Sea Views Magazine #1: A Marine Management Organisation Publication

Page 1

SEA VIEWS Vol. 1. Autumn 2021 A Marine Management Organisation Publication

A quiet revolution Marine Plans - the essential tool for decision makers

Plus: Home shores

Engaging with local communities

Seaspiracy

Why is everyone talking about it?

Keeping the lights on Are new targets for offshore power generation achievable?


Contents 5

Marine planning a quiet revolution Marine Plans are now the essential tool for all development of our seas, revolutionising how we protect and restore precious ecosystems now and for the benefit of future generations.

10 Can fishing be truly sustainable? ‘Seaspiracy’ got everyone talking about fishing – but perhaps the real debate is about how the data helps us manage sustainable fishing.

14 Home Shores: North Shields expo The MMO’s area of responsibility spans the entire length of England’s coastlines. In the first in a series of features, we take a closer look how we engage with local communities around the country, homing in first on the North East of England.

16 Keeping the lights on Are the new targets for offshore power generation achievable? We talk to the people in the know.

Photo Credit @Istock



Welcome.... to the first issue of Sea Views, a brand new magazine for Marine Management Organisation stakeholders, customers, partners and all English communities with an interest in the future of our seas. Last year MMO set out our ambition for a prosperous future for our seas, coasts and communities, balancing what we need to take from our seas with maintaining their precious ecosystems for generations to come. This is one of the biggest challenges of our time, for the whole of our planet, and we do not intend to tackle it alone. If you’re reading this, you are someone we want to work with. Through this magazine, we want to share not just what we are doing but what we are all doing to make sure we leave our seas in a better condition than when we inherited them.

Photo Credit @Istock

This edition takes a look at a new planning regime that will revolutionise the way we collaborate to protect, share and develop the seas around England. Our scientists share the evidence that is needed to make decisions on sustainable fishing, renewable energy and other allowable uses of the sea. In future we will cover other major topics, such as how we, together, will improve our ports and harbours, modernise the fishing industry and restore and enhance the environment of the sea. The editorial team would love to hear your feedback and ideas for future topics – they can be contacted on: info@marinemanagement.org.uk. I hope you enjoy our first edition! Hilary Florek, Chair, MMO


A Quiet Revolution Marine Plans are now the essential tool for all development of our seas, transforming how we protect and restore precious ecosystems now and for the benefit of future generations.

Providing one comprehensive view of every piece of existing evidence, research and policy about the coasts, estuaries and tidal waters around England’s seas, Marine Plans are now the most essential tool in the box for those making the decisions about how we use – and protect - our seas for the future.

The first ever Marine Plans for the entire coast of England, began in 2010, were sealed by the Secretary of State for the Environment this summer. This signals not the end of ten years’ work, but the start of a revolution in the way we manage our seas.

Although it has taken ten years to reach this point, the job is by no means complete and never will be. With every new piece of research or evidence and every new development that comes on stream, the Plans are updated. The next part of the work is to ensure the Plans are fully understood and consistently used by the decision makers, developers, maritime industries and others with a vested interest in our seas.


How Marine Plans help balance the needs of industry and protect a sustainable marine environment T ru di Wa ke l i n , M MO ’ s D i rec tor of M a ri n e P l an n i ng, Li ce nsi ng a nd Gl o b a l , e xpl a i ns more .

Photo Credit @Istock


What will Marine Plans do? They will radically influence how we manage our seas for the future. Developers will be able to see any potential negative consequences before they even put pen to paper and decision makers will be able to test projects against Marine Plan policies.

How do they work? It’s a huge step forward from ten years ago when the first target offshore wind sites were identified for approval. Now the Explore Marine Plans digital system takes into account everything that exists in the area, from wrecks and areas of archaeological interest to marine wildlife, from existing uses such as cables to dredging or fishing, and applies the existing policies.

Should they be spatially prescriptive, like terrestrial plans? I would love it if they could be, and we are looking at that although it’s completely different to planning on land. The sea is used in multiple layers, from beneath the seabed, on the seabed, in the water column or passing above.

Interconnected cabling can have the same footprint as a thriving benthic community, with marine mammals, leisure, fishing and shipping going on above, and variation with the seasons. So putting particular boundaries around areas for certain activities doesn’t work; rather we can look at the potential for colocation or coexistence which you wouldn’t get on land.

What’s the benefit? Developers have to invest heavily at risk in preparation for applications in site specific surveys to show they can avoid or minimise damage or compensate for it. Using Marine Plans, they may identify features not known about before or ways of mitigating or collaborating with other users to find a solution. Marine Plans don’t make any development a certain bet, but they certainly help to shorten the odds on gaining approval.

Success so far? We can see progress already. For example BEIS was responsible for offshore wind targets and we needed to know the level of ambition – how much and how best to fit into the marine space. They weren’t able to provide that until 2019 – with the advent of the Plans, and now for the first time we have a government mandated target and the committee for climate change said it’ll be 100 gigawat.

What does it feel like now the Plans are signed off? Personally, I'm chuffed to little pieces! So far stakeholders have welcomed having a consolidated single set of plans for the first time. You can’t overestimate what a major milestone this is.


What's next? It’s our job now to ensure the Marine Plans are known and understood. Most developments must be in accordance with the Plans. Others where the decision is with BEIS and Planning Inspectorate, decision makers for Nationally Significant Infrastructure Projects, need to have regard for them. We are on to the next round but will be reflecting on where we are and what a success that is - the achievement is fantastic all round. Now we have Marine Planning at the political centre, with policy and evidence base, and it’s in constant motion. As we understand even better how we can manage the marine space we may be able to reduce the precautionary approach or might need to make some hard choices which might be at the expense of some activities in particularly congested marine areas. But most importantly, we will be working together and collaboratively for the outcome of sustainable seas for our future and for generations to come.

Further information Detailed maps of all the English Marine Plan areas can be found at GOV.UK and Explore Marine Plans. The MMO has produced a short ‘What is marine planning’ animation. The MMO has marine planning officers available to support stakeholders in each marine plan area. To contact your local marine planner please email: planning@marinemanagement.org.uk


What are Marine Plans? 11

There are 11 English Marine Plan areas that cover the inshore and offshore waters of the English marine area.

4,900

The North West Inshore Marine Plan stretches from the Solway Firth border with Scotland to the River Dee border with Wales, taking in approximately 4,900 square kilometres of sea.

2,200

The North West Offshore Marine Plan area covers a total of approximately 2,200 square kilometres of sea. The marine areas of Scotland, Wales, and the Isle of Man border the North West Marine Plan areas.

84,000

The South West Marine Plans cover approximately 2,000 kilometres of coastline and over 84,000 square kilometres of sea, stretching from the River Severn border with Wales to the River Dart in Devon.

20

Each Marine Plan has a 20-year horizon and MMO monitors and reports improvements to Parliament every three years.

56,000 The North East Marine Plan covers approximately 687 kilometres of coastline and over 56,000 square kilometers of sea, the plans stretch from the Scottish Border in Northumberland to Flamborough Head in Yorkshire.

3,900 The South East Marine Plan covers an area of approximately 1,400 kilometres of coastline and over 3,900 square kilometres of sea; the plan area stretches from Felixstowe in Suffolk to south west of Dover in Kent.

230,000

All England’s seas - an area of approximately 230,000 square kilometres – a third larger than the total land area of England - are covered by Marine Plans.

Interactive online resource The Explore Marine Plans digital service online is an interactive resource that provides multiple sources of information.

CLICK HERE


SPECIAL FEATURE

Data points the way ahead

‘Seaspiracy’ has everyone talking about fishing – but perhaps the real debate is about how the data helps us manage sustainable fishing.

Photo Credit @Istock


As the recent debate about claims made in the Netflix film Seaspiracy shows, there is huge scrutiny of what commercial fishing fleets do, and their impact on the marine environment. This increase in greater understanding of the creatures and ecosystems in our seas is also reflected in the huge popularity of programmes such as Blue Planet and its sequels. In English waters, the Marine Management Organisation has to balance the interests of businesses that have a commercial interest in the sea with protecting the precious marine environment where they operate. The fishing industry is probably the most obvious of all the modern commercial enterprises sustained by our marine resources. For that reason, its practices and environmental impacts are usually at the forefront of public debates on the future of our seas and, in many cases, our planet itself. MMO’s Chief Statistician Dr Simon Dixon says the data supplied by England’s fishers, merchants and exporters is more critical than ever in unlocking all the claims and counter-claims about the fishing industry. It drives understanding of the sustainability of fishing activities and what action needs to be taken to protect vital fish stocks. Government has worked with fishers for decades to understand what and how much they fish, where they operate and what affect their activities are having on the populations of the many commercially valuable species in English waters. Quotas for catches, management plans for stocks of species at risk of depletion and protection for special marine features are among the mechanisms the MMO uses to achieve the right balance between environmental protection and a sustainable fishing industry


Simon says: “Our seas are a public resource – and the public want to know what is going on. We use data and statistics to explain what is happening from a fisheries standpoint. “We use multiple sources of data to ensure that fishers are playing by the rules. These range from vessel logbooks and catch records to sales records and transport documents. “The regulations, and the data derived from them, keep everyone accountable – and deliver what everyone in the industry wants, namely for fisheries to be managed fairly and sustainably. “Because we know what industry is doing, we can make sensible and effective policy for fisheries and assure sustainable stocks.

“The regulations, and the data derived from them, keep everyone accountable – and deliver what everyone in the industry wants, namely for fisheries to be managed fairly and sustainably."

Dr Simon Dixon

Photo Credit @Istock

“Working with UK Government colleagues and international partners like ICES, we are able to share aggregated data that is combined with annual surveys and specific pieces of scientific research to generate understanding of longterm trends for fish stocks in UK and shared waters." Dr Bryce Stewart is Associate Professor at the University of York’s Department of Environment and Geography. “Scrutiny over the sustainability of fishing is not going to go away – it’s only going to intensify. “People are already questioning the future of industrial fishing - we have things like laboratory-grown seafood being produced now. Some people are saying that’s the way forward and we should move completely away from fishing “In 30 to 40 years the world will be a very different place in terms of where we get our food from.


“We have to accept that any food production system like farming or fishing is going to have some impact on the world and you have to balance that impact against conservation interests. “But sustainable fishing is absolutely achievable. If fisheries are well managed then they are always going to be an excellent source of food and, done well, they have a fairly low environmental impact." Bryce says the ball is in the court of the fishing industry and government to demonstrate sustainability. He suggests fishers who recognise there is a threat to the long-term future of their industry should engage in the debate about balancing fishing with marine conservation.

And he says it is very important for government to support individual fishers in understanding how the data they provide to comply with regulations is used to produce the fisheries management measures and limits they have to work with each day. Bryce says: “There are many examples of overfished stocks and systems around the world. “And there are lots of examples where we have started to bring things back with better management. These examples prove the point that stocks will recover if you do the right things." “I compare sustainable fishing to having a savings account – the industry needs to live off the interest by catching at sustainable levels in the first place rather than eating into the capital that is overall stock of any species.”

Dr Bryce Stewart


Home Shores The MMO’s area of responsibility spans the entirety of England’s coastline. In the first in a series of features, we take a closer look how we engage with local communities around the country, kicking off with the North East.

The North East of England is home to some of the most spectacular natural coastline in the world. Much of the region’s appeal lies in its diversity, ranging from the heavy industry of major port cities to quaint fishing villages, and from bustling, family friendly resort towns to vast, undeveloped tracts punctuated by rocky cliffs and glorious sandy beaches. But while this variety may be a boon for the region, it presents unique challenges for MMO, namely, how such extremes – and the plethora of stakeholders and potentially competing interests they encompass – can not only coexist but thrive.

Striking a Balance North Shields-based marine planner Clare McCarty explains: “What makes this area so special is the huge variety. We have a rich assemblage of internationally significant habitats and species, such as the breeding grey seal colony on the Farne Islands in Northumberland. The mosaic of designated sites coexists alongside industry, tourism and recreation, a growing renewable energy sector and five ports including Port of Tyne and Teesport, soon to become a freeport, all of which increase the busy-ness of the sea.

Our message is simple, we’re here to educate and support and we’re always happy to engage with anyone who wants to get in touch.

All Aboard For many local stakeholders, the portal into the MMO is the office at North Shields. Lying at the mouth of the River Tyne, it’s one of 14 coastal sites and is home to both Marine Officers, responsible for compliance and enforcement matters, and marine planners who raise awareness among local communities and link them with the central Marine Planning team. It’s vital that the team at North Shields engage with the varied and contrasting stakeholders and customers from all sectors to hear their views. This ongoing effort encompasses groups such as local planning authorities, other government and non-governmental organisations such as the Environment Agency and Natural England, public authorities, key representatives from business and industry as well as members of the public. To do so, the MMO has a variety of tools at its disposal, as Clare notes: “One of my key roles is keeping in touch and talking to people across as wide a reach as possible. We’ve actively encouraged public participation in every significant milestone over the last five years, through workshops, online surveys, webinars and drop-in sessions.” From the MMO’s perspective, such sessions offer an unrivalled opportunity to gather local experts and specialists to help identify key issues, developments and changes in priorities among stakeholders.


To do so, the MMO has a variety of tools at its disposal, as McCarty notes: “One of my key roles is keeping in touch and talking to people across as wide a reach as possible. We’ve actively encouraged public participation in every significant milestone over the last five years, through workshops, online surveys, webinars and drop-in sessions.” From the MMO’s perspective, such sessions offer an unrivalled opportunity to gather local experts and specialists to help identify key issues, developments and changes in priorities among stakeholders. Marine Officer Steph Ingram adds: “Our role on the coast is as much about education as it is enforcement. We choose the approach that is best suited to who we need to reach. It can range from highly visible posters on the quayside and one-to-one meetings to webinars and drop-in sessions for those who can’t attend a longer meeting. Depending on the message we need to get across, some projects are timed specifically to take advantage of seasonal fisheries, while others can rely on word of mouth, using influential members of the community to help spread the word.

Building Partnerships While some engagement campaigns are widereaching, others can be more focused. McCarty explained: “We’re working closely with local planning authorities to develop Marine Plans. By introducing them at every step of the plan development process, we’ve been able to gather views on how LPAs see the plans being put to practical, real-world use and identify areas where we can provide further support.”

Similarly, working with coastal partnerships has also been fruitful. Until the creation of the MMO in 2010, this national network had focused on the delivery of local objectives in the absence of an overarching national framework or steering body. They have since been instrumental in steering the development of marine plans, particularly in the North East.

A Work in Progress One Newcastle-based offshore developer has already benefitted through tailored training delivered by the MMO, so they can better understand Marine Plans and how they’ll impact their work. “We’re the most visible part of the MMO and we tend to get a lot of questions not just from direct customers and stakeholders, but also the wider community,” Ingram explains. “Our message is simple, we’re here to educate and support and we’re always happy to engage with anyone who wants to get in touch.” There’s been much in the way of progress, but there’s still plenty to be done. Works licensed by MMO in part are helping to transform the region by replacing degraded, with renewables and P former H O T O Cindustrial R E D I T @ Msites MO making the North East a leader in the booming offshore energy sector.

The new North East Marine Plan is intended to guide local development in a sustainable way, striking a balance between social, economic and environmental factors. Essentially, to help ensure we have the right activities happening in the right areas at the right time and in the right way.


Home Shores The MMO’s area of responsibility spans the entirety of England’s coastline. In the first in a series of features, we take a closer look how we engage with local communities around the country, kicking off with the North East. The North East of England is home to some of the most spectacular natural coastline in the world. Much of the region’s appeal lies in its diversity, ranging from the heavy industry of major port cities to quaint fishing villages, and from bustling, family friendly resort towns to vast, undeveloped tracts punctuated by rocky cliffs and glorious sandy beaches. But while this variety may be a boon for the region, it presents unique challenges for MMO, namely, how such extremes – and the plethora of stakeholders and potentially competing interests they encompass – can not only coexist but thrive.

Striking a Balance North Shields-based marine planner Clare McCarty explains: “What makes this area so special is the huge variety. We have a rich assemblage of internationally significant habitats and species, such as the breeding grey seal colony on the Farne Islands in Northumberland. The mosaic of designated sites coexists alongside industry, tourism and recreation, a growing renewable energy sector and five ports including Port of Tyne and Teesport, soon to become a freeport, all of which increase the busy-ness of the sea.

Our message is simple, we’re here to educate and support and we’re always happy to engage with anyone who wants to get in touch.

PHOTO CREDIT @MMO

All Aboard For many local stakeholders, the portal into the MMO is the office at North Shields. Lying at the mouth of the River Tyne, it’s one of 14 coastal sites and is home to both Marine Officers, responsible for compliance and enforcement matters, and marine planners that raise awareness among local communities and link them with the central Marine Planning team. It’s vital that the team at North Shields engage with the varied and contrasting stakeholders and customers from all sectors to hear their views. This ongoing effort encompasses groups such as local planning authorities, other government and non-governmental organisations such as the Environment Agency and Natural England, public authorities, key representatives from business and industry as well as members of the public. To do so, the MMO has a variety of tools at its disposal, as McCarty notes: “One of my key roles is keeping in touch and talking to people across as wide a reach as possible. We’ve actively encouraged public participation in every significant milestone over the last five years, through workshops, online surveys, webinars and drop-in sessions.” From the MMO’s perspective, such sessions offer an unrivalled opportunity to gather local experts and specialists to help identify key issues, developments and changes in priorities among stakeholders. This ongoing effort encompasses groups such as local planning authorities, other and non-governmental government organisations such as the Environment Agency and Natural England, public authorities, key representatives from business and industry as well as members of the public.


Marine Officer Steph Ingram adds: “Our role on the coast is as much about education as it is enforcement. We choose the approach that is best suited to who we need to reach. It can range from highly visible posters on the quayside and one-to-one meetings to webinars and drop-in sessions for those who can’t attend a longer meeting. Depending on the message we need to get across, some projects are timed specifically to take advantage of seasonal fisheries, while others can rely on word of mouth, using influential members of the community to help spread the word.

Building Partnerships While some engagement campaigns are widereaching, others can be more focused. Clare explained: “We’re working closely with local planning authorities to develop Marine Plans. By introducing them at every step of the plan development process, we’ve been able to gather views on how local planning authorities see the plans being put to practical, real-world use and identify areas where we can provide further support.”

A Work in Progress One Newcastle-based offshore developer has already benefitted through tailored training delivered by the MMO, so they can better understand Marine Plans and how they’ll impact their work. “We’re the most visible part of the MMO and we tend to get a lot of questions not just from direct customers and stakeholders, but also the wider community,” Steph explains. “Our message is simple, we’re here to educate and support and we’re always happy to engage with anyone who wants to get in touch.” There’s been much in the way of progress, but there’s still plenty to be done. Works licensed by MMO in part are helping to transform the region by replacing degraded, former industrial sites with renewables and making the North East a leader in the booming offshore energy sector.

Similarly, working with coastal partnerships has also been fruitful. Until the creation of the MMO in 2010, this national network had focused on the delivery of local objectives in the absence of an overarching national framework or steering body. They have since been instrumental in steering the development of marine plans, particularly in the North East.

Marine Officer Steph Ingram completing vessel inspections at MMO North Shields

The new North East Marine Plan is intended to guide local development in a sustainable way, striking a balance between social, economic and environmental factors. Essentially, to help ensure we have the right activities happening in the right areas at the right time and in the right way.


Opinion piece:

Keeping the lights on Head of Marine Planning at The Crown Estate, Olivia Thomas leads a team that provides specialist advice, evidence and risk management to ensure the seabed is managed in a sustainable and responsible way. The Crown Estate manages the seabed and half the foreshore around England, Wales and Northern Ireland, and 100% of its profits are paid to the Treasury for the benefit of the nation. “This vast resource has a huge role to play in achieving net zero, and as manager of this space we have a big part to play in enabling that through activities such as leasing space for offshore wind farms, facilitating emerging technologies such as floating offshore wind farms, and granting seabed rights for CO2 storage beneath the seabed. “The offshore wind sector alone could provide enough green energy to power all UK homes within the next decade – that’s an impressive achievement bearing in mind the first turbine was installed in UK waters just over 20 years ago. “However, with this growth and ambition comes increasing demand for the seabed, a space which is also relied upon by many other people, industries and marine life

So whilst the sector grows, it’s vital that it is balanced with new and existing demand on the seabed; this means other users, such as fisheries or aggregate extraction or telecommunications cables, and that protecting and enhancing marine biodiversity is at the heart of this balance. That’s why we lead the Offshore Wind Evidence and Change programme in collaboration with government and a wide range of partners, including MMO. Over a five-year period, the programme’s strategic research and data projects will provide essential insights to help the sector better understand and address environmental considerations and interactions with other industries and activities, both around the coast and offshore. “Given the government’s ambition, we need to see a fourfold increase from what is currently operating in the water."

H av e y ou r sa y an d j oi n th e d is c u s s ion on Twitt er :


In October 2020 the UK Government announced its ambition for offshore wind to produce more than enough electricity to power every home in the country by 2030. A new target was also set for floating offshore wind to deliver over 15 times the current volumes worldwide. But is this really achievable? What will be the barriers to these targets being reached and how can we try and overcome them? We talk to the people in the know.

Julez Webb, Policy Analyst for RenewableUK working on planning and environmental barriers to wind energy deployment

Acting as a representative voice for our membership, we advocate and promote wind and marine renewables to government, industry, the media, and the public.

In our industry, we often come up against several barriers that must be addressed if we are to ensure targets for wind energy generation are met.

The deployment of renewable energy allows for a transition away from burning fossil fuels and therefore, renewables play a vital role in mitigating climate change and its detrimental effect on our precious ecosystems and societies. Not only will the deployment of renewable energy mitigate global warming the offshore and onshore wind industry will be instrumental for the green economic recovery, securing significant new investment and employment opportunities in the UK.

This will allow for setting a clear volume target which would boost domestic supply chain growth and reduce the number of projects becoming ‘stuck’ in the planning system.

Renewable energy generation is also costcompetitive which is great news for the consumer who will ultimately benefit from less costly electricity bills.

The UK has set an ambitious target of having offshore wind farms provide 40GW by 2030 – a real jump from the government’s previous target of 30GW. Given this scale of ambition, RenewableUK fosters collaboration with many stakeholders to ensure industry progress is made in harmony with other industries, both on land and at sea.

"I see the high-level priority for 2021 being a call for robust planning policy that acknowledges onshore wind generation as both part of the built environment and integral to tackling the climate crisis."

#MM O S e a V i e w s

# K e e pingTheLights On


Chris McMullon, Natural England’s Principal Adviser for Marine Development and Planning

As government’s statutory adviser on the natural environment, we play a key role in working with industry, regulators and other marine stakeholders to make sure nature is at the heart of decision making so that we address both the climate and biodiversity emergencies. Natural England recognises the important role that renewable energy plays in helping meet the Net Zero challenge and we are committed to helping government deliver a low carbon, high nature future. The scale and pace of current and future growth of this sector is incredible and this presents huge challenges for an already struggling marine ecosystem. Many marine habitats and species populations desperately need help to recover and the delivery of the anticipated scale of expansion cannot be at the expense of the health of our seas. Key to achieving this is the need for careful planning to ensure the natural environment and biodiversity recovery targets are built into spatial planning decisions and that projects maximise impact mitigation and avoidance efforts and make a valuable contribution to nature recovery.

Developers are already finding that addressing some environmental impacts is proving very difficult and this will likely get more challenging with further expansion. The importance of avoiding as far as possible the most damaging impacts as well as finding strategic approaches to compensating for those that cant be avoided, is essential. It is therefore important that all marine stakeholders are involved throughout these conversations. The last year has been a year like no other and we have all had to adapt to new ways of communicating and interacting. This has opened new doors to do things quicker and with more people but we must remember that our stakeholder community is diverse and our engagement approaches need to meet this.

"Our seas are highly dynamic both in terms of geography but also in its use by stakeholders. Interactions, especially on the coast and nearshore can be very complex."

H


Siobhan Browne, manager of MMO’s Strategic Renewables Unit and former international negotiator on climate science for COP 26

MMO has a key role in offshore wind development. We undertake planning for offshore wind alongside other activities at sea, taking account of environmental, social and economic considerations. “The sixth Carbon budget by the Committee on Climate Change recommends that offshore wind becomes the backbone of the whole UK energy system, growing from the Prime Minister’s promised 40GW in 2030 to 100GW or more by 2050. “The target is very ambitious and challenging. A key opportunity is working strategically to overcome challenges that have been demonstrated through recent offshore windfarm consents. Recent programmes of work established by The Crown Estate, BEIS and Defra and developers are all seeking to address these issues.

This is one of the key reasons why the MMO Strategic Renewables Unit was established. We are a listening organisation. We want to engage with our customers and stakeholders and get their feedback on how we are working. We have invested in this new team focussing on offshore renewables issues and we are very keen to hear and learn from others on what we can do to help achieve the target.

“We are keen to work with others at a strategic level to address common challenges to avoid impacts on individual stakeholders."

Ha v e yo u r s a y a n d jo i n t h e d i s cu s s i on o n Tw i t t e r : #MM OS eaV iew s

# K ee p i n g Th eL i g ht sO n


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