TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING &

SURVEYING for

Civil Engineering By

Syllabus

Transportation Engineering

Syllabus for Transportation Engineering

Highway Planning: Geometric design of highways, testing and specifications of paving materials, design of flexible and rigid pavements. Traffic Engineering: Traffic characteristics, theory of traffic flow, intersection design, traffic signs and signal design, highway capacity.

Year

2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000

Analysis of GATE Papers (Transportation Engineering) Percentage of marks

14.00

Overall Percentage

12.00 12.00 11.00 15.00 18.00 16.63 16.63 9.00

13.78%

8.67 8.00

17.00 17.00 18.00

Syllabus

Surveying

1Syllabus for Surveying

Importance of surveying, principles and classifications, Mapping concepts, coordinate system, map projections, Measurements of distance and directions, leveling, Theodolite traversing, plane table surveying, errors and adjustments, curves.

Analysis of GATE Papers (Surveying) Year

2013 2012 2011 2010 2009

Percentage of marks

14.00 12.00 4 -

2008

3

2006

3

2007 2005 2004 2003

Overall Percentage

2.78%

3 -

Contents

Chapter #1.

#2.

#3.

#4.

CONTENTS

Transportation & Surveying

Transportation Engineering

Page No.

Theory of Traffic Flow and Highway Capacity

1–13

Geometric Design Of Highway

14 – 41

• • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • •

Order of Road Development Modern Road Development in India Classification of Roads Engineering Survey for Highway Location Drawing and Report Highway Capacity Assignment Answer Keys Explanations Introduction Highway Cross Section Elements Sight Distance Design of Horizontal Allignment Vertical Alignment Solved Examples Assignment Answer Keys Explanations

Traffic Characteristics

• • • • • • •

Road User Characteristics Vehicular Characteristics Traffic Studies Solved Examples Assignment Answer Keys Explanations

Traffic Signs And Signals Design

• • • • • • •

Traffic Signs Traffic Signals Various Methods for Finding out the Cycle Solved Examples Assignment Answer Keys Explanations

1 2–3 3–5 6–8 8 9 10-11 12 12 – 13

14 14 – 16 16 – 18 18 – 21 22 – 24 25 – 29 30 – 35 36 36 – 41

42 – 64 42 42 – 43 43 – 52 53 – 60 61 – 62 63 63 – 64

65 – 78 65 – 67 67 – 69 69 – 70 71 – 75 76 – 77 78 78

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Contents

#5.

#6.

#7.

Transportation & Surveying

Intersection Design

79 – 91

Testing And Specification of Paving Materials

92 – 117

• • • • • • • • • • • •

Introduction Classification of Intersection Assignment Answer Keys Explanations Subgrade Soil Stone Aggregates Bituminous Material Solved Examples Assignment Answer Keys Explanations

Design Of Rigid Flexible Pavements • Desgin of Rigid Flexible Pavement • CBR Method • Design of Rigid Pavements • Solved Examples • Assignment • Answer Keys • Explanations

Surveying

79 79 – 86 87 – 90 91 91

92 – 98 98 – 100 100 – 107 108 – 112 113 – 115 116 116 – 117

118 - 148 118 118 – 122 123 – 132 133 – 144 145 – 146 147 147 – 148

#8.

Introduction • Glossary • Classification Based on Nature of Survey • Choice of Scale of Map • Assignment • Answer Keys • Explanations

149 - 156 149 – 150 150 – 151 151 – 152 153 – 154 155 155 - 156

#9.

Measurement of Distance & Direction • Instruments for Chaining • Measurements of Direction Compass Surveying • Variations in Declination • Solved Examples • Assignment • Answer Keys • Explanations

157 - 175 157 – 162 162 – 166 167 168 - 171 172 - 173 174 174 - 175

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Contents

#10.

#11.

#12.

Transportation & Surveying

Theodolite & Traversing • Theodolite • Essentials of Transit Theodolite • Glossary Associated with Theodolite • Measurement of Horizontal Angles • Travese Computation • Solved Examples • Assignment • Answer Keys • Explanations

176 - 189 176 176 - 177 177 178 178 – 182 183 - 185 186 - 187 188 188 – 189

Plane Table Surveying & Tacheometric Corrections • Plane Table • Instruments for Plane table Surveying • Tacheometric Surveying • Distance and Elevation Formula for Horizontal Sights • Assignment • Answer keys • Explanations

205 - 213 205 205 – 207 207 - 208 208 – 211 212 213 213

Leveling • Glossary • Method of Leveling • Leveling Instruments • Special Methods of Sprit Leveling • Recording & Reduction of Levels • Characteristics of Contours • Solved Examples • Assignment • Answer Keys • Explanations

Module Test 1 - Transportation Engineering.

• • •

Module Test 2 – Surveying

• • •

Reference Books

190 – 204 190 – 191 191 – 192 192 192 – 194 194 – 197 197 – 198 199 - 202 203 204 204

214 – 226 214 – 220 221 221 - 226

227 - 235 227 – 232 233 233 - 235

236

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Chapter 1

Transportation Engineering

CHAPTER 1

Theory of traffic Flow & Highway Capacity

1. ROMAN ROADS Roman started 1st time construction of roads in large scale In 312 BC they constructed “Appian Way” length over 580 km. Main Features of Roman roads are: (i) They are straight regardless of gradients. (ii) Total thickness was as high as 0.75 to 1.2 meters. (iii) The wearing course consists dressed large stone – blocks set in lime mortar.

2. Tresaguet Construction “Pierre tresaguet” development roads in France during 1764 A.D. Main Features are: (i) Thickness was of the order of 30cm (ii) Consideration was given to subgrade moisture and drainage of surface water. (iii) The top wearing surface was made up of smaller slope having a cross slope of 1 in 45 to the surface to provide surface drainage. 3. Metcalf Construction (1717 – 1810) John Metcalfe was working in England and he followed the instruction of Robert Phillip.

4. Telford Construction: His work started in early 19th century. Main features are: (i) He provided level subgrade of width 9 meters. (ii) A binding layer of wearing course 4 cm thick was provided with cross slope of 1 in 45. (iii) Thickness of foundation stone varied from 17cm at edge to 22cm at the centre. 5. Macadam Construction: 1815 onward he started in England but his new concept came in 1827. This was the 1st method based on scientific thinking. Main features are: (i) Macadam was first person who suggested that heavy foundation stones are not at all required to be placed at the bottom layer. He provided stones of size less than 5mm to a uniform thickness of 10cm. (ii) The importance to subgrade drainage and compaction was given so the subgrade drainage and compaction was given so the subgrade was compacted and prepared and prepared with cross slope of 1 in 36. (iii) The pavement surface was also given the cross slope in 1 in 36. (iv)Total thickness was kept uniform from edge to centre to a minimum value of 25 cm. 6. Water bound Macadam (W.B.M) In this method the broken stones of the base course and surface course are bound by the stone dust in the presence of moisture.

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Chapter 1

Transportation Engineering

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Chapter 1

Transportation Engineering

(v) Length of railway track is considered independent of the road system and hence it is not subtracted to get the road length. (vi)A development factor of 5% is provided for future development. Result The total achievement was higher that targeted but NH and SH were constructed lesser than targeted. It should be noted than allowance for development of agriculture and industry during the next 20 years was made in Nagpur.

3. Third 20 years Road Plan (Lucknow Road Plan) [1981-2001] (i) Roads are classified in to primary, secondary and territory road systems. (ii) All villages with over 500 populations should be connected by all-weather roads. (iii) The overall road density was targeted as 82 Km per 100 square Km area. (iv)The NH network should be expanded to form square grids of 100 Km sides. (v) Express way should be constructed along major traffic corridors to provide fast travels. (vi)There should be improvement in environment quality and road safety. A. Primary Road System (According to Third Plan) (a) Express way of total length 2000 Km. (b) NH based on the concept of 100 Km square grids 100+200=300Km of NH length are provided per 100 x 100 = 10000 square Km area. B. Secondary Road System This includes 1. SH (State highways) 2. MDR(Major district roads) đ??´đ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x2019;đ?&#x2018;&#x17D; đ?&#x2018;&#x153;đ?&#x2018;&#x201C; đ?&#x2018;&#x2020;đ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;&#x17D;đ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;&#x2019; 3. (a) Length of SH in Km = đ??žđ?&#x2018;&#x161;2 25 Or (b) Length of SH in Km = 625 x no. of towns in state â&#x20AC;&#x201C; length of NH 4. (a) Length of MDR in Km đ??´đ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x2019;đ?&#x2018;&#x17D; đ?&#x2018;&#x153;đ?&#x2018;&#x201C; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;&#x17D;đ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;&#x2019; (đ??žđ?&#x2018;&#x161;2 )

= đ?&#x2018;&#x153;đ?&#x2018;&#x; 12.5 (b) Length of MDR in Km = 90 x no. of towns in state.

a. Classification of rural Roads The Roads are classified on the following basis (a) Traffic volume â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Heavy, medium or light (b) Load transport- Class A , Class B (c) Location and junction. Nagpur Road plan classified roads on following 5 categories based on location and junction. 1. NH 2. S.H 3. MDR

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Chapter 1

Transportation Engineering

4. VR Modified classification is proposed by third plan as discussed

b. Classification Urban roads The Length of the Urban roads are not included in the target of third twenty year plan (1901-2001) The urban roads are classified as – 1. Arterial roads 2. Sub-arterial roads 3. Collectors streets 4. Local streets

Road Patterns a. Rectangular or block pattern b. Radial or star and block pattern c. Radial or star and circular pattern d. Radial or star and guide e. Heragonal pattern f. Minimum travel pattern.

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Transportation engineering & surveying

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