 26.146 in the control group, the ethanol additives into the bio-oil lower the viscosity increase to 0.429-2.537.

Density

The variation of density with storage time is showed in Table 4. The content within the product contribute significantly to the density of the oil. And the density of bio-oil increase with storage time because of the chemical reactions between the components. The result shows that the ethanol additives could effectually lower the density increase of bio-oil so this indicates the ethanol added into the bio-oil prevent the internal chemical reaction in some extent.

GC-MS analysis

GC-MS analysis is a typical method for the measurement of chemical components in the biooil and it has achieved extensive application in the determination of the composition change of bio-oil[11]. And in this research we focused on the comparison of the composition change between the mixed bio-oil with ethanol additives with control group and 8% ethanol additives was selected as contrastive sample as it was considered to have exhibited good effect. The GC-MS analysis was performed before and after the storage in order to detect internal change of components. The results were shown in Figure 3. In total there were around 100 substances detected by GC-MS and we only focused on the main identified components with mass content (relative mass concentration) higher than 1%. The result shows that the main components in the bio-oil were detected within the retention time of 35min and between 50-60min there were also some macro-molecular substances. In the control group, there were 28 substances with mass content higher than 1% before storage and 34 substances after storage and 19 substances remained the same after the storage. Components like 1-Hydroxy-2butanone, 2-Cyclopenten-1-one,3-methyl-, 4-Amino2,3-xylenol appeared and the aromatic compounds had various change on branch chain. And in the 8% ethanol group, 29 substances were detected with the mass content higher than 1% before storage and 33 substances after storage and there were 20 substances remain the same. The main change taken place within the retention time range 20-27min with various compounds like trans-Isoeugenol, 6-Amino2,4-dimethylphenol, Apocynin appeared. The result also indicated that the major chemical reactions in the storage time were oxidation, polymerization and other reaction on the substituents on the benzene ring and phenol compounds.

Conclusion

This study mainly focused on the effect of ethanol additives on improving the stability of biooil. We selected various typical parameters (water content, pH value, viscosity, density) to determine the stability of bio-oil within the storage time and

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46 we used GS-MS analysis to detect composition change before and after storage. The conclusions are as follows: 1), Ethanol additive has significant effect for lower the water content, viscosity, acidity and density of bio-oil products. And the improving of these indexes would lead to the enhancement of stability. Simultaneously, considering the cost of efficiency of additives, the ethanol concentration at 8wt% and 12wt% were regarded as the most promising additives. 2), The GC-MS results indicated the bio-oil experienced various internal reactions among components. And in reference to the index variation with storage time, the process of internal reactions taken place in certain period (42-56 days). The ethanol additives change the reaction type and the ultimate compounds were different from bio-oil without additive.

References

1. Mohan, D., C.U. Pittman Jr, and P.H. Steele, Pyrolysis of wood/biomass for bio-oil: a critical review. Energy & Fuels, 2006. 20(3): p. 848-889. 2. Wang, X., et al., Methods to improve the stability of bio-oil. Chemical Industry and Engineering Progress, 2006. 25(7): p. 765. 3. Czernik, S. and A. Bridgwater, Overview of applications of biomass fast pyrolysis oil. Energy & Fuels, 2004. 18(2): p. 590-598. 4. Qing, W., et al., Research progress on efficient utilization of bio-oil. Sciencepaper Online, 2011. 5. Diebold, J.P. and S. Czernik, Additives to lower and stabilize the viscosity of pyrolysis oils during storage. Energy & Fuels, 1997. 11(5): p. 1081-1091. 6. Bridgwater, A. and G. Peacocke, Fast pyrolysis processes for biomass. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 2000. 4(1): p. 1-73. 7. Garcia-Perez, M., et al., Evaluation of the influence of stainless steel and copper on the aging process of bio-oil. Energy & fuels, 2006. 20(2): p. 786-795. 8. Boucher, M., et al., Bio-oils obtained by vacuum pyrolysis of softwood bark as a liquid fuel for gas turbines. Part II: Stability and ageing of bio-oil and its blends with methanol and a pyrolytic aqueous phase. Biomass and bioenergy, 2000. 19(5): p. 351-361. 9. Radlein, D., Study of levoglucosan productionâ&#x20AC;&#x201C;a review. Fast pyrolysis of biomass: a handbook, 2002. 2: p. 205-241. 10. Oasmaa, A., et al., Fast pyrolysis of forestry residue and pine. 4. Improvement of the product quality by solvent addition. Energy & fuels, 2004. 18(5): p. 1578-1583. 11. Hilten, R.N. and K. Das, Comparison of three accelerated aging procedures to assess bio-oil stability. Fuel, 2010. 89(10): p. 2741-2749.


The Oculus: Proceedings of the U21 Undergraduate Research Conference

Nuclear Strategy of North Korea: Approach by International Relations Theory Koshiro Nagai

Waseda University

Abstract

This paper is designed to provide new perspectives toward the study of the nuclear problem in the Korean peninsula. There are two research problems. One is the reasons why North Korea (DPRK) does not give up nuclear development even they are under international pressure and economic difficulty. The other is whether North Korea can continue to be a nuclear state or not. Domestic reasons and diplomatic reasons are intricately intertwined in the problem of North Korean nuclear development. This paper treats many international relations theory. Cultural and philosophical ideas are also considered to embody the international relations theory. As a result, many concrete reasons why North Korea does need nuclear development are revealed. If someone stands in orthodox idea, nuclear development is a miscalculation by the government. However, since North Korea had lost their both hard and soft power after the end of the cold war, nuclear development is somewhat natural for North Korean government. They need nuclear development to gain recognition from the international society, to appeal strong and prosperous nation to citizens, and to sustain their power. Therefore, North Korea will not easily give up their nuclear development, but it does not mean that international society do not have to negotiate with North Korea. Ongoing problem in North Korea is the turning point for East Asian security. Everyone have to seek various approach to advance this problem in North Korea. Especially, our young generation has to confront this problem since it can threaten our security.

Introduction

I

n North Korea, millions of people starved to death because of the flood and cold-weather damage in 1990s, and many people have still been placed under a severe situation next to the danger of death from starvation. North Korea continues nuclear development and nuclear test which can deepen the international isolation under such condition. It is necessary to think about North Korean leader’s way of thinking including Kim Jong-Il and current Kim Jong-Un to understand their behavior. In order to know the strategy of North Korean nuclear development, it is important to think from a standpoint of North Korean leader. It is critical to guess what will happen in the future based on the unorganized facts. However, most of the research stopped that point and did not pay attention how to organize facts in the framework of international relations theory. This paper will analyze reasons of North Korean continual nuclear development by using peculiar theory to North Korea, international relations theory and first hand data. This paper also considers appropriate response by international society to advance the problem in North Korea.

Struggle for Recognition

“The End of the History and the Last Man1” wrote by Francis Fukuyama presented powerful foresight that human beings were heading to the “End of the History” with victory of democracy. 1  Fukuyama, F. (1992). The End of the History and the Last Man. New York: Perennial .

“The End of History” is great work written based on the analysis of detailed history. It gives a very useful suggestion to understand the diplomatic behavior of North Korea. In order to understand behavior of North Korea with the concept which Fukuyama used, the most useful idea is “struggle for recognition2.” Fukuyama argues Hegelian theory of “struggle for recognition” which is a big theme deeply effects human society. The desire asks for cognition makes society go to the liberal society which guarantees the equality of opportunities. “Thymos” in other words self-esteem supports this struggle for recognition which seems to be sometimes irrational. Fukuyama explains this idea by using words “isothymia” and “megalothymia”. Isothymia is a desire to be recognized equal as others. This exists both in individuals and in nations, and sometimes became cause of the war. Being equal to other countries can be realized through reformation of political organization. However, megalothymia which is the desire to be superior to others cannot be easily realized. In order to fulfill megalothymia, they have to take a certain amount of risk. This theory is applicable to North Korea. After North Korea was founded, it was supposed that North Korea had GDP which exceeded South Korea. There was an icon called Kim Il-Sung in North Korea. The Soviet Union reigned over Eastern bloc through the Cold War, and socialism and communism existed there as a thought which could compete with capitalism. North Korea had two hopes, economy and ideology. There was 2  Ibid, viii.

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48 enough possibility to win struggle for recognition. In contrast with South Korean economy which accomplished the brilliant takeoff in the second half of the 70s, North Korean economy was made to stand by the predicament. Severe flood in 1995 and the following famine exhausted North Korean economy. The end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union weakened ideal of socialism. What was worse, North Korea lost the father of the nation Kim Il-Sung in 1995. North Korea lost struggle for recognition. North Korea tried to start new struggle for recognition by “military first ideology” to break this deadlock. Fukuyama introduced the argument of Kant, for the purpose of explaining the mechanism which leads human beings toward liberalism.  This mechanism was not reason, but rather reason’s opposite: the selfish antagonism created by man’s “asocial sociability,” which leads men to leave the war3.In here, even competitiveness and vanity should be the wellspring of social creativity. The antagonism to others produces a desire to be equivalent or predominant to opponents. It is natural that the nation has to accept society with freedom and rationality to be equivalent or predominant to opponents. Regrettably enough, this Kant’s idea is not functioning in present North Korea. Antagonism which can be source of liberalism and war evasion converted into a desire to show them big and say “I’m here!” to be recognized by others. In other words, put everything good aside, only vanity remains in North Korea. This is also the same to North Korean people. By enlarging military, North Korea tries to show their pride to North Korean people as future “strong and prosperous nation”. Fabricated strong nation can be kept for some period under the firm surveillance society. However, globalization and liberalization is the global trend which cannot be easily stopped. Someday, North Korea has to face two options; honorable recognition with freedom or notorious recognition with strict surveillance. North Korean vanity and struggle for recognition matches with their priority which is the maintenance of authority. False powerful nation by strengthening military and nuclear development pulls out assistance from other countries, gains funds from nuclear black market, and becomes a golden opportunity to advertize their power to inside and outside of the country. Vanity is parallel with the maintenance of authority which is selfpreservation function. This closely resembles to Hobbes’s state of war which Fukuyama referred in his book. Hobbes’s state of war does not arise out of a simple desire for self-preservation, but because selfpreservation co-exists with vanity or the desire for recognition4. Only military affairs are recognized by 3  Fukuyama, F. (1992). The End of the History and the Last Man. New York: Perennial,58. 4  Fukuyama, F. (1992). The End of the History and the Last

the leader of North Korea as a way which fills both sides of vanity and self-preservation. North Korea is acting according to this hidden hypothesis by Hobbes. However, there is also a choice that North Korea pursues recognition as a liberalist instead of a militarist. “Thymos” which Fukuyama proposed, is needed to target higher goals. Thymos is pride and also a kind of sense of justice. North Korea should not forget a farsighted policy. Thymos saves from the trap of liberalism which tends to be mixed with false egalitarianism. North Korea has been trying to fulfill vanity and a desire for recognition through nuclear development, but this has already exposed the limitation. North Korea has to fulfill their isothymia through liberalization, and they have to pursue megalothymia based on thymos. This is the best combination that North Korea has to seek. Otherwise, North Korea will deepen international isolation, and cannot obtain true recognition. North Korea should step forward someday.

Confucian Culture and Paternalism

Confucian culture affects North Korean diplomacy. Confucian culture which respects courtesy can mistakenly leads to formalism. Bad custom of Confucian culture are dominant in North Korean regime. For example, promise and execution are different matter in North Korean formalism. The example of this formalism is IAEA Safeguards Agreement which North Korea agreed with the U.S in 1992. IAEA Safeguards Agreement is an agreement which specifies inspection and verification to prohibit signee to convert nuclear technology from peaceful use to military use. Although it was North Korea which signed the safeguards agreement, they refused inspection team from IAEA.  This is the action which conflicts with the agreement. North Korea does not recognize this as illegal thing. North Korea understands promise and execution are different problems. This formalistic attitude is related with basic North Korean diplomacy which sometimes criticized as “thin-sliced salami strategy5.” Then, what is the origin of Confucian sense of values which produces such formalism? Toshimitsu Shigemura has classified the most important sense of values in South Korea and North Korea into three. These are 1.pretext 2.legitimacy 3.dignity (face)6. There are some relevancy between these three senses of values and nuclear development. North Korean pretext of nuclear development and nuclear possession is to keep capability to attack or check the United States, Man. New York: Perennial,225. 5  Concerning about North Korean formalism, please refer to Shigemura, T. (2000). North Korean Diplomatic Strategy. Tokyo: Kodansya. 6  Shigemura, T. (2010). North Korean Abduction, Terrorism, Nuclear Development, and International Relations in an Emergency. Waseda University Social Security Policy Institute Bulletin ,201.


The Oculus: Proceedings of the U21 Undergraduate Research Conference

Figure 1. Ideal National Pyramid

South Korea, and Japan. Having nuclear weapons can be justified to defend from these countries. In a sense of dignity, nuclear development is to show strong nation to inside and outside the country, and to show the leadership of Kim Jong-Il, or current Kim Jong-Un regime. Kim family oriented policy and paternalism cannot escape from stiffened organization. People under a boss fear the purge and try to protect them. There is no reason that they give disadvantageous information to the upper levels, as a result, this induces a leader›s misjudgment. Dysfunction of paternalism affected North Korean decision to go forward nuclear development which is beneficial to the maintenance of authority but harmful to people’s interests. If North Korea considers interests of the people and the nation, they need abandonment of nuclear development, and they also need economic reform. North Korea does not go that direction because their priority is the maintenance of authority. Obstacles toward reformation can be pointed out also from a view point of Confucius culture. Economic reform in North Korea means denial of the previous economic policies. That is, reform is denial of father of the country Kim Il-Sung, and denial of Kim Jong-Il regime which inherited father. Respecting parents is very important in Confucian culture, therefore, denial of father can also threaten current legitimacy. It can accelerate power struggle inside the power structure, and this cannot be accepted by current leaders7. This fundamental culture seems stable even in Kim Jong-Un regime. This expresses the difficulty of North Korea to go forward nuclear free North Korea and economic reform. Although there is no capability to continue nuclear development, they cannot stop it once they started. North Korea faces with the serious dilemma. 7  Shigemura, T. (2006). Korean Peninsula “Nuclear” Diplomacy - North Korean Strategy and Economic Power-. Tokyo: Kodansya, 123-124.

Figure 2. Military Centered Reverse Pyramid

Application of Imperial Overstretch Theory

North Korea may continue to persist to nuclear development for many reasons, but it is a different matter whether North Korea can maintain nuclear power in the future. 25 years ago, Paul Kennedy wrote the great work “The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers” which describes international relations from 1500 to 2000. This book argues one of many critical causes of the rise and fall of the great powers which is the balance between economy and military. This argument is applicable to North Korea as well. The beginning of “The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers” has such description. Wealth is usually needed to underpin military power, and military power is usually needed to acquire and protect wealth. If, however, too large proportion of the state’s resources is diverted from wealth creation and allocated instead military purposes, then that is likely to lead a weakening of national power over the longer term8. This argument is plausible when looking back history. However, when this theory is applied to North Korea, question raises that North Korea does not keep this principles. To solve this question, North Korean national wealth and military strength, in other words, national power should be considered. Paul Kennedy borrows Corelli Burnet’s definition of national power, this section analyzes North Korean national power based on Burnet’s definition. According to Burnet, national power will be divided into following four elements. 1. Armed Forces 2.Economic and Technological Resources 3.Foresight and Resolution in Foreign Policy 4.Efficiency of Social and Political Organization9. If looking at North Korea through these criteria, it turns out that all of these four elements are not enough in North Korea. First of all, military is not well armed. North Korea relies on outdated military equipments mainly used during the Cold War era. 8  Kennedy, P. (1987). The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers. New York: Ramdom House, xviii. 9  Kennedy, P. (1987). The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers. New York: Ramdom House,202.

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Table 1. Status of World Nuclear Forces 2012. This table is from the website of Federation of American Scientists http://www.fas.org/programs/ssp/nukes/nuclearweapons/nukestatus.html

They put emphasis on nuclear development in order to compensate it. However, military strength which can be held by nuclear development is restrictive. Second, concerning about economy, North Korea has been working to realize Kim Il-Sung’s instruction that people can eat white rice and drink soup with meat. It means ordinary North Korean people are not eating white rice and drinking soup with meat. In such severe situation, strong economy to support strong military cannot be realized. Yet, the war industry becomes too big in order to realize strong military and sacrifices other industry. Human resources with advanced knowledge work in war industry, and other industry suffers from lack of skilled human resources. This prevents the growth of industry other than war industry, and North Korea has missed the opportunity to improve people’s lives. Third, North Korea does not have a foresight and a resolution in foreign policy. If they had it, they could ride waves of international society when the Cold War structure broke down. At least, they would not take anachronistic direction like “military-first policy” and nuclear development. North Korea possibly had resolution to go forward the nuclear state. This is not such beautiful decision but just a tragedy by bigotry. As long as they are restricted by the thought that “military power is national power” it is almost impossible to enhance true national power. The last point, organizational efficiency does not have to be referred again since the former section

already discussed it in relation with Confucius culture. The leader fears to be dragged down from the power and the subordinate fears a cleanup. Miscommunication happens and organization falls into dysfunction. In such situations, improvement and innovation cannot happen and old fashioned organization preserved in an unchanged manner. North Korea tries to maintain military even they do not fulfill any of elements to be a state. Rethinking about a quote from Paul Kennedy, wealth is usually needed to underpin military power. It was as clear to a Renaissance prince as it is to the Pentagon today10. On the contrary, top-heavy military collapses. Hitler’s Germany, Japan during the Pacific War, Spanish Empire by Habsburg family and the Soviet Union under the Cold War fall into this category. History proves this fact. Military strength is assured by the tax which based on economic strength. Below is an illustration. When a state changes shape into Figure 2, the country begins to walk along to breakdown. If the state plucks off the tax from weak economy to invest into military, that nation cannot keep going. Although it is not possible that shape of nation becomes a reverse pyramid, Figure 2 is an effective figure in order to grasp the idea of North Korean situation. Though it is obvious that North Korea cannot keep a reverse pyramid in the long run, 10  Kennedy, P. (1987). The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers. New York: Ramdom House,439.


The Oculus: Proceedings of the U21 Undergraduate Research Conference there is enough possibility that this nation lasts for short or intermediate-term like 20 years. However, if they continue current war expenditure and nuclear development which does not match their national power, they will have to abandon nuclear development in the long run. Supposing that North Korea hangs on to present situation, the collapse of North Korea may be the same day when North Korea abandons nuclear power.

Fiction of Strong and Prosperous Nation

The former section revealed that North Korea cannot continue current military and economic balance in the long run. This section will verify that reason by analyzing data of military and economy. Every time people hear the news about nuclear development in North Korea, many people would wonder how many nuclear missiles does North Korea really own. Simply put, there is any (or a very few) nuclear missiles in operations. As table 1 shows, it is said that North Korea does not have any strategic nuclear weapons (such as nuclear missiles) and non-strategic nuclear weapons (such as nuclear bombs or nuclear loading cruise missiles). North Korea might have stockpile of future usable nuclear weapons, but that number is less than ten. It is clear that North Korean nuclear weapons cannot be deterrent to the United States with 8500 nuclear weapons. It is complete fiction to “open the gate to powerful and prosperous nation” in 2012. Severe situation will not be changed without drastic reform. It is very difficult for North Korea to maintain and manage nuclear weapons from budgetary perspectives. If North Korea sticks to nuclear development they go beyond the bounds of common sense. As they focus on nuclear development, economy, finance, and people’s lives are going to be painful one.

Conclusion

This paper made various kind of analysis to deal with two research problems. If this paper can provide any suggestion to people who think “nuclear development is insane” or “North Korea is foolish” this paper filled an original role. North Korea made wrong decision of military first policy and nuclear development to show their presence in rapidly changing international society. Such action is somewhat natural for North Korean leaders who consider the maintenance of authority as the priority. North Korea has lost their economic and ideological power since sunset of the Cold War to up until now. Powerless North Korea tries to appeal their existence through nuclear development to international society, and appeal their leadership to people inside. Nuclear power can strengthen the nation, and this can be a diplomatic trump card to get food and economic assistance. Nuclear power

might be the last trump card which fulfills their vanity. International society has to face the reality that North Korea will not easily give up nuclear development. It does not mean that North Korea will not be changed forever. Corrupted system and organization will be gangrenous from the feet. Top-heavy military which does not match with national power cannot be sustainable. Even there seems no sign of immediate collapse, North Korea cannot keep going this path. The history tells it. Considering these conditions, the day when North Korea throws away their nuclear power might be the same day when North Korea collapses. Of course, even international society cannot see rapid progress, a dialogue with North Korea has to be continued. People should not take North Korean problem as a mere local military problem. This makes the basis of worldwide problems including terrorism. Finally, this paper exists to introduce new perspective into theory-less North Korean studies. Theories for North Korean analysis do not exist to exclude people’s painful voices under oppression. Theories exist to include people’s voices.

References

1. Cenrtal Intelligence Agency. (2012). The World Factbook. Retrieved April 30, 2012, from Cenrtal Intelligence Agency: https://www.cia.gov/ library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ kn.html 2. Federation of American Scientists. (2011). Status of World Nuclear Forces. Retrieved April 30, 2012, from Federation of America Scientists: htt p://w w w.fas.org/prog rams/ssp/nukes/ nuclearweapons/nukestatus.html 3. Fukuyama, F. (1992). The End of the History and the Last Man. New York: Perennial. 4. Hirai, H. (2010). Why is North Korea Isolated? Kim Jong-Il and Military First System Heading to the Collapse. Tokyo: Shincyosya. 5. Ishizaka, K. (2006). 51 Chapters to Know about North Korea . Tokyo: Akashi Syoten. 6. Kagawa, M. (2012). The North Korea’s Political Regime and Military-First Politics. Institute of Foreign Affairs , 1-20. 7. Kennedy, P. (1987). The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers. New York: Ramdom House. 8. Miyata, A. (2005). A study of the limitation of national control in North Korea. Nihon University, Graduate School of Social and Cultural Studies Bulletin , 235-246. 9. News, AFP BB. (2010, June 28). North Korea “Strengthening Detterence in New Ways” Emphasizing anti U.S Measure. Retrieved April 27, 2012, from AFP BB News: http://www.afpbb. com/article/politics/2738011/5924904 10. Nye, J. S. (2007). Understanding International Conflicts. New York: Longman.

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52 11. Saito, N. (2010). An Inquiry into North Korean Nuclear Armament and Our Nation’s Countermeasure. The Hiyoshi Review of the Humanities , 159-181. 12. Shigemura, T. (2006). “Nuclear” Diplomacy in Korean Peninsula - North Korean Strategy and Economic Power-. Tokyo: Kodansya. 13. Shigemura, T. (2006). Diplomatic Defeat -JapanNorth Korea Summit and the Truth of Japan-U.S Alliance. Tokyo: Kodansya. 14. Shigemura, T. (2010). North Korean Abduction, Terrorism, Nuclear Development, and International Relations in an Emergency. Waseda University Social Security Policy Institute Bulletin , 181-207. 15. Shigemura, T. (2000). North Korean Diplomatic Strategy. Tokyo: Kodansya. 16. Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. (2011). Military Expenditure as a Share of GDP, 2005-2010. Retrieved April 30, 2012, from Stockholm International Peace Research Institute: http://www.sipri.org/research/ armaments/milex/resultoutput/milex_gdp 17. Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. (2011). The Countries with the Highest Military Expenditure in 2011. Retrieved April 30, 2012, from Stockholm International Peace Research Institute: http://www.sipri.org/research/ armaments/milex/resultoutput/milex_15 18. Tanaka, H. (2009). Power of Diplomacy. Tokyo: Nihon Keizai Shinbun Syuppansya. 19. Transparency International. (2011). Corruption Perceptions Index 2011. Retrieved April 30, 2012, from Transparency International: http://cpi. transparency.org/cpi2011/results/ 20. United Nations Population Fund. (2011). State of World Population 2011. Retrieved April 30, 2012, from United Nations Population Fund: http://foweb.unfpa.org/SWP2011/reports/ENSWOP2011-FINAL.pdf 21. Yonghap News. (2011, January 18). N. Korea’s Actual Military Spending Estimated at US$8.77 bln in 2009. Retrieved April 30, 2012, from Yonghap News:http://english.yonhapnews.co.kr/northko rea/2011/01/18/94/0401000000AEN201101180038 00315F.HTML


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The Luminous Efficiency of LED and its Application Qinkai Song

Fudan University

Abstract

In this research, I choose three different sets of LED module (seven 1W LEDs are linked in series). I choose constant flow source of 350mA to drive the LEDs, and I put them into the sealed thermostat. Then I measure the lux data to show the relationship between LED’s luminance efficiency and the surrounding temperature. With the result and the data from the experiment, I find the relative curve, the life span-temperature curve and the luminance efficiency-temperature curve. After calculating the life span under different temperature, this article can provide guiding suggestion to forecast the life span under different temperature, and also prove that radiating is the key problem to effect the performance of LED as well as improving it. Then I show some application of LED including a new kind of LED module produced by OSRAM, and a new kind of holographic projector.

Introduction

I

n recent years, LED technology becomes mature and it is used widely (Phone backlight, Car headlights, Indoor lighting, Communication, Landscape lighting and so on). LED has become a revolutionary new way of lighting which are gradually replacing conventional light sources, Under the 12th Five-Year planning,China will carry out ten energy-saving plans which includes the green lighting. So the promotion of efficient energy-saving lighting systems will be an important element in next five years. LED, as a semiconductor lighting technology, is changing our world. LED (Light Emitting Diode) which is a semiconductor solid light. It is mainly constructed with the P-type and N-type semiconductor material, the interface of two materials is called PN junction. LED has a single wizard-pass characteristics when added a forward voltage to get a forward current. LED will send out specific wavelengths of light. White LED ‘s life is far lower than other LED. So, if we want White LED to replace traditional lighting in the future, In addition to the luminous efficacy and luminous flux, we also need to solve the problem of increasing its economic life.

Experiment design

Experiment focus on high power white LED (about 3V,350MA,1W,Hat package) which has the same cooling module (single piece of thin aluminum alloy plate which is a great thermal material). I use a 350mA constant current driver and welded four wires on the LED module, two for connecting the drive, and the other two are connected to multimeter. I have a sealed container( with a cover on the window to prevent light leakage which ​​also guarantees that the Illuminometer being fixed on the same location ). I select 3 kinds of LED (Jk\Gx\Hd) which use the same package and cooling modules. 7 1w LEDs are connected in series on each module. The comparison of them can make data more objectively.

The temperature of the sealed container can be controlled automatically. I record one data after 20 minutes so that the junction temperature can reach a stable value. Experiment 1: Measure the luminous efficiency under different temperature ( because the luminous efficiency can’t be measured directly, so I use an Illuminometer to measure the LED light intensity. ) LED modules are fixed on the same position with the drive outside the container. Read the Illuminometer’s data under 25,40,60,80and90 centidegrees. Finally, figure the relative light efficiency - temperature curve. Experiment 2: Measure the economic life of the LED under a constant temperature. I selected a group of Hd LED under 80 centidegrees in the same sealed container in Experiment 2. LED is lighted continuously for thousands of hours. Figure out the light decline – (log) time curve.

Principle and formula derivation Derivation 1

Firstly, I will prove the correspondence between luminous efficiency and LED light intensity The luminous efficiency η = φ / pi ( lumens / watt). Light intensity E = dΦ / dS. When the LED and the illuminometer are fixed, dS is a fixed value. We also have the same input power, so Pi value is constant. So you can set E = MΔΦ, η = NΦ (M, N are constant). there’s a fixed ratio between ΔΦ and Φ. So we can use the change of light intensity to show the change of luminous efficiency.

Derivation 2

LED volt-ampere characteristic, the temperature coefficient and the junction temperature coefficient K Characteristics: when the temperature rises, the V-I characteristic curve turns left. Vf=(nkT/q)ln(If/I。)+RsIf...

(1)


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Figure 1. The luminous efficiency of LED and its applications. Experimental equipment. Clockwise from top-left: multimeter, illuminometer, sealed container, the system, LED drive, constant-temperature control system.

The I Value with increasing junction temperature increases, leading to a decline in the value of the forward voltage Vf. Experiments pointed out that in the case of a constant input current for a certain LED devices, both ends of the forward voltage drop of the temperature dependence by the formula (2), said: Vf(T2)=Vf(T1)+KΔT...

(2)

where ΔT = T2- T1. It can be seen that the pressure drop and temperature difference of the LED is a linear relationship. Therefore, by measuring the Vf- Tj curve, thus we can get the junction temperature by measuring the LED’s voltage. (Measuring voltage directly connected the two ends of the LED, which can minimize the impact of other resistance. ) International standard defined that the time from the initial value of the luminous flux in ambient temperature of 25 ° C to 70% flux as LED life ( economic life, the L70 life ) : Pt/P0 = C C = 0.7

(3)

where P0 is the initial luminous flux (or light power); Pt is the flux after one working time. By the help of Yamakoshi function and the Arrhenius model, we can use the following function to predict the life span of LED: LCi=ti*lnC/ln(Pti/P0i)=-ln0.7/βi (4)

LC0=LCiexp[Ea/K(1/Tj0-1/Tji)] (5) (Tj0 junction temperature is the normal working environment temperature).

Experiment result

After the experiment, I get the data, and then I figure the following graphs (Figures 2-5).

Calculation

Accelerated life and average life span under the constant temperature of 80 degrees By the formula of Yamakoshi, the Arrhenius model, we can calculate that: a. LCi=ti*lnC/ln(Pti/P0i)≈3856h (C=70%,Use L70 economic life) b. LC0=LCiexp[Ea/K(1/Tj0-1/Tji)]≈11791h Room temperature 25 ° C Tj0 take, the Tji take experiment junction temperature of 80.6 °C and Ea take 0.5 eV, K is the Boltzmann constant.

Conclusion

We found that when the temperature is increased from 25 °C to 90 °C, the luminous efficiency will decrease significantly, which verifies the previous theory and speculation, and at the same time it reflects the immediate impact of temperature on the LED luminous efficiency.


The Oculus: Proceedings of the U21 Undergraduate Research Conference

Figure 2. Experiment graph of Jx. This graph depicts Quantity Y(luminous efficiency) plotted against Quantity X(junction temperature).

Figure 3. Experiment graph of Gx. This graph depicts Quantity Y(luminous efficiency) plotted against Quantity X(junction temperature).

Figure 4. Experiment graph of Hd. This graph depicts Quantity Y(luminous efficiency) plotted against Quantity X(junction temperature).

Figure 5. life experiment graph of Hd. This graph depicts Quantity Y(luminous efficiency) plotted against Quantity X(log time).

Henderson LED’s output reduced 15.34% after 1803 hours. And CREE extends it to more than 10000 hours. So we can see there is a big gap in packaging technology. But the shape of the curve still well verified the theory, the shape of the curve is also relatively close. The calculation shows that accelerated life under 80 °C and 20 °C are 3856h and 11791h, but this is just calculate by the theory. It is only a reference, but it can also predict the life of LED. The test system design and build three experiments, and finally get the desired data, basically in line with the theory. In this research, such as the relationship between Vf and Tj, I avoid the difficulties and technical limitations of direct measurement, using a simple method to get the junction temperature reliably and accurately. The use of the drive current also should be appropriate, which must not be excessive just to pursue more brightness. Because it will make PN junction temperature rise, and ultimately shorten the life of the LED. White LED, as a new generation of lighting, it is already increasing in marketing. But we should realize that there are many issues should be solved. I will go on making research in LED. I will do a research to create a LED micro projector of high color rendering.

Applications

1. A new kind of LED module

This new kind of LED module is produced by OSRAM (Figure 6). When the ambient temperature is over the maximum value, the NTC temperature sensor will detect it and help protect the LED. So I can make a new high-efficiency with my experiment data by using this module.

2. Holographic projector

It’s a new kind of low-cost holographic projector with LED technology (Figure 7). This technology appeared first in a company named vizoo in Europe. And combined with mini LED projector, we can improve it. firstly, you need make a pyramid made by glass or acrylic, and optical films on it. Then we can use one projector to project a processed image on the four sides of the transparent pyramid structure. We need to process the image to make the front, back, left, right part of the subject separately displayed on the four part of one image. The top angle of each Isosceles triangle is 70.5 degree. And the following image is the structure of this system.

Acknowledgments

I would like to thank Fudan University, Professor Muqing Liu, the URC Comiittee, as well as Waseda University.

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Figure 6. OSRAM LED module from OSRAM official website.

References 

1. Nakamura S.Mukai T.Senoh M.1994. Candelaclass high brightness InGaN/AlGaN doublehetero structure blue-light-emitting diodes[J] Applied physics Letters. 64(13):687-689. 2. Damljanovic D D.1993.Remodeling the p-n junction[J]. IEEE Circuit&Devices.9(6):35-37. 3. Matthews D.H, Matthews H.S, Jaramillo P, Weber C.L.  18-20 May 2009. Energy consumption in the production of high-brightness light-emitting diodes. Sustainable Systems and Technology, 2009. ISSST ‹09. IEEE International symposium, 1-6. 4. Liangchen Wang,Xiaoyan Yi ;  Xiaodong Wang;  Guohong Wang; Jinmin Li.20-23 Oct. 2008. Combined transparent electrodes for high power GaN-based LEDs with long life time.Solid-State and Integrated-Circuit Technology, 2008. ICSICT 2008. 9th International Conference, ii1055 - ii1057. 5. Narendran, N. Sept. 2005. Life of LED-based white light sources. Display Technology. 1:ii167171. 6. Lei Han,Narendran, N. Aug. 2011. An Accelerated Test Method for Predicting the Useful Life of an LED Driver. Power Electronics. 8:ii 2249-2257. 7. Jakovenko J, Formanek J, Pardo B, Perpina X, Werkhoven R, J, Kunen J.M.G, Bancken P, Bolt P. J. 16-18 April 2012. Thermo-mechanical evaluation and life time simulation of high power LED lamp boards. Thermal, Mechanical and Multi-Physics Simulation and Experiments in Microelectronics and Microsystems (EuroSimE), 2012 13th International Conference on 1/5 - 5/5.

Figure 7. Structure of a Holographic projector.


The Oculus: Proceedings of the U21 Undergraduate Research Conference

Corruption and Imports: is China Different? Elina Svensson Lund University

Abstract

A common hypothesis in economics research is that corruption discourages international trade; that one would expect trade to decrease when corruption increases and vice versa. The question whether China’s corruption effects are different, compared to the rest of the world’s, is raised by the seemingly positive correlation between corruption and imports – in direct contradiction to previous research, which has concluded the relationship to be negative. Two Trade Gravity Models are evaluated using Panel EGLS (Crosssection random effects) regressions on data from the year 2003, one of which includes the possibility for non-linear effects. The empirical study includes 48 countries and 6084 bilateral observations. The results establish, in the investigated sample, that China’s corruption effects on imports differ from those of the rest of the world, and that non-linear effects in corruption exist. The non-linearity is probably a so-called ”evasion effect”. It is suggested that China’s anomalous corruption effects are explained by a high level of predictability within the corruption, its size of bureaucracy and the phenomenon Guanxi.

Introduction

A

common hypothesis in economics research is that corruption, ”the misuse of public office for private gain” (Svensson, 2005), discourages international trade (e.g. Ades and Di Tella, 1997;

Larraín and Tavares; 1999; Wei Shang-Jon, 2000). The reasoning is that corruption causes

increased transaction costs in terms of higher administrative costs and other market inefficiencies. These extra costs reduce economic activity such as trade and GDP. Several empirical studies support this hypothesis (e.g Bardhan, 1997; He, 2000; Shleifer and Vishny, 2003; Svensson, 2005). However, China does not seem to follow this pattern. From 2001 to 2005 imports increased, see Figure 1a – it more than doubled in real terms. Based on this observation, corruption would be expected to have declined, but it has increased (which equals a decrease in the Corruption Perception Index (CPI)1), as shown in Figure 1b. This observation contradicts previous cross-country evidence on corruption. China seems to have a similar contradiction between corruption and economic growth (GDP). Economic growth is theoretically expected to decrease when transaction costs increase through more corruption (Mauro, 1995; Knack & Keefer, 1995). However, this appears not to be the case for China (Svensson, 2005). China’s ability to combine growth (and increased imports) with an increase in corruption, begs to question whether corruption in China differs from those in the rest of the world. China’s GDP has grown rapidly the last decades and China has become the second largest economy in the world. To understand the world economy it is crucial to pay attention to China’s contextual features. This research fills a gap in the literature by analysing China’s import and corruption, with 1  Corruption Perception Index is a measure between 0 (totally corrupt) and 10 (perfectly honest).

particular interest given to its corruption effects on trade; whether China’s corruption effects on trade differ from the rest of the world’s. Based on economic theory (Gravity Model), we estimate the effect of corruption on imports using regression analysis. The data set contains 48 countries and 6084 bilateral observations for the year 2003.

Method, data, and model

The Trade Gravity model enables an estimate both of trade flow changes, due to specific variables such as political decisions, and of a variable’s importance in relation to the trade flow. The purpose is to investigate whether China’s corruption effects differ from the rest of the world’s. For this reason, both a dummy variable of China’s CPI and a general CPI variable are added to the model. Model 1 is the initial model while Model 2 has an additional variable: CPI squared. CPI squared is added for two main reasons. Firstly, non-linear effects are likely to exist in corruption (Halkos and Tzeremes, 2010; Dutt and Traca, 2010), specifically that the derivative of the corruption index changes with the level of corruption (a threshold effect). Secondly, CPI adopts a value between 0 and 10, however it can econometrically continue lower or higher. Negative values are then avoided by the square. In practice, the only difference between the models is the squared parameter: β12; in Model 1, β12 = 0 and in Model 2, β12 is a free parameter. The equation2 is:

ln(IMP valueij) = β0 + β1ln(Gi) + β2ln(Gj) + β3ln(GPi) β4ln(GPj) + β5ln(ITi) + β6(SBij) + β7(CHij) + β8(SLij) + β9ln(Dij) + β10(Ci) + β11(Ci | i=c) + β12(C2) + εij, 2  The data is from the World Bank and Transparency International.

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Figure 1. China’s imports in values, 2001-2005 (left), Data from the World Bank; Corruption Perception Index (CPI) 2001-2005 (right), Data from International Transparency Index. Note I: a decrease in CPI equals an increase in corruption; Note II: the scale is truncated for the right graph.

where IMP valueij is the import value between countries i and j. β (n = 0, 1, ..., 12) are the parameters and εij a residual. Index i always denotes the importing country – exchange i by j to represent the exporting country. C is the variable measuring corruption, Corruption Perception Index (CPI). CPI is defined in an inverted scale, i.e. higher corruption means lower CPI (ranging between 0 and 10). Consequently, a positive correlation in the regression output signifies a negative relationship between corruption and imports. Ci|i=c is a dummy variable capturing China’s CPI. Between the dependent variable import and the variable of interest; corruption, several control variables are added in order to capture other affecting forces, for instance GDP; a country with a high level of GDP will demand more trade than a country with low GDP etc. The parameter estimate of the control variables also helps when deciding whether the data and regression model are reasonable. Gi is for GDP and GPi is for GDP per capita. ITi is the importing taxes for all goods in measured values, i.e. ad valorem equivalent tax. SBij is a dummy variable capturing whether the importing and exporting country share a border. Similarly, the dummy variables CHij and SLij capture whether the importing and exporting country have ever had a colonial link, and whether they share a common official language, respectively. Dij is the physical distance between the importing and exporting country. These control variables are standard when using the Trade Gravity Model. The internal economic size is a central determinant of how much trade a country demands. China has experienced rapid growth in recent decades; so has its trade. However, this development does not need to be analysed separately. The economic size will be captured by GDP and GDP per capita. GDP is the economic mass of a country – its power to consume. GDP per capita is a measure of a country’s level of development. Therefore China’s economic size is included in the model. China joined the World Trade Organisation (WTO) in 2001. The

basis of WTO is a set of rules which encourage trade and reduce trade cost, leading in turn to more trade. Empirical evidence for this can be found in Chang and Lee’s paper ”The WTO Trade Effect” (2009). China’s trade volumes would therefore be assumed to have increased after 2001. However, since trade taxes reflect WTO effects, it would be unnecessary to incorporate WTO membership as an additional variable.

Results

Model 1 and Model 2 are applied to the data using a random effect estimator3. Both models are corrected for heteroskedasticity through Whites Robust Standard Errors. No autocorrelation is found, as expected. Table 1 shows the parameter estimates from the regression analyses. The explanatory power is relatively high in both models, with an adjusted R 2 of approximately 0.63. The parameter estimate for CPI with all included countries, is significant at the 5 percent level (p-value of 0.0127) in the first model, and almost significant (p-value of 0.1116) in the second. Thus, corruption appears to discourage international trade. The positive sign of the parameter estimate for import taxes in Model 1 is surprising, since we expect a negative relationship between trade and corruption on a world basis, according to previous research. The variable designed to capture China’s corruption effects on trade, China’s CPI, is insignificant in both models. The implication is that corruption in China does not affect its imports. The conclusion from these results is that in Model 1 the corruption effects on trade do differ for China compared to the rest of the world. Model 2 gives no strong answer, although, from the almost significant dependence on the world’s CPI, it indicates that trade in China indeed responds differently in this respect. 3  The model is estimated in E-views7 by a Panel EGLS (Cross-section random effects) regression with the Swamy and Arora estimator


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Table 1. CPI gives values between 0 and 10, with higher score indicating less corruption. Dependent variable: imports. *significance at 10 percent level ** significance at 5 percent level ***significance at 1 percent level

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Figure 2: Negative Effect on Imports

Comparison of the two models

Adding CPI squared into Model 2, has several consequences: the first is a negative parameter estimate for import taxes, which gives strength to Model 2. The second is that the CPI variable for all countries changes from significance at a 5 percent level to being only almost significant. A third, smaller consequence is that Adjusted R2 is slightly decreased, from 0.633 to 0.630. Thus, adding CPI2 only slightly weakens Model 2 in its entirety. The changed sign of the parameter estimates for import taxes, could possibly be understood within Dutt and Traca’s (2010) theory of nonlinearity in corruption caused by different levels of import taxes. The theory in short: when trade taxes are low, corruption will reduce trade because of increased transaction costs. This is called extortion effect. On the other hand, when trade taxes are high, the incentive to avoid trade taxes increases and corruption becomes more attractive. In such cases, goods are imported under the label of another good with a lower import tax – the taxes registered at WTO will then differ from the true ones. Since corruption costs are smaller than trade taxes, the lower transaction costs allow trade to increase, i.e the so-called evasion effect is dominant (Dutt and Traca, 2010). Indeed, China has been found to mislabel imports this way (Fisman and Wei, 2004). This theory can possibly explain the counterintuitive negative parameter estimate on import taxes in Model 14. The explanation would be that this linear model is forced to fit the non-linear data. When a non-linear variation of the impact of CPI is disallowed, the (unreasonable) parameter for import taxes is possibly capturing the corruption effect, i.e the evasion effect. 4  This relationship could be tested, which we encourage.

Though no inference can be made from this parameter (CPI2 has a p-value of 0.2205) the evidence of non-linearity in this sample is still worth attention. The non-linear effect of CPI in Model 2 is illustrated in Figure 2. It has been constructed using parameters from Table 1. The corruption index is on the x-axis and the import effect is on the y-axis .5 6 As seen in Figure 2, small changes in the level of corruption gives a change in the trade corruption effects in low CPI countries. After a maximum, corruption effects drop. The interpretation is that low CPI countries are more sensitive to change in CPI7. Interestingly, here decreasing corruption (higher CPI) affects imports negatively. One possible explanation is, that these are all developing countries, which generally have high import taxes. Decreasing corruption, while maintaining the same level of import taxes (which is indeed kept constant in this simulation), would increase transaction costs and discourage trade.

Discussion

Liberalisation reforms in China starting in 1978 resulted in a decentralised government and increased corruption. This is expected for a 5  The y-axis is logarithmic and therefore in arbitrary units; only the relative values are of interest. 6  The simulation is of the form ln(import effect) = C + ß10 CPI + ß12 CPI2 , where C is a constant (all other variables are fixed), ß10 is the CPI parameter and ß12 the CPI squared parameter. Using the parameter estimates from the regression, and setting C arbitrarily to zero, we obtain: ln(import effect) = 0,410235CPI - 0,02335CPI 2 7  This simulation fulfils its purpose of showing the pattern of non-linearity. However due to multicollinearity, if one would like to go further with the simulation, it is necessary to take correlations into account.


The Oculus: Proceedings of the U21 Undergraduate Research Conference communist country transitioning towards market economy. What distinguishes China, is its corruption effects on trade. China stands out in its simultaneous increase in imports and corruption. Most likely, the characteristics of Chinese corruption explain this; particularly, a high level of predictability within the corruption. Predictability enables corruption costs to be incorporated into the price as ”normal” extra cost. Three prominent factors behind China’s high predictability are: China’s strong state having the ability to monitor bribe collection, China’s size of bureaucracy and the phenomenon Guanxi which normalises corrupt actions and creates trust by instilling social dimensions into corruption. It might seem contradictory that China, having undergone decentralisation, would still have only one bribe collector. This is explained by the stepby-step transition through governmental reforms, maintaining governmental control through each step. China is still partly a planned economy with a prevailing strong state. The level of bribes decreases with one single bribe monitor, since all costs will be taken into consideration at the same time. Despite higher overall level, more traders can be on the market; more trade will occur. Concerning risk, civil servants with superior bribe collectors have minimal risk of being caught by the police. There are two effects in interplay here: firstly, the superior will probably not react if a civil servant acts within the norm. Secondly, the police and government belong to the same body, making independent intervention by the police less likely. Without claiming that the Chinese police are entirely corrupt, considering references to the CPI and the theory of the disadvantages of honesty in a corrupt country, we can assume that the police are partly corrupt and would allow state monitored bribe collection. Regarding catching local servants trying to profit outside the norm, though, the police might be stronger. Therefore, individuals and traders are usually aware of the normal level of bribes – i.e., one single bribe collector contributes to predictability. Speculatively, it can be reasoned that in the case of many bribe collectors, where only fewer traders can afford to stay on the market, the strongest trader would gain a monopoly position. Their larger cost could then be transferred to the price of the good, and they could still survive on the market. Then, the overall amount of trade wouldn’t be affected. Considering that we are investigating international trade, and not the inner market of China, this is faulty reasoning. Trade happens continuously and even if one trader gains a monopoly position, the added costs would be a disadvantage on the global market. Therefore, to sustain trade, corruption must be lower in each service with a higher amount of total corruption. The anomalous corruption effects on trade probably indicate that China has succeeded in this; trade and corruption can increase simultaneously.

A large bureaucracy is known to hamper market efficiency, but for a country with corruption, the outcome is ambiguous. High trade taxes pave the way for corruption, which enables trade to flow. Similarly, a state with arduous bureaucracy can be helped by corruption, due to the emergence of black market businesses which speed up the handling of permissions and information. China has a big state, high economic growth and a high level of trade, which is a peculiar combination. Although one of China’s goals today is to combat corruption, China’s high level of corruption has probably been a facilitating element in its economy, contributing to economic growth and trade. However, this effect is expected to decrease with the emergence of market economy. Corruption will then again become a cost, which will increase transaction costs and hamper growth and trade. With this in mind, we do not know whether China’s corruption effects will remain the same in the future. In addition to analysing the state itself, analysing consequences of the the state’s organisation is crucial. In the Chinese culture there exists a phenomenon familiar to all Chinese, termed Guanxi - approximately “relationship”, however it has a much broader meaning. It can be described as a multidimensional social network for bartering of favours, primarily motivated by self-interest but it also concerns taking care of each other on the basis of shared moral and ethical values (Guo, 2001). However the underlying reason is the unpredictable state organisation, giving people incentives to network to push through bureaucracy. Guanxi can in such circumstances contribute more predictability. In turn, if it succeeds in overcoming bureaucracy, economic activity could increase (Bardhan 1997; Leff 1964; Huntington 1968). Luo (2008) notices a change in Guanxi, what he describes as a ”de-moralisation” in the modern Chinese culture. He claims that the moral and ethical dimensions, based on Confucian ideas, are fading and that the instrumental dimension is becoming more prevalent. This development would then clear the way for a boost of selfishness and instrumental calculation under the name of Guanxi (Luo, 2008). As the instrumental dimension closely resembles corruption, this implies that what is defined as corruption will increase in the future. Networking, with varying levels of corruption involved, is now part of daily life in China. Due to the elements of friendship and kinship, trust is prominent in Guanxi. This in turn contributes predictability to China’s corruption. However, considering Luo’s fear of increased instrumentality within Guanxi, particularly less care and more hard business – which is closer to the common definition of corruption, with its well-known corruption effects – China may lose its unique corruption effects in the future.

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62 References

1. Ades and Di Tella (1997), ”The New Economics of Corruption: A Survey and some new results”, Political Studies, Vol. 45, Issue 3, pp. 496 - 515. 2. Bardhan, Pranab (1997), ”Corruption and Development: A Review of Issues”, Journal of Economic Literature, Vol. 35, No 3, pp 1320-1346. 3. Chang, Pao-Li and Lee, Myoung-Jae (2009), “The WTO Trade Effect”, School of Economics. Singapore Management University, working paper. 4. Dutt, Pushan and Traca, Daniel (2010), ”Corruption and Bilateral Trade Flows: Extortion or Evasion?” The Review of Economics and Statistics, vol. 92(4), pages 843-860. 5. Fisman, Raymond and Shang-JinWei, (2004) “Tax Rates and Tax Evasion: Evidence from “Missing Imports” in China,��� Journal of Political Economy 112:2 , pp 471–496. 6. Guo, Xz (2001) ”Dimensions of Guanxi in Chinese Elite Politics”, China Journal, Vol.46, Issue 45, pp 69-90. 7. Halkos, Emm George and.Tzeremes, Nickels G (2010), ”Corruption and Economic Efficiency: Panel Data Evidence”, Global Economic Review, Vol. 39, Issue 4, pp 441-454. 8. He, Zengke (2000), ”Corruption and anticorruption in reform China” Communist and Post-Communist Studies, Vol. 33, Issue 2, pp 243270. 9. Huntington, Samuel (1968), ”Political Order in Changing Societies”, New Haven: Yale University Press. 10. Knack, Stephen, and Philip Keefer (1995) “Institutions and Economic Performance: CrossCountry Tests Using Alternative Institutional Measures” Economics and Politics 7:3 , pp 207–

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11. Larraín, Felipe B, Centre for International Development, John F. Kennedy School of government, Harvard University, and Tavares, José. Harvard Institute for International Development and John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University”Can Openness Deter Corruption?” (1999). 12. Leff, Nathanial H (1964), ”Economic Development through Bureaucratic Corruption”, American Behavioural Scientist, 82:2, pp 337-41. 13. Luo, Yarding (2008), ”The Changing Culture and Business Behavior: The Perspective of Intertwinement between Guanxi and Corruption”, International business review, Vol. 17, Issue 2, pp 188-193. 14. Mauro, Paolo (1995), ”Corruption and Growth”, Quarterly Journal of Economics 110, Vol. 2, Issue 4, pp 681-712.

15. Shleifer, Andrei and W. Vishny, Robert (1993), ”Corruption”, The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol 108, No. 3, pp 599-617. 16. Svensson, Jakob (2005), ”Eight Questions About Corruption”, The Journal of Economic Perspectives, vol. 19, No 3, pp 19-42. 17. Wei, Shang-Jin (2000), ”How Taxing is Corruption on International Investors?”, Review of Economics and Statistics, Vol. 82, Issue 1, pp 1-11.


The Oculus: Proceedings of the U21 Undergraduate Research Conference

The Nuclear Energy in Japan: The Historical Analysis of its Installment Nanoko Ueda

Waseda University

Abstract

For three times, Japan had been contaminated by the American nuclear radiation. However, she introduced the first nuclear research reactor on August 27, 1956. Japan made herself the victim of the very technology for the fourth time on the March 12th, 2011. Why did Japan ever start the development of nuclear energy, despite the experience of the atomic bombardments in 1945 and the Lucky Dragon Incident in 1954? Who actually sought the atomic energy? The aim of the research is to analyze the reasons and the process of the development of the atomic energy in Japan. Relying on the secondary sources, it is revealed that the three factors combined to have caused Japan’s decision: the U.S. Cold War strategy, the intentions of the Japanese politicians, and the Japanese public opinion. In the initial phase, Japan’s development of the atomic energy was encouraged by the U.S. policy of “Atoms for Peace” in 1953. The Japanese government was, however, rather willing to accept the offer of the nuclear technological assistance. It utilized the opportunity to justify the acquisition, which enabled Japan to overcome the lack of energy sources. Furthermore, it had the intention to possess nuclear weapons in the future. As a response to the Lucky Dragon Incident, the antinuclear movement emerged amongst the citizens, yet it has become redundant as the economy prospered and the “peaceful” aspect of the atomic energy was emphasized. In such domestic situations, Japan had lost the solidarity to reject the possession and the development of the nuclear technology.

Introduction

I

n August 1945, the United States of America (U.S.) dropped the atomic bombs upon the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. 115,000 were instantly killed and tens of thousands more died from the radiation sickness (McMahon, 2003). The horror was repeated on March 1, 1954. A small private fishing vessel – the Daigo Fukuryumaru or Lucky Dragon, No.5 – was situated outside the official exclusion zone1 yet exposed to the Death Ashes from a nuclear exposed to the explosion of the American nuclear testing programs in the Pacific, the Operation CASTLE. 23 crewmembers were victimized by the death ashes. Japanese grievances heightened when the oldest crewmember, Kuboyama Aikichi, died in September 1954 (Swenson-Wright, 2005). Despite the psychological and physical scars left by the three nuclear radiation exposures, Japanese distinguished the nuclear energy from the nuclear weapon. She installed the first nuclear research reactor (JRR-1) in Tokai-mura in Ibaraki prefecture on August 27, 1956. Its contradictory historical course is reminded 50 years later. On March 12th 2011, Japan had witnessed and the meltdown of the reactor in Fukushima after the Great East Japan Earthquake. The radiation remains a great fear even a year after the incidence. Towards the future, one must question the history. What happened since 1945 till the instalment of the first nuclear research reactor? Why did Japan introduce the technology that devastated her people and soil only 11 years ago? Why did 1  The Japan’s Maritime Safety Board, responding to information provided by the U.S. government, set the official exclusion zone. (Swenson-Wright, 2005)

Japan introduce the nuclear energy? Relying on the secondary sources, this paper identifies the historical developments of the nuclear energy installation and analyses the factors that influenced the instalment.

From World War II to the Treaty of Peace with Japan

The atomic bombardments in Hiroshima and Nagasaki had given a significant impact upon the policy makers in Japan. In July 1945, the Potsdam Conference concluded the Potsdam Declaration, which demanded Japanese unconditional surrender. The policy makers in Japan were reluctant to accept the declaration as it might radically change the fundamental character of the state. While Japan was discussing on its acceptance, the atomic bombs were dropped on August 6 in Hiroshima and August 9 in Nagasaki. The atomic bombardments and the following Soviet declaration of war left Japan no other options but to surrender. On August 15, 1945, the Emperor Hirohito had made a surrender speech on the radio and delivered the intention to accept the Potsdam Declaration. The declaration decided the demilitarization, the democratization and the social reformations. Unlike the post-war Germany, the reformations were done through the Japanese government although its sovereignty was severely limited. The Japanese government was subservient to the General Head Quarter (GHQ) of the Allied Forces. The GHQ had banned the nuclear technology research in Japan and put strict censorship on the information concerning the nuclear weapons (Sasaki, 1999). On May 3, 1947, the new Japanese constitution was drafted. The constitution included the article

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64 9, which renounced wars and the possession of the land, sea, air forces and other war potentials. The Treaty of Peace with Japan, in which Japan regained her sovereignty, was signed in September 1951 and came into effect in April 1952. The treaty was signed by the Prime Minister Yoshida Shigeru.

Analysis - The Three Factors

The introduction of the nuclear energy in Japan can be explained by the combination of three factors: the American Cold War strategies, the intentions of Japanese conservatives, and the Japanese public opinion.

1. The American Cold War Strategy

The American initiative is deeply associated with the Japanese introduction of nuclear energy, especially in its initial phase. By the 1950, the bipolar division of the world was becoming obvious, seeing an outbreak of a hot war in the Korean Peninsula. The policy of deterrence and containment situated at the heart of the U.S. Grand Strategy (Engerman, 2010). In the context of Cold War, the economically strong Japan was considered as an ideal buffer state to prevent the spread of communism (GuthrieShimizu, 2010). The U.S. encouraged the economic recovery and the remilitarization of Japan. The change of policy towards Japan is often referred as the “reverse course” as its aim had been radically changed from weakening Japan to strengthening Japan. Japan had become “the Asian analogue to (West) Germany” (McMahon, 2003) and an engine of regional economic growth. The advanced industrial infrastructure, skilled workforce and technological thrust were a valuable American Cold War strategic asset from 1947 onward. Thus, the Treaty of Peace with Japan, signed in 1951 and came into effect in 1952, neither prohibited nor restricted the research on the nuclear energy (Sasaki, 1999). The escalation of the Cold War changed the U.S. policy towards Japan in a significant manner. Moreover, Japan was utilized as the propaganda of the peaceful image of the nuclear technology. The concept “Atoms for Peace” was introduced in the United Nations General Assembly on December 8, 1953 by the U.S. President Eisenhower. It appealed the peaceful aspect of the nuclear technology and promised the U.S. technological assistance towards her allies’ instalment. The aim of the speech was mixed: to undermine the Soviet claim of the U.S. being solely interested in the military superiority (Tomotsugi, 2011), to prevent further development of the nuclear technology in the Soviet through the controlling the technology under the supervision of the international organization (Sagara, 2009), and to distract the public attention from the nuclear explosion tests (Higuchi, 2003). Most importantly, Japan getting benefit from the peaceful development of the nuclear technology had a symbolic value.

However, the policies under the “Atoms for Peace” were faced with a challenge only several months later. The rise of the anti-nuclear sentiments in Japan after the Lucky Dragon Incident in 1954 had indicated that Japanese individuals had “a sense of personal danger” (Higuchi, 2003) towards the nuclear technology. The Department of State considered the anti-nuclear sentiment would not be effectively mitigated without modifying the mind-set of the individuals. Therefore, propaganda of illustrating the nuclear energy as the dreamlike energy was conducted. One of the significant examples is the technological assistance to the development of Japanese television system, Nippon Television, which started in August 1954. The founder of Nippon Television, Shouriki Matsutaro, was a CIA agent (Nanazawa, 2008). He had taken the initiative in inviting Johns Hopkins from the General Dynamics (the firm that created the world’s first operational nuclear-powered submarine, USS Nautilus (SSN-571)) and the Nobel Prize winner Ernest Lawrence, who delivered a lecture. Moreover, it was broadcasted on Nippon Television and closely reported on Yomiuri Newspaper. The Nuclear Power Exhibition, which was held throughout the country after the lecture, was quite popular. The U.S. sought to infiltrate the positive image of the nuclear weapon through media. The Department of State had concluded the propaganda was successful. Their conclusion was derived from the series of the US-Japan cooperation discussions on the peaceful nuclear energy development, the Japanese initiative in the establishment of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and the popularity of the Nuclear Power Exhibition in Tokyo (Tomotsugi, 2011).

2. Intentions of Japanese Conservatives

Japanese Conservative welcomed the nuclear technology with enthusiasm. In 1952, the Treaty of Peace with Japan came into effect. Japanese Conservative politicians found that the treaty did not prohibit a research on the nuclear technology. They considered Japan should immediately utilize the technology. It appeared to be a ticket to the prosperity. In 1954, the three conservative parties passed the nuclear budget in the Upper House despite the disagreement from the academia. In addition to the economic prosperity, the hidden agenda was to establish Japanese security through technological deterrence. After the WWII, many Japanese blamed the lack of energy resources as the cause of the defeat in the Pacific War. The Japanese conservatives were not the exception. In the post-occupation era, they considered the scarcity of energy resources would be a significant obstacle in pursuing the economic recovery. Japan was, in their view, dependent and vulnerable in dealing with unpredictable


The Oculus: Proceedings of the U21 Undergraduate Research Conference international markets. Although oil and fossil fuels were more cost efficient than the nuclear energy at that time, the great amount of budget for the development of the nuclear energy, which was 250 billion yen, had been allocated on March 2, 1954. The capacity to generate a great amount of energy by the nuclear technology was seen dream-like and associated with the prosperous future. Nakasone Yasuhiro, a conservative Japanese politician who had taken a major initiative in the nuclear energy installation, later commented that he thought the nuclear energy would be the centre of the next generation when he saw the mushroom cloud of the atomic bomb in Hiroshima while he was in the naval force in Takamatsu2. The government, industry, and leading political figures were anxious towards the instalment and competed for its control in the domestic scene (Imai, 1986). While the scientists preferred to deepen the research on the basic technology before the installation, the politicians preferred swiftly importing the technology. Therefore, the allocation of budget was described in the newspaper as “the conservative politicians slapping scientists with a wad of bills”3. As the installation of the nuclear technology was politicianlead, they overlooked the fragility of the imported nuclear energy (i.e. Caldor Hall from the Great Britain) against the earthquakes. The first nuclear research reactor in Tokai-mura, Ibaraki prefecture, had reached the critical state on August 27, 1956. The location of the instalment was chosen from the several locations. Tokai-mura was chosen mainly for two reasons. One reason was that the other locations were the electrical district of two different politicians who were each seeking of expanding the support for the election through the instalment of the nuclear reactor in the district. Since choosing either area would have caused the conflict, Tokai-mura, which represented neither interests, was chosen. The other reason was that Tokai-mura had no major industry thus the opposition movements were not expected. In fact, there was no major opposition movement. The question is that why the installation was considered to be a positive factor for the election in some district and why there was no opposition movement in Tokai-mura. The answer to both questions is that Japanese “nuclear allergy was highly selective” (Swenson-Wright, 2005). While the public opinion was opposing the testing of nuclear weapons, it was “enthusiastically in favour of the development of the peaceful use of nuclear energy and Japan’s own nuclear power industry”(SwensonWright, 2005). Moreover, the installation in Tokai2  A quote from an essay by Nakasone Yasuhiro in the 10 Years History of Nuclear Energy Development (日本原子力 産業会議, 1965) 3  On Asahi Newspaper. It was critical of the budget unlike Yomiuri Newspaper and Mainichi Newspaper. ( 日本原子力産業会議, 1965)

mura was done without effectively explaining about the danger or without getting the consultation. According to the questionnaire done to the people in Tokai-mura in 1956, 22% answers “not sure” and 53% answers “there is a little danger” about the danger of the nuclear reactor4. When the same group was asked what they thought about the nuclear reactor instalment, 32% answers “cannot be helped”. These answers indicate that the locals were not explained in detail and not active in the decision-making. They were detached from the nuclear policy. The development of nuclear technology enabled Japan to achieve a military goal through the technological deterrence. In the eyes of the potential enemy, Japanese capacity to possibly divert the nuclear energy to a weapon was an effective threat (Ohta, 2011). Indeed, Japan did not give up on the acquisition of the nuclear weapon. In 1952, Maeda Masao, a scientist who studied policy making in the scientific technology in the U.S. during the occupation era, claimed the Scientific Technology Agency was established for the research on the armament including nuclear weapon. This reflected the cabinet of Prime Minister of the time, Yoshida Shigeru, was considering the possession of a nuclear armament (Yamazaki, 2011). Moreover in 1957, Prime Minister Kishi Shinsuke said to the press that the acquisition of a nuclear weapon was in line with the article 95 in the Japanese Constitution (Ohta, 2011). This clearly signified the Japanese conservative had considered the future possession of the nuclear weapon as an option.

3. Japanese Public Opinion

Japanese public opinion was divided yet the majority gradually accepted the positive image of the nuclear energy portrayed by the media. The antinuclear movement erupted after the Lucky Dragon Incident in March 1954. The magazine Asahigraph first published the series of shocking photos in 1952, thanks to the end of a press code by the occupying force of the Allies. It paved the ground for the movement. As the atomic bombardments were the origin of the movement, it only focused on the inhumane aspect of the weapon and not necessary on the technology itself. The scientists were divided on their stance on the nuclear technology although the prevention of the military use of the nuclear energy was their mutual 4  The questionnaire organized by the Society of the Economic Research in Ibaraki University, 1956. 5  Article 9. Aspiring sincerely to an international peace based on justice and order, the Japanese people forever renounce war as a sovereign right of the nation and the threat or use of force as means of settling international disputes. (2) To accomplish the aim of the preceding paragraph, land, sea, and air forces, as well as other war potential, will never be maintained. The right of belligerency of the state will not be recognized.

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66 interest. Some considered law was necessary to eliminate the military use of the nuclear technology, instead of completely denying the technology itself. Fushimi Kouji, a professor at Osaka University, considered the drafting of a charter for the future nuclear energy law was necessary in order to prevent the military usage of the technology (Yamazaki, 2011). At the same time, some considered Japan should deny all the nuclear developments. Taketani Mitsuo and Mimura Yoshitaka, a professor at Hiroshima University and also a victim of the bomb, had claimed that Japan should never develop the nuclear energy unless the American-Soviet tension dissolves and the technology was only used for the peaceful purpose all over the world (Yamazaki, 2011). Mimura noted that Einstein recommending Roosevelt the development of a nuclear bomb ultimately caused the massacre in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Regardless of the stance, there was a consensus that Japan should focus on the research of the basic engineering. They considered Japan should develop own technology. Relying solely on the foreign technology was considered to be the lack of autonomy. The anti-nuclear movement did not stop the installation of the nuclear energy as the actors involved in the movement was not driven by the antagonistic view on the nuclear technology. After the Furukuryu Maru Incident, a housewife in Suginami-ku, Tokyo, had started the anti-nuclear testing movement by conducting a campaign to collect signature against the nuclear testing. The high point of the anti-nuclear movement was the First World Conference Against Atomic and Hydrogen Bomb in Hiroshima in August 1955. However, the movement tended to focus on the inhumanity of atomic bombardment, and fails to extend its criticism to the technology itself (Tanaka, 1999). It is because the anti-nuclear movement is originated from the experience of atomic bombardment in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The other actor against the nuclear energy was the fishers and the farmers of the area near the nuclear reactors. Likewise, the movement was not driven by the criticism against the nuclear energy, but by the need to protect their everyday life. Therefore, their movements often eroded as the economic investment prospered the regions (Nanazawa, 2008). Throughout the years of 1950â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s, Japanese Media was relatively friendly towards the development of the nuclear technology and energy. The media reflects the positive image associated with the nuclear weapons. One of the significant examples is Tetsuwan Atom or Mighty Atom (Kato, 2011). It is a comic and also an animation by Teduka Osamu. It started in 1952 and was very popular. The protagonist of the story, Atom, moves by the nuclear energy and combats all sorts of evil in the 21st Century world with the help from his sister, Uran,

and Dr. Ochanomizu. Atom and Uran, which is Uranium, are associated with the peaceful, hopeful and even heroic image. The success of the animation proves there was a ground of how the general public in Japan considered the nuclear energy peaceful and saw a bright future in its development.

Conclusion

The three factors combined to have caused the installation of the nuclear energy in Japan. The international realm, economic rationality, a scarcity of options, and national self-interest all dictated Japan to acquire the nuclear technology. The U.S. Cold War strategy enabled the Japanese, who was an aggressor less than ten years ago, to acquire the nuclear technology on her soil. The U.S. persuading Japan that the nuclear energy as dream-like and peaceful through the series of policies under â&#x20AC;&#x153;Atoms for Peaceâ&#x20AC;? would have been unthinkable without the emergence of the Cold War tension. The Japanese conservative welcomed the U.S. strategy and had taken the advantage of them to maximize the Japanese national interests and their own. The installation of a nuclear reactor was a ticket to the prosperity and the national security. The large part of Japanese public accepted the development of the new technology. Indeed, scientists were the only ones who were against nuclear technology. The public swiftly distinguished the horror of the nuclear weapon and the research on nuclear energy. The investigation shows the Japanese society at the time was very ambivalent. Japan was the only country, which was victimized by the nuclear radiation for three times yet builds the energy generator that uses the very technology. While Japan angered the death and inhumanity caused upon them, Japan saw a bright future lying in the technology.


The Oculus: Proceedings of the U21 Undergraduate Research Conference References

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