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t may not feel like it during this particularly cold and dreary start to the year but spring is once again on the way and what better time to get to grips with your grow. Maybe it’s time your grow room was given a good old fashioned spring clean and an update for 2013. In recent months the hydroponics industry appears to be going from strength to strength with an endless stream of great new, innovative products for the modern grower and in this edition we take a look at some of the latest additions to the market. Of course we’ve got some great growing lifestyle articles for you, taking a look at some musical heroes of ours, young and old. Continuing our feature on chillies, we found out which chillies you might want to watch out for in our World’s Hottest article. In our regular features Jeff Winterborne takes us back to basics with Part 2 of our on-going Plants series and our resident whistleblower No.6 is back giving us the frightening facts about aspartame and we take a look at the beautiful work of photographer Stuart Mitchell. We’ve also got more great prizes to give away so don’t forget to visit: www.thegrindmagazine.co.uk
The Grind Mag Team: Editor: Adam Barker Grow Editor: Jeffrey Winterborne Copy Editor: Pascale Winterborne Art Director: Adam Barker Online Manager: Kevin Baird Sales Manager: James Walton Operations Manager: James Walton Advertising sales: James Walton T: 0(+44)7787565650 E: email@example.com Copyright 2013 The Grind Magazine. ISSN 2050-2141 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form without the written permission of the authors. The authors assert their moral rights. In recent years, it has come to our knowledge that some people use information and equipment related to the subject of hydroponics for illegal activities. The authors, producers and publishers do not advocate breaking the law, nor is this publication (and corresponding website) intended to encourage or promote the use of illegal substances or activities. We do not accept responsibility for any errors although we attempt to ensure all information is accurate at time of publishing. The views of our contributors do not necessarily reflect those of the Grind Magazine. Note: Every effort has been made to obtain permission of the copyright holders of articles and artwork used in this publication. We apologise for any instance where permission has not been obtained and invite the copyright holder to get in touch with us. Disclaimer: The articles in this magazine are for educational purposes only and do not necessarily reflect the opinions of the editors, publisher or advertisers. Our sole aim is to stimulate rational debate and discussion of the important issues of our time. We do not endorse any treatments, medical or otherwise, and encourage our readers to continue with their own research and consult a health professional if they are ill. The Grind Magazine does not dispense medical advice or prescribe the use of any technique as a form of treatment for physical or medical problems without the advice of a physician, either directly or indirectly. The Grind Magazine cannot be made liable for claims, actions, legal and/or court fees brought against oneself in connection with any use of this publication or products ordered from our websites, catalogues, cd roms, dvds, advertising or other media.
EASY2GROW 2 SYSTEM
P18: MUSIC: GZA +
THE MASTER RETURNS
THE WORLD’S HOTTEST
A BRIEF OVERVIEW PT.2
P22: OZONE: A CROP SAVER P34: ARTIST FEATURE STUART MITCHELL P38: NO.6: ASPARTAME P42: MUSIC: LONNIE LISTON SMITH P46: COOLGEN SX2 LPG GAS CO2 GENERATOR P52: MUSIC NEWS: S/S 2013 P62: CLIMBING OUT OF THE HOLE P66: UK HYDROPONICS STORE FEATURES P70: COMPETITION 08
BY JEFFREY WINTERBORNE
Commercial Cropping: Go Big or Go Home
he easy2grow system from UK based manufacturer AutoPot is recognised by commercial growers worldwide as an easy to maintain and infinitely expandable hydro system that produces awesome results. Whether growing 2 plants or 2000 plants, AutoPot offers the commercial horticulturalist a watering solution that allows them to deliver optimum levels of water and nutrient to a huge volume of plants, reducing their watering workload without the need for pumps or electricity and most importantly, with zero waste. It is the only watering system that allows the plant to be in control of its own requirements. The proof is in the pudding, so letâ€™s have a look at some of their commercial installations. Example Installation 1: Brill View Farm Last yearâ€™s AutoPot chilli trials at Brill View Farm in Oxfordshire, England saw some huge harvests. 10
The trials started in January, where thousands of chilli seeds were germinated and raised indoors for a couple of months, before ultimately being transferred into the polytunnel facility into 1000 8.5 litre pots. Unfortunately, there were several delays in the growing schedule throughout the summer due to the heavy rainfall and below average temperatures and this delayed the placing of the chillies into the main greenhouse area in the complete easy2grow extension kits. Despite the fact that the weather conditions did not improve, the quantities produced were impressive â€“ at harvest, 1800kg of chilli plants were produced, which was a very good return bearing in mind the measures put in place to combat the unfortunate www.thegrindmagazine.co.uk
weather conditions. To see exclusive narrated footage of the Chilli trial from start to finish, please visit www.autopot.co.uk and follow the latest news tab to Live AutoPot Trials, which also features pepper trials held at Valley Grown Nurseries in Hertfordshire, UK. AutoPot will be continuing
the trials at Brill View this year with chillies and aubergines, so fingers crossed for an improved return season, with a little bit of help from the British Summer, of course! Example Installation 2: Harvest On The Hill Farm Simon Cannon, owner of www.thegrindmagazine.co.uk
Harvest On The Hill Farm - has been growing commercially in Barbados for the last 3 years, using the AutoPot easy2grow extension kits, and since then has seen some incredible results. Hereâ€™s what he had to say about his experience of growing with AutoPot, and the success he has found with the system and produce he has grown. â€œWe had no prior knowledge of growing vegetables, but are now successfully growing English cucumbers thanks to the high level of technical support and after sales service offered by Autopot. We have 2700 AutoPot easy2grow systems on site, with plants growing in three 4000 square foot polytunnels. We produce a continuous harvest of between 800 to 1600 lbs of cucumbers per week. We have a promise that whatever orders we have are shrink wrapped and delivered the same day, and we have a blossoming consumer market including a large local supermarket chain, plus various cruise ships that dock in Barbados. We
make an effort to make the most of our natural resources – all the water we use in the growing systems is harvested off the roof of our polytunnels. Using the AutoPot system in this climate has not had any negative impacts on our growing - despite the high levels of UV sunlight the pots are showing no signs of deterioration. The system just keeps working!” You can check out the footage of Simon’s farm at: http://youtube/_faMSRz633M For the UK Hobbyist Check out the new 1Pot XL system, supplied with a huge 25L pot and developed specifically for growers looking to cultivate much bigger and heavier yielding plants than ever before. The system also provides an ideal environment for maintaining huge stock plants. The XL features a newly designed square round pot and clam shaped base, which allows growers to easily rotate a large plant whilst it is still in the tray. For more information, please visit: www.autopot.co.uk
THE MASTER RETURNS
wenty years on from the release of the now legendary Enter The 36th Chamber Album, GZA as a founding member of the Wu-Tang clan, needs little introduction. A master of lyrical swordplay, he is renowned for his complex content, deep tone and dynamic delivery. Recently, The Genius, as he known to his fans, has been giving lectures at Harvard, MIT and NYU, while researching his themes for his highly anticipated Dark Matter album release and tour later this year. It’s been 5 years in the making, but the new album from Wu-Tang’s master wordsmith is nearly ready to be unleashed and promises to be his best album to date. In preparation for writing Dark Matter, RZA took to the road beginning an extensive tour of universities and schools across the USA, meeting and speaking with some of the Ivy League Schools’ greatest minds and piecing together the concepts he aims to 18
tackle on his long awaited solo return. Of course the Genius himself has much wisdom to share and so he has been invited to speak at such prestigious educational institutes as Harvard, M.I.T. and NYU to name just a few. Seemingly as naturally at home with microphone in hand in front of a silent lecture theatre as on stage in a packed venue, GZA took the appreciative audiences through the history of www.thegrindmagazine.co.uk
Hip-Hop from the perspective of an artist who has remained relevant to the culture and successful in the industry for two decades, a claim only a handful of elite rappers can make. Born and raised in Brooklyn, New York, GZA rose to prominence as a member of the Wu-Tang Clan. His unique vocal
On his forthcoming album Dark Matter, GZA gets to grips with the mysteries of the cosmos.
delivery and use of complex, multi-syllabic vocabulary and rhyme schemes made GZA one of the instant standout artists amongst an extremely talented group of individuals, who went on to become the most successful group in HipHop history. His 1995 solo album, Liquid Swords remains
one of the most highly rated of all of the Wu members solo releases and can be found in any true Hip-Hop heads collection. Eighteen years since its initial release, the lyrical techniques GZA exhibited still set the standard for the new generation of East Coast MCs. As the titles implies, with
his latest offering, GZA turns his attention once more to the cosmos, providing an infinitely broad palette of concepts and metaphors for him to amaze and astound appreciative fans across the globe. The Dark Matter Tour will be landing in Europe in October with a series of gigs and lectures across the UK. Watch this space.
OZONE A CROP SAVER
ow do you guarantee the elimination of smells and spread of bacteria inside or outside your grow space? Odours Letâ€™s concentrate on odour first. When ozone is present, smells are not; all that is left behind is normal molecular oxygen! This is a technology that is often used in industry to fully de-odourize hotels, hospitals and night clubs. No grower needs unwanted smells in or outside their grow room. Odours can escape or enter a grow environment externally. An age old method of overcoming this is by using air fresheners and essential oils. However, the worrying fact is that over a fairly short period of time a personâ€™s smell receptors become accustomed to present 22
odours and stop registering them. This is much the same as a dog owner not being able to sense the odour of their pets in their own house, while other people can smell this immediately. So, when growing, we always need to make sure there are absolutely no stray smells! The best way by far to actually neutralise odours is by using ozone. Ozone is an active oxygen molecule, O3, which is a type of oxygen that readily oxidises organic pollutants. It is an unstable molecule that actually destroys the molecular structure of toxins and smells. It actually breaks them up and creates that thunderstorm or crisp air smell, essentially creating fresh air! Ozone is created naturally in our air by the UV rays from the sun, or the high voltage from thunder storms. This can be easily seen when we dry our www.thegrindmagazine.co.uk
clothes outdoors, that fresh smell is in fact natural ozone! When active oxygen reacts with a pollutant, it oxidises it and harmlessly creates normal oxygen O2, which is the basis of all living organisms on earth. Bacteria and Mildew Ozone readily oxidises organic toxins, so any fungi or bacteria that are present in a room with an ozone generator are instantly destroyed, so they will not get a chance to multiply. A powdery mildew infestation can be prevented by treating a grow room with ozone. Companies such as Hotpoint are already using ozone technology in much the same way in their fridges and washing machines. This ensures longer lasting food products and absolute eradication of bacteria and smells in the washing machine cycle. Clothes end up smelling naturally fresher.
The best ozone generators to use in the grow space are ones which mix ozone with the air in the room. It means that the process of destroying smells is instant. In the UK hydro market there is only one such unit, made by Oâ€™D-AIR. It actually has an air pump, instantly mixing room air with ozone. Other generators which can be fitted into ducting systems rely on air flow from a fan to push room air over ozone-producing corona cells. These also work very well. Scientifically, ozone generators which donâ€™t mix ozone with room air, work very slowly as ozone is heavier than air and sinks to the floor. So they are not nearly as effective.
molecular oxygen for the body. This is known as oxygen therapy and is very well documented by scientists such as Tom Harrelson. Medicinal use of ozone haemotherapy is already common place in America and several links have been found between ozone and reversing HIV, cancer and fungal infections. In simple terms, ozone or active oxygen delivers more oxygen to the powerhouse of our cells to start the process of producing usable energy. It helps to increase the energy of every single cell in the body. However, ozone therapy should only be performed by a knowledgeable practitioner!
By Jason Pirie
Active oxygen, ozone, reacts in the body to oxidise toxins and produce more
4th Generation OF
Digital Ballasts is here
CHILLIES THE WORLD’S HOTTEST
hillies come from South America originating in southern Brazil and eastern Bolivia and 7,000 years later they are grown all over the world. The seeds of the wild capsicum were first spread across the Americas by birds.
The Americans call it ‘chili’, the Spaniards prefer ‘chile’ and to the British, it is ‘chilli’. Even if people find them too hot to eat, they still grow select species in pots for ornamental reasons. A single plant can have a profusion of colours as the numerous pods ripen in different stages and it’s not unusual to see a single plant with pods in varying shades of green, yellow, red, orange, purple, brown and even black. Fascinated by the plant and its fruit, Christopher Columbus and his crew collected the seeds and plants and brought them back to Europe where they became popular quickly and spread across the world via colonial trade routes. Today, chillies are grown all over the world across 28
a wide range of temperatures and under the most diverse growing conditions. It is one of the most widely cultivated crops today and is grown from Mexico and Africa to countries in the Far East including Thailand, India, Japan, Indonesia and China. There are 25 recognized wild varieties and there are almost 2,000 – 3,000 different known cultivars grown across the world today. Some of the most common are Habanero, Jalapeño, Cayenne, Serrano, Birds eye, and Poblano – the list is exhaustive. All of these cultivated chilli peppers are variations of 5 main species – C. Annuum, C. Chinense, C. Pubescens, C. Baccatum and C. Frutescens.
come in a vast array of shapes, sizes, colours and heat strengths which makes the classification and naming of them a complex and confusing task. Today, chilli growers around the world are pushing the boundaries in their quest to create new, improved and hotter pepper varieties!
The hybridized varieties
There is a lot of debate
as to which is the hottest chilli in the world. This is a fiercely competitive area. The most popular way to measure the heat of a chilli is the Scoville Heat Test. The scale or test is named after Wilbur L. Scoville (18651942), who developed the Scoville Organoleptic Test in 1912 while working at the Parke Davis pharmaceutical
company. A solution of the pepper extract is diluted in sugar water until the â€˜heatâ€™ is no longer detectable to a panel of (usually five) tasters. The degree of dilution is the measure on the Scoville scale. A sweet pepper which contains no capsaicin at all has a rating of 0 ie no heat detectable even when undiluted whereas www.thegrindmagazine.co.uk
the hottest chillies eg habaneros have a rating of 300,000 or more, which means that their extract has to be diluted 300,000 times before the capsaicin present is undetectable. The biggest drawback of the Scoville Organoleptic Test is that it is not very precise because it relies on human subjectivity. The scale is actually a 29
measure of the concentration of the chemical compound capsaicin which is the active component that produces the heat sensation for humans. The name capsaicin comes from the plant classification of the pepper plant, a type of fruit that belongs to the genus Capsicum. Capsaicin occurs naturally in chilli peppers together with a number of very similar compounds referred to generically as capsaicinoids. It is the precise ratio of these capsaicinoids which causes the differences in taste reaction to different pepper species, for example the delayed reaction when eating a habanero pepper compared to other chilli varieties.
The Trinidad Scorpion Morouga Blend
Nowadays, the hotness of a chilli can be determined using more scientific methods for example the High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The direct measurement of capsaicin gives much more accurate results than sensory methods and is used instead of humans to establish the rating on the Scoville Heat scale.
The top ten hottest chillies in the World for 2012 are:
Looking at the web, it is difficult to determine what is the hottest chilli today. On the left is a generic chart but as of February 2012, the Trinidad Moruga Scorpion pepper was named as the new hottest pepper in the world. It is rated at more than 2 million Scoville Units.
The 7 Pod Douglah
By Jeff Winterborne.... Hydroponics Chilli Fiend.. all year round chilli grower with over 50 varieties in my greenhouse!
GRIND ARTIST FEATURE
tuart Mitchell is a UK based motorsport photographer who has been making a name for himself on the circuit over recent years with these mesmerising high energy shots. We canâ€™t wait to see what the 2013 season has to offer. To see more of Stuartâ€™s photography or to contact him please visit: stuartjmitchellphotography.com
ASPARTAME By No. 6 “i am not a number!”
hey kill us slow some of us don’t know, that we are paying the machine to die! - Jalal ‘The Last Poets’ circa 1970
Aspartame (Nutrasweet) was accidentally discovered in 1965 while work was being carried out in a lab to find a cure for stomach ulcers. Aspartame when ingested is broken down by the body into methanol. Methanol in turn creates formaldehyde. This collects in the tissues of the body organs, particularly in the liver. Methanol-derived formaldehyde in the body has been linked to nausea, abdominal pain, blindness and impairment of the central nervous system. In addition, formaldehyde in drinking water has been known to cause cancerous tumours. Aspartame is acesulfame potassium and is the most widely used artificial sweetener in the world.You will find it in hundreds if not thousands of different foods and drinks such as 38
chewing gum, sweets, diet drinks, desserts, yogurts, sauces and relishes, and even in vitamins and medicine. Aspartame is no longer only confined to sugarfree diet products. The average supermarket is full of aspartame or sugar free goods. Aspartame is the excrement of genetically modified E. coli bacteria. It is 40% aspartic acid, 50% phenylalanine and 10% methanol. Aspartic acid acts as a neurotransmitter, and too much of it can over excite the cells. This is known as an “excitotoxin”, thus stimulating the cells to death. The blood brain barrier cannot prevent this in many people, as it does not fully protect all areas of the brain, especially in people already suffering from other chronic diseases www.thegrindmagazine.co.uk
and disorders, and in particular, the blood brain barrier is not fully developed in children. Phenylalanine is an amino acid already present in the brain, but excess levels can cause serotonin to decrease over time, which can lead to chemical imbalances that cause depression and other mood/ emotional disorders.
Theyâ€™re back! The Wu return with an album to mark 20 years since the release of 36 Chambers.
Methanol is an industrial solvent; it is used as fuel and antifreeze, and is a main ingredient in many paints and varnish removers. Methanol ingestion may result in neurological damage, in particular, permanent motor dysfunction and visual impairment that can lead to blurred or dimmed vision and eventually blindness.
Searle Pharmaceuticals who can be credited for bringing aspartame to us, attempted to get aspartame approved in the late â€˜70s, but due to numerous studies submitted on the negative effects of the chemical in lab animals which included the fact that aspartame produced holes in the brains of these lab animals, the www.thegrindmagazine.co.uk
FDA set up a public board of inquiry in 1980. They concluded (and it is based on scientific evidence) that aspartame may cause cancer and concluded that the sweetener could not be put on the market until further testing was done. However, this was pushed through after the then US President Ronald Reagan fired the 39
FDA commissioner and replaced him with none other than his friend and Searle CEO Donald Rumsfeld. Searle made billions of dollars and our old friend Monsanto (1st issue of The Grind “terminator gene article”) purchased Searle in 1985. Rumsfeld later became the Secretary of Defense. Although millions of people consume aspartame every single day, it was never tested on humans prior to its approval! Some of the side effects reported after using aspartame include: Headaches/migraines, vertigo, heart palpitations, dizziness, seizures, nausea, numbness, muscle spasms, rashes, depression, fatigue, irritability, insomnia, vision problems, hearing loss, breathing difficulties, anxiety attacks, tachycardia, slurred speech, loss of taste, tinnitus, weight gain, memory loss, and joint pain. Even the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) warns that aspartame is a “chemical with substantial evidence of developmental neurotoxicity” on its database of developmental neurotoxicants. Even better in the late ’90s, Monsanto prepared to unleash a new sweetener on the market: neotame. This new artificial sweetener is a chemical 40 times sweeter than aspartame. Neotame is exactly the same as aspartame with an added ingredient: 3-dimethylbutyl. This chemical is a member of the sec-Hexyl acetate family and 3-dimethylbutyl 40
is listed by the EPA and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) as a hazardous chemical. In fact, the CDC warns that you should seek immediate medical attention if you ingest this chemical if swallowed! It targets the central nervous and respiratory systems. It has been said that neotame was approved without any long-term independent studies purely for profit because aspartame’s patent expired. Despite this and all the studies being funded by Monsanto, the FDA approved neotame in 2002. A very reassuring quote: “Monsanto should not have to vouchsafe the safety of biotech food. Our interest is in selling as much of it as possible. Assuring its safety is the FDA’s job.” — Phil Angell, Monsanto’s director of corporate communications, quoted in The New York Times, Oct. 25, 1998. I rest my case! No. 6 “not as free as I would like to be!” Images courtesy of David Dees
LONNIE LISTON SMITH THE KING OF THE KEYS
n the early 1960s, a young and versatile musician from Baltimore began appearing alongside some of the greatest Jazz musicians of the time. Known for both his vocal and piano playing prowess, the 20 year old Lonnie grew in confidence quickly and in 1963, he moved to the Jazz music mecca of New York City.
Raised on a diet of Charlie Parker, John Coltrane and Miles Davis, unquestionably three of the most influential musicians of the past century, Lonnie was part of a new generation of Jazz musicians. A young group of artists, armed with the fundamentals of the Jazz masters of the 1950s, coupled with the influence of the brave new world of 1960s New York, sought to stamp their own mark on the music they loved. Throughout the sixties, Lonnie continued to work with the big names of the time including the likes of Art Blakey and Pharoah Sanders. It was during this time that Lonnie would discover the infamous Fender 42
Rhodes electric piano which would become a trademark of his â€œastral travellingâ€? signature sound. Lonnie achieved a lifelong dream when he was invited to play with Miles Davis, accompanying the Jazz legend on stage and in studio. In the early 1970s, still a young man, yet with the experience of a seasoned veteran, Lonnie took the inevitable next step and formed his own band, The Cosmic Echoes. Continuing to incorporate the psychedelic themes of the time, The Cosmic Echoes blended multiple music genres, blurring the lines between Funk, Soul and traditional Jazz. Experimental fusion artists, inspired by the www.thegrindmagazine.co.uk
the mixing pot of genres in New York soon began to explore new musical territory. A slew of albums followed, amongst them the seminal album Expansions. Released in 1974, it is one of those albums that you will recognise by ear if not by name. This is partly due to the number of modern artists who have borrowed from Lonnie’s work by way of sampling and in more recent years through collaboration with an entirely new generation of musicians from around the globe. Expansions is a truly timeless album and Lonnie’s harmonic genius can be heard on music by Jay Z, Mary J Blige and Basement Jaxx. Lonnie’s influence can be heard throughout the world of soulful electronic music from Funky House to Intelligent Drum and Bass. His signature Rhodes sound is now an established mainstay of the musical landscape of the past forty years. In January 2013, Lonnie returned to the UK for his European tour and performed three sold-out 44
shows at the legendary Ronnie Scotts Jazz Club in Soho, London. The crowd were wowed with the sheer variety of material, the technical excellence of Lonnieâ€™s young yet masterful band and his magical touch on the keys. The set took the audience on a tour of Lonnieâ€™s considerable Jazz knowledge from the traditional to the experimental and everything in between. The perfectly crafted set climaxed with the always popular Expansions title track. As the smooth and funky bassline began, the appreciative shouts from the crowd filled the intimate central London venue. Lonnie Liston Smith is a living musical treasure. His influence extends beyond the boundaries of Jazz, crossing time and space, astral travelling forever. Lonnie will be returning to the UK later this year, visit us online for information. www.thegrindmagazine.co.uk
BY JEFFREY WINTERBORNE
THE NEW LPG GAS CO2 GENERATOR
he Grind Magazine recently met up with the team at Growing Innovations to discuss the advantages of their LPG gas CO2 generator the COOLGEN SX2. What is the main advantage when using the COOLGEN SX2 over standard CO2 generators? The COOLGEN has the addition of a water cooling feature that allows it to run more than 700% cooler than any standard CO2 generator. Because of this feature the SX2 can operate with a much larger flame that produces a massive 3.6kg of CO2 per hour. All in all, this allows the gardener to maintain high levels of CO2 in very short bursts with barely no heat build-up whatsoever. How is the water cooling feature set up? There are 2 main ways to cool the generator. 1. Connect the COOLGEN up to a mains water supply with our water solenoid valve kit. 46
2. Use a reservoir and pump to circulate water around the generator. Reservoirs can be as small as 50 litres for more modest installations of up to 4m2. For larger set -ups we have customers using anything from 45 gallon drums to outside swimming pools. We supply water pumps suitable for short and long distance reservoirs. How are the CO2 levels controlled? As the COOLGENâ€™s flame is ignited only by water flow, the gardener would connect a CO2 controller either to the water solenoid valve for mains run to waste cooling, or to a water pump for re-circulating reservoir cooling. When CO2 is needed the controller activates either the solenoid valve or water pump which in turn allows water to flow through the generator www.thegrindmagazine.co.uk
triggering the flame igniter. When the desired levels are reached, the controller stops the water flow and de-activates the flame. What is the min and max area COOLGEN can be operated in? We currently have customers using the COOLGEN in areas as
small as 2m2 and up to 30m2. We recommend that a second generator should be installed in anything over 30m2. What safety features does the COOLGEN have? Most importantly the unit has no standing pilot. The COOLGEN has a state of the art electronic
ignition that fires the burner up immediately upon water flow. Other safety features include an oxygen depletion sensor, over heat shut down and automatic re-light. What are advantages of enrichment?
Earthâ€™s current atmospheric CO2 www.thegrindmagazine.co.uk
concentration is almost 390 parts per million (ppm). Adding another 1100 ppm of CO2 to the air has been shown to greatly increase the growth or biomass production of nearly all plants. This growth stimulation occurs because CO2 is one of the two raw materials (the other being water) that are required for photosynthesis. Hence, 47
CO2 is actually the “food” that sustains essentially all plants on the face of the earth, as well as those in the sea. And the more CO2 they “eat” (absorb from the air or water), the bigger and faster they grow - 2-3 times as fast in most cases. What can we expect from Growing Innovations in the future? First and foremost the future is very exciting. As innovators, growers and engineers we are constantly working on new products that help our customers grow super productive and healthier crops all year round. Later in 2013, we will be releasing many new products to support closed growing environments. We have just added our brand new range of Inverter Air conditioners (9000BTU 48,000BTU) to the Growing Innovations
website. Our new hobby CO2 controller the GI-P1 will be available later this year, and will come in at a much lower price than our professional model. O.R.M.E - our catalytic plant tonic was released earlier this year, we are actually having trouble keeping up with demand! As of next month our new vortex device will allow us to produce much larger quantities. For more information on Growing Innovations range of products, please visit: www.growinginnovations.co.uk
MUSIC NEWS SPRING / SUMMER 2013 March begins the annual pilgrimage to the musical mecca of SXSW (Austin, Texas) and WMC (Miami, Florida); music conferences bringing artists, labels and industry types together Stateside. Last year more than 2,000 musical acts from 50 different countries played at SXSW alone. Providing an opportunity for musicians and producers to get together and collaborate, so expect to be hearing lots of new material soon. It’s been twenty years since their debut album ‘Enter the Wu-Tang: 36 Chambers’, so fans will be pleased to hear that Method Man announced the Wu-Tang will release a new album later this year. Greensleeves Records have created a limited edition ten inch picture disc in collaboration with the release of the Clarks in Jamaica book. The record, shaped as a desert boot, features a Clarks-themed tune on 52
either side: Little John’s ‘Clarks Booty’ (1985) and Errol Scorcher’s ‘Put On Me Clarks’ (1980). In response, Clarks Originals have produced some vinyl-themed shoes for their Spring/ Summer 2013 collection. After twenty-two years at Kiss FM, it’s great news that David Rodigan has a new reggae show on BBC 1xtra. The world still awaits the Major Lazer “Free The Universe,” album currently available to pre order in the USA and Canada. In the meantime they’ll be putting out three volumes of music until the album is released. The first mixtape, ‘Lazer Strikes Back Vol.1’ is now available as a free download online to keep the crowds happy. If you don’t know who Bauuer is then surely you’ve been missing the thousands of YouTube videos of people convulsing to the ‘Harlem Shake.’ The track was released on Diplo’s free www.thegrindmagazine.co.uk
download label The Jeffrees back in May 2012 but only recently became a ‘twerking’ internet sensation. Time will tell if this has a negative impact on the Baauer brand long term but expect more labels to try and cash in on the viral phenomenon. If you like trap music and want to hear more exciting global Dj’s and artists listen to
They’re back! The Wu return with an album to mark 20 years since the release of 36 Chambers.
BBC Diplo and friends, Plastician’s Rinse FM show and the new UKF trap channel. Artists to watch this year include Annie Mac’s favourite, Vancouver based Swiss producer Cyril Hahn and Brighton based Hucci. Also check out L.A.’s Valentino Khan and Etc! Etc! who’ve both recently done guest mixes for Diplo’s BBC 1Xtra show
and release free tunes weekly on their soundcloud and Facebook pages. If you prefer the live band experience make sure you listen out for Torontobased trio Keys N Crates, now part of Steve Aoki’s Dim Mak family. For more of our music news vist: thegrindmagazine.co.uk www.thegrindmagazine.co.uk
PLANTS A BASIC OVERVIEW: PART 2
Stems Stems are an integral part of the health and overall happiness of the plant. The stems act as a reflector indicating signs of stress and strength. Stems, due to their nature, are the supply pipelines for the roots and leaves. The stem is the main supporting structure of a plant and serves to transport and to store water and food.
plants. The vascular bundle consists of xylem which conducts water and dissolved mineral substances from the roots to the leaves, and phloem which conducts dissolved foods, especially sugars, from the leaves to the storage tissues of the stem and rootball. The structure of vascular bundles varies among the different plant groups.
The vascular system in the stem is mainly made up of xylem which are upward conducting, and phloem which are downward conducting tissues, usually in vascular bundles arranged concentrically on either side of the cambium with the xylem inside and the phloem on the outside.
The pith is a central core of spongy tissue and is surrounded by strands or bundles of conducting xylem and phloem. The cambium, which is an area of actively dividing cells, lies just below the bark. Lateral buds and leaves grow out of the stem at intervals called nodes; the intervals on the stem between the nodes are called internodes.
The vascular bundle is a strand of conducting tissue extending lengthwise through the stems and roots of C3
The pith is the core of the stem of most plants. Pith is composed of large, loosely packed food storage cells. As the
stem grows older, the pith usually dries out, and in some plants it disintegrates and the stem becomes hollow. Plants contain two separate transport systems running side by side. These allow substances, such as water, minerals and sugars, to be transported to different parts of the
plant. They also provide plants with support, helped by the distended cells. Xylem is a continuous system of tubes running from the roots to the leaves. It consists of empty, dead cells with thickened sidewalls ... well this is the conventional view and for decades, researchers
have seen the xylem as a column of dead tissue, like a worn pipe, that sits inside plant stems passively supplying water to thirsty leaves. However, in a recently published paper, a team of plant biologists reported that gels in key xylem membranes constantly shrink and swell. With this motion, the xylem actually www.thegrindmagazine.co.uk
adjusts the flow of mineral-rich mechanical support. Xylem consists of specialized water conducting tissues made up mostly of narrow, elongated and hollow cells. The phloem is composed of various specialised cells called sieve tubes, companion cells, phloem fibres and phloem 57
per week. We have a promise that whatever orders we have are shrink wrapped and delivered the same day, and we have a blossoming consumer market including a large local supermarket chain, plus various cruise ships that dock in Barbados. We
parenchyma cells. Sieve tubes are columns of sieve tube cells which have perforated areas in their walls and provide the main channels in which food elements travel. Phloem fibres are long, flexible cells that make up the soft fibres used commercially e.g., flax and hemp. The phloem may also be called bast tissues in plants that conduct foods made in the leaves to all other parts of the plant.
responsible for the secondary growth of stems and roots, resulting in an increase in thickness.
The cambium is a layer of actively dividing cells between xylem which are fluid conducting and phloem which are food conducting tissues and are
The epidermis is the outermost layer of cells covering the stem, root, leaf, flower, fruit, and seed parts of a plant. The epidermis and its waxy cuticle provide
The cortex is a tissue of unspecialised cells lying between the epidermis (surface cells) and the vascular or conducting tissues of stems and roots. Cortical cells may contain stored food or other substances such as resins, latex, essential oils, and tannins.
make an effort to make the most of our natural resources â€“ all the water we use in the growing systems is harvested off the roof of our poly tunnels. Using the AutoPot system in this climate has not had any negative impacts on our growing - despite the high levels of UV sunlight the pots are showing no signs of deterioration. The system just keeps working!â€? You can heck out the of Simonâ€™s farm at: http://youtu.be/_faMSRz633M For the UK Hobbyist Check out the new 1Pot XL system, supplied with a huge 25L pot and developed specifically for growers looking to cultivate much bigger and heavier yielding plants than ever before. The system also provides an ideal environment for maintaining huge stock plants. The XL features a newly designed square round pot and clam shaped base, which allows growers to easily rotate a large plant whilst it is still in the tray. For more information, please visit: www.autopot.co.uk
a protective barrier against injury, water loss, and infection. Various modified epidermal cells regulate transpiration, increase water absorption, and secrete substances. The meristems are a region of cells capable of division and growth. Meristems are classified by location as apical or primary i.e. at the root and
shoot tips, lateral or secondary i.e. in the vascular cambium and cork cambium, or intercalary i.e. at internodes, the stem regions between the places at which leaves attach, and at leaf bases, especially in certain monocots, e.g., grasses. Apical meristems give rise to the primary plant body. Lateral meristems provide increase in stem girth. Injured and damaged tissues can
convert other cells to new meristem for wound healing. The stems react first to the beginnings of over fertilisation. The veins on the stems become a brightened reddish colour. This starts from the base of the stem then migrates to the upper levels of the plantâ€™s stem and finally through to the leaves, which in turn causes the tips to burn and the leaves to curl. Flushing with a lowered nutrient solution can easily rectify this. Elongation of stems indicates one of two things and sometimes a combination of both; lack of light and heat build-up. Stems stretch as they look for more light and this indicates that the light source should be moved closer to the canopy of the plant or that the grow room is in need of more light sources. Stems also stretch when temperatures in the grow room are too high. The reason this happens is that the plant creates more surface area to transpire through and cool itself down.
Sometimes, both these factors combined are responsible for stretched plants. Stems can also reflect if young plants are being over watered as the stems at the base narrow then fall over. This is called damping off where the plant stems literally have rotted at the base. Stems can also reflect that a plant is thriving; a very happy plant develops a stem which has a velvet glow encompassing the whole surface area of the stem and it also produces thick, bulging veins that harden into long ridges from the base to the tip of the stem. Over time this produces thicker and thicker stems creating a sound foundation for a very healthy plant. Typically, the thicker the stem, the happier the plant is and the more weight and yield it is able to support and produce. On that note, the shorter the internode is between the leaf joints, the more successful the plant will become as the energy supplied via the rootball up to the leaves has a shorter distance to travel. This allows the plant to conserve energy for the growing process instead of having to try and pump nutrient to greater heights if the stems are elongated, resulting in wasted energy. Excerpt taken from: Hydroponics Indoor Horticulture by Jeff Winterborne ISBN-10: 0955011205 ISBN-13: 978-0955011207 Visit www.hydroponicist.com for more information.
CLIMBING OUT OF THE HOLE
Conspiracy theory is a kind of epistemological cartoon about reality. It is kindergarten stuff in the art of amateur historiography. I believe that the real truth that dare not speak itself is that no one is in control, absolutely no one. This stuff is ruled by the equations of dynamics and chaos. There may be entities seeking control, the World Bank, the Communist Party, the rich, but to seek control is to take enormous aggravation upon yourself. This process that is underway will take the control freak by the short and curlies and throw them against the wall.” ~ Terence McKenna. About twelve years ago I replaced my television set with the World Wide Web. It wasn’t really a conscious decision, more a side effect of an overriding, obvious fact—the web was far more interesting and there are only so many hours in the day. The expanse of the Internet was infinitely more engaging and, of course, interactive than the passive drip feed of BBC, ITV, Channel 4 and all the rest of it. Now, some of you may well have tittered over my use of the word ‘interactive’ perhaps suspecting it to be my chosen euphemism for porn. If so, award yourself a gold star. You’re right—I ‘interacted’ with a whole lot of that stuff, all of which urgently needed researching, collating and 62
I set my hands to the task with an unrelenting focus and vigour. Try, if you can, not to imagine that. A few years later, after thoroughly researching just about every form of deviant sexual behaviour (note the absence of the qualifier ‘human’) I turned my attention, in part at least, to other avenues of the digital universe. It all started with a YouTube video called Money as Debt—a treatise on how currencies actually work. Now I readily concede, especially given my earlier admission, a short film about economics doesn’t sound like the most distracting feature—but I’d never really understood how money worked beyond www.thegrindmagazine.co.uk
some vague talk of bank notes being ‘just promises.’ Promises of what? To pay? To pay what? And to whom? That’s about as far as I’d taken things in my head. The text description of this video claimed to explain how money really worked in around 45 minutes. But I wouldn’t have clicked on it had it not been a cartoon, and
They’re back! The Wu return with an album to mark 20 years since the release of 36 Chambers.
if you think you’re too old for cartoons then you’ve clearly yet to stumble upon Hentai. An hour later and I was in a state of shock. It may sound naive but I’d just discovered that money was not backed by gold or silver—it was simply conjured into existence by banks as ‘loans.’ The ‘money’ that everyone
seems to spend their whole lives chasing did not actually exist until it was promised to be repaid by us—with interest of course. The whole monetary system was designed to keep us out of breath, perpetually pursuing money that was kept deliberately in short supply—like a neverending game of musical chairs. Something smelt. www.thegrindmagazine.co.uk
I dug deeper. (One might even venture to say that I began to use the Internet as a bona fide research tool.) The Money as Debt cartoon appeared to be spot on. This very useful stuff called money (that arguably liberated us from the limitations of direct barter) had been transformed, over the centuries, into a mechanism of 63
Machiavellian societal control. Money was a complete fiction—but its power lay in our collective belief in it. Banks ran the show. Governments were in their pockets. And the purchasing power of our pounds, shillings or cents was continually being chipped away thanks to the manmade phenomenon known as ‘inflation.’ Every dollar, yen or pound in circulation was attached to a debt that, in turn, accrued interest— forcing us all to work harder and harder, chasing an artificially scarce supply of promissory notes, for an everdiminishing net reward. I felt like Neo awakening in his capsule, realising he’d been born into bondage. I stared aghast at the Matrix that surrounded me, seeing with fresh eyes a system of modified slavery. Well, all this certainly made a change from vaginas. From there it all went a bit Rothschild. The so-called ‘elite’—a shadow world government—had run the world for centuries, even millennia. And guess what? We were all screwed. Bohemian Grove. Chemtrails. Mainstream media mind control. FEMA camps. RFID chips. Agenda 21. Statutes masquerading as Common Law. Withheld cures for manmade maladies. Forced dependence on oil. Various assassinations. The New World Order. PNAC. Genetically modified food. All washed down with a daily dose of fluoridated tap water to keep us placated. I subscribed to just about every alternative news outlet going and soon my inbox was regularly bombarded with cataclysmic predictions of imminent global carnage. I felt hopeless, powerless and totally depressed as I 64
sat at my screen, burdened and blearyeyed at godforsaken hours. It was too late to take the Strictly Come Dancing blue pill. Even Brucey was in on it—most likely unwittingly, bless him. Devoid of the outlet of obscure indoor gardening publications, I simply became one of those guys who talked too much. I’d corner people at parties, testing my fellow guests’ abilities to feign interest in my highly inconvenient truths. Before long I stopped being invited. I’d overdosed on information to the extent that my mind was nauseous with concepts and opinions, all desperately vying to become data and facts in my headspace. Talking to ‘likeminded’ folks on online forums and chat rooms was the worst thing I could’ve done. There seemed to be an almost gleeful prescience of our collective demise—a hierarchy of, dare I say it, conspiracy theories. Oh ‘X?’ X is just a subcategory of ‘Y.’ What? You’ve not heard of ‘Y’!? Click on this link! It’ll make you smarter! I’d click on the link. It was another page full of links. I’d click on some of those links—more links to pages of links. It was somewhat reminiscent of my early forays into the World Wide Web, only this time with pop-up blockers sparing me ads for gold and survivalist dried food packs. I grew tired of it all. Tired of the industry that had grown up around our collective paranoia and disenfranchisement. Tired of Alex Jones. Tired of seeing the same photo of Hillary Clinton with those eerily reptilian eyes. Tired of the new gnosis that had grown up around our new toy—the Internet. And, just as the
relevance of television’s one-size-fitsall political correctness had faded, so the cacophony of the Internet slowly began to ebb away from my mind. One could say that I finally began to think for myself, but that could be going too far. At the very least, I stopped worrying about money—no more anxiety of not having enough, no more guilt of having too much. At risk of sounding a little cheesy, I started believing in myself, rather than the bank. I realised that I was the money—my skills, my energy, my time—why should the parasitic bankers always have their tribute on my labour? I realised that the money I’d been chasing was, in actual fact, me. It was about this time that the whole economic crisis, global abdominal crunch thing kicked off. You probably remember all the huffing and puffing about it. I dragged a caravan to the south of France. Things seemed better there in a reassuringly old fashioned way. I happened upon a spare allotment near a river and planted my first proper vegetable garden—and it was there, in amongst the veggies, that I finally
regained a long-lost peace of mind. It was authentically unexpected. Despite the ‘economic downturn’ my carrots grew deep and long in the sandy soil. Spuds—well they just grow themselves—easy! Lettuce, corn, tomatoes, onions, garlic, you name it, they all thrived. I found a free source of goat manure up the road and hey presto, I discovered that it’s actually very easy to grow your own food. The solution was simple—take care of wiping your own arse and you don’t have to worry about whether Andrex raises its prices. Shame they don’t teach you that in school, but then you’d be in danger of realising that you’re born free and, for some reason, that didn’t make it on to the curriculum. As for the ‘global elite’ who apparently run the show…well, if you really believe that, perhaps it’s time you took a stroll outside of the theatre. I have my carrots and my friend Terence to thank for gently pointing me towards the fire exit. I’m off now to take a walk in the sunshine. By Everest Fernandez
STORE FEATURE: ANGEL GROW HYDROPONICS Angel Grow Hydroponics 3 Woodlands Farm Road, Pype Hayes, Birmingham B24 0PJ (T) 07858 123456 angelgrow.co.uk A great Hydroponics shop in Birmingham. What stood out the most was the enthusiasm and sheer dedication the owner has for the industry. It’s a family run business and the team behind Angel Grow Hydroponics have over 17 years of horticultural experience, so good advice is always available. They are able to source very competitive prices for the various products they have on sale so are very confident they will not be beaten on price. All leading brands are available to purchase and anything that is not in store can be within 24-48 hours.
STORE FEATURE: BILL & BEN’S HYDROWORLD Bill & Ben’s Hydroworld D15/16 Bumpers Way Bumpers Farm Industrial Estate Chippenham, Wiltshire SN14 6LH (T) 01249 447796 www.billandbens.com Rob manages Bill and Ben’s HydroWorld and has experience in the horticultural business having owned a farm growing Shiittake mushrooms for 8 years and an allotment for just over five. “We stock the entire Atami range which includes Ata, Ata Organics, B’cuzz & Bloombastic as we think they are an exceptional and offer real value for money. We also stock Canna, Hesi and Plant Magic which is a great range made here in the UK. We are currently looking at Metrop, a highly concentrated nutrient and a 100% bat guano imported from Africa called Guanokalong!” 66
STORE FEATURE: BRIT CROPS HYDROPONICS Brit Crops Hydroponics Unit 9 Oj’s Industrial Park, Claybank Road, Portsmouth, Hants PO3 5SX (T) 02392 669111 britcropshydroponics. co.uk Brit Crops Hydroponics is Portsmouth’s local hydroponics supplier, located on a small industrial estate with loads of free parking. The Brit Crops shop is packed with the latest hydroponics equipment and supplies, and they offer a wide range of the leading name products at great prices! The store is well laid out with plenty of displays to wander around and to see how various hydroponics systems work, as well as lighting set-ups, good soil selections, and stocks of nutrients. Their wide product selection and value for money is difficult to beat in the south of England.
STORE FEATURE: ESSEX HYDRO-GARDEN Essex Hydro-garden 3a Tonbridge Works Tonbridge Road Romford Essex RM3 8TS (T) 01708 344420 www.essexhydrogarden.co.uk Essex Hydro-Garden maybe one of the newest stores in Essex but they have certainly come on in leaps and bounds since opening nearly 3 years ago, the staff pride themselves in getting to know their customers personally which helps enormously with their growing requirements and they are now one of the leading stockist of hydroponic equipment in Essex. “Our aim is to ensure all customer requirements are met 100% and our aftercare policy is second to none. If there is something we don’t have in store, we can usually have it to you within 24 hours”. www.thegrindmagazine.co.uk
STORE FEATURE: ROOTZONE HYDROPONICS Rootzone Unit 2-3 The Green Business Centre The Causeway, Staines, Middlesex TW18 3AL (T) 01784 490 370 hydrowebshop.com The shop aims to provide the grower with the best equipment, tools and supplies available in the hydroponics industry. As experts in hydroponics it enables the shop to work with the grower to develop the best solution for their hydroponic needs. Service is a priority at Rootzone and they are always available and happy to discuss and advise on all aspects of hydroponic equipment and techniques to ensure you get the most from your hydroponic set-ups but more importantly get you growing the best way you can. Rootzone is a well established professional shop with plenty of good advice available. Be sure to drop in soon.
DIRECTORY To view the complete 2013 Grind Magazine UK Hydroponics Store Directory visit us online at: WWW.THEGRINDMAGAZINE.CO.UK 68
nce again we’ve got some more great prizes to give away courtesy of our friends at Acorn Wholesale and Trade Hydro. This time we’ve got a selection of useful gadgets that will serve any grower well. The first 100 people to email us at firstname.lastname@example.org before 31/5/2013 will be entered into the free prize draw. The winner will be announced via email on the 1/6/2013. Prizes 1 x 5 ltr. Pressure Sprayer 1 x 3,500 Ltrs per minute Submersible Pump from Aquaking 1 x EC Meter – ADWA 1 X 400ml Brimex Smell Killer 3 x Plug and Grow Timers
world’s finest nutrients
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