The DIA Magazine Spring 2021

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The Department of International Affairs Magazine Wenzao Ursuline University of Languages Print ISSN: 2790-0282 Online ISSN: 2790-0290 Published 2021


KHESSED YODER THE VIEW FROM BUILDING Q


MARK LAI Into the Darkness with a Cat


CONTENTS

07

EDITOR’S LETTER

A letter from the Department of International Affairs Chairperson and Chief Editor to DIAers

48

STUDENT HIGHLIGHTS

A highlight of outstanding students in the DIA who have contributed to the department

54

CURRENT EVENTS

The events hosted by the Department of International Affairs in the Spring of 2021

58

GRADUATES CONTINUING THEIR STUDIES

A list of graduating students continuing their studies

63

GRADUATING CLASS NOTES

Graduating Class of 2021 final goodbye notes to Wenzao and classmates


CONTENTS

09 Opinion Pieces

Research Papers

09

17

JUN-JIE LIN

Political Memes and Political Polarization in Taiwanese Social Media

10

YI-CHING HUANG

Pier 2 and the Cluster Effect

12

TING-LIEN HUNG

Safety or Self-limitation? On the Way to Shake My Beliefs

15

YUNG-HSIN TENG

"Direct Democracy" - Please Sign Up for Saving the Last 500 Leopard Cats in Taiwan

16

MIAO-TONG LEE

The Relationship Between ‘The Big Issue’ and the Homeless

11

40

WEI-JIE YUAN

Free Money for All? How Universal Basic Income Cuts Both Ways in Taiwan

22

SABRINA CHEN

Looking at Norway and Singapore Sovereign Wealth Funds to Understand State Capitalism

26

TOM SEVERIN

Taiwan’s Offshore Wind Industry: The Path to the International Market

29

WEN-TUNG LIN

A Brief Introduction to Economic and Social Relations Between Taiwan and Southeast Asian Countries

3 3 MARIA WILKINSON Results of the 2020 United States Elections: Looking at Strategic Narratives to Understand Election Reactions

3 7 BUYANNEMEKH TOM ENKHBOLD Stereotype, Conflict and Power Relations: An Interview Study Of International and Local Students' Experience In Wenzao

4 2 PEI-YU HO Gender Inequality and The Distribution of Household Labor in Taiwan

PRISCILLA DIANI

4 5 KUMARADEWI

An Interview Study of Wenzao Students’ Attitudes Towards Discrimination and Gender Stereotypes


ISSUE 01

CHIEF EDITOR ART DIRECTOR PHOTOGRAPHY DIRECTOR EVENT RAPPORTEUR

Maria Wilkinson Sabrina Chen Lin, Yu-Wen Buyannemekh Tom Enkhbold

STAFF WRITER, SECTION LEADER

Khessed Yoder

BOARD MEMBERS

Dr. Philipp Fluri Dr. Lai, Wen Yi

Dr. Yuan-Ming Chiao Maria Wilkinson

PLEASE CONTACT THE DIA MAGAZINE AT theDIAmagazine@gmail.com for a downloadable PDF version of this issue

The DIA Magazine is published biannually (Fall and Spring) by Wenzao Ursuline University of Languages, Department of International Affairs


The artwork in this issue are submitted by the DIA students and staff. Congratulations to those who have been chosen to be featured in this issue. If you would like to submit your artwork to the DIA magazine, send your submissions to thediamagazine@gmail.com

Art Contributed (in order of appearance) by : Lin, Yu-Wen Khessed Yoder Mark Lai Brian Lin

All photos of Wenzao are courtesy of our Photography Director


Editor’s Letter Dear DIAers, It’s Mark, your Chairperson of the Department of International Affairs. The Chief Editor told me to write down a short paragraph for this magazine. This assignment gave me a lot of pressure. For decades, I have earned my living by writing and talking and I should be good at it. But this paragraph is so important not only to editors, professors and me, but also to all of you, the members of our DIA community. So, here it is. Living the lockdown life under a pandemic, we learn lessons. First, we absolutely do not need the gym, movie theaters, casinos, bars, swimming pools, shopping malls and let’s just say good bye to capitalism. Second, we realized that we do not need fancy restaurants but we do need food. Third, we don’t need dating nor hanging out but we need to be together with someone. And the fourth lesson we learned is that we need to read books. Words are the essence of human civilization and reading books is the purest and most satisfying experience of human life. Movies, music, novels, memes, anything on the Internet, visual arts, everything are the extension of words. You do love reading and you just don’t realize it. Now we finally have made our department become words. The DIA Magazine is a collection of the wisdom of DIAers. Their research, inspiration, artwork, their memories in the Z and Q building, and their tears and laughter from these four years. We will publish DIA Magazine from now on. I will not be the Chairperson forever and you will graduate eventually, but this DIA Magazine will be here to stay. That’s why the words are the most precious experience for us. They last and they shine forever. Marl Lai


A Note from the Chief Editor The DIA 2021 Manifesto After finishing a thesis, I had asked "what's next?" With the desire to publish my paper somewhere but the likelihood of it being published slim-to-none, myself and a few other classmates thought of making our own place for publication. What started as an idea to share our research with others, turned into something bigger than imagined. With the help of professors and students, our department has been able to create an all-English magazine that has been published on a platform next to other universities such as Harvard and the likes. As Chief Editor, I strived to establish a precedent of perfection for this magazine. The best or nothing, and I think we got it. We received 38 research submissions; 8 were accepted as research papers, 5 were accepted as opinion pieces. We spent two months on this project. We lost sleep on this project (especially our Art Director, Sabrina). I think in Taiwan, many people look down on Wenzao, many people look down on a language school teaching International Affairs. I ask you non-believers of Wenzao DIA, to take a look at this magazine and tell me if you still feel that way? This magazine portrays talent. It shows we have many students that are impressive and serious. I am proud to be a classmate among these individuals. Thank you to the students and professors that have contributed in some way to make this magazine a possibility, especially to our student committee; Sabrina Chen, Buyannemekh Tom Enkhbold, Lin, Yu-Wen, and Khessed Yoder. Now, start writing. Time to prepare for the Fall 2021 issue (and submit your work to me at thediamagazine@gmail.com). Maria Wilkinson


Opinion Piece: Political Memes and Political Polarization in Taiwanese Social Media Jun-Jie Lin

In recent years, scholars have become

political propaganda. The audience of

interested in political expressions of

these memes are mainly focused on the

young people via digital technologies. In

younger generation.

no small part people’s engagement in social media like Instagram or Facebook

As a result, humorous political memes

has become complicated through the

could be a popular way to raise political

platform

for

participation as well as create concern

and

over

opinions

social to

media be

provides

exchanged

communicated.

their

potential

dangers

of

polarization. This form of media has

This online platform has become a space for the younger generation to participate in political issues. In the 2016 American election, memes successfully

the potential risk of creating hatred between people who support KMT and DPP in Taiwan. In other words, political memes have the power to not

intervened in popular press discourse.

only be regarded as something funny,

These forms of Internet humor have

but also it is an effective way as a

become

political

decisive

in

contemporary

propaganda

and

political

political life. Nowadays, when it comes to

agitation to achieve some political

the definition of a meme, it is defined as a

purpose.

funny image and some verbal component (comics, collage, clips etc.). Taiwan saw a similar phenomenon during the 2018 mayoral elections and 2020 presidential elections (see picture 1). But when we start to review the information of political memes, we can see that most of the

messages

are

emotional

and

aggressive Notably, political memes tend to accompany

Picture 1. political meme of 2020 president election Source: Taiwan meme


Opinion Piece: Pier 2 and the Cluster Effect

In recent years, the cultural and creative

industries

have

gradually

emerged. In Kaohsiung, the development of Pier-2 was to make use of idle spaces and old warehouses and to make the place more active. Which led it to become a base of cultural and creative industries for artists, creators, and enterprises.

In

this

place,

artists,

creators, and enterprises can sell and display their works of art. In addition, many new public constructions have been added, such as the light rail transit and Great Harbor Bridge, in order to attract more tourists.

role in Pier-2. It makes the creators and operators get together in the same area to generate a clustering of information and

In addition, the cluster effect allows creators and operators to cooperate with

other

communication

surrounding similar businesses.

enterprises,

inspire

inspiration, and enhance creativity. However, there are also some negative effects of clustering. For example, total income from sales will be affected and commodities

are

imitated

and

misappropriated by other businesses. Nevertheless, the creators and operators stationed in Pier-2 try to overcome

the

negative

effect

that

clustering causes. They find that the positive

The cluster effect is an indispensable

exchange

Yi-Ching Huang

impact

on

their

business

outweighs the negative impact. Due to Pier-2

being

an

important

tourist

attraction in Kaohsiung, the government has also made some policies for artists, creators, and businesses, hoping for new businesses to be able to take root and develop, as well as maturing local brands.


"It was hard to admit that I have stayed in my small circle for too long in order to be safe." "How many opportunities would I miss if I rebelled against what I was told?" "How many opportunities would I miss if I just stayed put?" -Quote from page 12


Opinion Piece: Safety or Self-limitation? On the Way to Shake My Beliefs Ting-lien Hung

Like everyone on this planet, I could not

It had been that way until I met Ann.

choose where to be born. Luckily, I was

Ann attends the same graduate program

born into a lovely family that protected

as I do and later became a good friend.

me and provided for me. My parents’ love

Ann comes from France with a totally

and

different

care

enabled

my

growth,

yet

background.

She

is

bold,

somehow, I started to be suffocated. Like

adventurous, yields a good sense of

most Asian parents who are afraid of

direction, and most importantly, she is

their children getting hurt and eager to

well-experienced in traveling. She has

pave a route towards “success,” my

shared her stories with me, so rich and

parents used my “Ba-Zi,” similar to an

full of detail. Sometimes I felt she had

astrological birth chart, as a compass to

been sent to me by the Universe to tell

guide me when I stood at a fork in the

me how to live my life to the fullest.

road. The desire to see the world, with the With their help, I was able to receive a

stifling fear imposed by my parents,

higher education at Wenzao Ursuline

pushed me to run like wild and go head-

University of Languages all the way from

first into hitchhiking.

the

five-year

college

to

the

Immersed

in

the

So, I did, and I did so with Ann.

diversity

of

Hitchhiking in Taiwan is not a common

cultural

sport. Of course, my parents had tried to

backgrounds, I dreamed of seeing the

stop me from doing so and presented to

world with my very eyes. But whenever I

me all the possible terrible consequences

proposed to move out or go on an

lying ahead.

graduate

junior

school.

knowledge schoolmates

and with

the

different

exchange program, my parents reacted in a way as though they could forecast the danger ahead of me if I left them.


It was the most rebellious moment of

We had some tips to protect ourselves,

my life. To be honest, if it was not for

such as asking more questions about the

Ann, I would not have taken the risk.

driver before getting in their car,

Despite myself being the locally-born

mentioning to the driver that our friends

person in this duo, Ann, knows Taiwan

are waiting for us at the destination,

better than I do. She has hitchhiked

demanding the driver let us off if

numerous times on her own and even

something doesn’t feel right, and the

travelled around this island country by

most important one, never hitch a ride

foot!

when it gets dark.

This trip took us 8 rides to the rural

Truth be told, crimes against hitchhikers

Hualien county to visit our friends there.

are way less than people imagine. From

Each hitch was less than 10 minutes on

1979 to 2009 in the United States,

average.

I RAISED MY THUMB AND HELD A CARDBOARD SIGN THAT READ “HITCHHIKE.” THIS TIME I DECIDED WHERE TO GO AND HOW TO ARRIVE.

I listened as I should, but on the day of

675 cases of sexual assault and murder

the trip, I still left with Ann anyway.

committed

along

interstate

We met mostly male drivers, and the line

were reported. Of the 675 cases, crimes

we often heard was “aren’t you afraid to

committed

meet bad guys?” Ann always replied: “but

ridiculously low.

against

highways

hitchhikers

were

you don’t look like a bad guy.” The possibility of being a victim of a For hitchhikers, there are risks involved,

crime while hitchhiking is 0.0000089% in

especially for women. Dangers such as

the United States. In contrast, you are

sexual harassment are always a fear.

more likely to die from falling (0.94%).

That’s why we didn’t bet on luck with

How about Taiwan? In 2021, Taiwan had a

drivers.


a crime index of 15.24, far less than that

It was hard to admit that I have stayed in

of 47.74 in the U.S. The reports of crimes

my small circle for too long in order to be

committed against hitchhikers in Taiwan

safe. How many opportunities would I

are practically non-existent.

miss if I rebelled against what I was told? How many opportunities would I miss if I

With Ann’s company as comfort, I started

to

understand

the

art

just stayed put? Hitchhiking, this leap of

of

faith, took me beyond my expectations.

hitchhiking, which originated from the

Neither did I fall to my death nor end up

U.S. in the 1920s and once became a

in jeopardy.

national phenomenon spreading abroad but then declined, which was possibly

This journey taught me that the

attributed to the huge growth of car

comfortable place that once nurtured me

ownership. This lost art allowed me to

as a child could no longer sustain my

peep into other people’s lives which set

growth. Standing on a ramp of an

fire to my beliefs.

intersection, I raised my thumb and held a cardboard sign that read “hitchhike.”

I started to question if there really is a

This time I decided where to go and how

best choice in life as my Ba-Zi suggests

to arrive.

there is. What would happen after I “detoured” and chose a less favorable option? I remember that a female driver on her way to Taitung city shared her traveling experiences with Ann and me. She was a restaurant owner and often encouraged her part-time employees, who were typically students, to go out and see the world. She described some of her student employees who never left their hometown, stuck in the fear of the unknown. In the back seat Ann grinned at me with a look suggesting that I was not too far from that description. With that, I felt a sense of guilt and discomfort emerge.


Opinion Piece: "Direct Democracy" - Please Sign Up For Saving The Last 500 Leopard Cats In Taiwan Yung-Hsin Teng Have you ever thought about the effect

A large portion of its popularity came

you have when you sign your name to a

from the support of Taiwanese celebrities

petition you found on social media?

who were willing to advocate about the

Online petitions are a new measure for

petition regardless of whether people

people to express their thoughts through

knew or didn’t know what the petition

direct democracy. However, there are

was. With a petition so popular, I wanted

some problems that come along with

to know how much help Taiwanese people

direct democracy, such as slacktivism,

felt they were contributing by signing a

herd behavior, the bandwagon effect, and

petition.

the filter bubble. In Taiwan, there is a famous petition called “Please Sign up for

To answer this question, I made a

saving the last 500 Leopard Cats in

questionnaire. My respondents largely

Taiwan”, posted in May of 2018. The

either agreed or strongly agreed that

petition

a

online petitions help change the issue. In

worldwide online petition website. The

the case of Leopard Cats in Taiwan and

petition set out to change the policy

the company Yulon Motor Co., Ltd., Yulon

associated with the company, Yulon

did contribute in 2018 to a company

Motor

been

seeking to protect the Leopard Cat

expanding its factory into leopard cats’

community called “Leopard Cat Rice”. The

habitats. As of November 1, 2020, this

effect of direct democracy may have had a

petition had already achieved 892,024

role in this outcome.

was

Co.,

posted

Ltd.,

on

which

Avaaz,

had

signatures.

Source: From the Author


Opinion Piece: The Relationship Between ‘The Big Issue’ and the Homeless Miao- Tong Lee

The Big Issue is a social enterprise that

The reason why people support what

was co-founded in 1991 by Gordon

The Big Issue is doing is because they are

Roddick and A. John Bird and started in

helping homeless people to start their

the UK. This social enterprise provides

new life by giving them a job to have their

homeless

disadvantaged

own income and rebuild their self-

people with a job opportunity so that they

confidence. If they don't work, their

can earn an income by selling magazines

quality of life may worsen due to a lack of

instead of begging on the streets for money.

income. Nevertheless, there are people

The Big Issue hopes to help those who also

that think that The Big Issue is taking

want to help themselves, so that they can

advantage of the homeless instead of

rebuild their personal confidence and

helping them because the operation of

dignity through the sale of magazines,

The Big Issue in Taiwan is a little different

and then regain empowerment in their

from how it is in the UK.

and

socially

lives. In Taiwan, the Big Issue will go to the homeless shelters to hold a briefing and recruit people who want to work.

The Big Issue in Taiwan doesn't give as much help to their employees as the UK company does. In Taiwan, they only

However, there are varied opinions on the relationship between The Big Issue and the homeless in Taiwan, with some believing that the Big Issue is taking advantage of the homeless instead of helping them, while others believing that the Big Issue is a good opportunity for the homeless to have a job.

provide a working opportunity, and the employees have to deal with housing and healthcare on their own. Citizens are concerned that the vendors do not receive enough help. But for the vendors, the other obstacles are minor compared to the chance to earn an income.


Research Paper: Free Money For All? How Universal Basic Income Cuts Both Ways In Taiwan Wei-Jie Yuan

In the post-pandemic era, an assortment

Under this worldwide circumstance,

of monetary and fiscal policies have been

how to deal with the stimulus spending

proposed in response to the economic

has caused headaches for policymakers

downturn

domestic

in Taiwan. Some believe that directly

underconsumption. In economics, money

sending people an amount of money

injection, such as government spending

without

and tax cuts, play a pivotal role in

potential to solve multiple predicaments

controlling and adjusting the economic

simultaneously, including the economic

phenomenon of a county. While many

impact of covid on industries, increasing

advanced economies like the United

economic disparity caused by the trend

States have signed a stimulus check into

of

law, some countries are just at the onset

employment triggered by automation

of such countermeasures. After having

and artificial intelligence (AI). While this

enjoyed almost one year of success,

idea of Universal Basic Income (UBI)

Taiwan has seen the end of its covid-free

seems utopian, it can be traced back to

normality with an outbreak in May of

the 16th century when Thomas More

2021.

caused

by

strings

globalization,

attached

and

has

the

declining


depicted a perfect state of paradise without poverty and private ownership in his remarkable work Utopia. In the 18th century, Thomas Paine

The public expenditure can then be utilized on other parts of the social welfare system.

Additionally, it enhances social

argued in Agrarian Justice that the right to

mobility. Low-income households and

natural resources and land originated

people,

from every individual's birthright, and

minimum wages easily fall prey to man-

private land ownership was deprived of

made and natural crises; unskilled

non-owners of their natural inheritance.

workers and the disadvantaged are

The "Grand Rent" he proposed can be

especially fragile to the risks because

seen as the predecessor of basic income

they have limited access to appropriate

programs today. In recent years, this

risk management instruments, which

counterintuitive

then puts them in a more severe

idea

has

gone

viral

worldwide with more than 20 UBI-like

especially

workers,

earning

economic quandary.

pilot experiments tested in more than 10 countries

until

2020.

the

As a result, social protection should be

discussions of UBI-related policies have

considered a type of investment in

risen

numerous

human capital formation. Therefore, for

countries, relatively few people in Taiwan

welfare reasons, the government should

are engaged with them. According to Lin's

play a role in assisting people who lack

study based on the data of Academia

access to cope with the crises. With a UBI

Sinica, approximately 40.2 percent of the

program,

Taiwan population are supportive of UBI

unexpected crises as financial certainty is

compared with the support rate for

an essential part of economic security.

precipitously

Although in

citizens

can

prepare

for

raising minimum wages (83.8%). Moreover, the globalization of trade in In

terms

of

diminishing

economic

goods and services has exacerbated the

inequality, the proponents of UBI believe

vulnerability

that it is the most effective way to bridge

societies,

the gap owing to its transparency and

exponential acceleration of technology,

universality. By sending every citizen free

the fourth industrial revolution has taken

money periodically regardless of their

place since the beginning of the 20th

personal, household, and employment

century with a variety of applications,

conditions, the administrative costs will

such

economize without anyone targeted.

Internet of Things (IoT).

as

among and

states.

automatic

individuals, With

robots

and

the

the


According to McKinsey, there will be an

government revenues per year based on

occupational switch of more than 350

the

million people globally. Due to the

accounting for 19 percent of GDP and 1.6

increasing effectiveness and efficiency of

times of annual government revenue for a

the

production

UBI policy of 12,608 NTD for adults and

process, the output and productivity of

6,304 NTD for youths. Such a huge

the industries will be increased with

amount is nearly impossible to implement

fewer labor forces, which results in a

as it would undoubtedly be a heavy

more polarized world. 2021 Forbes list

burden for Taiwanese citizens and the

indicates that the wealth of billionaires in

conglomerates in particular.

manufacturing

and

population

structure

of

2016,

Taiwan had risen by nearly five percent of GDP

in

2021,

while

the

has

been

escalating

inequality

approximately 1980s

in

15

percent

Taiwan.

generated

their

economic

wealth

by

in Taiwan. Though the economic effects

the

caused by the 2008 financial crisis had

billionaires

been recovered, the tax burden ratio per

since

These

The challenge leads to public perception

most

capita between 2009 and 2018 was

manufacturing and technology industries

between 14% to 15.6%. Taking the low

in which huge job opportunities were

tax burden into consideration, if it were

displaced by automated manufacturing

to be implemented in Taiwan, it would be

robots. The recipients of UBI have full

a

autonomy. The money, therefore, allows

process

the recipients to pursue what they are

legislation process, citizens conflicting

truly passionate about and prospers the

ideologies and reactions toward it, and

market

most importantly the tax reform.

circulation

by

from

encouraging

complicated

and

concerning

time-consuming the

domestic

innovation. As mentioned previously, the support Though a UBI policy appears to be a

rate for UBI in Taiwan is only 40.2%. Lin,

sound potential social program able to

the researcher of the study, also found

protect

the

disadvantaged economic greatest

working

class

and

the

that respondents with relatively higher

from

this

trend,

the

education and socioeconomic status tend

feasibility

has

been

the

to oppose the idea of universal income

As

guarantee probably because of the fear of

challenge

in

Taiwan.

reported by UBI Taiwan in 2018, it would cost approximately 3.24 trillion of

higher tax rates.


All

things

considered,

scholars,

policymakers, and individuals should not stop engaging with this emerging policy. By having more discussions and raising people’s awareness, one can debate and ponder different sides of the policies in comparison with the existing social protection system. Yet, the discussions may need more concrete research concerning both the people’s perception of unconditional cash

transfer

transfer

and

because

conditional the

public’s

cash view

matters the most in a democracy. Furthermore, the viability of tax reform on the premise of UBI implementation is also

worthwhile

cultivating

as

the

unexpected has become a new normal.

“With a UBI program, citizens can prepare for unexpected crises as financial certainty is an essential part of economic security.” - Quote from page 18


"State capitalism is not dangerous for countries if being used appropriately. People should not fear the rise of state capitalism; people should drive state capitalism." - Quote From Page 22


Research Paper: Results of different management strategies: Looking at Norway and Singapore Sovereign Wealth Funds to Understand State Capitalism Sabrina Chen

Over the past several years, public wealth, investment, and enterprise have made the wave of state capitalism balance the global recession. This led to the rise of the term ‘state capitalism’.

During the first twenty years, the revenue was primarily invested in the oil industry and in developing the country, but it became clear that oil revenues would not be sustainable. The Norwegian oil fund was established by law to support

State

capitalism

a

the government’s long- term management

formidable force in the international

of petroleum revenues. The fund is

economy with different forms. Sovereign

managed by Norges Bank on behalf of the

wealth funds (SWFs) were established

Ministry of Finance. Its mission is to

with goals to protect and stabilize the

safeguard and create financial wealth for

budget

future generations.

and

has

economy

become

from

excess

volatility, diversify from non-renewable commodity exports, increase savings for future generations and so on. The researcher used Norway and Temasek SWFs to analyze the practice of state capitalism in these countries. The origins of Norway’s oil (GPFG) fund lie in the 1960s. It is one of the largest SWFs in the world. The revenue from the oil tax and state’s direct ownership has had a huge effect on the Norwegian economy.


Another successful case is Temasek,

This

indicated

that

there

is

no

which is ranked as the ninth largest

correlation between state capitalism and

sovereign wealth fund worldwide in

SWFs. A country with SWFs is not

2019. Temasek Holding is a global

necessarily a state capitalist. The deciding

investment company headquartered in

factor

Singapore and is owned by the Singapore

capitalist is the governance model (third

government. Temasek is an investor and

factor). In the case of GPFG, it clearly

shareholder

proves

that

among

state

institution

with and

a a

forward-looking trusted

steward.

whether

a

the

country

triangular

capitalism,

governance

value over the future and are committed

determines the type of country.

the

state

causality

SWFs

Temasek amid to create sustainable

is

is

result

and

of

what

to the pursuit of excellence and strive for the advancement of their communities across generations.

With two different opinions from two sides of state capitalism, the proposition demonstrated state capitalism is a way to

Three major criticisms of SWFs, first,

improve

domestic

economy

and

the

SWFs are too influential due to the size

opposition demonstrated a rejection of

and power of it. Second, SWFs pose a

free-market

security risk due to political purpose of

capitalism. The study aimed to investigate

investments worldwide. Third, SWFs are

the right to practice state capitalism with

not well regulated due to the lack of

SWFs through analyzed assessments of

transparency.

Norway

These

indicated

that

doctrine

and

from

Temasek’

state

SWFs.

This

people fear the rise of state capitalism

research was elicited though the research

because the government could use state

question: should a state have control over

capitalist tools (SWFs) to expand political

SWFs? This research was conducted

power due to the economy size of the

through

fund. SWFs are often seen as having a

assessments of the funds were coded to

lack of transparency and unsecured

understand

organization, however, the case of GPFG

capitalism via SWFs in Norway and

is the exception. GPFG is transparent and

Singapore. The codes were divided into

well regulated; and although they own

three

SWFs and one of the biggest petroleum

economy

companies in the world, Norway is not a

monetary policy of these countries, stock

state capitalist country.

market and investment area of the fund.

qualitative the

sections,

case

practice

of

including

performance,

study, state

counties’

fiscal

and


The findings of the paper can elaborate how

these

countries

practice

state

Norway is pushing some of the world's largest

companies

to

change

their

capitalism through SWFs. For Norway,

corporate policies on many different

Norwegian Government practice state

fronts. Many countries try to control the

capitalism by holding 1.5 % of all the

world with militaries, other countries try

stocks in stock markets in the world to

to

expand

diplomacy.

their

power,

and

influence

sway

foreign

governments

with

decisions in some of the largest companies in the world. Norway is considered as a

Norway expands its power through

hedge fund country. According to the

influence

on

the

biggest

laws, the fund cannot invest in the local

companies. On the other hand, Singapore

economy, only in foreign companies.

practices state capitalism by being the

That was the reason for the fund holding

largest employer in the domestic market.

1.5 % of all the stocks existing in the

It has power to control unemployment

world. According to many analysts, the

which was one of the reasons why the

management of the fund was relatively

Singapore

conservative and does not make as much

unemployment decline so much after

as it could. But Norwegian government

financial crisis by re- entry workers to

did not only use this for diversification

labor market.

government

can

global

make

but as a political weapon as well. Singapore’s government has created a For example, every year the Norwegian

network and bureaucracy in approach to

central bank pushed a blacklist with

national building where the business

companies that they did not invest in for

enters business to create benefit and

various

general

ethical

reasons

including

weapons

manufacturers,

tobacco

producers

and

firms

involved

in

traded companies gave Norway the right

industrial

to

choosing

the

shareholders

government

of

the economy from direct intervention to indirect

in

The

Singapore had successfully restructured

corruption. By having stocks in publicly participate

profits.

through

diversification

sectors.

of

Internationally

interventionist

and

state

meetings. They can vote on corporate

capitalist measures through a strategy of

decisions and even suggest topics for

dynamic economic policy planning.

discussion.


The indicator of Singapore practice

data analysis, both GPFG and TH have a

Singapore style of managing the country

relatively

in business-like manner by using the

economy with the capacity to boost the

public sector to intervene and participate

economy during recession. This means

in most sectors of the economy. Serval

that these funds are mostly giving

factors

of

positive impacts on domestic economy,

and

although some might argue that they

facilitated

Singapore’s

the

economic

success planning

stable

and

perform

high

practice of state capitalism policy over

could

better

such a long time. First, as a small country

intervention from the state.

growth

without

like Singapore, it was conducive setting for a highly interventionist government.

For state capitalism to work, it took

It is easier for governments to control

trust between the government and

and manage such a small market. Second,

citizens.

Singapore is considered to have a stable

dangerous

political

environment

with

People’s

Action Party (PAP) as the dominant party. These

factors

provided

a

good

environment for Singapore to practice state capitalism more easily.

State for

capitalism countries

is if

not used

appropriately. To manage a pool of money like sovereign wealth fund, the state must be involved in it with adequate

regulations,

fiscal

and

monetary policies. From the lesson of

To answer the research question,

GDPG

and

TH,

with

adequate

without intervention from the state, there

regulations and management, and

might be monopoly of important natural

trust between the government and

resources and assets. there were some

citizens would only bring benefit and

advantages and disadvantages with SWFs.

prosperity for a country.

It

could

stabilize

the

budget

and

economy, increase saving for the future

People should not fear the rise of state

generations,

capitalism; people should drive state

diversify

from

non-

renewable commodity exports and use it as a political tool. In general, there was also concern about the transparency and trust issues of SWFs. As a result of the

capitals.


Research Paper: Taiwan's Offshore Wind Industry: The Path To The International Market Tom Severin Taiwan is eager to expand its offshore wind industry and become part of the international market in the future. To achieve

this

goal,

Local

Content

Requirements have been implemented to encourage local and foreign companies to work together. However, Taiwan was a newcomer in the offshore wind industry, and local suppliers were not as mature as other foreign companies. What made foreign investors want to enter the Taiwanese market was the enormous resource of wind in the Taiwan Strait. This resource could be part of an incentive to attract foreign investments. Furthermore, the tariff at which Taiwan was willing to purchase electricity from wind farms (the Feed-in Tariff) was relatively high which provided

more

incentive

to

foreign

investors. Local Content Requirements can ensure Taiwan that foreign companies will rely on local suppliers to build offshore wind farms. In exchange, local companies must


supply

quality

products

that

Taiwan National Wind Team should

international

standards

and

facilitate the formation of joint ventures

deliver them on time at a reasonable

between local and foreign companies

price.

and therefore encourage entry into the

respect

good

international market. Additionally, the Consequently, local suppliers could

Minister of Economic Affairs plays the

develop their capacity and become more

role of a third party to deal with

mature players in the future. Meanwhile,

differences between local companies and

the number of offshore wind farm

developers which leads to successful

projects was higher than the available

conflict

capacity. The Taiwanese government

situations.

resolution

and

win-win

aimed to include 5.7GW capacity as part of the Four Years Wind Development

The capacity of local suppliers to

Plan. However, the demand for offshore

cooperate with foreign developers has

wind farms exceeded 10GW. In other

established significant credibility for

words, foreign developers competed

Taiwan to localize its offshore wind

against

industry. The role of the Minister of

each

other

to

enter

the

Economic

Taiwanese offshore wind market.

Consequently, the Bureau of Energy of

beneficial

Affairs to

has

enhance

also the

been

learning

Taiwan decided to set Selection Criteria

capacity of local suppliers about the

by ranking projects according to certain

offshore

considerations, such as Local Content

primordial for the success of Local

Requirements. If a foreign developer was

Content Requirements.

wind

industry

which

was

willing to rely on local suppliers, his project would be more likely to reach a

When local suppliers face a knowledge

high rank and be approved with a high

gap, the minister steps in with assistance

tariff. ‘

in technical capacity. It has also formed partnerships with universities to form

The efficiency of the Local Content

local talents in the field of wind energy.

Requirements in Taiwan’s offshore wind

Although offshore wind energy is a new

industry lies in the cooperation between

industry in Taiwan, the government

local and foreign companies. A national

makes sure that local suppliers can

wind team has been created to form a

develop the knowledge necessary to

strategic

develop a local supply chain efficiently.

alliance

with

foreign

developers and combine the capacity of many local suppliers.


The size of the Taiwanese market was

of offshore wind farms in general, but

under consideration. If the market were

according to experts in the field of wind

large and had many local suppliers,

energy, foreign developers in Taiwan

companies could compete against each

demand more flexibility concerning the

other which could significantly decrease

list

prices and help foreign developers to

developers wish to be able to select local

engage with local companies. However,

items by themselves rather than following

according to a foreign developer in

a prerequisite list.

of

local

items.

Some

foreign

Taiwan, certain items had only one supplier

which

created

a

kind

of

The development of offshore wind

monopoly. To some extent, the list of

industry demonstrates the willingness of

items that must be localized in Taiwan

Taiwan to achieve 20% of renewable

played a crucial role. According to the

energy by 2025. Among every country in

Local Content Requirements’ timeframe,

Asia, Taiwan was considered a pioneer in

the earlier the project is proposed, the

the field, competing against Japan and

fewer requirements were demanded.

South Korea.

On the contrary, if the project was

The high renewable energy targets

commissioned later, more items must be

have put Taiwan in the scope of many

produced by local suppliers. This is

international companies. By engaging in

because local suppliers needed time to

the development of offshore wind energy

develop their capacity to work with

earlier than other Asian countries, Taiwan

foreign developers.

will not only be able to secure energy

If the Local Content Requirements

supply from wind and prevent electricity

introduced items that can hardly be

shortage but will be able to help other

made locally, foreign developers might

countries to develop offshore wind farms

scare off and decide not to enter the

in the future.

market. Furthermore, local suppliers must be engaged to deliver their items on time according to the timeline of the Local Content Requirements. The Covid19 crisis has certainly added more burden to delivery and the development


Research Paper: A Brief Introduction to Economic and Social Relations Between Taiwan and Southeast Asian Countries Wen-Tung Lin This short article demonstrates the historical

evolution

of

the

bilateral

relations between Taiwan (formally known as the Republic of China or ROC) and Southeast Asian countries in terms of the changes in economic, and social relations, from the Taiwanese perspective. First, the author illustrates the social relations between Taiwan and Southeast Asia in relation to the Southbound Policy, and secondly, demonstrates the economic relations

in

investment. proposes

terms Lastly,

the

correlations

of

trade

the

researcher

hypothesis between

and

of

social

the and

economic relations.

Southeast Asia A channel for bonding the socialcultural relations between Taiwan and Asia

was

President

Lee’s

and

Chen’s

administrations (1991 to 2008), only around 300 thousand Southeast Asian citizens worked in Taiwan. Between 2009 and 2016, the population of migrant workers from Southeast Asia increased to above 624 thousand, and currently, more than 700 thousand migrant workers are contributing to the development

of

Taiwan’s

economy,

mostly serving as domestic helpers or workers in the manufacturing sector (table 1, see page 30). The number of

Cultural Relations between Taiwan and

Southeast

became popular at that time. Under

the

Taiwanese

government’s policy to welcome the migrant workers to work in Taiwan since 1991, and transnational marriage

Southeast Asian spouses married to Taiwanese has reached 178 thousand in 2020. The accumulated number of Southeast Asian spouses enhanced from 102 thousand between 2001 and 2008 to 140 thousand (2009 to 2016) and rose to 178 thousand eventually (figure 1, see page 30).


As there are 178 thousand Southeast

and

Southeast

Asia

is

through

the

Asian spouses in Taiwan, around 164

Austronesia language and tourism. It is

thousand second generation of Southeast

argued that Taiwan is the homeland of

Asian

under

Austronesia people (Chang et al., 2015)

Taiwanese education institutions in the

.The indigenous population in Taiwan is

2019 school year. Also, 43 thousand

able to communicate with the indigenous

Southeast Asian descendants acquired

in

Taiwanese citizenship between 2010 and

exchanges

2019 (figure 2, see page 31).

speakers in Taiwan and Southeast Asia

registered

and

studied

Southeast

are Besides the Southeast Asian workers, spouses,

and

second-generation,

Asia.

between

continuously

Activities the

for

Austronesia

hosted

by

the

government. Also, tourism is another

the

channel for strengthening socio-cultural

Southeast Asian students are the other

relations. With cultural interaction and

important channel to establishing social

understanding, citizens in Taiwan and

connections

Southeast Asia can be familiar with each

between

Taiwanese

and

Southeast Asian citizens. According to

other.

the statistics, in the 2019 school year,

strengthening

around

from

relations between Taiwan and Southeast

Southeast Asia studied in Taiwan. The

Asia include the bonds with Southeast

other channel for strengthening the

Asian descendants in Taiwan (spouses,

55

thousand

students

social-cultural relations between Taiwan

All

in

all, social

channels and

for

cultural


migrant workers, second generations,

amount of Taiwan’s outward investment

and students), Austronesian people, and

in Southeast Asia between 1959 and

tourist exchanges. Through these three

1988). It was after the 1980s that

channels, the social and cultural relations

Taiwan’s investment in Southeast Asia

between Taiwan and ASEAN nationals are

intensified. The amount of Taiwan’s

continuously improving. Simultaneously,

investment

researchers, Chen & Ng suggest that

consistently increased during different

Taiwanese citizens show a more positive

periods.

Before

attitude towards the Southeast Asian

amount

of

spouses’ intention to seek Taiwanese

Southeast Asia was only US$ 4,891,633.

citizenship, compared to ten years ago

The amount of investment then rose to

(Chen & Ng, 2017).

US$

in

Southeast 1989,

Taiwan’s

the

Asia average

investment

in

474,544,000(1989-2000),US$

862,702,026

(2001-2008), (2009-2016),

US$

The Development of Economic Relations

2,194,937,414

and

between Taiwan and Southeast Asia

ultimately reached US$ 2,473,193,441

Taiwan started its first investment in

on average from 2017 to 2020, which

Malaysia in 1959, with US$ 100 thousand

was at the highest point (table 2). The

put towards investment. After 1962,

bilateral trade relations between Taiwan

there was more investment in Thailand,

and Southeast Asia show a growing trend

Vietnam, and Singapore. However, the

since 1981. The value of bilateral trade

investment

was only US$ 3,996,941,750 before

Taiwan

received

from

Southeast Asian countries exceeded the

1989.


Between 1989 to 2000, the value of

This observation is in line with Chin’s

trade surged to US$ 21,592,004,333, and

work arguing that the second generation

then it doubled to US$ 46,876,914,875

of Southeast Asian spouses could help to

from 2001 to 2008 on average. The value

strengthen

of trade rose to US$ 80,304,024,250

relations between Taiwan and ASEAN

between 2009 and 2016. Eventually, the

since they could be more familiar with

value

Southeast

of

trade

increased

to

US$

the

Asian

bilateral

language

economic

culture,

90,046,999,000, achieving the highest

helping to eliminate the language barrier

point within these four decades. Overall,

while investing in the region. (Chin, 2014,

the economic ties between Taiwan and

pp. 70-71).

Southeast

Asian

countries

have

improved consistently through these

Therefore the theory or hypothesis that

decades. The long-term cultivation of

the researcher proposed in this article is

social relations may play a role in

that the higher social relations between

enhancing

Taiwan and Southeast Asia, the better

and

stabilizing

bilateral

economic relations.

Taiwan’s

economic

presence

in

Southeast Asia. The social relations Refection

between Taiwan and Southeast Asia are

If we compare the statistics of social

the independent variable, while the

relations (the number of Southeast Asian

dependent variable is the economic

descendants

the

relations between Taiwan and Southeast

statistics of the economic relations (the

Asia. However, this hypothesis needs to

amount of investment and value of trade)

be tested in future works, as some other

between Taiwan and Southeast Asia, it

independent variables could also affect

reveals a positive trend, which rose

the bilateral economic relations between

simultaneously. With higher social and

Taiwan

cultural relations with Southeast Asian

government’s New Southbound Policy,

countries,

geographical proximity, market size, and

In

the

Taiwan)

economic

with

relations

between Taiwan and Southeast Asia improved.

so on.

and

ASEAN,

such

as

the


Research Paper: Results of the 2020 United States Elections: Looking at Strategic Narratives to Understand Election Reactions Maria Wilkinson As the results of the 2020 U.S. election began to roll in last November, responses of

election

interference

immediately

began to surmount. What we saw at this time was a story being told by the Republican party to justify losses and validate low numbers. This story is one of many that politicians use to tell their audience and the public about how to react to an event. This is called a Strategic Narrative.

"As new media ecology continues to shape a polarized U.S, the outcome of election reform policy is most likely to be formed from

Political narratives

scientists to

analyze

understand

strategic

how

actors

construct the reality of an event to create shared

meaning

for

the

public.

How

analysts do this is through identifying language and storylines put together by politicians to describe an event. When a

the early narrative of

storyline is identified, the public is better

2020 election interference. "

story is being told.

equipped to understand what and why a

After 2016 election interference, we also saw a story created to explain an election loss, though, at that time, it was from the Democratic party.


The Democratic National Committee (DNC) pointed to election meddling from the Russian government to locate where their losses were coming from. Although these kinds of narratives are often told by a losing politician to comfort their voters, the 2016 story sparked a new storyline. One that brought a great deal of distrust in the election process due to the

The Trump Administration did not

reckoning that other countries had the

release this information to the public

power to persuade and dissuade one's

and was later leaked by The New York

election. 2016 was the beginning of

Times, The Washington Post, and AP.

election uncertainty, the beginning of this

Information

story.

taking

of

place

election

in

2020

interference changed

the

political conversation from discussions We can identify the next steps within

on past events (2016 U.S. election) to

the story of election uncertainty that

discussing future, present, and past

took place in February of 2020. That was

events (2020 and 2016 U.S. election).

when

The

reports

of

Russian

election

statements

given

by

politicians

interference began to surmount once

describe the reality that these parties had

again. After this, three main events

hoped

brought both DNC and RNC (Republican

preparation for election results.

to

shape

for

the

public

in

National Committee) representatives to speak on the topic of interference within

When discussing election interference

the 2020 Election. The three events were

and the 2020 U.S. presidential election,

the final three reports regarding 2016

Democrats

election interference published by the

interference as an attack on U.S. national

U.S.

on

sovereignty, thus disrupting the process

Intelligence. On February 20th, 2020, it

of democracy. Republicans, in contrast,

was reported by major news outlets that

tended to frame this event as an attack

on February 13th, 2020, the Trump

on

Administration was briefed behind closed

legitimacy, structuring a decline in an

doors on 2020 election interference.

effective two-party system.

Senate

Select

Committee

tended

bipartisan

to

efforts

pose

and

foreign

internal


The researcher initiated a study to

and questioned the validity of Trump’s

examine strategic narratives of political

win. Democrats defined Russia’s actions

elites used in light of Russian interference

to be undemocratic and directed voters

from the three themes: the role of parties

to not vote for Trump, as a vote for

in defining interference, the problem they

Trump

describe, and their means of mobilization

undemocratic

of their voters. The research exhibits the

Republicans;

questioning of democracy legitimacy by

discussed a greater concern for internal

both

threats to democracy. We can see

parties

brought

forth

by

the

was

a

vote

for

Russia,

government. Republican

members

through

their internal democracy agendas. This

Democrats began narrating a response to

research

the

their election outcome in February of

research question; how do politicians in the

2020. In contrast, Republicans started

2020

creating their message in August of 2020.

U.S.

elicited

elections

through

narrate

Russian

reports

timeline

For

changing media ecology in context to was

the

an

of

of

2020

events;

election interference and how does that

After

election

impact their party’s view on democracy?

interference in February, the Democratic party sought to blame a third party for

By way of conducting a qualitative

candidate Trump’s support. This could

content analysis, speeches were coded to

potentially have been carried over after

understand party democratic positions.

November 2020 if election results were

Data was collected through internet

not in their favor.

sources and a checklist was used as a tool to ensure reliability and validity. By using

In contrast, the Republican party in

descriptive coding, major categories were

August of 2020 flipped the narrative

first developed, then broad themes were

from concern of election interference to

established to allow for a general context for analysis. The findings of this research can determine how each party describes the event to best fit their own political goals. For Democrats; Democrats used the problem of election interference to bring concerns

towards

the

legitimacy

democratic institutions within the U.S.

of

concern of internal validity in the election system with the cause being mail-in ballots. As we now know, after the November election, that script did ultimately carry over once election results were presented. It can be understood that politicians use these stories to tell a short-term narrative of validation for their losses.


Though, what is often neglected from

What should be taken away from this

the formation of these stories is the

research is that questioning if the

long-term implications that arise from

procedures

them. These narratives allow for a script

representative of a democracy is a

to be set in place that can be later

healthy process of democracy.

applied

to

democracy

election

legitimacy,

and

rules

are

fair

and

promotion,

and

democratic

By recognizing and announcing other

systems. We can even recognize the riot

party’s scandals the government is being

that took place on Capitol Hill this

transparent and informing their voters as

January to be a repercussion of the

a measure to prevent donkey voting.

narration set in place by Donald Trump

Though, the process of questioning

and his RNC supporters.

legitimacy is not a tactic to be abused by elites as it presents serious effects of

To answer the research question, the problem of election interference does not

change

democracy,

the but

parties

view

presents

on

building

concern towards democracy legitimacy that follows into a long-term script. The implications of this script established from the data is that the U.S. will undergo

a

uncertainty

long-term in

the

narration

U.S.

of

democratic

system. This established script can have long-term impacts for the United States whilst elites and their masses may create enduring destruction of U.S. democratic legitimacy.

As new media ecology continues to shape a polarized U.S, the outcome of election reform policy is most likely to be formed from the early narrative of 2020 election interference.

polarization within a society if exploited.


If we compare the number of local students with foreign students at Wenzao Ursuline University of Languages, the minority would without a doubt be the foreigners. So, why is it that international students are put on a pedestal? Why are they

the

most

outspoken

ones?

The

intricate correlation between the two student bodies and their effects on the university was the motivation behind this research. In the hope of improving the student life and the studying environment for all, I interviewed 13 foreign and 9 local students to answer some of these questions. Most international students go abroad in

Research Paper: Stereotype, Conflict, And Power Relations: An Interview Study Of International And Local Student's Experience In Wenzao Buyannemekh Tom Enkhbold

search

of

better

opportunities,

resources, and education. The population of international students has increased by 4.8% every year since 1998 to 2018. In 2018, a total of 5.6 million study in another country from which they weren’t born. Usually, the countries that host vast number of International Students are Western countries, and the origin of this vast migration can be pinpointed to mostly Asian countries. In the past, many scholars have studied the experience of international students in the west and their relations with the local students.

Scholars such as Hsieh

proposed a theory that there is unequal


Organized by the Author, Source: Wenzao, Section of Overseas Student Affairs (SOSA) power between international students and local students with the local students having more power. Scholar Tanaka’s theory suggests students from different backgrounds have a different power.

To add on, scholar Dunne suggests a theory that local students engage with international

students

based

on

perceived utility and interest curiosity. Scholars Jon and Kim explained that in these contexts the

division

of

local

Scholar Jon Jae – Eun explained that

students and international students can

the more economic power your country

also get segregated in terms of their English

has, the more power you have. Scholar

efficiency, known as the “English Divide”.

Brown

international

However, with the referendum in the UK

students encounter difficulties in making

to leave the European Union and the

friends with local students due to the

election of Donald J Trump, an anti –

language barrier, cultural differences,

immigration tone influencing the

explains

that

and preferred friendship groups.

Organized by the Author, Source: Wenzao, Section of Overseas Student Affairs (SOSA)


international student body to go to other

and creating the opportunity for more

destinations increased in popularity. The

international students from different

countries that at one time sent the most

regions to come to Wenzao. From the

students abroad, the top being China,

table below we can see how diverse the

Korea, and Taiwan, have started to

international student population is in

become

for

Wenzao, consisting from 37 different

of

the

countries, and 5 continents.

destinations

for

new

international emerging

destinations

students.

non-major

One

international students is Taiwan. If we

Given

such

a

broad

range

of

take Wenzao University, a University in

nationalities gathered together in one

Taiwan, as an example, the number of

place, it is the perfect opportunity to

international students, as seen from the

find answers. With the rising movement

table below, has grown from only 130

of international student bodies and their

students in the year 2011 to 500 students

dispersion to every region of the world,

in the span of 8 years.

popularity

of

Asian

education

has

elevated. This creates a new power Wenzao may be a special case due to it

dynamic situation that differs from the

being a language institute and having

stereotypical power struggles seen in

sister schools around the world under the

the English-speaking western countries.

umbrella of “Ursuline” institutes, offering

Previous researchers state that the


power distribution mostly favors the

Overshadowing and drowning the voice

local students in the western context

of others whose English ability lacks in

and the international students are seen

comparison.

as the minority.

difference being a cause of power

Besides

the

language

distributions, culture also plays a major However, this is not the case in Taiwan,

part. Westerners are taught from a

Wenzao. Local students hold the middle

young age to be individualistic and

ground, and some international students

independent, on the other hand, eastern

are

students tend to be more conserved and

positioned

higher

and

some

positioned lower based on language,

have a more group mindset.

culture, experience, and stereotypes. The language of instruction being English,

This act of behavior guided by their

those who come from English speaking

cultures and how they were raised

countries or developed countries seem to

amplifies

have more power compared to local

easterners power struggle amongst the

students in the classroom. This explains

students. Stepping out of their comfort

that the efficiency of the English ability

zone and seeking to obtain education in

gives the student more freedom to

a foreign land forces the international

express his or her opinion.

students to house more experience than

westerners

local students.

and

lessens


This experience can be translated into

The gradual process of improvement

knowledge and maturity. With the local

can be seen, be spending more and more

students not having this opportunity, the

time together, the walls of isolated

mindset of the two student bodies differs

groups start to dissolve. I believe that 3rd

and, in some cases, causes a difference in

party influence from professors and

viewpoints and actions that influence the

institutions can also contribute to this

likelihood of friendship.

process, making the end goal become an

The most noteworthy and easiest to solve would be the instructor. With different student bodies that each input different

perspectives,

it

is

the

instructor’s, or professor’s, duty to use these inputs to create healthy learning environments. Instructors may seek to motivate interactions amongst students and provide space for local students’ voices to be heard. Creation of opportunity does not only rest on the shoulders of the instructor, but also the organization that is offering the

education.

All

interviewees

expressed their lack of opportunity to engage with each other outside the classroom. All interviewees expressed their desire to have more opportunities than they currently have. By creating a platform for intercultural engagement will not only benefit the student bodies but to the institution itself. I truly believe that even though such factors

influence

among

student

Taiwan.

power bodies

distribution in

Wenzao,

integrated educational environment with equal distribution of power.


Research Paper: Gender Inequality And The Distribution Of Household Labor In Taiwan: A Survey Research In 2020 Pei-Yu Ho

Marriage is the course that most people will face in their life. Before, men were

in

charge

of

the

household

economics, women were in charge of the housework. But that conception has changed through the wave of a new generation. Now, not only can men enter the workplace, but women can also enter the workplace. There are more and more dual-career families in society now. However, the housework is still a job assigned to women. In addition to working in an office, the women are then expected to perform a second job, housework. In this changing society, housework has become a problem for husband and wife. We are always seeking equality in this society, but there’re still a lot of inequalities existing in this world. The distribution of household labor is an international problem. There are a lot


of different arguments to this debate about

who

is

responsible

for

These kinds of statements become a

the

source of pressure for women. Scholar

housework. In Taiwan, a report found

Ming-Ru Hseu described the long-term

that most men are the leaders in the

effect of a household that identifies

household, men already contribute to

chores as a gender-based job. She stated

the economic part of the family, thus

that the family and childhood housework

their perception towards housework

experience will affect children beyond

usually tends to be that it is not their

their childhood. The idea of who does

responsibility.

what housework, will be carried into their adulthood.

Scholar Ching-Yi Yang pointed out that men don’t receive enough training

My

research

looked

to

identify

and education about housework when

Taiwanese perceptions of gender and

they are young, which leads to an adult

household labor. This research used

life of hesitance towards housework, not

quantitative research, there were 198

entirely because they don’t want to, but

respondents in this research, 99 males

because they never learned to. In

and 99 females. I used the software

scholar Coltrane’s research, it was found

“Stata” to analyze the data and to get the

that men with higher education degrees

result. For the current situation in

will be more willing to do the housework.

Taiwan, we know that 81% of meals are

This coincides with women who have

prepared by women, 69% of laundry is

higher education degrees, as these women

done by women, 75% of house cleaning is

will tend to do less. Scholar Komter

done by women, and 72% of shopping (for

pointed out that when women work in

daily necessities) is done by women. On

the workplace, they will be more open

the other hand, 85% of repair work is

minded which will have a positive impact

done by men and 62% of men take the

on their house management. Komter

trash out. These results show that most of

also pointed out that men and women

the housework is still done by women in

continue to have the perception that

today’s society.

“housework is a women’s duty” or “women are more capable to do the housework”.

For the respondents’ feelings towards housework distribution, 67% of people think the distribution of household labor


in their family is equal and 81% of

people feel this way is because of

respondents

the

“money”. Men make more money than

current situation in their family. I also

women, that’s why men discriminate

asked if families should train children to

against women and women accept this

do the housework, 62% of respondents

discrimination.

are

satisfied

with

strongly agree that their children should do the housework when they are young.

In this research, I found that the

Almost 0 percent of the respondents

partner in the relationship who earns

strongly disagree. Most of the women

more strongly agrees that they should

and men are satisfied and content with

do less housework, and partners who

the unequal distribution of household

earn

labor, but they all want their children to

responses show that “money” is the

do the housework when they are young.

power,

That’s ironic, why would this be the

equality is not only a basic human

case?

right, but also a foundation for a

less

strongly

“money”

disagree.

can

talk.

These Gender

better world. This paper suggests that Maybe the reason is because of the

we educate our children, both boys and

“attitude”. In this survey, I set up some

girls, to do the housework when they are

questions

respondents’

young. This can improve the situation in

attitude toward family. For example: do

the future while also making families

you agree sons have more opportunity

become more harmonious. We should

than daughters to take care of you when

get rid of the idea of “men being in

you are old and other questions the like.

charge of the bills and women in charge

I also set up questions to test the

of the housework”.

to

test

the

respondents’ attitude toward gender. For example: do you agree men have a higher status at home than women? I found that people who identify as the “older generation”, “lower education”, and/or

“men”

tend

to

discriminate

against women while also having more traditional ideas. Maybe the true reason

We should start to change society now.


Research Paper: Patriarchal Culture In Different Countries: An Interview Study Of Wenzao Ursuline University Of Languages Students' Attitudes Towards Discrimination And Gender Stereotypes Priscilla Diani Kumaradewi

The

concept

of

“men

are

the

breadwinners” has been rooted in the culture of many different countries. As an example, in Indonesia, there is an idiom saying “Wong wadon iku kudu isa macak, masak,

manak,

marak,

makaryo

ing

Ndalem” (translation: women should be able to do makeup, cook, give birth, be kind, and do the housework). There is also an idiom in Chinese culture saying “ ” (translation: the male is in charge of the outside and the female is in charge of the inside). The development of society varies in the nature of gender. In modern society, femininity and masculinity are mostly linked

to

gender

Furthermore,

the

stereotypes.

development

of

industrial societies has become significant in defining what patriarchal culture is. By producing

the

female

subject

complemented and completed by her

as


relation to a male partner, patriarchy

had faced the struggle to be independent,

naturalizes sexual identity, masking the

not only for their country but also for

cultural construction of the feminine,

their rights.

thereby continually reproducing women in a subordinate position.

Nowadays, the idea and the concept of differentiating gender are already seen in

The concept of patriarchal culture can

our daily lives. Whether we look at the

not be separated from the history of

types of jobs for women verses men or

human development. As people began to

even the language used to describe

settle down, men were more likely to go

personality traits of women (tender, soft,

hunting and women just stayed at home.

smile, warmth, lovely, considerate) and

The development of human beings and

men (tough, hardworking, responsible,

the development of the society shifted

sharp, organized).

the idea of the “natural” self-fulfilling to

This qualitative research aims to

the idea of “men centered” as the initial attitude of patriarchal culture. In Asia

explore

itself, the concept of patriarchal culture

stereotypes and discrimination factors in

was shaped by the concept of family-

the college life of female college students

oriented attitude. China, Korea, and

in

Japan are considered to be the most

through

typically patriarchal and patrilineal in

females from Japan, China, Taiwan,

their

Malaysia, Indonesia, India, the United

society.

In

Indonesia,

during

colonialism period, Indonesian women

the

Taiwan.

The

reason

data

interviews.

for

was

Thirteen

gender

collected college

States, Brazil, Nicaragua, France, Spain, Turkey, and Nigeria were interviewed.

Source: From the Author


This research examined how college students

deal

with

the

issues

women’s rights and freedom. Patriarchal

of

culture is still a gray area topic. It is hard

patriarchal cultures in their life. This

to define the answer towards patriarchal

research also analyzed the thoughts and

culture because the culture itself has

backgrounds of those problems, and how

already existed for a long time. Even

the interviewees gave their stance to

though

deal this with this problem based on

developed

what they have learned in the past.

perception towards discrimination and

some

interviewees

countries,

the

are

from

individual

gender stereotypes have been rooted in In my research, I found that there are

people’s mind. We cannot just speak of

four major points related to patriarchal

resistance to patriarchy, but resistance to a

culture which are toxic masculinity,

whole range of unjust cultural patterns:

macho culture, political situation, and

male centrism, male dominance, hierarchy,

traditional values. In contrast, there are

authoritarianism,

also trends showing that patriarchal

heedless exploitation of the environment.

capitalism,

racism,

culture is slowly improving towards a better direction While comparing the

The

concept

of

“men

are

the

countries, I made a figure to visualize

breadwinner” should be banished from

patriarchal culture in different countries.

our culture. Nowadays, as the younger

When I asked interviewees about gender

generations gain more knowledge, there

oriented

is hope that women can receive greater

words,

some

interviewees

agreed that they still implement those words in their culture but they hoped to get rid of that culture because it limits

equality than before.


STUDENT HIGHLIGHTS Several students have been nominated by professors that we wish to give extra recognition to for their contributions to our department. In the words of professor Yuan Ming Chiao: “Each of the following students have shown not only academic dedication, but a spirit of service to the student body, and helping bring a collegial atmosphere conducive to department spirit, cross-cultural communication, peer collaboration and intellectual curiosity.”

Kelly Huang

As class leader of the UA1A Kelly has worked tirelessly to support and coordinate freshman student participation in DIA activities without fail. She exemplifies the team spirit of the Class of 2024 both academic and athletic, helping the department's newest students to play a key part of the DIA experience of teambuilding, leadership and building greater cultural understanding.

Manuel Preda

Tim McCarthy

Manu is a communicator and problem solver who has worked as a key liaison between international students and staff on academic and non-academic affairs in the DIA. With killer dance moves and deftness with managing the service hours of his peers, his actions exemplifies the potential when creativity and initiative from students in the department are put into practice.

Tim is a constant participant in lectures who actually gets the faculty's jokes. A team player and class role-model, he spent hours (in sunny, spring weather) training and holding up a cardboard sign to represent the College of English and International Studies during Sports Day without complaint. His professors also note the multiple occasions he has encouraged participation among his peers.


STUDENT HIGHLIGHTS

Tom Severin

Tom is always prepared to pose questions and comments that provoke reflection and spirited debate in all lectures. He has worked with great effort not only in supporting an atmosphere of inquisitiveness, but also serving as a role model for his peers in the department for working methodically and patiently on academic endeavors.

Khessed Yoder

Group work and studying can often be stymied by the free-rider problem. Khessed has cut through this by fostering collaboration by encouraging all members of the group to work toward the collective goal. Her ability to help build solidarity and goodwill among students is a key ingredient to the cohesion among international and local students.

Maria Wilkinson

Maria has had a great passion for pushing departmental boundaries ever since she became a student of the DIA, often with good cause. She has through solidarity with her fellow students worked toward greater cultural communication and understanding to help them find their own voice. Through her initiative and leadership, she has helped the Magazine move beyond an idea into a finished product that students can hold in their hands.

Caleb Chang

Caleb is always around the Department office, day and night. He guides students from both the undergraduate and graduate level and contributed to almost every DIA activity big or small. As a doer, and Caleb actualizes his study in reading, studying and collaborating with classmates. He is the hub of the graduate program and the "Deputy Chairperson" of the DIA.


A Heartfelt Goodbye - The Departure of Diane Chou

Our department has been honored to have Diane as the Assistant of the Masters Program of International Affairs over the last year, however, it has come time for her to move on to greater things. Diane has been a great help in managing all of the work that goes into making our master’s program excellent, as well as in making the DIA office a brighter place. Reflecting on her time here, Diane leaves this farewell: “When I first stepped into this campus for my interview, I saw two girls chatting happily under the tree (where you guys buy Bento at lunch time.) I got the intuition that where I was going would be a happy place to work in! And now, one and a half years have passed, still, I have to say this is an amazing department trying its best to embrace all the cultures and differences and I’m so happy I can be a part of it. There were some challenging parts (like getting crazy with languages twisted in the brain, needing to take one hundred pictures to show that we do exist in an event, etc.), but most of the time is just a happy time. Laughters + snacks + nice people = The DIA Office! “I’m sad to leave at this moment, a very tough time that I couldn’t give a goodbye hug in real. But we keep breathing and smiling! We might see each other again somewhere in the world. Thank you everyone. I’m gonna miss you all.” The Department of International Affairs certainly will feel her absence in the coming school year, but appreciate the time and efforts she has given while at Wenzao.


Study Buddies This year, the Department of International Affairs is thrilled at the success of our newly instituted “Study Buddy” program. This program aims to enhance the learning of first year students taking Political Science courses by increasing group discussion and participation. A huge thank you to the volunteers who helped make this program possible: Fransiska Chrishardiyanti Tom Enkhbold Kezia Pitasari Henning Funke Devante Fergus Vinh Lương Manuel Preda Angelina Rafaela Tom Severin


Scholarships and Awards Maria Wilkinson DIA Year 3 Wenzao Outstanding Academic Award Maria is well known in our department for not only her incredible work ethic and intelligent

contributions

to

classroom

discussion, but also her well-researched and informative presentations. She has shown excellence in her own performance and inspires those around her to reach the same standards. Congratulations to her for her achievements! Jordan Lin MIA Year 2 Wenzao Outstanding Academic Award Scholarship of Ministry of Foreign Affairs 2021 We congratulate Jordan for both receiving the Wenzao Outstanding Academic Award and The Scholarship of the Ministry of Foriegn Affairs 2021. Both of these honors reveal only a portion of the hard work and dedication Jordan has put into his time studying at Wenzao. We are confident he will continue to walk in success as he moves on to greater things.


Scholarships and Awards Tiffany Hsu DIA Year 4 Scholarship of Ministry of Foreign Affairs 2021 Tiffany has received the Scholarship of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and she hopes that she can encourage others to also reach for their goals: “It is my honor to get this award from MOFA, and I believe it is an impressive achievement in my life. However, it does not mean I am an excellent person, but a diligent one. I will encourage you all that sweat is the lubricant of success. Pain is temporary. Quitting lasts forever.”

Amos Li MIA Year 2 Wenzao Outstanding College Youth Award/ Scholarship of Charles University, Czech Amos is honored to receive both the Wenzao Outstanding College Youth Award and a Scholarship to Charles University this year, which is not including other scholarships and honors he has received in the past. He serves as a prime example not only to strive to pursue your goals, but to continue reaching for success after you achieve them. Life is not a straight path from beginning to end, but a series of challenges, set backs, and triumphs. Amos has shown that not only do you need to get back up when you are knocked down, but to also keep on going when you hit big milestones. Congratulations to Amos on his achievements!


“Different World/s in World/s of Difference” Dr. Kevin H. Villanueva National Chung Hsing University, Senior Fellow in Ethics and International Relations

CURRENT

2021

2021 Wenzao International Affairs Colloquium Series

“Community Discipline Brigade: A Mass Participation Approach to Strengthen the Implementation of Localized Health Protocols in Quezon City” Dr. Noel L. Lansang Santo Tomas University, Major in Public Administration


“Weak States and Pandemic Response: The Case of the Philippines” Dr. Dennis C. Coronacion Santo Tomas University, Professor

CURRENT

2021

2021 Wenzao International Affairs Colloquium Series

Presented two separate speeches on “International Security” and “Peace” during the month of May Dr. Philipp Fluri Ph.D. Philosophy, University of Fribourg Ph.D. History, University of Bern


AN ONLINE CONVERSATION WITH PETER JONES

PETER JONES Emeritus Professor of Political Philosophy, Newcastle University, United Kingdom

In June, DIAers had the chance to sit down with Peter Jones


Online Distance Learning at Wenzao Q: WOULD YOU SAY THERE ARE LIMITS TO ONLINE TEACHING? By: Buyannemekh Tom Enkhbold Interviewee: Dr. Yuan Ming Chiao

A: It certainly has its limitations. First and foremost, I can't see student faces and because interaction is important to me, getting facial cues from the students (bored, enthused, confused, etc.) is no longer readily available. Of course, not seeing students slumped over their desks/or swiping away at their phones is also a plus...but it certainly isn't an even tradeoff.

Q: HOW CAN WE, STUDENTS AND TEACHERS, IMPROVE THIS SITUATION? A: As for improving with what we have: This form of interaction isn't new nor is it going away any time soon. The lack of face-toface contact can however be somewhat mirrored when students decide to turn on their webcams. More than ever, interaction from students during distance-learning can make or break the lecture. I find that classes where students participate (anything from asking a question, raising their hands, or offering a relevant comment) increases the quality of the class. The lack of real face-to-face interactions can be somewhat supplanted. Students can get more out of their online classes through preparing ahead of time, using technology to their advantage (learning to use all the software; preparing their notes and slides to make collaboration easy, etc.) and increasing their engagement levels.

Q:WHAT HAS ONLINE TEACHING TAUGHT YOU THIS PAST SEMESTER? A: Online instruction really puts into sharp relief how important it is for us to realize that lectures and learning cannot be a one-way street.


Graduates Continuing Their Studies William Yuan The London School of Economics and Political Science MSc in International Social and Public Policy University of Bristol MSc Public Policy University Exeter MSc Global Governance University of Bath MSc International Development

Tiffany Hsu King's College London MA International Relations University of Bristol MSc International Relations University of Glasgow MSc International Relations


Graduates Continuing Their Studies

Pei-Yu Ho National Kaohsiung Normal University Graduate Institute of Human Resources and Knowledge Management

Zih-Ching Lai National Changhua University of Education Graduate Institute of Sports and Health


Graduates Continuing Their Studies

Ben Li National Kaohsiung University of Science and Technology Department of Intelligence Commerce Department of Human Resource Development

Buyannemekh Tom Enkhbold Wenzao Ursuline University of Languages Masters in International Affairs


Graduates Continuing Their Studies

Tom Gilbert Severin Wenzao Ursuline University of Languages Masters in International Affairs

Lin, Wen-Tung National Cheng Kung University Ph.D. Program of Department of Political Science


Graduates Continuing Their Studies Nimma Joy Amina Ibrahim University of Bath MIA International Education and Globalization

Marsy Tsai National Chengchi University International Master’s Program in International Studies


Graduating Class

Class of 2021


An address made at the 2021 Wenzao Ursuline University of Languages Graduation Ceremony Dear students of Wenzao, We have reached an important point in our education. We are now graduate students of international affairs. We can speak English fluently and help people from many countries. The knowledge we received from Wenzao has made us more competitive in many aspects of our life. We are now able to understand other countries and interact with them. Studying at the department of international affairs has made us open to the world. Thanks to our teachers who know how to share their knowledge and experience; they do want to help students to be successful in their future career. As an international student in Wenzao, I have spoken with many local students who are very friendly and helpful to me. Wenzao is a language school, and everyone like to speak different languages and learn about foreign culture. The environment is very international, and it is very common to talk with people from different countries. Studying international affairs at Wenzao university is a unique experience. It taught us the knowledge we need to have for a bright future. During our study, we got the chance to learn about what we really like, and our department guided us to become real experts. As a result, each student has its own specialty which makes our classes even more interesting. During these four years we also had a lot of fun. We did not only learn international affairs from books and teachers. We also had to go out and talk with people to learn from them. For many of us, we have gained practical experience and have discussed with other experts who came to our department from overseas. We know about international affairs because we like it.


At the department of international affairs, a good research is always rewarded. Teachers are often curious about our interests and give us the opportunity to expose our findings in public. Every year some of the best students can achieve outstanding performance in front of a large audience. At Wenzao, we are proud to be a student from the department of international affairs. These four years mark the end of our achievement. We are now ready to face the real world. The department of international affairs will always be part of our life and we can all be proud. It was an honor to study in Taiwan and I will recommend Wenzao to anyone who wants to receive a good education. It was the best years of my life. Tom Severin, France

What Makes DIA Different

I think the big

gest gain from our school wa many opport s that there w unities to me ere et foreign stu of foreign stu dents. The nu dents in our d mber epartment is to the other large in prop ortion departments , which allow ourselves in c ed us to cha onversations llenge with foreign st oral expressio u d e nts in terms o n. Many of th f e c la ss e s in all in English our departme , which also h nt are elps us to im ability. I am prove our list ening very fortuna te to be ab Department le to study in the of Internation al Affairs. This department u is what make nique and dif s our fe re n t from other u am very gra niversities. I teful to the teachers of International the Departm ent of Affairs for th eir hard work class! and preparati on in

Julian,

, Taiwan


ia turned s e n o d In m o fr t a An Ex-P iwan Graduate from Ta

e my 017 to continu 2 in y tr n u co ho left my , I was I’m an ex-pat w ester in Taiwan m se t rs fi y m an. During ash-landed in a cr studies in Taiw ad h I ke li lt fe d frustrated. I Four alone, afraid, an ong anywhere. el b to em se and I didn’t aduate strange place here now: a gr am I , ce n ra ve ugh perse of ne University years later, thro li u rs U o za en W department of e to from the DIA ing stone for m p ep st e th n ee llege life has b ances Languages. Co given many ch as w I e, eg ll co L als in life. In t to the “REA u achieve my go o g in p ep st ore it new trials bef to experience m ready to face I’ at th y tl en d I can say confi WORLD” and onesia now. umaradewi, Ind Priscilla diani K

Our New First of all, I w Educate ant to classma d Lens s a y tes. I ma congrat de it. W u la t io ns to m e all ma I don't de it! yself an want to d my lo write a departm vely nything ent doe cliche b s n o t ecause like any professo the cha thing su r in the irperson p D e IA, or p r f ic ia valuable of our l. But I robably . I belie a m sure in Taiwa v e t t hat eve n, would hat peo can't tak ry ple can agree th e away m t a a k t e y e a d e w u d a c ucation y anyth ation is my class . Everyt ing from mates, a h in n m g d I have le e, but t even fro the unf hey arned fr m my fa oreseen o il m u r m e o s y f w p t r ill enable his conf ofessors hurdles licting w , me to na with edu orld an v cated le ig a t e d through help me ns. My colle to get t ge life in h DIA cam rough t lot of n he e with lo ice and t s o in f lu t e c llectual k, sacrif graduat ice, and people ion, the support a r n e d w m il a l . I met a d imagina be more e homie tion, vis s t w a is n d t s and tu ion, and friends. I believe rns. Wit our (rich After h our d that we ) parent etermin can go v s, there ation, ery far in is nothin g we can the futu 't achiev re. I will e. show yo u in 10 y William ears. Yuan, Ta iwan


Day Dreamers to Achievers Is a person defined by their dreams or their achievements? I thought the answer was simple, achievements. It separates achievers from the day dreamers. However, after half of my time in DIA, I understood dreams are the ones which guide a person to the right direction and hard work and dedication is the one that creates achievements. Dreams are knowing what you want to be in the future and makes you understand what pathway to take to reach that certain dream. However, simply dreaming will not lead us anywhere. If you have ever thought that you may not be talented or skilled enough, remember this “Hard work and Dedication is also a talent and skill’. Hard work and dedication are what separates the students who listen to Professor Lee’s lecture in culture class from those who come in two hours late or sleep in class. Hard work and dedication are the forces that prevent you from copying every homework given by Professor Chang from the internet. Hard work and dedication are what drives students to solve the problems in class and not to stare at our phones in Professor Wu’s economy class. Hard work and dedication make you read the case studies and preview the reading before any class taught by Professor Chiao. Hard work and dedication are what makes you give an outstanding presentation rather than reading from a paper in Professor Hsieh’s class. Hard work and dedication are what makes you give an outstanding presentation rather than reading from a paper in Professor Hsieh’s class. Hard work and dedication are what makes you memorize the root words in Professor Lin’s English reading class.


Hard work and dedication are what makes you wake up early in the morning or sleep late at night to prepare for you GP and to see your advisor light up when they announce you have passed. Yes, hard work and dedication is what makes the DIA, the DIA. It is what makes us stand out from the other departments. The DIA is not only about learning Economy, Politics, Culture, and International Affairs in a foreign language with students from around globe, but more. DIA is what takes us from day dreamers to achievers, through hard work and dedication. Buyannemekh Tom Enkhbold, Mongolia


BRIAN LIN