Page 1


TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING &

SURVEYING for

Civil Engineering By

www.thegateacademy.com


Syllabus

Transportation Engineering

Syllabus for Transportation Engineering

Highway Planning: Geometric design of highways, testing and specifications of paving materials, design of flexible and rigid pavements. Traffic Engineering: Traffic characteristics, theory of traffic flow, intersection design, traffic signs and signal design, highway capacity.

Year

2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000

Analysis of GATE Papers (Transportation Engineering) Percentage of marks

14.00

Overall Percentage

12.00 12.00 11.00 15.00 18.00 16.63 16.63 9.00

13.78%

8.67 8.00

17.00 17.00 18.00

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Syllabus

Surveying

1Syllabus for Surveying

Importance of surveying, principles and classifications, Mapping concepts, coordinate system, map projections, Measurements of distance and directions, leveling, Theodolite traversing, plane table surveying, errors and adjustments, curves.

Analysis of GATE Papers (Surveying) Year

2013 2012 2011 2010 2009

Percentage of marks

14.00 12.00 4 -

2008

3

2006

3

2007 2005 2004 2003

Overall Percentage

2.78%

3 -

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Contents

Chapter #1.

#2.

#3.

#4.

CONTENTS

Transportation & Surveying

Transportation Engineering

Page No.

Theory of Traffic Flow and Highway Capacity

1–13

Geometric Design Of Highway

14 – 41

• • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • •

Order of Road Development Modern Road Development in India Classification of Roads Engineering Survey for Highway Location Drawing and Report Highway Capacity Assignment Answer Keys Explanations Introduction Highway Cross Section Elements Sight Distance Design of Horizontal Allignment Vertical Alignment Solved Examples Assignment Answer Keys Explanations

Traffic Characteristics

• • • • • • •

Road User Characteristics Vehicular Characteristics Traffic Studies Solved Examples Assignment Answer Keys Explanations

Traffic Signs And Signals Design

• • • • • • •

Traffic Signs Traffic Signals Various Methods for Finding out the Cycle Solved Examples Assignment Answer Keys Explanations

1 2–3 3–5 6–8 8 9 10-11 12 12 – 13

14 14 – 16 16 – 18 18 – 21 22 – 24 25 – 29 30 – 35 36 36 – 41

42 – 64 42 42 – 43 43 – 52 53 – 60 61 – 62 63 63 – 64

65 – 78 65 – 67 67 – 69 69 – 70 71 – 75 76 – 77 78 78

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Contents

#5.

#6.

#7.

Transportation & Surveying

Intersection Design

79 – 91

Testing And Specification of Paving Materials

92 – 117

• • • • • • • • • • • •

Introduction Classification of Intersection Assignment Answer Keys Explanations Subgrade Soil Stone Aggregates Bituminous Material Solved Examples Assignment Answer Keys Explanations

Design Of Rigid Flexible Pavements • Desgin of Rigid Flexible Pavement • CBR Method • Design of Rigid Pavements • Solved Examples • Assignment • Answer Keys • Explanations

Surveying

79 79 – 86 87 – 90 91 91

92 – 98 98 – 100 100 – 107 108 – 112 113 – 115 116 116 – 117

118 - 148 118 118 – 122 123 – 132 133 – 144 145 – 146 147 147 – 148

#8.

Introduction • Glossary • Classification Based on Nature of Survey • Choice of Scale of Map • Assignment • Answer Keys • Explanations

149 - 156 149 – 150 150 – 151 151 – 152 153 – 154 155 155 - 156

#9.

Measurement of Distance & Direction • Instruments for Chaining • Measurements of Direction Compass Surveying • Variations in Declination • Solved Examples • Assignment • Answer Keys • Explanations

157 - 175 157 – 162 162 – 166 167 168 - 171 172 - 173 174 174 - 175

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Contents

#10.

#11.

#12.

Transportation & Surveying

Theodolite & Traversing • Theodolite • Essentials of Transit Theodolite • Glossary Associated with Theodolite • Measurement of Horizontal Angles • Travese Computation • Solved Examples • Assignment • Answer Keys • Explanations

176 - 189 176 176 - 177 177 178 178 – 182 183 - 185 186 - 187 188 188 – 189

Plane Table Surveying & Tacheometric Corrections • Plane Table • Instruments for Plane table Surveying • Tacheometric Surveying • Distance and Elevation Formula for Horizontal Sights • Assignment • Answer keys • Explanations

205 - 213 205 205 – 207 207 - 208 208 – 211 212 213 213

Leveling • Glossary • Method of Leveling • Leveling Instruments • Special Methods of Sprit Leveling • Recording & Reduction of Levels • Characteristics of Contours • Solved Examples • Assignment • Answer Keys • Explanations

Module Test 1 - Transportation Engineering.

• • •

Test Questions Answer Keys Explanations

Module Test 2 – Surveying

• • •

Test Questions Answer Keys Explanations

Reference Books

190 – 204 190 – 191 191 – 192 192 192 – 194 194 – 197 197 – 198 199 - 202 203 204 204

214 – 226 214 – 220 221 221 - 226

227 - 235 227 – 232 233 233 - 235

236

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Chapter 1

Transportation Engineering

CHAPTER 1

Theory of traffic Flow & Highway Capacity

Order of Road Development

1. ROMAN ROADS Roman started 1st time construction of roads in large scale In 312 BC they constructed “Appian Way” length over 580 km. Main Features of Roman roads are: (i) They are straight regardless of gradients. (ii) Total thickness was as high as 0.75 to 1.2 meters. (iii) The wearing course consists dressed large stone – blocks set in lime mortar.

2. Tresaguet Construction “Pierre tresaguet” development roads in France during 1764 A.D. Main Features are: (i) Thickness was of the order of 30cm (ii) Consideration was given to subgrade moisture and drainage of surface water. (iii) The top wearing surface was made up of smaller slope having a cross slope of 1 in 45 to the surface to provide surface drainage. 3. Metcalf Construction (1717 – 1810) John Metcalfe was working in England and he followed the instruction of Robert Phillip.

4. Telford Construction: His work started in early 19th century. Main features are: (i) He provided level subgrade of width 9 meters. (ii) A binding layer of wearing course 4 cm thick was provided with cross slope of 1 in 45. (iii) Thickness of foundation stone varied from 17cm at edge to 22cm at the centre. 5. Macadam Construction: 1815 onward he started in England but his new concept came in 1827. This was the 1st method based on scientific thinking. Main features are: (i) Macadam was first person who suggested that heavy foundation stones are not at all required to be placed at the bottom layer. He provided stones of size less than 5mm to a uniform thickness of 10cm. (ii) The importance to subgrade drainage and compaction was given so the subgrade drainage and compaction was given so the subgrade was compacted and prepared and prepared with cross slope of 1 in 36. (iii) The pavement surface was also given the cross slope in 1 in 36. (iv)Total thickness was kept uniform from edge to centre to a minimum value of 25 cm. 6. Water bound Macadam (W.B.M) In this method the broken stones of the base course and surface course are bound by the stone dust in the presence of moisture.

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Chapter 1

Transportation Engineering

Modern Road Development In India

British government passed a resolution in 1927 in response to which jaykar committee was constituted in 1927 Jay kar committee proposed that an extra tax should be levied on petrol Recommendation made by Jayakar Committee 1. The road development in the country should be considered as a national interest as this has become beyond the capacity of provincial governments and local bodies. 2. An extra tax should be levied on petrol from the road users to develop a road development fund called central Road fund. 3. A semi-official technical body should be formed to pool technical knowhow from various parts of the country and to act as an advisory body on various aspects of the roads. 4. A research organization should be instituted to carry out research and development work. Most of the recommendation made by jaykar committee was accepted and following steps were taken. 1. The central Road fund was formed in 1929 2. A semi – official technical body known as Indian road congress (IRC) was formed. 3. In 1939 Motor vehicle Act was started 2 in 1950 CRRI (Central Road Research Institute) was started. Other Measures Taken Are 4. National Highway Act was brought in 1956. 5. Highway Research Board was setup in 1973. 6. National Transport policy committee in 1978. 7. IRC has played important role in the formulation of the last three 20years road development plane in India.

1. First 20 years Road Plan (Nagpur Road Plan) [1943-63] Features (i) The Nagpur road formula were prepared on basics of “Star and grid” Pattern (ii) The total road length of 5,32,700 Km with a density of 16 Km of road length per 100Km2 area would be available by 1963. (iii) All the roads were classified into 5 categories a) NH b) SH c) MPR d) ODR e) VR (iv)The length of the railway tracks in the area was considered with the road length. Hence net road length is called by subtracting length of railway tracks from the length of metaled road. Result: Through the total achievement was higher than the targeted value, but the lengths of NH and SH achieved were lesser than the plan targets. 2. Second 20 years road plan (Bombay Road Plan) [1961-1981] (i) At the end of plan, the target road length aimed was 32Km per square Km area. (ii) Maximum distance of any place in a developed or agricultural area would be 6.4Km from a metalled road and 2.4 km from any category of moads. (iii) Every town with a population above 2000 in plains and above 1000 in semi-hill areas should be connected by metalled road. (iv)1600 Km Express ways have been considered in this plan within proposed target of NH.

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Chapter 1

Transportation Engineering

(v) Length of railway track is considered independent of the road system and hence it is not subtracted to get the road length. (vi)A development factor of 5% is provided for future development. Result The total achievement was higher that targeted but NH and SH were constructed lesser than targeted. It should be noted than allowance for development of agriculture and industry during the next 20 years was made in Nagpur.

3. Third 20 years Road Plan (Lucknow Road Plan) [1981-2001] (i) Roads are classified in to primary, secondary and territory road systems. (ii) All villages with over 500 populations should be connected by all-weather roads. (iii) The overall road density was targeted as 82 Km per 100 square Km area. (iv)The NH network should be expanded to form square grids of 100 Km sides. (v) Express way should be constructed along major traffic corridors to provide fast travels. (vi)There should be improvement in environment quality and road safety. A. Primary Road System (According to Third Plan) (a) Express way of total length 2000 Km. (b) NH based on the concept of 100 Km square grids 100+200=300Km of NH length are provided per 100 x 100 = 10000 square Km area. B. Secondary Road System This includes 1. SH (State highways) 2. MDR(Major district roads) đ??´đ?‘&#x;đ?‘’đ?‘Ž đ?‘œđ?‘“ đ?‘†đ?‘Ąđ?‘Žđ?‘Ąđ?‘’ 3. (a) Length of SH in Km = đ??žđ?‘š2 25 Or (b) Length of SH in Km = 625 x no. of towns in state – length of NH 4. (a) Length of MDR in Km đ??´đ?‘&#x;đ?‘’đ?‘Ž đ?‘œđ?‘“ đ?‘ đ?‘Ąđ?‘Žđ?‘Ąđ?‘’ (đ??žđ?‘š2 )

= đ?‘œđ?‘&#x; 12.5 (b) Length of MDR in Km = 90 x no. of towns in state.

C. Territory Road system This includes (i) ODR (Other District Road) (ii) VR (Village Roads)

Classification of Roads

a. Classification of rural Roads The Roads are classified on the following basis (a) Traffic volume – Heavy, medium or light (b) Load transport- Class A , Class B (c) Location and junction. Nagpur Road plan classified roads on following 5 categories based on location and junction. 1. NH 2. S.H 3. MDR

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Chapter 1

Transportation Engineering

4. VR Modified classification is proposed by third plan as discussed

b. Classification Urban roads The Length of the Urban roads are not included in the target of third twenty year plan (1901-2001) The urban roads are classified as – 1. Arterial roads 2. Sub-arterial roads 3. Collectors streets 4. Local streets

Road Patterns a. Rectangular or block pattern b. Radial or star and block pattern c. Radial or star and circular pattern d. Radial or star and guide e. Heragonal pattern f. Minimum travel pattern.

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Transportation engineering & surveying  

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