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TARGET HARDENING FOR LAW ENFORCEMENT PART 2 • WHAT IS TRUE SECURITY • SHOT TIMER • PROTECTIVE SURVEILLANCE • OMAD

Journal for Law Enforcement, Intelligence & Special Operations Professionals

OCTOBER/NOVEMBER 2016

VOLUME 9 • NUMBER 5

THREE COUNTER INSURGENCY LESSONS

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4 The Counter Terrorist ~ October/November 2016

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Counter

The Journal for Law Enforcement, Intelligence & Special Operations Professionals OCTOBER/NOVEMER 2016 VOLUME 9 • NUMBER 5

COVER STORY: 30

THREE COUNTER INSURGENCY LESSONS FOR THE COUNTER TERRORIST by Dr. Brian R. Price

FEATURES:

CONTENTS

30

08

WHAT IS TRUE SECURITY? FROM BRUSSELS TO ORLANDO, AIRPORTS TO DISNEY WORLD: SECURITY MODELS THAT PROVIDE A FEELING OF SAFETY ARE NOT NECESSARILY SAFE by Forest Rain

THE PRACTICE OF OMAD: HOW TO MAINTAIN A LEVEL OF COMBAT ACCURACY FOR THE GOOD GUY WITH A GUN, NON-PROFESSIONAL by Ken Pagano 22

8

48

HARDEN SCHOOLS AND OTHER SOFT TARGETS IN THEIR AOR, PART 2 THE THREAT FROM WITHIN by Amery Bernhardt

54 60

PROTECTIVE SURVEILLANCE by Orlando Wilson

22

HOW TO USE A SHOT TIMER by Garret Machine

DEPARTMENTS:

60

06

From the Editor

46

Book Review

68

Innovative Products

72

Training Review NIMS (National Incident Management System)

How to Achieve and Maintain Peace Ghost Warriors by Samuel Katz

A Higher Standard in Education, Pelican, Cobra Cuffs, SmartWaterCSI

Cover Photo: Afghan Local Police members man a blocking position during a village clearing operation by coalition forces and Afghan Commandos near Belambai village in Panjwai district. Photo by: Mass Communication Specialist 2nd Class Ernesto Hernandez Fonte

The Counter Terrorist ~ October/November 2016 5


Counter The

FROM THE EDITOR:

How to Achieve and Maintain Peace

by Garret Machine

Journal for Law Enforcement, Intelligence & Special Operations Professionals

VOLUME 9 • NUMBER 5

W

hat Trump and Clinton both understand is that counterterrorism and the global stabilization process is a component of American power and prestige on the world stage. The conflicts of the Middle East have been fascinating the globe since 9/11, creating an industry, subculture, and endless debate. While this may be a sensitive subject, it creates potential for politicians the world over. Fifteen years later, thousands of Americans and allied lives have been lost, billions of dollars have been spent on the Middle East, and where has it gotten us? The Arab world has become a place for strategic experimentation where administrations are left with a legacy of disappointment. While the rest of the world is moving on and making progress, the Arab world is somehow stymied. What does the West want from the Middle East? Two things: actual peace and stability, and the perception of peace and stability. Either one is sufficient. The real question is whether or not we have negotiating partners. I am not convinced we do.  Through both force and soft power we have somehow still fallen short of “enlightening” the region. I believe this is because those who we see as our adversaries do not actually want peace or stability, nor are they interested in achieving the stability and prosperity that comes with it. The status quo is exactly what they want and an ideal situation for them. The reality of it is that the quest for peace itself is seen as a weakness. The current situation will be the only peace we will get and to maintain it we must, as a wise military strategist said, prepare for war. That can be done by disproportionately responding to terrorists and their state sponsors. Meeting force with more force and violence with overwhelming violence. We must accept the fact that man is a warring being, throughout history embroiled with conflict. This world has never known long-term global peace, nor will it. If you want to maintain peace, accept that and harden up.

Garret Machine Editor, The Counter Terrorist

OCTOBER/NOVEMBER 2016 Editor Garret Machine Director of Operations Carmen Arnaes Director of Advertizing Sol Bradman Administrative Ashley Villegas Contributing Editors Dr. Brian R. Price Forest Rain Ken Pagano Amery Bernhardt Orlando Jacob Ingram Graphic Design Morrison Creative Company Copy Editor Laura Town ASIA PACIFIC EDITION Director of Operation Yaniv Peretz Advertising Sales Maria Efremova Maria@loringlobal.com +65 90266571 Publisher: Security Solutions International 13155 SW 134th St. • STE 103 Miami, Florida 33186

ISSN 1941-8639 The Counter Terrorist Magazine, Journal for Law Enforcement, Intelligence & Special Operations Professionals is published by Security Solutions International LLC, as a service to the nation’s First Responders and Homeland Security Professionals with the aim of deepening understanding of issues related to Terrorism. No part of the publication can be reproduced without permission from the publisher. The opinions expressed herein are the opinions of the authors represented and not necessarily the opinions of the publisher. Please direct all Editorial correspondence related to the magazine to: Security Solutions International SSI, 13155 SW 134th Street, Suite 103, Miami, Florida. 33186 or info@thecounterterroristmag. com The subscription price for 6 issues is $34.99 and the price of the magazine is $5.99. (1-866-573-3999) Fax: 1-786-573-2090. For article reprints, e-prints, posters and plaques please contact: Security Solutions International at villegas@homelandsecurityssi.com or call 786-573-3999 Please visit the magazine web site where you can also contact the editorial staff:

www.thecounterterrroristmag.com © 2016 Security Solutions International

6 The Counter Terrorist ~ October/November 2016


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WHAT IS TRUE SECURITY FROM BRUSSELS TO ORLANDO, AIRPORTS TO DISNEY WORLD: SECURITY MODELS THAT PROVIDE A FEELING OF SAFETY ARE NOT NECESSARILY SAFE

8 The Counter Terrorist ~ October/November 2016


by Forest Rain

What is the connection between the terror attack in Brussels on March 22, 2016 and the more recent attack at the Pulse Club in Orlando What do airports have to with Disney World

W

hat is the difference between all of these and Tel Aviv’s Ben Gurion airport?

TERROR IN BRUSSELS On March 22, three coordinated bombings occurred in Belgium: two at the Brussels Airport in Zaventem and one at Maalbeek metro station in Brussels. In these attacks, 32 victims and three perpetrators were killed, and over 300 people were injured. It took over a month to return the airport

and the metro station to their previous operational status. The terror attack in the Brussels airport took place in the departures lounge. In most airports in the world, security measures begin after passenger check in.

AIRPORT SECURITY IS A VITAL NATIONAL INTEREST Airports are highly sensitive locations. A terror attack on an airport obviously affects the first circle of those directly involved—the hurt, injured,

and financially damaged—but the ramifications do not stop there. An attack on an airport is an attack on the gateway to the country in which the airport is situated. Thus, both the local city and the feeling of freedom in that nation (and around the world) are affected. An effective attack shuts down travel and by extension commerce, at least for a while. The possibility of additional attacks means that travel to other cities is also affected to some extent. Recognition of this is impetus for

The Counter Terrorist ~ October/November 2016 9


Map of the March 2016 Brussels bombings in relation to each other. (1) 08:00: Concourse B of Brussels Airport. (2) 09:15: Brussels Maelbeek metro station. Photo by: Veggies terrorists to target airports (and other transportation hubs). It is not necessary to hijack or blow up an airplane in order to have a dramatic impact. The attack in Brussels was an attack on the airport, on travel, even though the terrorists never got past the check in counter or anywhere near the airplanes themselves.

THE “SECURITY RACE” 9/11 created awareness for the sensitivity of airports. In order to maintain the previous levels of travel and

commerce, it was necessary to give the public a sense of security, enabling people to feel that airplanes and airports are safe. America has invested millions in security technology. After every attempted (or successful) attack, the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) has added additional security measures. After the “shoe-bomber,” the TSA implemented a rule demanding travelers remove their shoes for screening of potential explosives. After a foiled terrorist plot to detonate

10 The Counter Terrorist ~ October/November 2016

liquid explosives carried onboard, the TSA banned all liquids, gels, and aerosols from passenger carry-on luggage. A child may not carry a bottle of water to drink while waiting at the gate because, possibly, it might be part of an international terrorist conspiracy. If a traveler forgets that he or she is carrying a liquid, this will be discovered at the security screening and various levels of unpleasantness ensue. The screener is not allowed to give the liquid to the traveler to consume prior to proceeding


through the checkpoint. At minimum, the traveler must allow the screener to throw the liquid away, or the traveler can choose to be escorted to a location before the checkpoint where the screener will then return the water or cola or yogurt to the traveler. After consuming the liquid the traveler can then reenter the security checkpoint, be screened again and proceed to the gate. This is an interesting precaution. Will a traveler who drinks the water he or she forgot was in their bag explode on the spot? If it is dangerous to allow the traveler to consume the liquid that was in their bag at the checkpoint, why is it okay to handover the liquid after escorting the traveler to a location before the checkpoint? Both areas are full of travelers… After the “underwear bomber” tried to get through security with a bomb strategically placed so it would not be found in a normal screening, the TSA implemented fully body scanners. Every single person needs to go in the capsule, raise their arms like a criminal surrendering to the police and undergo a full body scan that shows every contour of the body. Right to privacy? Sure. Unless you want to fly: then your most intimate privacy is stripped away. There is a race between terrorists and technology. The terrorists strive to circumvent the technology, and when they succeed additional technology is added. The investment needed to fund this “security race” is continually increasing, while at the same time passenger freedoms are more and more restricted. European airport security has fewer technology measures than those of their American counterparts. In addition, that “small” issue of freedom of movement between EU countries complicates the matter. It is known, for example, that many European citizens have gone to

Billboard displaying the city’s recommendations after the March 22, 2016 bombings in Brussels. The text is in french and means “Stay where you are, avoid any move, prefer communications using sms or social networks.” Photo by: Miguel Discart on Flickr

Suspects in the 2016 Brussels bombings filmed by a CCTV camera. Left to right: Najim Laachraoui, Ibrahim El Bakraoui and unidentified person. Photo by: CCTV system

The Counter Terrorist ~ October/November 2016 11


A driver’s license photo of Omar Mir Mateen. Photo by: Florida Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles

There is a race between terrorists and technology. Original police comment: “Orange ave will be closed from Grant St to Kaley Ave until further notice. Avoid area.” Photo by: City of Orlando Police Department

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Syria for ISIS training. It is also known that many of these have returned to Europe. It is not known where exactly these people are.

TERROR IN ORLANDO Reports say that Omar Mateen chose the Pulse nightclub because it was an easier target than Disney World. By chance, I visited Disney World around the same time Mateen was supposedly


Original police statement: “Shooting at Pulse Nightclub on S[outh] Orange [Avenue]. Multiple injuries. Stay away from area.” Photo by: City of Orlando Police Department: scouting the territory with his wife. Israeli reality breeds a reflexive safety vs. threat assessment mechanism. It is not a matter of being in a state of hyper-tension, fear, or hysteria. It simply becomes automatic. Going to a new place, the image of how easy/difficult it would be to carry out a terror attack flashes through the mind as a matter of course. An instant later, the image is put aside (not forgotten) and the activity at

hand is continued with full enjoyment. Maybe this is why, in general, Israelis scorn measures that are meant to give the feeling of security (while neglecting measures that would provide actual safety). We all want to feel secure, but it is more important to actually be secure. Visiting Disney’s Magic Kingdom theme park set off my threat assessment reflex. While I am certain it would be very unusual for Americans visiting

Disney to consider the feasibility of a terror attack or a suicide bombing, I would be surprised if most visiting Israelis did not have the thought flash through their minds. Over 20 million people visited the Magic Kingdom last year. Cursory bag checks have been instated at the park entrance. It is reasonable to assume that this checkpoint instills in most guests the impression of security, but we must ask

The Counter Terrorist ~ October/November 2016 13


14 The Counter Terrorist ~ October/November 2016


We all want to feel secure, but it is more important to actually be secure.

The Counter Terrorist ~ October/November 2016 15


ourselves, is this a true reflection of reality? Entrance to the park does not begin at the checkpoint, it begins in the parking lot. Visitors leave their cars and join a stream of people walking to a boat or the monorail that serve as transportation to the park entrance. At that point, bags are checked and every so often someone is selected for a random screening via a metal detector. Supposedly this procedure ensures visitor safety. No one seems to have considered that the process of transporting guests via boat or monorail necessarily creates large crowds of people waiting to board their selected form of transportation. Hundreds of visitors gather together at one time, multiple times a day. It would be the simplest place in the world for a suicide bomber to blow him- or herself up. Park the car, walk into the crowd with everyone else and… kablooey. Dozens of people would die, many more would be injured, the Disney reputation would be forever damaged, and the American economy would take a major hit. Easy. The security model at Disney is very similar to the security model implemented at most airports around the world. It is not necessary to actually enter the Disney park in order to execute a devastating attack on its visitors and cause irreparable damage to an iconic symbol of America.

FEELING SAFE AND BEING SAFE ARE TWO VERY DIFFERENT THINGS. Prior to entering the Disney parks, there is an announcement to visitors explaining what is not allowed within the park. One of the things mentioned is that no one is allowed to wear a mask (unless they are a small child).

16 The Counter Terrorist ~ October/November 2016

I am curious to know what the Disney procedure would be for a visitor wearing a burqa. This version of Islamic dress for women is worn in many places around the world. It is a complete covering where even the eyes are not visible. What is the difference between a burqa and the prohibited masks? It is next to impossible to demand the burqa be removed. Would the Disney security take aside visitors dressed in this manner and check them in a private room? It is very easy to hide anything under a burqa… What Makes Tel Aviv’s Ben Gurion Airport Different? Israel’s Ben Gurion airport is world renowned for its safety. Security experts study the Ben Gurion model and yet it is not implemented elsewhere. Why? The Israeli security model is diametrically opposed to the one employed everywhere else. While the rest of the world relies on technological solutions for safety, Israel relies first on people who are backed up with technological tools. While the rest of the world begins security measures after the check-in point, Israel’s airport security begins before travelers set foot in the airport. Machines that scan bags and people, stripping to have articles of clothing scanned and hysteria about nail files and bottles of water may give the impression of security. Feelings are nice, but what about facts? While Israel has cuttingedge technology available to enhance security, the first line of security consists of well-trained, experienced people. It is the ability to recognize someone who is behaving suspiciously that makes the difference. It then becomes possible to further investigate that specific person, define their threat level, and when needed, remove the threat.


It is not necessary to treat everyone like criminals in order to keep the public safe. It is not technology that makes a person dangerous or assures detection of a danger. The 9/11 hijackers used box cutters, not high-powered rifles. The problem was not their weapons but the unprepared flight crew who did not have the knowledge, training, or skills to deal with the threat. That and the civilians who sat quietly while they were being hijacked… It wasn’t technology that prevented Flight 93 from being used to crash in to another building and wreak more terror on America. It was people. It was Todd Beamer and the men with him who, with no weapons, decided to storm the cockpit and take down the terrorists. Where there is a will, there is a way, and frankly the terrorists have a lot more will than the minimum wage, (often) poorly educated, low interest employees working in airport security around the world. To oversimplify, while airport security around the world strives to detect “ways” that passengers can be hurt, things that can be used as weapons and bombs, Israeli security detects people who have the will to commit acts of terrorism. But this means profiling is racist… right? Wrong. Profiling is the extrapolation of information about something, based on known qualities. When applied to security, this means detecting people who may pose a threat, based on known behaviors and tendencies of people who have, in the past, been dangerous to the public. This is called learning from experience. When someone behaving suspiciously is detected, they can then be taken aside, further questioned, and inspected. This allows security to focus in-depth on the few who could be a problem, without creating a burden on those who are not.

The profile of a potential terrorist is complicated. Some of its elements I am familiar with, more I am not. (Similarly, many Israeli security measures are seen while others remain unseen.) It is worth pointing out that potential terrorists are not necessarily Arabs or Muslims. Most Arabs and Muslims will move freely through Ben Gurion airport without undergoing in-depth security checks, because they are lawabiding citizens who pose no threat. Potentially dangerous people do not necessarily have any religious or ethnic ties to Islam. They can even be innocent people who, because of their naiveté became, unbeknownst to them, carriers of bombs set to explode at later time (for example, mid-flight). Elsewhere, so as not to appear “racist,” people are chosen for random additional security checks. In a world terrified of offending, it is considered better to subject everyone to offensive, intrusive and cumbersome inspections than to actually identify potential dangers. It is better to focus on giving the feeling of security than being actually secure. Israeli experts investigate all the airports where flights depart to Tel Aviv and analyze their security measures. Think about that–Israeli airport security does not begin just at the checkpoint everyone passes driving in to Ben Gurion: it begins at the foreign airports where there are flights destined for Tel Aviv. This included warning Belgian authorities that the security measures in the Brussels airport were inadequate. The general public does not see most of the measures taken to keep travelers to and from Israel safe. The emphasis is on actual security, not the illusion or feeling of security. The emphasis is on detecting potential threats, on the people with the desire to commit attacks, rather than finding all the

The Counter Terrorist ~ October/November 2016 17


Ben Gurion International Airport runways and terminal. Photo by: My another account

Ben Gurion Airport, also referred to by its Hebrew acronym Natbag, is Israel's main international airport, handling over 13.1 million passengers in 2012. It is one of two airports serving the Tel Aviv Metropolitan Area, the other being Sde Dov Airport, which provides primarily domestic flights. Ben Gurion International Airport serves as an international gateway to not only the Tel Aviv and Jerusalem metropolitan areas but to the majority of Israel. The airport serves as a hub for El Al, Israir Airlines and Arkia Israel Airlines. Photo by: Jorge Láscar from Australia

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possible methods of committing an attack. People before technology. This takes us back to Orlando and a gut wrenching question that must be asked: how is it possible that so many people in the Pulse club just lay down to die? The concept of security is a life and death issue. What provides security? Technology or people? Laws or individuals? There will always be a way to get around technology. People who want to commit acts of terrorism will not be bothered by the restrictions of the law. Who provides security? The “authorities” or the people? Waiting for the “authorities” to come and save them killed 49 people at the Pulse. On the other hand, the club bouncer, Imran


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Yousuf, a 24-year-old Hindu and former Marine, did not wait for rescue. Instead he rescued not only himself but also some 50 or 60, possibly 70 additional people. There is a big difference between feeling secure and being secure. The Israeli model focuses on actual security over the feeling of security, focusing always on people over technology. The Israeli model dictates that the security authorities are responsible but individuals must do their own part to help save themselves and save each other. It is up to security experts everywhere to decide which model to implement.

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

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Forest Rain was born in Detroit and immigrated with her family to Israel at the age of thirteen. She served in the IDF Northern Command as an Ordnance Corps Personnel Coordination Sgt. After her service, Forest Rain co-developed and co-directed a project to aid victims of terrorism and war. These activities gave her extensive first-hand experience with the emotional and psychological processes of civilians, soldiers and their families, wounded and/or bereaved and traumatized by terrorism and war (grief, guilt, PTSD, etc.). Forest Rain is a Marketing Communications and Branding expert. Connect with Forest Rain Inspiration from Zion: http://forestrain. wordpress.com/ Twitter: @frisrael Email: lionheart.e@gmail.com


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THE PRACTICE OF OMAD: HOW TO MAINTAIN A LEVEL OF COMBAT ACCURACY FOR THE GOOD GUY WITH A GUN, NON-PROFESSIONAL

Photo by: BreTho

22 The Counter Terrorist ~ October/November 2016


by Ken Pagano

An ancient wise man once said, “For precept must be upon precept, precept upon precept; line upon line, line upon line; here a little, and there a little.�

A

s with many of life’s endeavors, seldom do challenges consist of a single large leap, but rather are comprised of many small sequential steps. And it is no less true when it comes to proficiency with a firearm. Being an NRA and a civilian concealed carry instructor, as well as an avid competition shooter who also has former

military and current law enforcement training, the question asked most often of me is how does a civilian, the nonprofessional, maintain a level of combat accuracy with a handgun? The response is somewhat tongue and cheek and simply based upon a new religion, one that we started several years ago. We are always looking for converts. We can guarantee

The Counter Terrorist ~ October/November 2016 23


…no less than One Minute A Day.

that converts to this religion will not only maintain their level of combat accuracy but will improve it immensely. All by becoming religious practitioners of OMAD. OMAD stands for One Minute A Day. In order to maintain a proficiency in combat accuracy, we propose that you practice all the little steps, one at a time, for no less than One Minute A Day. As the title implies, this is for the average civilian with a gun, the nonprofessional, who has already achieved a certain level of combat accuracy. Before going too much further, we should discuss what we mean by combat accuracy. First, there is “mechanical accuracy,” which in other words is the accuracy of the gun itself, apart from human involvement. Different guns have different tolerances, making for varying degrees of accuracy in point of aim equaling and point of impact. Next we have “target accuracy.” This is when a person puts into practice the basic pistol shooting fundamentals while on the range in a relaxed, controlled, safe environment. Stance, grip, sight alignment/picture, trigger control, breath control, and follow through all are at

21FEET 24 The Counter Terrorist ~ October/November 2016

work here. The goal here being shot grouping with the mantra “aim small, miss small.” But now let us throw in the human element under stress, in the midst of a sudden life-threatening situation, all the while having to hit your target. This is the basis for what we call “combat accuracy.” Combat accuracy can be comprised of two separate components: sighted aimed fire and point shooting. The former speaks for itself, utilizing basic shooting fundamentals. In the latter, point shooting, we do not sight or aim the gun: we simply point it at the object as naturally as if we were pointing with our finger. Sighted fire comes into play at 21 feet and further, when the sights appear larger than the target. Point shooting occurs at 21 feet or less, when the target is larger than the sights. These two types of shooting are not mutually exclusive of each other, but rather compliment one another like two different sides of the same coin. Whether using one or the other or a combination of the two, the thing that counts is the ability to hit one’s target, while under stress, in a quick and proficient manner so as to stop the threat. It has been said that a slow hit is better than a fast miss. Others say that a hit on a threat, any hit, will do some damage and is in effect combat accuracy. In this instance, it is meeting only minimum requirements: barely adequate, an acceptable performance. Combat accuracy often depends upon whether or not one uses set

1.5 SECONDS


standards such as the Tueller Drill. This drill presumes that the average person is capable of sprinting 21 feet in approximately 1.5 seconds, therefore necessitating a draw and shoot under these conditions. Granted, the closer the target, the faster the cadence of fire. Still others have claimed that on average it takes a specific number of rounds on target to stop the threat, specifically 2.1 with a .45 ACP, 2.6 with .40 S&W and 2.9 with a 9mm. Hence, an average of three rounds. For our purposes with the average good guy who normally practices on his own, we will say that combat accuracy is how fast the shooter can draw from concealment and put at least three rounds into a nine-inch circle or 8.5 x 11 piece of paper, at the distance of 21 feet. As far as speed is concerned, the individual should draw and shoot as fast as they can miss, then dial it down until they can hit. Not working from slow to fast, but rather from fast to slower. Draw and shoot until one can consistently keep all three rounds on target. This will become the shooter’s individual standard for combat accuracy. Now that we have established what we consider to be combat accuracy, let us define the “good guy” with a gun, or the “good guy gunman.” The average citizen is not military or a Spec Ops commando whose rules of engagement are often first and foremost to take out the threat, and for whom taking prisoners is not always an option. However, we are speaking about the average “good guy gunman,” for whom the weapon is a defensive tool wherein the use of lethal force is the last resort. Commonly, you have two groups of civilians when it comes to practice and training. The first group consists of the individual for whom money is not a primary concern. They may be successful executives or business owners, perhaps

someone who has received their monies elsewhere. It makes no difference. They are individuals who will often pay the big bucks to attend events such as a fantasy weekend training program provided by a former Spec Ops person or group. They are more than happy to pay the money for the experience of being trained and spending time with a real “Operator.” Their focus is more on the experience rather than the training. Often getaways like this will run, on average, $300 to $600 per day and up. While I applaud such ventures, they also send the message that only people of means can afford topnotch training. More often than not, the typical civilian good guy just cannot afford this type of arrangement. Yet often they are the ones who will save up their money and vacation time to attend such events on their own dime. Why? Because they value the training and are willing to sacrifice if need be to obtain it. For the most part, however, for these individuals, the bulk of their training is not going to consist of attending such events. Let’s face it, this is the average person, the good guy with a gun. They are not the trained professionals. Their daily jobs do not require them to carry, nor do their jobs provide them with large blocks of time specifically set aside for training. These individuals may or may not be retired, and are often limited on time and resources. They must pay for their own guns, gear, and ammunition and range time. And unless they live in a jurisdiction that requires mandatory re-qualification for concealed carry permits, they have no real motivation to practice or train other than their own personal convictions. And more often than not, they practice in isolation. Even so, they are going to have to do something more to keep what they have learned current. Without

continued practice, at least monthly, that which has been learned will quickly fall by the wayside. They are going to have to come up with some means to maintain a level of combat accuracy. Now we move on to the crux of the matter. How does the average good guy with a gun maintain a proficient level of combat accuracy? Admittedly, different instructors will have different standards and methods. During the author’s continuing tenure as a firearms instructor, whose students have primarily been civilians, what is provided is what has been proven to be effective in this current training venue. Herein comes to play the religion of OMAD. Practicing the little things for at least, One Minute A Day. First, one must be proficient in the basis fundamentals of pistol shooting. Stance, grip, sight alignment/sight picture, trigger press, breathing, and follow through. There is neither shortcut nor substitute for the basics. With all of the people I have had to shoot and train with, be they from Delta Force, FBI, Secret Service, Green Berets, Navy SEALs or Israeli Commandoes, all of them have one thing in common. They are boringly monotonous when it comes to their constant repetitions and commitment to the basics. Surely they practice more than a just a little, but for our “good guy gunman,” OMAD will do. Secondly, you need to get as much good information as you can by reading books, magazines, online gun forums, web-based articles, and whatever else you can find. Admittedly, you will have to wade through all kinds of fluff before finding good fodder, but it will be worth the time and effort. And don’t limit yourself to just what is current. There are some great resource materials that are almost a century old that are considered classics when it comes to combat shooting.

The Counter Terrorist ~ October/November 2016 25


Thirdly, take advantage of modern technology that is just a fingertip away. Watch DVDs and weekly programs available on cable, such as the Personal Defense Network. And need we even mention the plethora of information that may be found on YouTube or Facebook? The Internet and social media are here to stay, so use them to your advantage. The more of your senses that you involve in learning, the better outcome will be achieved. You can begin enhance your combat accuracy by watching perfectly performed pistol demonstrations, which are part and parcel of neurolinguistic programming. Fourthly, one must visualize. A 1984 survey of 235 Canadian Olympic athletes preparing for the Games found that 99 percent of athletes were using imagery. Professional athletes spend a good deal of time visualizing their victory by telling

26 The Counter Terrorist ~ October/November 2016

their minds exactly what they want their bodies to achieve. Timothy Gallwey, author of The Inner Game of Tennis, says, “Athletic improvement without the development of mental skills (such as visualization) is impossible.” The same is true when attempting to maintain combat accuracy. Identify the goal you want to visualize. Find a comfortable place to sit and relax. Eliminate all distractions. Turn off the phone, television, etc. One of the best times to do this is just before you go to sleep, or when you wake up in the morning. Create a picture in your mind and see yourself succeeding, having attained what you wanted. Picture yourself finishing the course and feeling great, both physically and emotionally. Visualize a few minutes every day. This is called “tactical daydreaming,” all a part of OMAD.

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Sixthly, dry drills. A great deal of practice with empty guns will be required from you in your spare time, and however boring these practices may seem to you, you will in the end find they have been more than worthwhile. We firmly believe that 75% of all shooting should consist of dry fire practice. Practicing one’s stance, grip, pistol presentation, and trigger press in a safe location is an invaluable aid for any type of marksmanship. Depending upon location, one may not even have a firearm to practice with but can still go through all the motions emptyhanded. And it need not be done in a hurry. As has been said, “hurry up and slow down.” Even performing your drills in an almost slow motion fashion still contributes to muscle memory as per the neural transmitters in the brain. Dry practice should also include such items as shot timers, as well as, laser training devices like SureStrike’s Laser Ammo. This is a must for serious dry practice. Without exaggeration, the author uses a Laser Ammo and a timer, every day, just a bit, to keep trigger press, fresh. Of course airsoft guns, paintball and even

laser tag are all great, fun ways to get simulated trigger time without the time and expensive of a range visit. Finally, there is the live fire. This should consist of normal static range shooting when the basic fundamentals come into play. On most one-way static ranges you will need to mix it up and be creative in order to offset boredom, which can quickly set in. One can vary one’s shooting by using less expensive .22LRs and common range ammo, and supplementing occasionally using personal defense rounds. Also try to attend NRA classes if and whenever possible. However, you can only attend so many before you have exhausted the curriculum. One of the best sources of live fire practice, bar none, is found in local sport shooting competitions. Don’t even bother with the naysayers who claim they don’t like to sport shoot because it does not come close to real life combat situations. While it maybe true that “only perfect practice makes perfect,” or “you will not rise to the occasion but sink to your level of training” and “you should train like you will fight because you will fight like you train,” we likewise believe

28 The Counter Terrorist ~ October/November 2016

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that any trigger time is good trigger time. The author has shot in venues ranging from Cowboy Action, IDPA, and USPSA and IPSIC, GSFF, three gun and some other forms of locally run shooting competitions, such as Israeli Combat Sport Shooting. Shoot them according to their rules when dictated and shoot them how you want, when rules permit. Be less concerned with competing with others than shooting against yourself when visiting the range. But the friendly competition and stage set-ups are a great boon in one’s quest to maintain combat accuracy. No civilian who is serious about combat accuracy can afford not to be involved in some sort of competition. It doesn’t take a lot to be successful in maintaining combat accuracy. That is, if you are a committed practitioner of some, if not all, of the above. Some will be able to dedicate more time to these practices, but for others all that may be needed is to become a devoted disciple to the principles of OMAD. Just one minute a day.

ABOUT THE AUTHOR Ken Pagano has been teaching students in the Israeli method for almost 40 years. He is a graduate of the FBI’s Police Firearms Instructor course, a member of IALEFI, and a certified NRA instructor, as well as an instructor trainer for Private Armed Security Guards and Concealed Carry of Deadly Weapons in his state of residence. He also serves as a deputy sheriff and may be contact at kbpagano59@gmail.com or Facebook at https://www.facebook.com/IsraeliTactical-Sport-Shooting-AssociationIsraeli-Combat-Sport-Shooting.


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THREE COUNTER INSURGENCY LESSONS FOR THE COUNTER TERRORIST

30 The Counter Terrorist ~ October/November 2016


By Dr. Brian R. Price Hawai‘i Pacific University

“Principles and rules are intended to provide a thinking man with a frame of reference.” —Carl von Clausewitz1

T

he recent attacks in Paris, Brussels, Orlando and San Bernardino, combined with recent ISIS expansion and Taliban gains in Kunar and Helmand, underscore the troubled relationship between the related problems of insurgency and terrorism. While counter terror (CT) and counter insurgency (COIN) operations

are different, certain hard-won “lessonslearned” COIN principles apply equally to CT. This article looks at three drawn from COIN literature, the historical record, and my own experience: the population as the final arbiter, the central role of trust in partner relationships, and the enduring need to preserve initiative through flexibility and adaptability. The

The Counter Terrorist ~ October/November 2016 31


U.S. Military Special Operations use females soldiers for winning hearts and minds. Photo by: DVIDSHUB

Senior military leadership with tribal counterparts. Photo by: U.S. Army

32 The Counter Terrorist ~ October/November 2016

nature of these principles suggests an operational requirement for a blend of understanding, insight, creativity, and sustained will, as well as enhanced sociocultural knowledge. *** I finished my doctoral program in 2011 and headed immediately to Afghanistan as part of the controversial Human Terrain System, the U.S. Army’s program launched to improve situational socio-cultural awareness by commanders at the Brigade, Division, and Theater levels. While designed for civilian anthropologists and sociologists, the dramatic need for academic expertise forced the program to widen its academic horizon. I spent more than a year on the ground in Afghanistan in 2011 and 2012, armed more with principles and methods rather than specific knowledge. I attended the COIN academy in Kabul, accompanied patrols, talked to as many Afghans as I could, analyzed local societies, their social dynamics, aspirations, and grievances, all in an effort to help American, French, and Afghan forces better understand and partner with the local population in reducing the endemic political violence. On the ground I experienced terroristic violence firsthand with the killing of French forces by Afghan forces in “green on blue” attacks, by returning fire as part of patrols ambushed on the road, in mortar and rocket attacks, and in rioting that occurred in the wake of the mistaken burning of Korans at Baghram airfield. Following sequestration in 2012, I took up the teaching position I now hold with Hawai‘i Pacific University, offering graduate courses in military history, strategy, and counter insurgency to


U.S. Army Capt. Brandon Anderson and his interpreter invite a village Mullah, Muslim religious leader, to a key leader engagement in Omar Zai Village, Afghanistan, October 31, 2009. The objective of this meeting was to ensure town elders of U.S. Military and Afghan National Police support in the fight against the Taliban. Photo by: Staff Sgt. Christine Jones/Released veterans and mid-career professionals pursuing diplomatic, intelligence, or military careers. ***

LEGITIMACY & “POPULATION-CENTRIC” OPERATIONS The first principle is that an insurgency is a competition for political and social

legitimacy. Thus, COIN operations are “population-centric,” because the population—not the insurgent—is the center of gravity. In the end, it is the people who will determine which governing claimant will win the outcome. Both the insurgent and the existing government compete to win support or at least acquiescence using a blend of persuasion (governance, sometimes

The Counter Terrorist ~ October/November 2016 33


Sheikh Abdul Sittar speaks with Senator John McCain R-Arizona and Lieutenant. General Ray Odierno commander of Multi-National Corps—Iraq at Camp Ramadi April 2, 2007. Sheikh Sittar helped spark the Anbar Awakening Movement a widespread rejection of al Qaeda by leaders of the province. Photo by: Army Sergeant Curt Cashour

34 The Counter Terrorist ~ October/November 2016

augmented by development) and coercion (security). A long line of COIN and guerrilla war thinkers concur on this point, including Mao Tse-tung, David Galula, John Nagl, and the authors of FM 3-24 (Counterinsurgency), alongside many others.2 A useful measure of popular support is the degree to which it provides information to either side, though this is difficult to measure.3 Local perception is thus king. Information operations, managing messaging and steering perception, can be more important than killing insurgents or terrorists. Sometimes security operations have a detrimental effect on a long campaign, as with the killing of Usama bin Laden, which reduced popular support for the war.4 Importantly, it’s not legitimacy as defined by the West, but rather how legitimacy is seen by the local people. Local social groups often have different— often competing—views about what a governing authority ought or ought not to do. These beliefs are expressed in culture, which defines identity and structures interpretation about a people’s history. Failure to understand how the local cultures see the government, the insurgent/terrorist, and any supporting external partner hobble information operations as well as operational decisionmaking, resulting in unforeseen (often negative) second- and third-order effects. Some of these, like the killing of the “wrong” people or the destruction of property, make the situation worse by reducing support for the side that committed the action. The same works in reverse, which is why, in a local context, indiscriminate terrorism tends to work against the insurgent,5 as with the Sunni bombings


of Shi’a and the resulting “Anbar Awakening” in Iraq in 2007, and the much less well-known local revolt in the Andar village cluster (Eastern Afghanistan, Ghazni province) in late spring 2006, which I was present for. On the flip side, coercion has a major effect. Those who are not persuaded may be coerced, especially with threats to family and property. In this case, a kind of unwilling legitimacy is won through the threat of violence, expressed as acquiescence or resignation. This creates freedom of movement for the insurgent/ terrorist. This process has been ably discussed by Antonio Giustozzi in Koran, Kalashnikov and Laptop, and in his many other works.6 This reality underscores the need for comprehensive socio-cultural knowledge, hard won with extensive background knowledge honed by on-the-ground research. From a military perspective, such knowledge is most efficiently gained in “phase zero” operations, before largescale violence erupts. Prevention is far, far cheaper than an after-cure. But even more so during the conflict, the need to understand local perspectives—and they are most always plural and complex—is crucial. David Kilcullen wrote about this in Accidental Guerrilla: Fighting Small Wars in the Midst of a Big One, and it was the need that drove the establishment of the Human Terrain System in 2006–7.7 For the counter terrorist, it is already axiomatic that intelligence is central to the fight. But the complexity of local culture argues for a deeper definition of intelligence transcending strictly operational data. Understanding the human environments in which the terrorists are recruited, in which they train and operate, is a tall order,

one that resembles the socio-cultural knowledge necessary for effective COIN in phase zero and combat operations. Insight attempts to tease connections from incomplete data and is a blend of experience and knowledge. Personal education studying the history and culture of the region can pay surprising dividends.

TRUST & RESPECT One of the hardest lessons to operationalize is the critical importance of trust. Western democracies have an understandable reticence to suffer the loss of our sons and daughters, so force protection is a high priority for commanders in the field. Unfortunately, force protection can also isolate the security force from the population, preserving operating space for the insurgent/terrorist. Trust requires shared risk. It is hard to build, but easy to damage. Interacting with partner nation officials and their people can be extraordinarily difficult, but in COIN the practice of withdrawing to fortified posts is generally ineffective. Sweep and clear operations that retreat to fortified redoubts usually fail in the medium-term, because insurgents simply flow back into the recently cleared area: hence, the need for enduring presence in order to clear, hold, and build. Hold requires the presence of trustworthy security forces, preferably local ones. In the Philippine insurrection (18991902), American forces created hundreds of tiny, squad-sized outposts designed to connect young officers and NCOs with the local population.8 Some of these outposts suffered severe casualties, because they were hard to support with a reaction force. And unsupervised,

Personal education studying the history and culture of the region can pay surprising dividends.

The Counter Terrorist ~ October/November 2016 35


Afghan National Army privates wait for their turn to practice urban operations on a training site at Camp Hero southern Afghanistan April 9, 2012. Photo by: NATO Training Mission-Afghanistan

36 The Counter Terrorist ~ October/November 2016


some of these outposts degenerated into atrocity. But they also reduced freedom of movement for the insurgents, establishing a permanent presence amongst the population, who were then much harder to suborn or coerce. Richard Rubright has recently proposed, in The Role and Limitations of Technology in U.S. Counterinsurgency Warfare,9 that small special operations teams could be dispersed among the population using advanced technology for protection. Whether or not this idea is workable, this is the kind of operational creativity that will be required if the West is to master the demands of lightfootprint COIN. When working with local officials and people, it is exceptionally difficult to maintain respect between a partner force, their host nation counterparts, and the local population. While I was in Afghanistan, “green on blue� attacks by Afghan National Security Forces (ANSF) reached a fever pitch. This prompted increased security measures to be taken by coalition commanders that included the physical walling off of Afghan forces using huge concrete T-walls, restricting access to those forces by coalition team members, and requiring the wearing of body armor by the few personnel allowed to interact. All sensible force protection measures, to be sure, but an unintended result was reduction in trust between the Afghan and coalition forces. Many commanders were willing to accept this or were ordered to execute these measures, trading trust and relationship-building for force protection. This wedge was likely the intent of the Taliban and other insurgent forces, and it may have increased the likelihood of more attacks, given the

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The Counter Terrorist ~ October/November 2016 37


1st Lt. Luke E. Erickson, information operation officer takes a moment to hand out candy and soccer balls to kids in the outskirts of Fallujah while conducting a partol. Photo by: Cpl Brian Reimers

38 The Counter Terrorist ~ October/November 2016


The Counter Terrorist ~ October/November 2016 39


reduced trust and relationship building. Given the political reality of the need for force protection, commanders had to be creative in finding ways to reduce the impact on trust with the ANSF. During this period I spent more time with the Afghan National Army and other ANSF units, increasing my contact not just with officers but with the troops, seeking to better understand their command climate, their complaints (soldiers always have complaints!), and their attitudes towards coalition forces. By asking local citizens, police, officials, and military members about the history of the region and their family/tribes/ clans as far back as the Soviet period, I found rapport established much more quickly. By using an indirect questioning approach, they ordered the complex social variables such as ethnicity, sectarianism, or other roots of local conflict, enabling

40 The Counter Terrorist ~ October/November 2016

more targeted social science research or rapid assessment based on the depth interviews. And it seemed to built trust, because I became interested in and a part of their local story.10

FLEXIBILITY & ADAPTABILITY One of the hardest-won lessons of Afghanistan was the need for adaptability and flexibility in thinking, tactics, operations, and in strategy. With the publication of FM 3-24, the “populationcentric� approach to COIN took center stage, but the complex International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) environment fostered bureaucratic ossification, rather than flexibility or providing enduring security for the local population. This has been ably recounted by Sean M. Maloney, Fighting for Afghanistan: A Rogue Historian at War, where he details the convoluted

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GARMSIR DISTRICT, Helmand province, Afghanistan — A local martial arts master demonstrates his strength after the opening of a sports complex here, July 28, 2011. The complex has a regulation-sized soccer field and two volleyball courts. Marines of Charlie Company, 1st Battalion, 3rd Marine Regiment partnered with local Afghan National Army soldiers to provide security during the opening. Photo by: Cpl. Colby Brown organizations in the Helmand area of operations in 2006 from the Canadian perspective.11 His story illuminates the problems of coordinating and maintaining initiative in an international coalition, and he offers exemplary stories about how officers were sometimes able to overcome the inertia to have a real effect on the battlefield. It has been said that as soon as doctrine

42 The Counter Terrorist ~ October/November 2016

is written, it is out of date. Whether or not one subscribes to the notion that social media and connectivity have changed the principles of warfare, it seems clear that the tempo of operations, of change on the battlefield or even what constitutes a battlefield, is changing as fast as Moore’s Law can drive it. The cycle of challenge and response favored by modern world historians has long seemed to be at play with both insurgencies and terrorists. In this context, doctrine and “best practices” must be viewed as fluid guidance, because the only way to maintain the initiative is to encourage creativity. The opposition is and does; so too must our COIN/CT forces. Historically, our security and military forces have been quite good at training. Training is, however, applying lessons learned to known problems. And we need to continue to improve our training, absolutely, because it provides a speed advantage by encoding likely solutions to common problems within the psyche of operating forces. Creativity requires something more. All the way back to Aristotle, it has been argued that principles enable the thinking human to apply his creativity to the solution of problems not previously encountered. We can teach principles, but it is hard to train them. Instead, broader study is required, and that study is the foundation of an education. Unlike training, which prepares the student for the known, education prepares for the unknown. Education builds critical thinking, analysis, and a broad knowledge base from which unexpected connections emerge. Some of this thinking is reflected in a British military manual JDP 4, “Understanding,” where the need for education is


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The Counter Terrorist ~ October/November 2016 43


underscored as a national resource. In Afghanistan I was able to leverage studies I’d done in economics, in business, and in a broad array of other subjects—even including medieval warfare and society—to provide operationally relevant insight to my units. There is much to be said for integrating interested and mission-focused academics into the fight, and there is much to be said for encouraging our young operators to seek broader educations founded in the liberal arts, which teach these skills. Today operators and analysts are so pressed by the mission tempo that they find little time for self-directed education. Reading rates are down across the board. Unfortunately, this cedes the initiative to the insurgent or terrorist by reducing our insight, our understanding, and our ability to apply creativity to the rapidly evolving and expanding zone of conflict. Not only do we need operators and analysts who are more broadly trained in liberal arts disciplines, but they must be willing and able to self-educate, to undertake self-directed research on their own. And/or, we should forge stronger connections between academia and the security community so that insights can be shared. Our opponents are thinking, adapting, and demonstrating flexibility of approach. In order to maintain the initiative, we must do the same.

CONCLUSION It is likely impossible to formulate a theory of insurgency or terrorism that is universally applicable. But the three principles I’ve offered here have broad concurrence within the COIN community, and I believe they apply also to CT operations. Whether or not one subscribes to

the population-centric approach of counter insurgency, in the end it is the population who will determine who wins, either through persuasion or coercion. In working with the population and partner forces, the impulse towards force protection must be balanced against the value of trust and mutual respect. And finally, adaptability and flexibility are cornerstone values that we must encourage with more flexible training, doctrine, and education.

ABOUT THE AUTHOR Dr. Brian R. Price teaches military history, strategy, and counter insurgency within Hawai‘i Pacific University’s interdisciplinary Diplomacy & Military Studies Program (www.hpu.edu), sits on the board of two Hawai‘i area museums, and maintains his long-standing interest in historical fighting techniques by teaching medieval swordsmanship. He may be reached at bprice@hpu.edu or scrimatore@gmail.com

ENDNOTES Carl von Clausewitz, On War, trans. Michael Howard and Peter Paret, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1984. 2 Mao Tse Tung, Yu Chi Chan (1937), trans. as Guerrilla Warfare by Samuel B. Griffith Mineola, NY: Dover, 2005; David Galula, Counterinsurgency Warfare: Theory and Practice, NY: Praeger, 1964; John Nagl, Eating Soup with a Knife, TBD, 2005. A counter-view is expressed by Gian Gentile, Wrong Turn: America’s deadly embrace of counterinsurgency, NY: The New Press, 2013, while a more balanced critique may be found in Dan G. Cox and Thomas Bruscino, eds., “Population-Centric Insurgency: A False 1

44 The Counter Terrorist ~ October/November 2016

Idol?” Fort Leavenworth, KS: Combat Studies Institute Press, 2009. This is not to argue that there is no place for kinetic operations; rather, I concur with Cox and Bruscino that COIN operations should balance military and civic lines of effort based on the realities specific to local conditions. 3 Ben Connable and Martin C. Libicki, “How Insurgencies End,” Los Angeles: RAND, 2010. 4 John Nagl, Knife Fights: A Memoir of Modern War in Theory and Practice, NY: Penguin, 2014, 207. 5 Connable and Libicki, op. cit., xvii. 6 Antonio Giustozzi, Koran, Kalashnikov and Laptop: The Neo-Taliban Insurgency in Afghanistan, New York: Columbia University Press, 2008 and The Art of Coercion: The Primitive Accumulation and Management of Coercive Power. New York: Columbia University Press, 2011. 7 David Kilcullen, Accidental Guerrilla: Fighting Small Wars in the Midst of a Big One, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009. 8 Brian McAllister Linn, The Philippine War 1899-1902, Lawrence, KS: University Press at Kansas, 2000 and The U.S. Army and Counterinsurgency in the Philippines, 1899-1902, Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1989. 9 Richard W. Rubright, The Role and Limitations of Technology in U.S. Counterinsurgency Warfare, Washington, D.C.: Potomac Books, 2015. 10 Brian R. Price, “The Resonating Influence of Soviet-Era Mujahidin in Eastern Afghanistan,” in publication. 11 Sean M. Maloney, Fighting for Afghanistan: A Rogue Historian at War, Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 2011.


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BOOK REVIEW

Ghost Warriors by Samuel Katz

T

his book was awesome. It primarily featured Yamas as the go-to counter terror (CT) direct action (DA) unit of the IDF, so I have to say I felt a little slighted there, but it did give credence to Duvdevan and a few other units named. A friend of mine from my unit first turned me on to the book after finding it on Amazon. At first I was skeptical, having served in the IDF in one of these units. After performing in these capacities, my reference point was a little different than the average reader of this book. I honestly thought this was going to be another political science 10,000 foot view of the IDF counter terror policy and targeted assassinations. I was wrong. This book was an extremely detailed account of ground level gunfights we participated in over the last 25 years. This book was motivating and inspiring. The IDF is a tight-knit organization and people know each other. There are living legends and characters that make names for themselves in the field and then go on to be great leaders of generations of warriors to come. That is how you are judged in the IDF, by your work in the field, like Sparta. I was amazed at how the author got access to information that was at one point coveted as top secret tradecraft and had in-depth accounts of missions. He clearly had personal knowledge and friendships within the IDF and police. Some of his accounts were so detailed

Reviewed by Jacob Ingram

I was able to draw from my experience and picture the events taking place as if I was there. Some of the mission profiles he describes in the book took place during my tenure and I knew of the mission even though it was our sister unit Yamas and not us (like the Itamar attack). Katz does a great job of telling the story of the three Yamas units in their geographic locations, founding, and mission sets. Duvdevan, Yamas, and Yamam are the three units spoken about in the book, but only Yamas is given a detailed account of characters and missions. While these units are very similar, there are some differences worth noting. Most obviously, Duvdevan is part of the IDF while the other two are part of the police (although the IDF and police can operate in some cases interchangeably). The Yamam is the national hostage rescue unit of Israel and is comprised of a small group of men who are drafted specifically to that unit after service in a unit like Yamas or Duvdevan or other front line combat. The Yamam is indisputably the most selective unit in Israel, has the hardest selection, and holds its members to the highest standards. Yamas is a unit to which one can get selected and serve in their first three years of service. There are three Yamas branches covering different geographies of Israel. This makes for mastery of operational areas. Yamas has a limited mission set of counter terror and direct action almost exclusively, while Duvdevan can perform

46 The Counter Terrorist ~ October/November 2016

a wider variety of missions and has a much more generous budget than the two police units. Training in the three units is very similar, so there are some missions in which each unit could perform almost equally and some in which one unit will have an advantage, like hostage rescue, for example, or undercover work in Gaza. The book details much of this and made me appreciate the operational tempo of the Yamas when compared to other units internationally and the experience that can be gained in such a short period of service. What most don’t know is that one’s military service experience in the IDF is highly dependent on the political climate. Up until 2008 these units along with many others not mentioned in the book gained a lot of operational experience with back-to-back missions and constant objectives. Since that period there has been a period of calm in which a mission only the Yamam would get today, every Palsar was participating in 6 years ago. When the next wave of violence comes, the new generation will have plenty of work to do. I highly recommend this book to anyone thinking of joining the IDF or anyone wanting to understand the type of warrior the IDF produces. This book did a great job of demystifying some aspects of IDF CT/DA units. Gunfighters on the highest level.

•


The Counter Terrorist ~ October/November 2016 47


HARDEN SCHOOLS AND OTHER SOFT TARGETS IN THEIR AOR, PART 2 THE THREAT FROM WITHIN

48 The Counter Terrorist ~ October/November 2016


by Amery Bernhardt

The tragedy that occurred in San Bernardino, California has left many people feeling vulnerable and brings up the concern about our ability to predict this type of attack.

T

he killers murdered 14 people and wounded 21 others. Many of the victims were colleagues of one of the killers (“San Bernardino Shooting� 2015). The calculated horror that an inside threat poses can seem overwhelming. Whether the violence comes from a terrorist, a disgruntled employee, a bullied student, or a mentally ill individual, there are usually predictive signs. The importance of recognizing these signs and having an adequate system for reporting them is paramount. Law enforcement is tasked

with responding to violence, but just as important is preventing it. We as law enforcement have an obligation to keep our communities safe, and this includes providing recommendations for preventing violence. Many of the recommendations provided throughout this article focus on schools, but they can be easily applied to any place of business or potential soft target in your community. There is literature that focuses on predicting school violence by using an integrated systems approach (New York

State Education Department 2013). Many behaviors are indicative of violent behavior, and it is important that faculty and students are cognizant of them and report them (Vossekuil, et al. 2002). Once these behaviors are observed, it is extremely important that they are addressed. There are recommendations from federal agencies and educational institutions for forming a multiagency assessment team to ensure an appropriate response to these behaviors occurs (New York State Education Department 2013).

The Counter Terrorist ~ October/November 2016 49


I have divided addressing predictions of future violence into four main components. The first component is communication. Communication is like the oil between gears in a machine. Without lubrication, the machine will come to a screeching halt. The second component is the range of behaviors to watch. Direction must be given for which behaviors the faculty should be looking. The third is a central repository for information. If you have all of the pieces of a puzzle, but never put them together, then you will never see the big picture. The fourth and final component is addressing the behaviors. This involves bringing in the appropriate professionals to ensure that a sufficient response is provided.

COMMUNICATION The system to ensure that information flows freely regarding potential school threats must be based on superior communication. The cooperation and coordination among teachers, guidance counselors, mental health, medical staff, administrators, and law enforcement must be seamless (New York State Education Department 2013). One easy way to address communication concerns is through regular meetings. There should be formal regular meetings as well as more frequent informal meetings. Sharing information with law enforcement should be a smooth and comfortable process (U.S. Department of Education 2013). In past experience, I know of instances where teachers withheld information for fear that the police would make an unnecessary bigger deal out of the issue. The fear of the police overstepping their authority is a serious concern and it is crucial that law enforcement address it with the utmost care. There can also exist the fear of violating the Family Educational Rights

50 The Counter Terrorist ~ October/November 2016

and Privacy Act (FERPA) by sharing too much information with law enforcement. Without open communication, this system will come to a grinding halt. There are times when misunderstandings of privacy rules such as the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) may result in a failure to share pertinent information with law enforcement. Law enforcement should address the fact that there exists the law enforcement exception due to health and safety for FERPA and HIPAA when an individual is a danger to himself or others (U.S. Department of Education 2013).

BEHAVIORS TO WATCH The Safe School Initiative Final Report revealed that most attacks at schools are not impulsive acts, but instead follow a progressive pattern. This pattern starts with an idea, then moves to the development of a plan. Then the individual secures the weapons, and finally the attacker implements the plan (Vossekuil, et al. 2002). Research has shown that there are similarities among school attackers, which should provide additional direction on the factors for which the faculty should be looking. One characteristic is access to a weapon. Another is some sort of grievance, whether it is real or just a perceived sense of injustice. Also, these mass murderers often detach themselves socially from others. It could be described that they “dropped out of life.” Finally, there is an obsession with media violence and persistent themes of violence (Drysdale, et al. 2010). This last characteristic is a major concern. As these children immerse themselves in violent and “sick” movies, combined with similar video games, they program themselves for more violence. Not only are they desensitized to violence, but they can actually program their brains to see violence as a means


The Counter Terrorist ~ October/November 2016 51


There are growing numbers of students in schools who view their hatred and violence towards others as an acceptable venue for their perceived grievance.

to a reward, such as a high score in the video game (D. Grossman, personal communication, October 13th, 2015). Another fear is the radicalization of students by violent extremist ideology. There are growing numbers of students in schools who view their hatred and violence towards others as an acceptable venue for their perceived grievance. This violence may be motivated by

52 The Counter Terrorist ~ October/November 2016

international terrorism, domestic violent extremism, or hate crimes (Office of Partner Engagement 2016). Students who identify themselves with these groups pose a significant safety risk that needs to be adequately addressed. The mandatory reporting of any threat should be a requirement (Guidelines for Preventing Workplace Violence 2015). There may be times when certain occurrences might not look important when seen individually, but when taken cumulatively with other behaviors, might raise concerns. This is very similar to putting together the pieces of a puzzle. If one piece of information was reported to teacher A while another piece was reported to teacher B, then without


good information sharing, these might appear to be insignificant and isolated events. But if they were put together, then a bigger picture would be seen. It is important that law enforcement stress the fact that it is better to have too much information than not enough when it comes to preventing violence.

CENTRAL REPOSITORY In order for these indicators to be adequately compiled and recognized, there needs to be one main coordinator. All of the information must come together at a central point (New York State Education Department 2013). The information should be shared between multiple individuals, but someone should be designated to maintain the files. The notification process must also be clearly defined and known to all of the faculty and staff in the school. An example would be in the case where information about a student’s violent interests is brought to a teacher’s attention. That teacher notifies the school psychologist, who in this example can be the coordinator who maintains the files. The psychologist shares this information with the school resource officer and an administrator. It is crucial that all instances are always shared with this team of individuals. In another instance, a teacher may notify a school resource officer about a social media threat of violence from a student. The school resource officer would notify the school psychologist and the administrator so that the issue could be addressed. The school psychologist may maintain the file, but the information must be shared among the members of the team. The example above is just one example of how monitoring reported behavior may be done. While all of the information comes together to a central point, the work of analyzing and scrutinizing incidents will be done through a team. There exist

many instances where it is not practical to have a law enforcement officer present at these meetings. In these instances, a law enforcement liaison should be identified so that relevant information is relayed (Guidelines for Preventing Workplace Violence 2015).

ADDRESSING THE BEHAVIORS The fourth and final component of this system involves bringing in the appropriate professionals so an effective response can be determined and applied. This is the team, as mentioned above, that vets all of the information. It should consist of multiple disciplines and would be considered a threat assessment team (New York State Education Department 2013). As stated above, this team could consist of a school resource officer, a school psychologist, and an administrator. This team should be vetting all potential behavioral indicators. As different indicators are brought to the team, it should be recognized that there are instances where some perceived threats may be false positives. This could lead to overreaction and the inefficient use of resources. This may also lead to unnecessary disruption of the educational environment (Stone and Spencer 2010). The multiple discipline consistency should help to mitigate false positives. Quite often, as seen in the example above, the professionals are already there. Ideally, the law enforcement officer, the school psychologist, and the administrator may be working hand in hand throughout the process. Their training and experience will help them avoid false positives and differentiate the information that comes in so that the appropriate level of investigation is applied to the circumstance at hand. When circumstances make it impractical to have law enforcement, or mental

The Counter Terrorist ~ October/November 2016 53


Our profession places us on the front lines of mitigating violence and the potential threats of violence.

health professionals physically present, then liaisons should be identified and the information needs to be shared (Guidelines for Preventing Workplace Violence 2015). The goal of these professionals is to intervene with the appropriate response to interrupt and hopefully reverse the future violent attacks from occurring (Morrison and Skiba 2001). The role that law enforcement plays in vetting this information is significant. Our profession places us on the front lines of mitigating violence and the potential threats of violence. The community looks to us as the experts in handling and preventing violence. An effective preventative system can be established by incorporating the concepts of communication, behavior identification and reporting, central repository, and addressing the behaviors. Keeping ourselves infused in the system is instrumental to helping to prevent future attacks.

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

Amery Bernhardt is a Sergeant with the Westchester County Department of Public Safety in New York. He has 15 years law enforcement experience. He is currently assigned to Patrol Operations, and his responsibilities include coordinating the department’s School Resource Officer program. Sergeant Bernhardt is certified as an instructor for law enforcement and civilian active shooter response through the Advanced Law Enforcement Rapid Response Training program. He has conducted training and numerous exercises with schools and law enforcement agencies throughout Westchester County.

REFERENCES Drysdale, D. A., W. Modzeleski, and A. B. Simons. 2010. Campus Attacks:

54 The Counter Terrorist ~ October/November 2016

Targeted Violence Affecting Institutions of Higher Education. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office. “Guidelines for Preventing Workplace Violence for Healthcare and Social Service Workers.” OSHA.gov. Last modified 2015. https://www.osha.gov/ Publications/osha3148.pdf. Morrison, G. M. and R. Skiba. “Predicting Violence From School Misbehavior: Promises and Perils.” Psychology in the Schools 38, no. 2 (2001): 173. http://www15.uta.fi/arkisto/aktk/ projects/sta/Morrison_Skiba_2001_ Predicting-Violence-from-SchoolMisbehavior-Promises-and-Perils.pdf. New York State Education Department. 2013. New York State School Safety Guide (Revised 2013). New York: New York State Education Department, New York State Police, New York State Office of Homeland Security, New York State Division of Criminal Justice Services and New York State Office of Emergency Management. Office of Partner Engagement: Federal Bureau of Investigation. 2016. Preventing Violent Extremism in Schools. https://info.publicintelligence.net/FBIPreventingExtremismSchools.pdf. “San Bernardino Shooting.” The New York Times. Last modified December 8th, 2015. http://www.nytimes.com/live/sanbernardino-shooting/. U.S. Department of Education. 2013. Guide for Developing High-Quality School Emergency Operations Plans. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office. Vossekuil, B., R. A. Fein, M. Reddy, R. Borum & W. Modzeleski. 2002. The Final Report and Findings of the Safe School Initiative: Implications for the Prevention of School Attacks in the United States. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.


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PROTECTIVE SURVEILLANCE 56 The Counter Terrorist ~ October/November 2016


by Orlando Wilson

Protective Surveillance (PS) is a subject that is not taught in a lot of close protection/bodyguard schools. PS, in simple terms, provides the client with covert and undercover protection.

F

or example, we can use PS if the client does not wish others to know that he is under protection or to protect others without unduly alerting and alarming them to a possible threat. Many supposed professionals in the close protection business don’t understand that high profile or low profile visible protection can have negative effects for the client. In the 90s in Eastern Europe after the collapse of the Soviet Union, bodyguards would

be targeted by criminals providing security services who wanted to take the bodyguard’s clients; if the client had just had his protector beaten up in front of him, it was in his immediate interest to hire those than had done the beating, right? Visible security personnel can also alert criminals that the client is of some importance, has goods worth stealing, or would be worth kidnapping. As to those reading this thinking the close protection world is all about being a tough guy, I

will tell you you’re very wrong. It’s about being alert, crafty, and cautious. Also, think about it from a business point of view. If you were going do business with someone and when you went to meet them they had a bodyguard or two, what would you think? Personally, I would be thinking about why they needed security, what problems they have, and whether those problems going to affect my business dealings with them and possibly put

The Counter Terrorist ~ October/November 2016 57


Unmarked Protective Surveillance Vehicle in North America. Photo by: Tony Webster me under threat. Or do they have the security because they don’t trust or want to intimidate me? These things need to be taken into consideration when

58 The Counter Terrorist ~ October/November 2016

initially putting together options for a client’s security program. There have been times in areas of high organized crime when we have


supplied PS personnel who were completely disconnected from the clients, providing the clients with a high level of protection but completely untraceable. Communications between the PS team and the clients (for itinerary changes, etc.) went through a third-party phone outside of the area of operations. The clients knew the PS team was there, as we informed them daily of details of their activities for reassurance. For those who the clients were meeting and doing business with, there were no signs they were not trusted. Even if they monitored the client’s communications, nothing would show they had a security team with them. We have provided protection to numerous clients in sensitive professions without their business associates knowing there were any protection personnel present. One way to do this is to use visual/audio surveillance to monitor the client and place the protection team in an adjoining room or in a close-by vehicle. There are many situations where a client cannot have or does not want a bodyguard within arm’s reach. This is the real world, where the Hollywood techniques do not work and resources of the Secret Service do not exist. When PS is used in conjunction with regular close protection/bodyguard details, it provides an extra cordon of security. If your client is staying in a hotel or a residence, you could put the building under PS. The PS team would covertly watch the hotel/residence for anyone who is acting suspiciously or watching the hotel. In nearly all assassinations and attacks, the attackers have had their victim under surveillance at some point. It would be the job of the PS to detect any surveillance that would be placed on the client. They would also be dominating any potential surveillance locations by occupying or observing them.

All personnel used for the PS team would have to be surveillance/counter surveillance trained in addition to being close protection trained. The PS team should be thought of as your early warning system. If it is identified that your client is under surveillance, you must up the level of security procedures immediately. This could mean using extra security personnel or getting out of the country that you are in. In addition to upping the client’s security, you must take action in identifying the people who have your client under surveillance. The PS can undertake this by putting the opposition’s surveillance under surveillance. All PS must be performed covertly. The team must blend in with their environment and not look like BGs. The team members must regularly carry out their counter surveillance drills: if the PS members are identified by terrorist/ criminal surveillance, they will be the first to be killed in the event of an attack on the client. All security team members need to understand that in the event of an attack on the client by semi-professional attackers, they would be the first to be targeted. The terrorists/ criminals will want to remove the threats to them before they kill or kidnap your client. Also, the threat does not end when your shift ends: organized criminals actively target security personnel and their families. Would you actively protect a client if you knew that if you prevented an attack your family would be killed? As the narcos say, you can take their silver or their lead! The PS team should regularly make use of stills, cameras, and video to survey the people and vehicles that are seen close to the client and in potential surveillance locations. The PS team should study the pictures for any people or vehicles that regularly appear. These people and vehicles could have gone undetected

In nearly all assassinations and attacks, the attackers have had their victim under surveillance at some point.

The Counter Terrorist ~ October/November 2016 59


while the PS team was on the ground. For example, if the client went to a restaurant, the PS team would video everyone entering and leaving the restaurant while the client was there and just after the client left. They would do the same at the client’s next location, the next day, etc. If they spot the same people or vehicles at venues while reviewing the videos, it’s possible the client is under surveillance. The whole security team would then be made aware of these potential threats and if spotted again they could be put under surveillance by the PS team members. For the application of protective surveillance by security forces, covert soft target protection tasking was common in Northern Ireland for the British security forces during The Troubles. British security force teams would set up covert Observation Posts (OP) on the houses of off-duty military and police personnel living in rural areas or under specific threats. The OP teams tasking were to log and report any activity around the houses, such as who visited, what cars drove past, etc. If the same car was spotted driving past the house more times than normal, then the owner and occupants would need to be identified. Also, there were cases where British security forces teams ambushed and killed Irish terrorists while on covert soft target protection tasking.

Protective surveillance should be employed where resources and manpower are available; on high-risk protection details it is essential. Protective surveillance provides you with an early warning of potential threats and if necessary a surprise counter to any attacks upon your team or client.

ABOUT THE AUTHOR Since leaving the British army in 1993, Mr. Wilson has worked in South and West Africa, Western and Eastern Europe, U.S., Middle East, Latin America and Caribbean and co-ordinate projects in many other countries. His experience has ranged from providing close protection / bodyguard services for Middle Eastern Royal families and varied corporate clients, kidnap and ransom services, corporate intelligence, para-military training for private individuals and tactical police units and government agencies. Contact info: Risks Incorporated International Defense Strategies LLC E-mail: contact@risks-incorporated.com Risks Incorporated: www.risksincorporated.com Orlando’s Blog: www.cornishprivateer.com Risks Inc. on Facebook: www.facebook. com/risksinc

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HOW TO USE A SHOT TIMER

A highly aggressive stance and locking 360° around the rifle will make for faster followup shots and control. 62 The Counter Terrorist ~ October/November 2016


by Garret Machine

Since I was a twelve-year-old, I’ve loved shooting. It all started at summer camp in Maine. I was on the rifle range every day I could be.

W

e shot .22 cal bolt action rifles at 25 meter bulls eye targets. Five rounds for score over and over again. I could never beat a 48. Later back home, I purchased several BB guns from Kmart. I had CO2-operated pistols I would carry with me in a backpack and a very powerful pump action pistol. In those days, people saw me playing with the BB gun right in front of my house or in the forest 400 meters from where I lived and no one seemed to look twice, and I was entertained for hours at a time. A few years later, in military

school, we again used rifles as part of ROTC and learned how to break them down, maintain them, and of course basic marksmanship. The school actually had a shooting range on property. After military school, it would be years before I would touch a firearm again. During my time in the military, I was reintroduced to firearms and a mentality that taught us that we were the weapons and the rifle was simply a tool we used, a modern day sword, if you will. The rifle became an extension of our bodies and we even had to take

them into the shower with us in basic training and sleep with them under our pillows. That was the standard. The pistol was the modern-day dagger and our plate carrier the modern-day shield. I had a newfound understanding, and my personal gun culture changed. We trained a lot in those days, one year and four months before we were mission ready and an operational team. I was first introduced to a shot timer in the counter terror school. Once we had marksmanship, manipulation, and mindset down to a motor memory,

The Counter Terrorist ~ October/November 2016 63


We shot and became experts to the point that missing a target was a fluke and 100% accuracy was the standard achieved by all.

Firing slightly faster then you can hit 100% accuracy and then dialing it down will keep you on the edge of your ability, only then can you improve. the “beeping” started. We were timed primarily on weapon manipulation and shot breaks, all critical things. We wrote the times down for record and they went into a log for our scores in the course and in our unit. There were standards we were expected to meet on paper. Most had met the standards months earlier but were only now tested. It’s a drastically different

64 The Counter Terrorist ~ October/November 2016

way of training and testing men for high liability skill sets. Too often, professionals shoot just to qualify. We shot and became experts to the point that missing a target was a fluke and 100% accuracy was the standard achieved by all. That’s what happens after tens of thousands of rounds and days of dry practice. You become programmed, and it’s a good feeling.


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Drawing from concealment with a single round placed in a head target was timetable one. The head was moving slightly (oscillating), the weapon was concealed, and it was hit or miss. This must be timed because it is directly related to efficiency of movement, element of surprise and is almost always done after a physical stressor such as a sprint up a flight of stairs, a rope climb, or Krav Maga. That element is critical. Five round rhythm sets on a 8.5 by 11 paper at 7–12 meters is another thing worth timing with a pistol and at 15–20 meters with a rifle. Holding shot breaks at an even cadence will secure fast and consistent follow up shots, enabling you to aim once and get multiple hits on target. Aiming with the body and confirming with the eyes. With a stock weapon and after stress you want to achieve .22–.33 breaks with 100% accuracy. Magazine changes from an exposed magazine holster should also be drilled

with a timer. Retrieving the magazine from concealment is not necessary for timing in general unless mission specific. You’re timing the manipulation. Finally, all of the above should be done with both rifle and pistol, including transition drills shot-to-shot. Some reasonable expectations: Rifle contact times should always be quicker than pistol. Rifle magazine change times should be faster than your transition times when using a solevet or double magazine. Transition times should be quicker than correcting a rifle malfunction. Magazine change times with the pistol and rifle should be very close in time (< 3 seconds). Shot breaks with your rifle should be faster than with your pistol by an average of .05 seconds. If you’re just beginning with the timer, you will find out where you lack efficiency and where you spend most

of your time. This will almost always be weapon manipulation, which can be greatly improved with dry practice (see the article on OMAD). In the end, shooting to a high standard of speed and accuracy must be done in realistic conditions for it to be beneficial. That means duty weapons and gear fit for battle. Probably the most important and overlooked element will be the addition of physical stress immediately prior to timed drills. There is no such thing as combat without stress.

ABOUT THE AUTHOR Machine instructs firearms across the US on a weekly basis and has instructed, credentialed, qualified and trained thousands of professionals and civilians in high risk tactics.

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The Counter Terrorist ~ October/November 2016 67


Innovative Products A HIGHER STANDARD IN EDUCATION American Military University (AMU) provides quality higher education to the nation's national security, intelligence, and military communities. We understand where you’ve been, what you’ve done, and what you’d like your team to achieve. We offer career-relevant and affordable online programs that help equip students for roles within the intelligence field. With more than 190 degree and certificate programs—including Intelligence Studies, Homeland Security, and International Relations—our degrees prepare students for service and leadership in a diverse and global society. AMU’s faculty combines relevant theory with real-world experience. They’ve earned degrees from many of the top institutions around the world, and many are leaders in government, business, and nonprofit organizations, including the United Nations, U.S. Department of State, Department of Defense, Department of Homeland Security, Central Intelligence Agency, National Security Agency, Federal Emergency Management Agency, and more. Take the next step, and learn from the leader. PublicSafetyAtAMU.com

68 The Counter Terrorist ~ October/November 2016

PELICAN Combining the latest lighting technology along with an array of features while maintaining a compact (6.19" L) design make the Pelican™ 7600 LED one of the best law enforcement flashlights available. 900 lumens coupled with a USB rechargeable lithium ion battery are just the beginning. It includes a high performance white LED along with a red and green LED. These additional colors provide values such as night vision preservation, used for traffic control when partnered with a slip-on wand accessory and excellent for military maneuvers. The 7600 provides high, strobe, medium and low modes and is programmable. • Full-Time Battery Level Indicator • Beam Distance: 225 meters • 3 hr 15 min on high and 29 hr runtime on low • Waterproof and submersible—IPX8 rated • USB Lithium ion Rechargeable • Unconditional Lifetime Guarantee of Excellence 888-222-2762 • www.pelicandealer.com PelicanDealer.com 613 W. Palmer Street Saint Marys, KS 66536


COBRA CUFFS Cobra Cuffs, a patented, disposable restraint system allow officers to quickly subdue suspects. The Cobra Cuffs are compact, foldable and easy to store on a MOLLE system or tactical vest. The cuffs allow the officer to quickly restrain a suspect without undue manipulation while the riveted straps provide extra leverage to control suspects. With the unique combination of plastic and rubber combines the Cobra Cuff has a shelf life over seven years in all extreme weather conditions. The Cobra Cuff will not become brittle nor will it dry rot while be stored anywhere. A double-lock reduces liability due to any accidental over-tightening common with standard zip ties. The tactical, pick-proof double cuff comes in a variety of colors for color coding suspects during large arrest or detainment situations. Cobra Cuffs also offers reusable Blue Trainer Cobra Cuffs for product familiarization by officers without loss of product during training. • Virtually Unbreakable • Pick / Shim Proof • Only True Double Locking Disposable Restraint • Prevents Accidental Over tightening (reducing officer liability) • Patented (US Pat #’s 7,882,599 and 8,539,798) • Only Rubber Based Polymer Construction • Foldable and compact, without loosing strength from folding • Weatherable in both cold and hot climates retaining strength in extreme conditions and even after years of storage *7 year shelf life* cobracuffs.net

SMARTWATERCSI Innovative risk managers and loss prevention professionals with retail operations and private enterprises turn to SmartWaterCSI (www.SmartWaterCSI.com) to deter costly on-site thefts. This affordable multi-sector deterrence system significantly reduces theft that threatens the financial health of businesses worldwide. Valuable items (i.e. jewelry, computers, copper cables) are marked with this patented 21st Century hi-tech asset protection system employing a clear, traceable forensic liquid. A UV black light fluoresces to identify the markings on items, linking property to the owner. Retail stores, construction companies, car dealerships, among those reporting significant decreases in thefts, resulting in greater profits and lower insurance premiums. Property signage provides added level of protection/deterrence. www.SmartWaterCSI.com

The Counter Terrorist ~ October/November 2016 69


Counter

ADVERTISER INDEX

The

OCTOBER/NOVEMBER 2016

VOLUME 9 • NUMBER 5

Journal for Law Enforcement, Intelligence & Special Operations Professionals To request detailed product information, visit our website http://thecounterterroristmag.com/readerservicecard.php or scan this code. Select the appropriate Reader Service Number (RSN) on the web-form and submit your contact information. Individual advertiser’s websites are also provided below for your convenience.”

Page

Ad/Company • website and/or email......................................................................................................................................................................... RSN Number

41

11th Annual Homeland Security Professionals Conference • www.terrorconference.com..............................................................................41

63

2016 K9 Vendor Show • www.k9magazine.com................................................................................................................................................... 63

40

2017 Police K9 Conference • www.policek9magazine.com.................................................................................................................................. 40

21

American Public University • www.amuonline.com/counter-terrorist................................................................................................................... 21

71

Asia Pacific CTMAG • sales@thecounterterroristmag.com........................................................................................................................................ 71

2

Barrett Firearms Manufacturing • www.barrett.net...............................................................................................................................................2

20

Cole Engineering Services, Inc.bob. • walker@cesicorp.com.............................................................................................................................. 20

19

DeSantis Holster & Leathergoods • www.desantisholster.com............................................................................................................................. 19

3

Fairleigh Dickinson University • www.fdu.edu/mas...............................................................................................................................................3

37

High Com Security • www.HighComSecurity.com...................................................................................................................................................37

45

HSN • www.HomelandSecurityNET.com................................................................................................................................................................... 45

59

MACTAC • www.homelandsecurityssi.com.................................................................................................................................................................59

65

NTOA • www.ntoaacademy.org................................................................................................................................................................................ 65

7

Patriot3 • www.patriot3.com......................................................................................................................................................................................7

76

Phantom Products Inc. • www.PhantomLights.com.................................................................................................................................................76

26

Resco Instruments • www.RescoInstruments.com.....................................................................................................................................................26

27

Rhyno Windshield Cutter • www.Rhyno.com.........................................................................................................................................................27

28

Southern Police Equipment • www.SouthernPoliceEquipment.com........................................................................................................................28

20

Special Operations Summit Coronado • www.SpecialOperationsWest.com...................................................................................................... 20

43

SSI Armored Vehicles • www.homelandsecurityssi.com......................................................................................................................................... 43

29

SSI Elevated Tactics • www.homelandsecurityssi.com..............................................................................................................................................29

69

SSI Israel • www.homelandsecurityssi.com............................................................................................................................................................... 69

75

SSI PVBs • www.SSIPVB.com.....................................................................................................................................................................................75

4

Surveilance One • www.survone.com........................................................................................................................................................................4

58

TCP—Security Solutions • www.TCP-SS.com......................................................................................................................................................... 58

64

The Counter Terrorist • advertisersbradman@homelandsecurityssi.com..................................................................................................................64

20

Unmanned Maritime Systems • www.UnmannedMaritimeSystems.com.............................................................................................................. 20

70 The Counter Terrorist ~ October/November 2016


Counter The

Asia Pacific Edition The Counter Terrorist Magazine Asia Pacific Edition is finally available for the Asia Pacific region counter-terrorism and homeland security practitioners. The Asia Pacific Edition not only gives the readers a worldwide counterterrorism perspective but also in-depth information about counter terrorism activities in Asia. The Asia Pacific Edition provides an excellent platform for counter-terrorism and homeland solutions providers to access and penetrate the Asia Pacific market.

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The Counter Terrorist ~ October/November 2016 71


TRAINING REVIEW

NIMS (National Incident Management System)

by Editorial Staff

F

EMA offers free training through your state’s emergency management office. Anyone from the first responder community can take one of these courses for credit with FEMA, and some are necessary for development and carrier advancement in your place of employment. Even the U.S. military requires some of these courses for its members, and in some cases will provide the training in house. Some of the more familiar courses most have taken are ICS 100, 200, 700, and 800. All of these courses can be taken online in a few hours and have tests at the end. After completing the course, you are given a PDF certificate for your place of employment and personal records. Beyond these general classes are more specific training blocks offered through instructor-lead traditional classroom presentations. Some of the classes I have taken in the past include: ICS 300, which is the intermediate incident command system framework. ICS 400, which is an advanced class for more complex incidents. AWR 218 Site Protection Through Observational Techniques, which is a crash course in security assessments. You can also earn certifications for completing a series of courses, such as the Professional Development Series, Advanced Professional, HAZMAT Credentialing and Instructor Development. Some of the above are necessary if you would like to lead and teach FEMA courses.

Understanding the framework and all of its intricacies requires a lot of study and immersion into the system.

I would say that anyone wanting to understand how the national response framework truly operates and to assume a leadership position with that system (in a time of crisis) should take these classes very seriously. Most students tend to go through the motions and don’t really take the training seriously, simply because they are mandated to go. They also feel like the chance of them personally assuming a leadership position is not realistic for them. Understanding the framework and all of its intricacies requires a lot of study and immersion into the system. It has a lot of moving parts and there are several points of contact when managing such incidents. This work can be extremely rewarding when you do actually get deployed to an incident such as a natural or manmade disaster. Some of the courses are sponsored by universities such as LSU and New Mexico Tech, and some are hosted by police and fire rescue stations. Your instructor for the particular course could be a full time instructor or a local person in an Emergency Management

72 The Counter Terrorist ~ October/November 2016

position. Either way, it will be the experience of the instructor in actual disaster management operations that will come across and make or break the class. These are very PowerPoint heavy and require self-discipline to stay focused without group interactions. I would highly recommend the New Mexico Tech IRTB (Incident Response to Terrorist Bombings) course for anyone eligible to attend, as it is also free from FEMA/DHS for our community.


The Counter Terrorist ~ October/November 2016 73


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Profile for The Counter Terrorist Asia Pacific Edition

The Counter Terrorist Magazine Asia Pacific issue October -November 2016  

The Counter Terrorist Magazine Asia Pacific issue October -November 2016 . The Counter Terrorist Magazine Asia Pacific Issue Premier inform...

The Counter Terrorist Magazine Asia Pacific issue October -November 2016  

The Counter Terrorist Magazine Asia Pacific issue October -November 2016 . The Counter Terrorist Magazine Asia Pacific Issue Premier inform...

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