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HAJJ: THE ULTIMATE CONFERENCE IN THE HISTORY OF MANKIND

IMPACT ON SAUDI ARABIA & THE MUSLIM WORLD

LOGISTICS Learn all about storage in Halal FOODSERVICE SECTOR Assessing effective branding strategies HALAL DETECTION SCIENCE Who’s the “New Kid on the Block”?

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LIVING: THE ART OF STEREOTYPING JOURNEY TO SARAWAK RESTAURANT REVIEW: ALI BABA’S INDIAN KITCHEN, TAIPEI ANIMAL WELFARE IN ISLAM


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20} THE 6TH MALAYSIA INTERNATIONAL HALAL SHOWCASE Notes on the biggest Halal show on earth 26} LOGISTICS SERIES (PART 1) Halal Storage: A Critical Success Factor 28} FOODSERVICE SECTOR Assessing branding strategies for Halal goers 30} HALAL DETECTION SCIENCE Who’s the “New Kid on the Block”? 34} PENETRATING THE GLOBAL MARKET Understanding Market Failures 36} ISLAM AND THE HALAL INDUSTRY (PART 3) Where it starts and ends… 42} FASTRACK EUROPE Are products described as Halal really Halal? 43} FASTRACK EUROPE Religious tolerance in France 44} FASTRACK AFRICAS Embracing, celebrating & preserving South African Muslim heritage & culture 46} FASTRACK AMERICAS A dialogical evolution 48} FASTRACK ASIA IHI Alliance: Going places to develop international Halal standards

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50} FASTRACK ASIA HDC & the International Halal Certification Dialogue

THE HAJJ

IMPACTS ON SAUDI ARABIA & THE MUSLIM WORLD

©2008 KasehDia Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved

DISCLAIMER : While all care is taken, the publisher accepts no responsibility for the information contained herein which is believed to be reliable. The publisher/editor takes no responsibility for opinions expressed or implied as they are the writers’ own and do not necessarily reflect that of the publisher or editor who make no warranties governing material, including advertising or features contained within this publication. This publication may not in whole or part, be copied, reproduced or translated without prior written permission of the publisher.

52} FASTRACK ASIA Is soy sauce Halal? 53} FASTRACK ASIA Muslims practicing Yoga: Another Pandora’s Box? 54} ISLAMIC FINANCE Roles and Challenges of Shariah Advisory Bodies


Ed’s Note

Demographically, the global Muslim community of 1.8 billion is a formidable force. We need to account for the lives and thoughts of Muslims, their aspirations and fears, and their relations with others. Professor Datuk Dr Osman Bakar Deputy Chief Executive Officer The Institute of Advanced Islamic Studies (IAIS) Malaysia

Regulars 08} GLOBAL NEWS A brief insight into events currently shaping the Halal industry around the globe + Calendar of Events + Online Polls 52} COUNTRY IN FOCUS Taiwan: Overview of the island known as Ilha Formosa

Living

The year 2008 is drawing to a close and it is time to reflect the whole year’s deeds and achievements for the betterment of next year’s processes and efforts in the next wave of development in the Halal industry as well as the world’s population. Wrapping up the year is the great Muslim pilgrimage to the Holy Land of Makkah for those performing the Hajj and for the rest of us the celebration of the Eid ul Adha. On the cover of this issue speaks of the social, politics and economic impacts of the Hajj on the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and the rest of the Muslim world. Speaking of impacts, this issue also presents the first part of the Halal Logistics series focusing on storage as a critical success factor in the Halal supply chain, as it impacts the rest of supply chain due to most contamination occurring at this point. Our resident economist also shares, in this issue, insights on branding strategies for the foodservice sector, as well as understanding market failures for companies penetrating the global Halal market. There is a “New Kid on the Block” in Halal detection science, and you can read all about it in this issue. International updates in the Fastrack section; roles and challenges of Shariah Advisory Bodies in the Islamic Finance section; as well as an interesting compilation of articles in the Living section complete this end-of-year issue. Let us look at a brighter future together and may Allah swt bless us with more success and achievements in 2009, Insya Allah. Peace to all.

the Halal Journal team

61} FEATURE COVER Misconceptions of Islam & Muslims: A Historical Perspective 64} JOURNEY Sarawak – More Than A Paradise 66} BROWSING Ali Baba’s Indian Kitchen, Taipei in Restaurant Review; Muadz in Music; and Animal Welfare in Islam and Mister Pip in Books 68} ON DISPLAY Halal and good stuff found on the shelf 70} SNAPSHOTS Images of recent happenings in the industry 72} PARTING WORDS Emeritus Professor Datuk Dr. Osman Bakar, Deputy CEO of the Institute of Advanced Islamic Studies

:: THE HE A R T OF THE HA L A L J OU R N A L :: Halal refers to that which the Creator has made lawful. Its opposite, Haram, refers to what is forbidden. These parameters has been designed for health, safety and benefit of all mankind regardless of age, faith or culture. The realm of the Halal extends beyond the obvious references to food and touches all matters that relate to human life. In the commercial arena, all goods and services, markets, transactions, currencies and other activities come under the judgments of Halal and Haram. These parameters include protecting the environment, humane treatment for animals, ethical investment, the intrinsic value of currencies and fairness in all commercial transactions. We believe that the emerging global Halal market will be one of the great market forces in the coming decades.


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GlobalNEWS

COMPILED BY ZAAHIRA MUHAMMAD

COMING TO TO MARKET MARKET NEWR NEWR YOU YOU COMING

UK

CAPPOQUIN’S NEW OWNERS TO FOCUS ON HALAL MARKET

The new owners of Cappoquin Chickens are expected to focus production on the Halal market. The owners of Derby Poultry, Perwiaz Latif and Zahid Hussain, who bought the Co Waterford company, last week, are already involved in producing meats for the UK Muslim market. The sector is said to have a lucrative market and is more immune to price pressures from cheaper imported chicken. The company reportedly aims to set up a hatchery at the plant. IFA’s poultry committee Chairman, Ned Morrissey, said producers would be seeking an early meeting with the pair to discuss new contract terms. Morrissey said chicken growers would need concrete reassurances from the new management about the price that will be paid to producers. He said growers have suffered losses in the past and will only enter into an arrangement if it has a viable margin for them. Meanwhile, workers at the plant recently staged a work stoppage as negotiations continued over pay and conditions. |SOURCE: INDEPENDENT.IE, 7 OCTOBER 2008

“The change comes at a time when the global Halal food industry and exports to Middle Eastern markets are growing,” The Straits Times SINGAPORE

MUSLIM ORGANISATIONS TO GAIN MORE CLOUT

Muslim institutions will have more clout in Singapore under proposed changes to the law governing Islamic affairs, news reports said recently. The crackdown on abuse of the Halal logo is aimed at giving the Islamic Religious Council more strength in supervising and enforcing Halal certification. “The change comes at a time when the global Halal food industry and exports to Middle Eastern markets are growing,” The Straits Times reported. The amendment proposed by the government to Parliament would resolve an anomaly in the current law, which makes individuals who misuse Halal certificates liable to jail terms but companies doing the same thing subject only to fines. With the proposed change to the Administration of Muslim Law Act, officers of such companies will face jail terms of up to 12 months and fines up to 10,000 Singapore dollars (USD6,993), the report said. The council will be able to collect fines of up to 2,000 Singapore dollars (USD1,398), instead of having to start court proceedings. Another key amendment will allow the council to offer consultancy and other services beyond Singapore and to charge fees or commissions. Muslim bodies in Britain and Australia have expressed interest in using educational materials prepared by the council, the report said. |SOURCE: EARTHTIMES.ORG, 16 SEPTEMBER 2008

8

THE HALAL JOURNAL | NOV+DEC 2008

As Muslims prepare for the rigorous journey of Hajj this November, it is worthwhile that we ref lect on our past deeds and our promise to Allah s.w.t before we were born – to be caliphs or guardians of this earth. That promise not only covers protecting Islam and the Muslim ummah, but also everything in this whole entire universe: starting with your own backyard. How many of us can actually say we have successfully done that in this lifetime? Take after the Non-Muslims who seemed to be taking the initiative to care and protect their environment. Examples are too plentiful to be ignored, too painful to be rationalised. Questions on where the Muslims are in preserving nature often are met with shrugged shoulders. When will all Muslims finally realise that it is their innate obligation to care for this short and temporary world? The Hajj is really the ultimate conference of the Muslim ummah. It is a gathering of peace, unity and togetherness. Differences in culture and stature: forgotten and ignored – everyone coming together as one. As one, the Muslim ummah could move the Halal industry to even greater heights. There is a great need for more Muslims to actively participate in the development of the Halal industry; there is a great need for cooperation and contribution from all Muslim scholars and industry experts for one global Halal standard. In the spirit of Hajj and Hijra, let us all be led by the examples of the Prophet Muhammad (p.b.u.h). Let’s strive to abandon all mazmumah traits and nurture more mahmudah attributes. It is time to participate and work together for the betterment of the ummah, and the environment. Results? It is only a matter of time...


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GlobalNEWS “The challenge lies in increasing Muslim entrepreneurs in the Halal food business. It should be seen as Jihad in business,” Md Shah Amin, Malaysian Islamic Chambers of Commerce (MICC) Deputy President MALAYSIA

JIHAD NEEDED IN HALAL FOOD BUSINESS

More effort should be made to increase the number of Muslim entrepreneurs producing and marketing Halal food, said Malaysian Islamic Chambers of Commerce (MICC) Deputy President Md Shah Amin. “The challenge lies in increasing Muslim entrepreneurs in the Halal food business. It should be seen as Jihad in business,” he said in his speech before the official opening of a seminar on development of the Halal industry by Mentri Besar Datuk Seri Adnan Yaakob here recently. Also present were Pahang SEDC Chief Executive Officer Datuk Lias Md Noor and Standards Malaysia accreditation Director Ridzwan Kasim. He said there was huge potential for marketing Halal products globally. On MICC, Md Shah said it would continue to organise programmes to disseminate information on Halal product business management. In his speech Ridzwan said that Standards Malaysia had conducted a road show called Halal Food Standards Realisation since 2004. He said that this year’s programme was more comprehensive and informative, but noted that public awareness on standards and their importance was low. “Consumers, producers and distributors of Halal food should be made more aware of the Halal concept,” he added. |SOURCE: THESTAR.COM.MY, 1 SEPTEMBER 2008

CHINA

CHINA MUSLIM FOOD INDUSTRY VOWS TO ENSURE FOOD SAFETY

Muslim food business leaders in China are pledging product safety and vowing to follow their religious teachings in food production.Some 200 Muslim food business leaders made that declaration while attending an ongoing international trade fair in the northwest Chinese city of Xining. This is the latest move by the country’s food industry to self-regulate after a series of safety scandals. Members of foreign business delegations voiced appreciation for the food safety declaration. The China (Qinghai) International Halal Food and Product Fair is one the most important Halal fairs in the world. More than 400 international business people, experts and officials from 26 countries and regions attended the fair this year. |SOURCE: NEWS.XINHUANET.COM, 11 OCTOBER 2008 IRAN

IRAN HALAL FOOD EXPO SLATED FOR FEB. ’09

Iran plans to hold its first International Exhibition of Halal Food in February 2009, Iranian Ambassador to China Javad Mansoori said in Beijing recently.Speaking on the sidelines of the China-Muslim Countries Forum for Economic and Trade Cooperation and Development in the city of Xining, Mansoori added that the expo will showcase the latest achievements of Iran and other Islamic countries in producing Halal food, IRNA reported. He stated that Iran exports over USD500 million of food annually and called for the promotion of economic relations between Islamic countries and China. The ambassador also said that Iran-China trade during the current Iranian calendar year (started March 20, 2008) has reached USD17.5 billion, and predicted that the figure would hit USD30 billion by the end of the year in March 2009. |SOURCE: TEHRANTIMES.COM, 12 OCTOBER 2008

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10 THE HALAL JOURNAL | NOV+DEC 2008

MALAYSIA

HDC PREPARING LOCAL SMES FOR GLOBAL HALAL MARKET

The Halal Industry Development Corporation (HDC) wants to strengthen the participation of local small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in the global Halal industry. Chief Executive Officer Dato’ Seri Jamil Bidin said growing the industry was not merely about certifying the most number of products possible, but also ensuring strong infrastructure for it. Jamil said this after a memorandum of understanding (MOU) signing between HDC and Mydin Mohamed Holdings Bhd recently. Under the MOU, HDC will train at least 300 trainees from Mydin’s SME suppliers, who will receive certificates upon completion of the course. HDC will provide the trainers, training materials and aids for the trainees. Mydin Managing Director Datuk Ameer Ali Mydin said: “As a local company owned and managed by Muslims, it is part of our responsibility to help local SMEs equip themselves with the right knowledge as well as confidence in managing and producing their Halal products.” Jamil said HDC’s training programme would boost Mydin’s position as a leading provider of Halal products. HDC Halal Integrity Vice-President Mariam Abdul Latif said the training programme was currently focused on Mydin’s SME vendors and lasted for 12 months. The MOU will expire in a month and another detailed agreement will be signed within this period. HDC currently offers three modules in the Halal training programme – Halal Awareness, Halal Industry and Halal Professional. |SOURCE: BIZ.THESTAR.COM.MY, 18 SEPTEMBER 2008

“As a local company owned and managed by Muslims, it is part of our responsibility to help local SMEs equip themselves with the right knowledge as well as confidence in managing and producing their Halal products.” Datuk Ameer Ali Mydin, Mydin Managing Director


THE HALAL JOURNAL MALAYSIA

BRITISH INVESTORS KEEN TO EXPLORE BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES UNDER SCORE

British investors are keen to explore the business opportunities being created under the Sarawak Corridor of Renewable Energy (SCORE), British High Commissioner to Malaysia, Boyd McCleary, said recently. “My visit to Sarawak is to find out more about SCORE and the opportunities for British investors to participate,” he told reporters after paying a courtesy call on the Sarawak Deputy Chief Minister, Tan Sri Dr George Chan, at his office in Petra Jaya. SCORE, covering an area of 70,709 sq kilometres and with a population of 607,800, is a corridor located within the central region of Sarawak. At the heart of the corridor are abundant energy resources, particularly hydropower, coal and natural gas. Dr Chan, who is also the Industrial Development Minister, said the state welcomed the participation of British investors in SCORE. However, he said there was no specific discussion on which industries the British investors were keen on participating. |SOURCE: BERNAMA, 15 SEPTEMBER 2008

ASIA

ASEAN, IDBG IN VENTURE

The Islamic Development Bank Group (IDBG) and the secretariat of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) have signed a MoU outlining the framework of partnership between the two institutions in promoting the economic and social development of their common constituencies. The memorandum between IDB and ASEAN is based on their common interest in fostering economic development and alleviating poverty in their constituencies. The memo specifies that co-operation between the institutions includes capacity building in the areas of health, education, Halal food supply and agriculture, investment promotion and economic co-operation. ASEAN Secretary-General Dr Surin Pitsuwan and IDBG President Dr Ahmad Mohamed Ali signed the memo at the bank’s headquarters after discussing bilateral relations between the two parties in order to finalise areas of co-operation. Dr Surin expressed enthusiasm with working alongside IDBG, emphasising the mutual benefit that will materialise from partnering the institutions. |SOURCE: MENAFN.COM, 15 SEPTEMBER 2008

OnlinePOLL

1. Should the practice of Yoga as an exercise routine be made Haram for Muslims? YES: 25.53%

NO: 74.47%

2. Which Ministries should support Halal businesses? MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE: 5.94% ALL OF THE ABOVE: 71.29%

MINISTRY OF INTERNATIONAL TRADE: 9.90% MINISTRY OF RELIGIOUS AFFAIRS: 9.90% OTHER MINISTRIES: 2.97%

MALAYSIA

MALAYSIANS EYES INCREASE IN EXPORTS OF HALAL FOOD PRODUCTS TO UAE

Malaysia is seeking to leverage the USD5.52 billion UAE food services market by highlighting top-quality Halal food products to local quick service restaurants. In line with this, more than 20 companies from Malaysia are participating in the Halal Expo 2008. The participation is also part of the country’s efforts to fully capitalise on the USD500 billion global Halal market by boosting its Halal exports to the region, which they are aiming to grow by more than 20 per cent this year from USD71 million in 2007. The UAE plays an important role in Malaysia’s aims to establish a significant presence in the global market, on account of its massive food imports, 80 per cent of which are under the Halal category. “As we continue to witness a rapid rise in Halal trade, with major destinations such as the UAE importing and channelling an estimated Dh550 million worth of Halal merchandise each year, our goal is to supply the demand and expand our products’ reach across the region’s other high potential markets,” said Mohammad Shaiful, Chief Executive Officer of Noble Maxim Sdn Bhd, Malaysia. |SOURCE: GULFNEWS.COM, 16 SEPTEMBER 2008

“As we continue to witness a rapid rise in Halal trade, with major destinations such as the UAE importing and channelling an estimated Dh550 million worth of Halal merchandise each year, our goal is to supply the demand and expand our products’ reach across the region’s other high potential markets,” Mohammad Shaiful, Chief Executive Officer of Noble Maxim Sdn Bhd, Malaysia PAKISTAN

INT’L HALAL FOOD MOOT IN KARACHI ON OCT 19

The International Conference on Halal Food & Agriculture 2008 will be held in conjunction with the 3rd Food, Agri & Livestock Asia 2008 International Exhibition on October 19 & 20 at the Karachi Expo Centre. The international conference will mainly focus on capitalising the fast-growing global Halal food market, as well as agricultural, milk, and meat productivity in the country. Promoting Pakistan as “the Halal kitchen of the world” will be the essential element of this international conference, which expects to see significant participation from foreign countries. The 3rd Food, Agri & Livestock Asia 2008 International Exhibition is being organised from 19-21 October Ecommerce Gateway Pakistan (Pvt) Ltd and Jamal’s Yellow Pages of Pakistan with the support of the Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture & Livestock, Ministry of Industries Sindh, Government of Sindh & Punjab and City District Government Karachi. |SOURCE: THEPOST.COM.PK, 10 SEPTEMBER 2008

THE HALAL JOURNAL | NOV+DEC 2008 11


GlobalNEWS “The visit is a follow-up to a mission last week by state executive council member, Abdul Malik Abul Kassim, to attract investors from the Middle East to the International Halal Hub in Penang,” Statement release, Penang Chief Minister Office

MALAYSIA

GUAN ENG ON BUSINESS TRIP TO ABU DHABI & DUBAI

Penang Chief Minister, Lim Guan Eng, is now leading a business delegation to the UAE to foster networking in Abu Dhabi and Dubai. A statement released by his office here today said Guan Eng was accompanied by Datuk Lee Kah Choon, Chairman of the executive committee of InvestPenang, and Jeff Ooi Chuan Aun, a Director of InvestPenang. The trip to the UAE is at the invitation of a UAE foundation with links to the UAE government. “The visit is a follow-up to a mission last week by state executive council member, Abdul Malik Abul Kassim, to attract investors from the Middle East to the International Halal Hub in Penang,” the statement said. It said Guan Eng’s trip was hosted by international corporations based in Abu Dhabi and while in the UAE, he would be shown various development concepts and projects that would be suitable for Penang. Guan Eng will also visit Cityscape Dubai 2008, a world-class annual event which attracts regional and international investors, property developers, governmental and development authorities, architects, designers, consultants and professionals involved in the property industry. The statement said that in line with Penang’s aspiration to become an international city and destination for investors and tourists, the Chief Minister’s delegation would use the opportunity to attract them to invest in Penang. |SOURCE: BERNAMA, 6 OCTOBER 2008 UK

RESIDENTS CELEBRATE INDEPENDENCE

A flagship residential scheme for older people who want to remain independent has been officially opened. Celebrations were held at Dove Court, Barkerend Road, and Bradford, which was built by Bradford Council in partnership with Hanover Housing Association. It has 42 selfcontained flats, adapted to help older people live independently. The complex includes a restaurant offering Halal and vegetarian meals, along with a common room, laundry, multi-faith room, community day centre, shop, health and beauty treatment room and landscaped gardens, including an herb and spice garden. The scheme, which has a multi-cultural focus, has been running for over a year now and has been hailed as a flagship scheme by the Government for bringing communities closer together. |SOURCE: THETELEGRAPHANDARGUS.CO.UK, 15 OCTOBER 2008

BRUNEI DARUSSALAM

ICE TREATS SNAPPED UP LIKE HOT CAKES

A total of 8,888 free original snow ice desserts were snapped up like hot cakes over the weekend during the official opening of G&A Snowhouse Sdn Bhd, located at Abdul Razak Complex in Gadong. The one-day promotion was held to mark the official opening of the establishment, which saw young business partners George Lim and Alvin See officiate the event by presenting a snow ice to a lion dancer. In the recent past, G&A Snowhouse reached an agreement with Charmy food Co Lt, which owns the franchise to produce the popular dessert. George Lim and Alvin See first discovered the ice treat while visiting Taiwan and immediately realised that the ice dessert would be a hotseller in a warm country like Brunei. Specially imported from Taiwan, the Deep Ocean Water ice cubes, which are used to make the snow ice dessert, are believed to be a hundred times richer in minerals and nutrients. The snow ice dessert is very healthy, Halal, low in calories and 98 per cent fat-free, low in sugar, starch-free, and uses 100 per cent natural ingredients. The shop boasts a relaxing setting and its desserts come in 40 different flavours, among them Mango Crush, Golden Berries and Banana Rama. |SOURCE: BORNEO BULLETIN, 6 OCTOBER 2008 12 THE HALAL JOURNAL | NOV+DEC 2008

BRUNEI DARUSSALAM

HALAL AND CLEANLINESS ISSUE NOT TO BE TAKEN LIGHTLY: IMAMS

Muslims were urged to ensure that foods consumed are Halal while restaurant operators were reminded not to take the issue of Halal and cleanliness lightly. These aspects were delivered during a recent sermon. The Imams also advised food manufacturing premises and eating outlets to obtain the “2005 Halal Certificate” and “Label Order” to attain Halal recognition and should strictly conform to the requirements stipulated in the order. The Imams further added that Islam not only emphasises the importance of Halal food, but also puts a great deal of concern on its cleanliness and whether it’s safe for consumption, taking into account the source, utensils, storage, processing methods, packaging and surroundings, which should be kept clean at all times. The Halal label involves two main issues: how the product was obtained and whether the product is produced in accordance with Islam. People in the sultanate need not worry as the government takes the Halal issue seriously. In an effort to safeguard food items and products throughout the sultanate and to ensure strict regulations are met, the government of His Majesty the Sultan and Yang Di-Pertuan of Brunei, has enacted a law called the “Halal Meat Act, Chapter 183 and its regulations”. It also sends its own officials to work in slaughter and processing houses, recognised by the Brunei Islamic Religious Council, to monitor and ensure that the slaughtering and processing of overseas meat is in accordance with Islamic rituals |SOURCE: BRUDIRECT.COM, 11 OCTOBER 2008

Islam not only emphasises the importance of Halal food, but also puts a great deal of concern on its cleanliness and whether it’s safe for consumption, taking into account the source. The Imams’ sermon, Brunei


EUROPE

GROWTH OF MUSLIMS SPURS CHANGES IN EUROPE

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It’s just before lunchtime and local women in body-covering garments are perusing a medley of markets filled with Halal foods. The surrounding streets are decorated with special lights – funded by the Leicester City Council – to mark the Muslim holiday of Eid. In all, there are more than 30 mosques nearby, as well as a public library with shelves of books in Arabic, Hindi, Punjabi and Urdu, along with newspapers from across Asia and the Middle East. The neighbourhood Islamic schools receive state funding, just as the Christian and Jewish ones do. This is Leicester, a former manufacturing city of 285,000 people in England’s heartland. It is home to large pockets of Hindus, Sikhs and Muslims – indeed the latter makes up more than 15 per cent of the population. In at least one large Muslim neighbourhood, called Highfields, there’s not a single white English face to be found. For the 2011 census, Leicester is on track to be the first European city with a non-white majority. |SOURCE: EUROPENEWS.DK, 13 OCTOBER 2008

The Qatari Prime Minister announced a USD200 million investment in Cambodia’s agriculture sector, while Kuwait last month pledged USD546 million in soft loans to upgrade irrigation systems and roads throughout the kingdom. Minister of Tourism Thong Khon

CAMBODIA

CAMBODIA TO TARGET MIDEAST FOR TOURISM

A new government strategy hopes to make Cambodia a target destination for more Middle Eastern travellers, Minister of Tourism Thong Khon told the Post recently. The move comes amid efforts by Prime Minister Hun Sen to strengthen ties between Cambodia and the Gulf nations. The government last month signed a direct-flight agreement with Qatar, Thong Khon said, adding that a similar agreement with Kuwait is expected soon. The Qatari Prime Minister announced a USD200 million investment in Cambodia’s agriculture sector, while Kuwait last month pledged USD546 million in soft loans to upgrade irrigation systems and roads throughout the kingdom. Hun Sen is expected to pay a state visit to the Middle East in January next year, with stops in Qatar, Kuwait and the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Cambodia has more than 300,000 ethnic Muslim Cham residents. Cham communities are currently marketed to Muslim tourists, said Ho Vandy, President of the Cambodia Association of Travel Agents. The Phnom Penh airport and several hotels in the capital and Siem Reap are also equipped with Muslim prayer rooms. |SOURCE: PHNOMPENHPOST.COM, 23 SEPTEMBER 2008

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THAILAND

CHINA FALLOUT MAY HELP CPF

The tainted-milk crisis in China represents a potential windfall for Thailand’s Charoen Pokphand Foods Plc (CPF) as consumers will be seeking safer sources of food, says CEO Adirek Sripratak. He said lack of confidence in Chinese food products and tighter regulation of any food products imported from China would help many Thai producers, who could expect increasing purchase orders from Japan, the US and Europe. Chinese authorities say as many as 22 milk producers may be implicated and its top food-quality official has been sacked. Adirek said CPF had received recognition for its food safety, traceability and verification under a number of international standards, including GMP, HACCP, ISO 9002 and 14001, TIS18001, ISO17025, Halal and Animal Welfare. He also noted that the business outlook was improving because the cost of raw materials and meat products was decreasing, while CPF was increasing output of processed food. CPF will soon open the world’s most modern farm and animal feed mill in Russia, one of the world’s largest pork consumers and importers. CPF shares closed yesterday on the SET at 4.08 baht, up eight satang, in trade worth 129.8 million baht. |SOURCE: BANGKOKPOST.COM, 25 SEPTEMBER 2008

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GlobalNEWS UK

HALAL VENTURE IS TASTY FOR FOOD GIANT NESTLÉ AS IT CASHES IN ON SURGING DEMAND

Food giant Nestlé has gone Halal in 75 of its 480 plants worldwide as it cashes in on a surge in demand for food and products acceptable to devout Muslims. The global market is now estimated to be worth £300 billion a year. A Nestlé plant in Switzerland produces 41,000 tons of Halal puff pastry a year, preserved with potassium sorbate instead of alcohol. Islamic countries, especially Malaysia, are fuelling the demand. Big manufacturers now even produce mineral water and rice that is Halal while research institutes explore whether certain additives are permitted for Muslims. Nestlé had sales of more than £45 billion last year, with £2 billion from Halal products. When McDonald’s opened its first European restaurant with Halal burgers on the menu in London last year, sales rose immediately. Tesco and Sainsbury’s have also installed separate Halal shelving and are targeting Muslims in their advertising. |SOURCE: DAILYMAIL.CO.UK, 24 SEPTEMBER 2008

Many more countries are now trying to attract tourists from Muslim countries for economic gains, and thus have come to show more respect for their religious beliefs. Halal tourism is now flying planes where no alcohol or pork products are served and prayer times are announced. MIDDLE EAST

“HALAL” TOURISM ON THE RISE

In recent years the tourism industry has increasingly begun to accommodate the needs of more conservative families in the Gulf region, launching a trend that has become known as “Halal tourism.” The trend was set in Malaysia, which has been marketing itself as the perfect destination for conservative Gulf families that seek tourist entertainment and scenic locations without worrying about violating Muslim teachings and traditions. Turkey soon followed suit. Many more countries are now trying to attract tourists from Muslim countries for economic gains, and thus have come to show more respect for their religious beliefs. Halal tourism is now flying planes where no alcohol or pork products are served and prayer times are announced. Religious programmes are also included in the onboard entertainment menu. Today, many international hotels serve Halal food that is slaughtered in accordance with Muslim teachings and is free of pork products, and more assistants of Arab origin are being employed to help in translation and other matters. The concept of Islamic hotels in the Middle East is increasingly on the rise as well, first in the UAE, spreading through a chain that was set up by the Gulf state’s investors. The Emirates Investment Group plans to build 150 hotels around the world by 2013, beginning in Egypt, the UAE and Malaysia, then moving on to Europe, the US and even China. |SOURCE: GLOBALIAMAGAZINE.COM, 25 SEPTEMBER 2008

UK

HALAL SUBWAY OPENED WITHOUT FOOD CONSENT

A Subway store hailed as the first in the city to offer Halal meat was opened without permission from the council. MK Council has demanded that the fast food franchise, which opened in Farthing Grove, Netherfield recently, submit a retrospective planning application. The branch has 28 days to make an application, during which time the branch can stay open. The outlet’s Development Manager Tesh Patel said: “I think the issue was that we made the relevant enquiries which led us to believe that consent was there. It transpired after we built the store that it is not part of the planning consent. “That’s why we are where we are. The council has asked us to put together an application. But I don’t think we’ll have an issue there -- it’s not as if the shop is out of keeping with the bank of other shops there.” |SOURCE: MK-NEWS.CO.UK, 24 SEPTEMBER 2008 14 THE HALAL JOURNAL | NOV+DEC 2008

11 – 13TH NOVEMBER 2008 HALAL WORLD EXPO – ABU DHABI IIR Middle East PO Box 28943, Dubai, UAE IIR Middle East Tel: +971 4 3365161 Fax: +971 4 336 5886 Email: mike.hughes@iirme.com Website: www.halalworldexpo.com 18 – 19TH NOVEMBER 2008 5TH KUALA LUMPUR ISLAMIC FINANCE FORUM 2008 Istana Hotel, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia CERT Events Sdn Bhd Tel: +603 4108 1439 Fax: +603 4106 1549 Email: najib@cert.com.my Website: www.kliff2008.com 23 – 26TH NOVEMBER 2008 2ND HALAL EXPO 2008 - DUBAI Crowne Plaza, Dubai Tel: +971 4 2987730 Fax: +971 4 2987886 Email: orangex@emirates.net.ae Website: www.worldhalalexpos.com (TBA) DECEMBER 2008 INDEPENDENT POVERTY DIALOGUE Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Dasar Kurnia Sdn Bhd Tel: +603 6203 1025 Fax: +603 6203 4072 Email: anne@dasarkurnia.org Website: www.dasarkurnia.org 12 – 13TH JANUARY 2009 BRIDGING INTO MARKET – ISLAMIC SUKUK 2009 V Singapore Avail Corporation Ltd. Tel: +86 21 6229 1717 ext.116 Fax: +86 21 6229 1718 Email: awong@availcorp.com Website: www.availcorp.com 15 – 16TH JANUARY 2009 BRIDGING INTO MARKET – ISLAMIC SUKUK 2009 VI Hong Kong Avail Corporation Ltd. Tel: +86 21 6229 1717 ext.116 Fax: +86 21 6229 1718 Email: awong@availcorp.com Website: www.availcorp.com (TBA) JANUARY 2009 WORLD ISLAMIC SERVICES FORUM Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia KasehDia Sdn Bhd Tel: +603 6203 1025 Fax: +603 6203 4072 Email: info@kasehdia.com Website: www.worldislamicservicesforum.org (TBA) JANUARY 2009 THE STRATEGIC RICE AND FOOD SECURITY CONFERENCE Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia KasehDia Sdn Bhd Tel: +603 6203 1025 Fax: +603 6203 4072 Email: info@kasehdia.com Website: www.foodsecurityconference.org 23-26TH FEBRUARY 2009 GULFOOD 2009 Dubai International Convention & Exhibition Centre, UAE Dubai World Trade Centre L.L.C., Tel: +971 4 308 6081 Fax: +971 4 318 8607 Email: gulfood@dwtc.com Website: www.gulfood.com 23-26TH FEBRUARY 2009 INGREDIENTS MIDDLE EAST 2009 Airport Expo Dubai, UAE Dubai World Trade Centre L.L.C. Tel: +971 4 308 6081 Fax: +971 4 318 8607 Email: ingredientsme@dwtc.com Website: www.gulfood.com


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event highlights EVENT: WORLD HALAL FORUM INDUSTRY DIALOGUE (WHF-ID) SARAWAK DATE: DECEMBER 2008 / JANUARY 2009 (TBA) VENUE: KUCHING, SARAWAK, MALAYSIA

INVESTMENT AND HALAL INDUSTRIAL ZONE DEVELOPMENT The World Halal Forum Industry Dialogues (WHF-ID) are designed to create understanding in different industry sectors and to focus on specific issues faced by industry players, governments and Halal industry stakeholders alike. WHF-ID Sarawak will focus on specific aspects of the Halal industry, including investment and the implementation of the spatial cluster development concept, such as with the Halal industrial zone. A successful development cluster needs comprehensive support, including banking and financial services, together with dedicated industrial or manufacturing infrastructure to support integrated Halal production throughout the value

chain: from farm to fork to finance. The discussions and resolutions reached at the WHF-ID Sarawak will be used as input for further deliberations at the World Halal Forum in 2009. The WHF-ID Sarawak will cover the following key topics: Cluster or zoning approach – Developing successful clusters to penetrate global Halal markets Halal industrial zone – Best practices and service requirements Preserving Halal

integrity Waqf – A productive asset for the development of the Halal industry Investment opportunities and structures for Halal industrial zones hj For more information, or to register, log on to www.worldhalalforum. org or contact the WHF-ID Sarawak Secretariat at +603 6203 1025 or email info@kasehdia.com.

EVENT: 6TH INTERNATIONAL ISLAMIC FINANCE CONFERENCE (IIFC) 2008 DATE: 13 – 14 OCTOBER 2008 VENUE: JW MARRIOTT, KUALA LUMPUR, MALAYSIA

TREMENDOUS RESPONSE AT THE 6TH IIFC 2008 Captivated! Participants of the IIFC 6 attentively listening...

The 6th International Islamic Finance Conference, held from 13-14 October, received a tremendous response from the participating audience. Officiated by Institute Bank-Bank Malaysia’s (IBBM) Chief Executive Officer, Dr Mohd Kamal Khir, the conference had a total of 300 participants. They came from different backgrounds ranging from financial industries to academia, and discussed issues including Islamic finance products and the market’s ability to face the current financial crisis. Asian Finance Bank Bhd Chief Operating Officer Daud Vicary Abdullah said that local Islamic banks should be more proactive in tapping potential cross-border transactions, especially with the Middle East. “It will be difficult for a local Islamic bank in Malaysia to market their products in, say, the Middle East without having a local presence there. You can do a roadshow, but what happens after that?” he said. Daud was the keynote speaker at the conference, which was jointly organised by Monash University, IBBM and the Islamic Banking and Finance Institute Malaysia (IBFIM). According to Daud, for Islamic finance to grow, move forward and capitalise on the enormous growth potential, there should be greater cooperation among industry players and better coordination to address the issue of Shariah harmonisation. At the same time, he added, local Islamic financial institutions also have to be proactive in analysing client demand, designing products to fit market needs, using a mix of marketing tools and media to inform their customer base and pushing to sell. “There is also the need for more intense competition (and a) clearer message, with nuanced products having a distinguished unique selling proposition,” he said On cross-border deals, PricewaterhouseCoopers

16 THE HALAL JOURNAL | NOV+DEC 2008

Taxation Sdn Bhd Senior Executive Director Jennifer Chang said the treatment of taxation varies from country to country. She noted that Middle Eastern businesses are used to having a tax-free regime, unlike countries such as Malaysia and Singapore. She said that Singapore and Hong Kong have effected various changes to their taxation regulations to achieve tax neutrality. “Both Singapore and Hong Kong have replicated what Malaysia has done (on the taxation front)

to be competitive. Indonesia, however, is a regime where you still have a high VAT (value added tax) and stamp duty,” she said. This was an issue also being faced by countries like Japan and China in implementing Islamic finance, Chang added. “Until they come out with specific tax legislation for Islamic finance products, you may want to avoid dabbling in deals involving asset transfers,” she told the conference. The organisers look forward to another hj successful conference next year.


event highlights EVENT: WHF CEO ROUNDTABLE - TRADE AND MARKET ACCESS DATE: 6TH NOVEMBER 2008 VENUE: LEVEL 3, MATRADE EXHIBITION & CONVENTION CENTRE (MECC), MATRADE KUALA LUMPUR, MALAYSIA

DISCUSSING TRADE AND MARKET ACCESS The World Halal Forum (WHF) CEO Roundtable series is an initiative in line with the World Halal Forum Charter, which is designed to assist and support the development of world-class Halal industry standards covering the entire value chain. With trade and market access being a recurring theme and a major topic during the recent WHF 2008, the second CEO Roundtable, themed Trade and Market Access, is specifically tailored to deal with issues at the highest level, enabling companies to make strategic decisions and to understand the cutting edge of the Halal industry. “Trade of Halal goods and services is growing at a rapid rate, creating increased competition and significantly widening the information gap between the Muslim world and Halal suppliers. This may be the biggest challenge facing the continued growth of this industry,” said Nordin Abdullah, Deputy Chairman of the World Halal Forum. In order to understand the industry and its issues and challenges, the CEO Roundtable will be highlighting key areas such as: Local investment strategies for overseas market

penetration Understanding destination regulatory requirements Global standards and impact on trade Increasing intra OIC trade ASEAN Free Trade agreements Navigating foreign markets Multi-lateral vs. bilateral agreements and impact on business Benefits and roles of Islamic trade finance Increasing global Halal trade and the challenges it presents Strategic reverse investment as a trade facilitator The CEO Roundtable is expected to help companies position themselves to take the best advantage of the Halal industry. It will be a platform for them to discuss, identify and outline a standard of unity for the industry and supply chain, benefiting the entire sector and supporting sustainable development.

For success in the globalised economy, government officials, the business community, and representatives from academia and non-governmental organisations must have opportunities to discuss steps that will lead to effective strategies and smart partnerships between the public and private sectors. It is hoped that this CEO Roundtable meeting will generate ideas to meet the challenges and sustain the momentum in the development of the global Halal industry. hj For more information, or to register, log on to www.worldhalalforum.org, contact the WHF CEO Roundtable Secretariat at +603 6203 1025 or email info@kasehdia.com.

EVENT: THE STRATEGIC RICE AND FOOD SECURITY CONFERENCE (FOSECO) DATE: DECEMBER 2008 / JANUARY 2009 (TBA) VENUE: KUCHING, SARAWAK, MALAYSIA

FOOD CRISIS AND FOOD SECURITY - A GLOBAL ISSUE of the problem, along with an array of possible solutions. FOSECO aims to outline, identify and provide an optimal base of opportunity for stakeholders to understand and embrace the underlying reasons behind spiralling food costs and the fundamental role it plays in national security.

As Asia’s population grows the ability of nations and regions to achieve sustainable food security will be stretched to the limit. Food prices have already been rising, while increasing oil prices have led to higher logistics and production costs. “High prices and supply shortages are not going to go away any time soon,” Prime Minister of Malaysia Dato’ Seri Abdullah Ahmad Badawi said recently. “With populations rising geometrically and with the escalating demand for food, the food crisis is something that cannot be put on the back burner.” The issue of food security will be addressed at The Strategic Rice and Food Security Conference (FOSECO). It is a timely platform that provides a basic understanding

18 THE HALAL JOURNAL | NOV+DEC 2008

FOSECO will be covering vital topics such as: • Role of high-tech agriculture and biotechnology • A lack of agricultural land • Role of Sarawak as the rice bowl of Malaysia and Southeast Asia • Food security and trade liberalisation • Regional cooperation and the supply of rice. • The ASEAN Food Security Reserve and the East Asia Emergency Rice Reserve • Eradication of poverty via

agro-development • Trade and investment in rice production • Food security in the Muslim World The conference will culminate in all stakeholders – including policy makers, industry leaders, business communities and the media – having a better understanding of the forces causing the food crisis, the ideal solutions and the opportunities it presents for the rice industry. Through this conference, it is hoped that solutions will be identified for the over one billion people affected by the food crisis. hj For more information, or to register, log on to www.foodsecurityconference.org or contact the FOSECO Secretariat at +603 6203 1025 or email info@kasehdia.com.


event highlights EVENT : 14TH GULFOOD EXHIBITION DATE : 23 – 26 FEBRUARY 2009 VENUE : DUBAI INTERNATIONAL CONVENTION AND EXHIBITION CENTRE, & AIRPORT EXPO DUBAI, UAE

GULFOOD WELCOMES THE WORLD

Gulfood, one of the world’s top exhibitions for the food, drink, foodservice and hospitality industry is preparing for its biggest edition yet with four exciting days of dedicated events and programmes, including the colocated Ingredients Middle East Exhibition, Restaurant & Cafe Middle East, Emirates International Salon Culinaire, the renowned Dubai International Food and Safety Conference and a comprehensive programme for the beverage industry. To meet the increased industry demand, Gulfood will expand to a record 80,000 sqm, and will for the first time be held at two local venues; the Dubai International Convention and Exhibition Centre, and Airport Expo Dubai. Airport Expo Dubai will provide a showcase for hundreds of products and exhibitors now able to participate for the first time, including major new country pavilions such as Afghanistan, Hong Kong, Iran, Kuwait, Pakistan and many more. Gulfood will welcome over 3,300 international companies from more than 150 countries keen to establish and build upon the regions reputation as an important trading hub. With over 90 per cent of food items in the GCC imported, new opportunities for producers and distributors are extensive and this growing market has attracted 80 governmentsponsored country pavilions specialising in the food and hospitality sector such Bulgaria, Iceland, Montenegro and Russia, among others, as well as representation from government trade bodies and export associations. All of these features will provide the region with a comprehensive, one-stop-supply-shop where visitors and exhibitors can learn about the dynamics of each country’s food industry, discuss business and trade opportunities, and network with companies from every major producer nation. Gulfood will provide a tailor-made environment to each visitor and exhibitor in the following areas: INGREDIENTS MIDDLE EAST Ingredients Middle East will co-locate with Gulfood to form one of the world’s first exhibitions to bring together the industrial sector with food manufacturers and

processors. The co-location will form the definitive trade platform in the region and deliver a unique global perspective for industry professionals. RESTAURANT & CAFE MIDDLE EAST Held alongside Gulfood, Restaurant & Café Middle East is a highly specialised trade exhibition designed to meet the needs of industry professionals involved in every step of the restaurant and café set up and operation. Trade visitors will be able to source from hundreds of suppliers showcasing everything from interior designs, tableware and furnishings. EMIRATES INTERNATIONAL SALON CULINAIRE The world renowned Emirates International Salon Culinaire aim to dazzle trade visitors and exhibitors alike with cookery demonstrations; live cooking competitions; ice carving demonstrations; buffet and banqueting showpieces; pastry and sugar set pieces; and bakery and confectionery innovations. DUBAI INTERNATIONAL FOOD AND SAFETY CONFERENCE The 4th Dubai International Food Safety Conference, organised by Dubai Municipality, will also be present to examine the challenges and issues in the Middle East market with renowned speakers from around the world addressing topics including food safety systems, new regulations and best practices.

BEVERAGE OPPORTUNITY WORKSHOPS Organised by Zenith International one of the world’s leading drinks consultancies, the Beverage Opportunity Workshop will provide a comprehensive programme for the beverage industry and offer research and insights into issues that are critical to the beverage sector in the region. Gulfood exhibitors from across the globe will be able to leverage their investment in Gulfood to build a strategic business platform, take a bigger share of business with the region, and utilise Dubai’s position as a re-exporting hub. With dedicated areas within Gulfood, visitors will also find it easier to find the right suppliers for specific products and services – offering visitors a comprehensive A-Z solution for the entire industry. The 14th Gulfood Exhibition, organised by Dubai World Trade Centre, will be held at the Dubai International Convention and Exhibition Centre and Airport Expo Dubai from 23-26 February 2009. A complimentary transport service for visitors between the hj two venues will be available. Interested trade visitors are advised to pre-register online at www.gulfood.com where they can qualify for free entry. Industry business professionals on the day of the show can buy either register at Airport Expo Dubai for free entry to both venues or visit Dubai International Convention Centre and purchase a Day Pass for AED 50, or a Four Day Pass for AED 100.

THE HALAL JOURNAL | NOV+DEC 2008

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event highlights EVENT: 6TH MALAYSIA INTERNATIONAL HALAL SHOWCASE DATE: 6-10TH MAY 2009 VENUE: MATRADE EXHIBITION AND CONVENTION CENTRE (MECC), KUALA LUMPUR, MALAYSIA

WINNING IN THE HALAL MARKET What separates the winners from the losers is how a person reacts to each new twist of fate.

Seeking opportunities at MIHAS 2008 business matching sessions...

– Donald Trump The global Halal market is on the threshold of major developments that promise rapid and sustained growth. Should local companies succeed in tapping the overseas market there is no doubt that Malaysia, which boasts the best Halal certification standard and system, would obtain a big share of the global Halal industry, estimated to be worth some USD580 billion. Malaysia, via its agencies and ministries, has put into place necessary incentives, infrastructure, programmes and Halal-related events to assist local manufacturers in developing necessary competitive advantages and in facilitating local companies to expand their business networks. However, Malaysia is not the only country that covets the Halal market. Stiff competition comes from both Muslim and non-Muslim countries including Brunei, Thailand, Singapore, the Philippines and Australia. Strategies are being implemented to pocket a slice of the pie, including Halal trade fairs, branding and the establishment of research centres. One such initiative is the upcoming Malaysia International Halal Showcase (MIHAS) 2009, to be held from May 6-10 at the MATRADE Exhibition and Convention Centre in Kuala Lumpur. Organised by the Malaysian External Trade Development Corporation (MATRADE), it will be the most lucrative avenue for local and foreign participants to offer Halal-related products and services. Now, in its sixth year, MIHAS has grown to be the largest Halal trade fair in the world. Within five years, MIHAS has recorded total sales of RM3.8 billion. The consistently large numbers of local and foreign delegates who attend reflect a growing interest in the global Halal market and an increased awareness of Halal products. Clearly, there is untapped regional and global potential for Malaysian Halal products. Malaysia’s Halal certification is excellent branding for local products competing in foreign markets, but this alone does not guarantee sales.

20 THE HALAL JOURNAL | NOV+DEC 2008

Other basic requirements which entrepreneurs should focus on include those of the classic’ 4Ps strategy: product, pricing, promotion and place. It is also vital for Halal producers to identify and cater to their market segments, to meet quality standards and legal and technological requirements, and to see to production capacity. The focus on Halal products should not detract from the fact that today’s educated consumers increasingly expect manufacturers to adhere to the standards of quality manufacturing processes which reflect concern for the environment, safety and health. The markets of the developed countries for instance, are introducing new rules and regulations which require exporters of products such as food, to observe stringent procedures in manufacturing. Manufacturers must keep in tandem with these

developments to ensure sustained market acceptance for their products. Malaysia has begun to carve its name as a manufacturing and production hub as indicated in the Third Industrial Master Plan (IMP3). Manufacturers must fully understand the manifestations of Halal certification and strive to gain the widest possible market outreach for Malaysian Halal products. Halal product entrepreneurs should take advantage of MIHAS, the platform which has successfully drawn the world’s Halal players under one roof to meet, network and trade. hj

To find out more about what MIHAS offers for your businesses, please contact the MIHAS SECRETARIAT at Tel: +603 6203 4433 or Fax: +603 6203 4422. Email to enquiry@halal.org.my or log on to www.halal.com.my.


Cover Story

WORDS BY DR. DAVID E. LONG

THE HAJJ Each year, 2 million Muslims perform the Hajj or Great Pilgrimage to Makkah – the birthplace of the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) and where the Qur’an was first revealed to him. One of the Five Pillars of Islam, the Hajj is required of all believers once in their lifetimes provided they are physically, mentally and financially able.

S

ura 3: 90-91 of the Qur’an states: “And the Pilgrimage to the Temple (the Hajj) is an obligation to God from those who are able to journey there.” Although it is not technically a part of the Hajj, most Hajjis then visit alMadinah, 450 kilometres to the north. In 622 AD, Muhammad (pbuh) and his followers fled to al-Madinah from mounting persecution in Makkah. The flight, known as the Hijrah, marks the beginning of the Muslim, or Hijriyyah calendar. Many of the Suras of the Qur’an were written down in al-Madinah. Although many religions have pilgrimages, the Hajj is virtually unique in its worldwide participation and sheer size. It is hard for anyone who has not been in the Kingdom during the Hajj to appreciate its full scope. How can a country with a relatively small population such as Saudi Arabia maintain such a good record in administering it each year? The following is a brief overview of administrative, political, economic, and social significance of the Hajj on Saudi Arabia and indeed the entire Muslim world. THE IMPACT OF THE HAJJ ON SAUDI PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION

Due to tremendous advances in transportation and communications technology, the Hajj has changed more in the past eight decades since Saudi Arabia formally 22 THE HALAL JOURNAL | NOV+DEC 2008

became guardians of the Holy Places in 1926 than it had in the previous 1,300 years of Islamic history. In 1927, an estimated 300 to 350 thousand attended with only about 150,000 from outside the Kingdom. In 1972, there was a total of 1,042,007 Hajjis, including 353,460 Saudis; 209,208 non-Saudi residents; and 479,339 from abroad. Today, approximately 2 million people perform the Hajj every year. The unprecedented increase in the numbers of pilgrims has greatly increased the complexity of Hajj administration. Just to make room for foreign Hajjis, the Saudi government has restricted attendance by Saudis, many of whom formerly often attended every year, to once every five years; and has negotiated visa quotas for foreign Hajjis with their countries of origin. Another huge logistical problem is how to dispose of the remains of the thousands of sheep annually sacrificed at Mina. For years, families

were allowed to keep only what they consumed during the Eid and the rest was buried in huge pits. In recent years, however, an abattoir has been constructed to preserve the meat, and Hajjis may now purchase a sheep from an Islamic bank to be sacrificed in accordance with Islamic practice, with the meat then distributed to the poor throughout the Muslim world. Increasing numbers of Hajjis are choosing this option, which combines piety with charity. Providing Zamzam water for so many Hajjis is a major task. Traditionally, the Zamzamis roamed the Haram Mosque providing water to all who asked. But with so many pilgrims today, they must now store the water well in advance, replenish portable containers and paper cups in numerous, strategically located places around the mosque, and continuously refill them as needed. A charitable foundation also bottles Zamzam water for sale throughout the world.


AND ITS IMPACT ON SAUDI ARABIA AND THE MUSLIM WORLD To meet these administrative needs, the Saudi government has established a combination of public services and government regulated privately administered Hajj services:

Magazine cover, contents and cover story picture by G.M FAROOQ, Pakistan.

THE HAJJ PRIVATE SERVICE INDUSTRY

For centuries, Hajj administration was largely in the hands of ancient, family-organised guilds that arranged for food, lodging and transportation, and also guided pilgrims through the Hajj rites: Wakils, or Agents, who guided them to Makkah, usually from the nearby port city of Jeddah; the Mutawwifs (from the word Tawaf ), who guided Hajjis through the Hajj rites; Zamzamis, who distributed Zamzam water; and Dallils (or Guides) who guided visitors to al-Madinah. Lacking the resources to take over these tasks, King Abd al-Aziz (“Ibn Saud�) left them in the hands of the guilds. As the Hajj was the backbone of the economy of the Hijaz, the guilds had traditionally charged literally whatever the Hajj traffic would bear. However, the Saudi government, which takes its responsibility as custodian of the Two Holy Places very seriously, strictly regulates the guilds in order to insure that the Hajjis not be overcharged. Today, the guilds function much as public utilities. To the present day, the principal responsibility for providing personal services to the Hajjis rests with the Mutawwifs, who act essentially as religious tour guide companies for designated countries of origin. They are responsible for looking after the Hajjis under their care from the time they leave home for Saudi Arabia until they return home again. The Hajj service industry also includes other regulated private sector enterprises. Overland bus

transportation is provided by a combination of foreign and Saudi public and private companies. Of the 11,5000 buses in service in the 2002 Hajj, the Saudi Transportation Syndicate, made up of several private companies, provided 7,000, and the Saudi Arabian Public Transportation Company (SAPTCO) provided 600. SAPTCO is a publicly traded, government-managed company whose board of directors is chaired by the Undersecretary of Communications. It was created 24 years ago to provide bus scheduled intercity and international service and chartered service for the Hajj and Umrah. The rest of the buses come from foreign countries. In 1945, Saudi Arabia established Saudi Arabian Airlines (Saudia) as a national air carrier. In addition to providing domestic and international air service, it was also given the mission to provide service for Muslims on pilgrimage to the Holy Cities of Islam in Saudi Arabia. Public and private Islamic foundations also are involved in operations such as providing and distributing sacrificed meat and Zamzam water. The Ministry of Awqaf also acts as a repository

for those who wish to donate charitable contributions as a part of their Hajj experience. HAJJ PUBLIC SERVICES

In addition to governmentregulated and government-owned Hajj service companies, Saudi Arabia must also provide extensive direct government services for the Hajj. Overall services are coordinated by the Hajj Ministry and the interagency Central Hajj Committee. Public safety, public security and traffic control are provided by the Ministry of Interior, and when a special crisis arises, it can also call on the National Guard. It is responsible for regulating entry and exit from the Kingdom at all land, sea and air ports of entry, and insuring their safe overland travel to and from Makkah and al-Madinah. Modern health services were originally created in the 19th century because of fear in Europe and America over the spread of cholera. Asian Hajjis brought cholera to Makkah, and North African Hajjis spread it from there to Europe and America. The Western powers pressured the Ottoman sultan to create an international organisation called the Paris Office of Hygiene to THE HALAL JOURNAL | NOV+DEC 2008

23


Cover Story oversee the health and sanitation aspects of the Hajj. After World War II, the newly formed World Health Organization assumed this responsibility after absorbing the Paris Office. In 1956, the Saudi Ministry of Health assumed responsibility for Hajj health and sanitation and now operates extensive preventative and curative health and sanitation facilities at all major Hajj locations. The Saudi Red Crescent Society also participates, operating first aid and other facilities. Of lesser magnitude but equally important, personnel in Saudi Embassies and Consulates abroad must be augmented each year to process foreign Hajj visa applications. At home, the Foreign Ministry also plays host to VIPs making the Hajj, including cabinet ministers, heads of state and other important personages.

In recent years, Islamic religious tourism has been expanded far beyond the Hajj. Many Muslims from all over the world now perform the Umrah all year round. HAJJ INFRASTRUCTURE

The government has also spent billions of dollars on Hajj infrastructure. This has included major expansions of the two holy mosques in Makkah and al-Madinah. The Haram Mosque can now comfortably accommodate a million worshipers and twice that number during the Hajj. There are also two new levels to increase capacity for performing the Sa`y. The Prophet’s Mosque in al-Madinah has also been expanded, although the crowds are smaller there during the Hajj. In Mina, the space for throwing stones at the three Jamras has been increased to three tiers. To accommodate overland transportation at the Hajj, the Saudi government has constructed hundreds of miles of all weather, four lane highways, particularly between Arafat and Mina. It has also installed a fully computerised traffic control system. Each year, portable tent cities are set up at `Arafat and Mina to provide housing, food, water, health and sanitation, transportation, telecommunications, public safety, banking facilities, markets - indeed all amenities of a city of 2 million people. All in all, nearly every Saudi government agency and ministry becomes involved one way or another in making the Hajj an administrative success. THE POLITICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF THE HAJJ

The Saudi government has always maintained a strict policy banning political activity under the pretext of attending the Hajj, welcoming Muslims regardless of their political persuasion. Nevertheless, over the years there have been a number of political activists that have 24 THE HALAL JOURNAL | NOV+DEC 2008

tried to use the occasion to press their political agendas. During the height of Arab socialism, radical Arab nationalists made periodic attempts to embarrass the Saudi regime by disrupting the Hajj, but none of them were successful. Now the Hajj has remained a peaceful and joyous occasion as it was intended to be.

lailat al-qadir, or “night of power,” some three million people perform Tarawih prayers in the Haram Mosque, more than at the Hajj. With year round visits now to the two Holy Places, there are no published figures that break out gross revenues generated by the Hajj, but they are estimated to be in the billions of dollars, including annual government expenditures.

THE ECONOMIC IMPACT OF THE HAJJ

THE SOCIAL IMPACT OF THE HAJJ

Prior to the oil era, the Hajj was the economic backbone of the Saudi economy. With vast oil wealth, the government no longer depend on Hajj revenue, but it is still a major source of income for the private sector. In addition to the Hajj service industry, the Hajj is a major season for the consumer retail as well, somewhat analogous to the Christmas season in the United States. Hajjis from third world countries in particular buy items that are hard to get or highly taxed at home, such as medicines and luxury items such as perfumes and jewellery. In 2003, about 1,500 young Saudis have been hired and trained to accompany the Hajjis on their sacred journey. According to the project director, the aim of the project is to create employment for Saudi youth while helping guests and serving in the worship of God. In recent years, Islamic religious tourism has been expanded far beyond the Hajj. Many Muslims from all over the world now perform the Umrah all year round. The fasting month of Ramadhan is particularly a busy season, as many Saudi residents also flock to the Holy Places. As the month draws to an end, Muslims celebrate the anniversary of the first revelation of the Qur’an. On this

In its size and global scope, the Hajj is the greatest single ritual celebration, not just of Islam, but of any religion anywhere. As one of the Five Pillars of Islam, it is an obligation for the 1.8 billion Muslims in the world’s population. During the month of Dhu al-Hijjah, virtually the entire population of Saudi Arabia is intimately touched by the Hajj, whether directly in its administration, its service industry, as a purveyor of personal goods and services, or indirectly by observing it on television. The Eid al-Adha, observed at the end of the Hajj, is celebrated throughout the Muslim world as a time of worship and fellowship with family and friends. Unlike the impact of the Hajj on many foreign visitors, whose journey is a mystical, once in a lifetime experience, the Saudi experience while visiting the Islamic Holy Places, during the Hajj or at any other time of year, is a local, accessible reality. The sites are the physical and geographical manifestation of the birth of Islam. This blending of the highly sacred and the familiar commonplace has permeated Saudi society to such an extraordinary degree that it can be felt in virtually every human endeavour: from politics to business to simple recreation. hj

Note: Dr. David E. Long is a consultant on Middle East and Gulf affairs and international terrorism. Dr. Long has been an adjunct professor at several Washington area universities, including Georgetown, George Washington and American Universities and the Johns Hopkins University’s School of Advanced International Studies. He has also lectured extensively in the United States and abroad on topics relating to the Islam, the Middle East and terrorism. This article originally appeared in the SaudiAmerican Forum in February 2003 and can now be found on www.susris.org • The other pillars are the Shahada, or Profession of Faith: “There is no god but God and Muhammad is the Prophet of God”; Salah: regular prayer five times a day while facing Makkah; Zakat: charitable giving; and Sawm: fasting from sunup to sundown during the Muslim month of Ramadhan. • The Muslim, or Hijriyyah calendar, designated “AH,” began on July 16, 622. Its lunar years are eleven days shorter than the solar year, resulting in the Hajj beginning earlier each solar year. • The Saudis were actually in control of Makkah in 1925, and allowed to perform the Hajj, though numbers were greatly reduced. • Long, The Hajj Today, p. 135. Figures are derived from collating multiple sources.

• The Saudi Arabian Information Resource, 18 December 2002, (http://www.saudinf.com/main/y5068.htm ). • Saudi Arabian Airlines, “The Story of Saudi Arabian Airlines,” (pamphlet, 1970), pages unnumbered. • See David E. Long, The Hajj Today, (Albany, NY: SUNY Press, 1979), pp. 76-87. • Greg Noakes, “The Servants of God’s House,” Aramco World, January/February 1999, pp. 48, ff. • Saudi Arabian Information Resource, 14 January 2003, ( http://www.saudinfo.com/main/y5204 ) • Noakes, Loc. cit. www.saudi-us-relations.org/fact-book/specialsections/2007/hajj/index.html


HALAL LOGISTIC SERIES > PART 1 OF 3

A CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTOR OF YOUR HALAL SUPPLY CHAIN

Words By IR. MARCO TIEMAN

Halal logistics has taken o in Malaysia and the industry is determined to claim a leading role in global Halal logistics and trade. Companies such as Century Logistics, MISC, MIHAP Holdings, Northport and Westport have been pioneering Malaysia’s Halal logistics ambitions. But more is on the way – LBB Teams (M) Sdn Bhd, a Malaysian company, will host the online marketplace for Halal storage. This marketplace facilitates the search process for Halal storage space anywhere in the world.

s logistics is crossborder in nature, there is a need for Halalcompliant storage and warehouse facilities at key gateways, production countries and consumer countries. This Halal storage marketplace will provide a transparent look at available Halal storage facilities and the demand for Halal storage space. This will also stimulate the logistics industry in providing Halal storage facilities and services for the rapidly-growing Halal market. The warehousing marketplace is confusing and crowded with hundreds of logistics service providers, thousands of third-party warehouses and a million and one ways of organising your global supply chains. Adding to this complexity is the need for Halal-compliant logistics facilitation of sourcing and distribution for the manufacturer, which puts high requirements on the logistics industry. On the other hand, the supply of Halal logistics services has not been in tandem with the need for these services. One of the possible reasons is the absence of a global Halal logistics standard. 26 THE HALAL JOURNAL | NOV+DEC 2008

The International Halal Integrity Alliance Ltd (IHI Alliance) has taken the initiative to develop a global Halal logistics standard, an international guideline on how to organise logistics in compliance with the general principles of Shariah law. This standard will pave the way for a new era in creating a true, Halal-compliant supply chain. WAREHOUSING

Halal Logistics is about embedding excellence in the supply chain during the sourcing, production and distribution processes. When a manufacturer puts a Halal logo on the products, it is a promise that sourcing, manufacturing and distribution is Halalcompliant. The consumer assumes that the manufacturer takes care to ensure Halal compliance throughout the supply chain. This means there is a need for Halal storage facilities worldwide. It is therefore important to better understand the role of a warehouse and the function of storage in the supply chain. As goods move through the supply chain, they are in one of the following three stages: movement, transformation or storage. Movements involve both the external and internal transportation of goods. Storage takes place for

raw materials (ingredients, additives), components, semifinished products and final products. The transformation of the product happens through slaughtering, production and value-added activities (like repackaging, labelling, etc). Figure 1 provides an example of a supply chain life cycle for a Halal product. As can be seen from this overview, goods spend a lot of time in storage and relatively little time in movements and transformations. This is an important argument for Shariah-compliant storage. The second argument is that the warehouse has important functions and processes that are sensitive to cross-contamination. The following warehouse functions can be distinguished (Van den Berg, 2007): 1 - Break-bulk 2 - Storage 3 - Consolidation 4 - Customisation Break-bulk allows products to arrive in large quantities and then be shipped in small quantities to their various destinations. This enables economies of scale upstream in production, purchasing and transportation. On the other hand, goods can be delivered just in time to the customers from this warehouse.

Storage helps to bridge the time between supply (when it is available) and demand (when it is needed). In order to reduce storage costs, these storage facilities are big complexes (to provide economies of scale) with a wide range of products stored (which might not be all Halal). The consolidation function combines small volumes of various product ranges into a single delivery. This increases the cost efficiency of outbound transport. However, would this mean that Halal products would be combined


Figure 1: Supply Chain Life Cycle

Source: Van de Berg, 2007

TIME

Storage helps to bridge the time between supply (when it is available) and demand (when it is needed).

Movement

Storage

WHAT ARE THE COSTS? Transformation

Figure 2: Warehouse Processes

Source: LBB Teams (M) Sdn Bhd

CROSS DOCK

INBOUND HANDLING

STORAGE

OUTBOUND HANDLING

VAL

inbound handling (receiving and put-a-way), storage, cross-docking, value-added logistics (VAL) and outbound handling (order picking and shipping). Segregation of goods (flows), physical handling and packaging are important themes that need to be looked into for a Halal-compliant warehouse. HALALSTORAGE.COM WHAT IS IT AND WHAT VALUE DOES IT OFFER?

with non-Halal products? Customisation or valueadded logistics takes place to meet the specific requirements of the end market. Some examples of these activities are labelling, packaging, promotions, and manuals in a certain language for a certain market (common for pharmaceuticals). Are there possibilities of crosscontamination in these physical activities? Cross-contamination can happen in the various stages of the warehouse processes (Figure 2), such as

Halalstorage.com is a marketplace for Halal storage. It provides transparency in the availability of Halal storage worldwide and Halal storage space needed by the Halal industry. Halalstorage.com can also search globally for a suitable Halal storage facility required by a customer. HOW DOES IT WORK? I HAVE HALAL STORAGE SPACE AVAILABLE...

Logistics service providers and logistics property developers can first of all search the database “Halal Storage Needed” for industry players that are looking for Halal

If there is no match or in urgent cases, the Halalstorage.com team works actively to search and/or promote the appropriate Halal storage space.

storage space in a certain country and location. When there is a match, they can liaise with the contact person listed for further inquiries and come up with an agreement to use this Halal storage facility. Logistics service providers and logistics property developers can also register themselves online at “Halal storage available” with the full specifications of their facilities. I NEED A HALAL STORAGE SPACE...

Manufacturers, traders, retailers and logistics service providers who are looking for Halal storage space can first search the database “Available Halal Storage” for Halal storage facilities that are available for a certain country and location. When there is interest in a certain facility, a contact person is listed for further enquiries or for rental or purchase agreements. Companies can also register themselves online at “Halal Storage Needed” with the full requirements of the storage facility that they are looking for.

Warehouse facilities are listed free of charge. Customers looking for warehouse space can also specify their warehouse requirements free of charge. The service provides a choice for suppliers and customers of Halal storage space to either make direct contact in matchmaking or use the available facilitation services. THE TEAM

Halalstorage.com was founded by LBB Teams (M) Sdn Bhd, a Malaysian logistics consulting, research and supply chain management firm based in Kuala Lumpur with an international track record in Halal logistics. Halalstorage. com has an important social objective, namely to increase the availability of Halal storage facilities worldwide in order to better facilitate global Halal trade and to reduce the cost of Halal logistics. According to LBB Teams, the company has an important mission to bring Halal logistics to the world. The company is determined to sacrifice resources for this purpose in the education and promotion of Halal logistics worldwide. Halal storage is a critical success factor for the Halal industry to move the Halal integrity truly from farm to fork. Halalstorage.com provides the solution for the Halal industry that requires suitable storage facilities at consumer markets, supplying countries and gateways in the world. hj References: Van de Berg, J.P. (2007), Integral Warehouse Management, The next generation in transparency, collaboration and warehouse management systems, Management Outlook Publications, Utrecht, the Netherlands

Read the second part in the next edition, which will delve into the topic of Halal transportation... THE HALAL JOURNAL | NOV+DEC 2008

27


BRANDING STRATEGIES FOR HALAL FOOD COMPANIES IN THE GLOBAL HALAL FOOD INDUSTRY, A BRAND RESEMBLES THE WAY A PARTICULAR PRODUCT IS PRODUCED, PROCESSED AND DISTRIBUTED ACCORDING TO A CERTAIN LEVEL OF HALAL ASSURANCE AND INTEGRITY.

Words By IRFAN SUNGKAR, KASEHDIA HEAD OF RESEARCH AND STRATEGY

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n any major food company, developing stringent standards is crucial in assisting the buyer and the food company in strengthening product branding. This fact is by no means different with foodservice companies that serve Halal foods on their menus. Hence, foodservice companies that plan to serve Halal-only menus must carefully assess their branding strategies in order to achieve their desired objectives. As disclosed by a few leading multinational foodservice companies where Halal-only menus already being offered, an effective branding strategy would typically encompass three important elements as depicted in Figure 1. It must be noted that a brand, for example Burger King, KFC, Pizza Hut, and so on, consists not only of a brand name or logo: A brand also consists of other elements and values that the brand owner assigns to a particular product, service or idea in order to inform the market of the brand’s uniqueness in relation to other competing products or companies. As noted by many experts, the elements of a brand are all things serving to identify the brand in general as well as to differentiate it from other brands. This can be a name, a logo (symbol

28 THE HALAL JOURNAL | NOV+DEC 2008

FIGURE 1: EFFECTIVE BRANDING STRATEGY FOR HALAL FOODSERVICE SECTOR

DEVELOP

HARNESS

PROTECT

To develop and introduce new products/ technologies/ processes to improve the company’s competitive position and successfully build a strong brand name

To extend and harness brand awareness for consumers

To defend and protect brand integrity through stringent standards, purchasing and product requirements

or sign), a character, a slogan, or the packaging itself. It is interesting to note that effective brands are observed individually and not as the products they represent. The difference between certain products is technically possible because of branding and how consumers associate with them. For example, a brand and the product it represents can be ‘macho’, ‘feminine’, or ‘teenage’, whereas the same could not be said of the products alone. The primary goal

set by any brand owner is to obtain brand awareness through a desirable and unique perception as well as positive ‘feelings’ for the brand. In the global Halal food industry, a brand resembles the way a particular product is produced, processed and distributed according to a certain level of Halal assurance and integrity. A clear example is the case of Al-Islami processed meat products from the UAE. Al-Islami insists on the highest standard of

Halal production in the whole production chain of their products. Thus, the Al-Islami brand gives an image of strict adherence to the Halal principles and Shariah law. For the company to achieve its current status, Al-Islami needed more than a decade of hard work and highly selective global sourcing of raw materials just to uphold their core principles. The company also closely observed the above suggested branding strategy: Develop, hj Harness and Protect.


THE HALAL MARKET SPECIALIST

KASEHDIA SDN BHD

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The application of molecular biotechnological methodology to solve problems faced by human beings Words By KHAIRUL ADZFA RADZUN & NORAZLINA AHMAD

Who’s the “NEW KID ON THE BLOCK” IN Photo by Ehsan Namavar. RED Visual Group, Iran

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30 THE HALAL JOURNAL | NOV+DEC 2008

slam is a systematic way of life and the religion’s every teaching comes with comprehensive standards and guidelines to be adhered to by Muslims. One of these standards is the concept of the lawful (Halal), which comes together with the concept of the prohibited (Haram). Matters pertaining to Halal and Haram are parts of al-maqasid al-syar’iyyah (the objectives of the Syariah) to preserve religion, life, property and progeny. Halal is a Quranic term that means permitted or legal. Dr Yusuf Al-Qadarawi, a prominent Muslim scholar, defined Halal as that which is permitted and upon which no restriction exists, and the doing of which Allah has allowed. The opposite of Halal is Haram - forbidden or unlawful. Determining if consumer products are Halal or Haram is important in Muslim society. The responsibility to consume only Halal products is required of all


Muslims regardless of their status in the community and, thus, knowing whether the product is Halal or Haram is an obligation for Muslims. “He only prohibits for you the eating of animals that die of themselves (without human interference), blood, the meat of pigs, and animals dedicated to other than God. If one is forced (to eat these), without being malicious or deliberate, he incurs no sin. God is Forgiver, Most Merciful.” [Al-Baqarah, 2:173] The above paragraph might be applicable during the last century; however, in this modern world, ascertaining whether products are Halal or Haram is far more complex as it not only involves the particulars listed in the above Surah, but also networking the many sources whence

MolecularBiotechnoScope (MBS) technology and have designed kits that will enable users to detect traces of porcine DNA in consumer merchandise. This process may be applied to food, leather and pharmaceutical products. However, detection is limited only to tracing porcine DNA, and the results may still be considered doubtful. Ideal consumer information has been hindered by the complexity of the Halal concept, and comprehensive screening processes for a particular product must be implemented beyond mere porcine trace detection, although this is a major part of the Halal concept. ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF THE HALAL INDUSTRY According to the report of Agriculture and AgriProduct Canada in 2003, the Halal product market

products, manufacturing processes, research and development (R&D), distribution networks, brand building and lastly (but most importantly), the quality of Halal determination, certification and accreditation. The integrity of a product’s Halal status depends on the technology (and detection systems) brought to bear on Halal determination. These systems must work to facilitate manufacturers’ obligations to legal requirements for Halal certification of their products. “As the Halal market continues to grow in strength and diversity, the need for globally accepted best practices and standards for auditing and certification of Halal has become increasingly apparent,” said Malaysian Prime Minister Dato’ Seri Abdullah Ahmad

by the government of Malaysia to research Halal and Haram determination systems for foods and pharmaceutical products. THE MOLECULARBIOTECHNO SCOPE - HALAL SCIENCE’S “NEW KID ON THE BLOCK” “MolecularBiotechnoScope” (MBS) is a new term we came up with, which is derived from a fusion of words. It means, generally: The application of molecular biotechnological methodology to solve problems faced by human beings. With regards to the difficulties of Halal determination, the application of MBS (by virtue of its continuous and rapid augmentation of existing methodologies) is expected to resolve several difficult issues. Apart from the simplicity of its definition, MBS is a term that is correlated to diverse scientific methodologies

HALAL DETECTION SCIENCE? the product is derived. This includes its financial source, the safety of its nutrients/ingredients, manufacturing processes and various aspects that, when scrutinised and analysed, sometimes lead to the terrifying misapprehension that no product available in this world can be assured as Halal. The reality is that Halal authentication can be a tedious process due to the necessary considerations of numerous aspects and disciplines legally, physically and spiritually. To this end, we have undertaken innovative research via the application of

With regards to the difficulties of Halal determination, the application of MBS (by virtue of its continuous and rapid augmentation of existing methodologies) is expected to resolve several difficult issues. was estimated to be worth between USD150200 billion at the time. Product manufacturers in advanced nations benefit from easily available cutting-edge technology, equipment and facilities to meet the requirements of the Muslim world. Thus, they have grown quickly to become the major suppliers of Halal products globally. The Halal market share of an individual country is determined by the quality of its

Badawi. Malaysia seeks to extend its role in the Halal sector by working towards developing global standards and best practices within the larger Halal industry marketplace. With Halal’s economic importance, countries like Malaysia have intensified efforts to revitalise the agricultural sector and create new sources of wealth and economic growth for the nation. For this reason, MARA University of Technology of Malaysia was recently awarded research grants

that can be found in the MBS world: RealTime Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectrometry (FTIR), Amino Acid Analysis/Sequencing, Liquid ChromatographMass Spectrometer-Mass Spectrometer (LC-MS-MS), Gas ChromatographMass Spectrometer-Mass Spectrometer (GS-MSMS), inductively-coupled plasma spectrometry (ICP), and atomic absorption spectrometry (AA), amongst others. These methods

THE HALAL JOURNAL | NOV+DEC 2008

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specifically provide analytical tools for the detection of contaminants detrimental to Halal product manufacturing such as DNA, animal fatty acids, proteins, gelatine, alcohol, microbial contamination, heavy metals, and so on. For our present purposes, however, detection will focus on porcine DNA traces via Real-Time PCR. (This is the main research focus of Universiti Teknologi MARA Malaysia) REAL-TIME PCR: AN INNOVATIVE MOLECULARBIOTECHNO SCOPE APPLICATION FOR HALAL AND HARAM AUTHENTICATION Determination of Halal in consumer products has been a global issue for a long time and remains largely unsolved. Traditionally, the determination of the Halal status of products (foods or pharmaceuticals) was made through field monitoring processes that have been dependent on the accuracy of information provided by manufacturers. These processes are costly, time-consuming, and cumbersome. For these reasons, efforts to find new and innovative detection methods for porcine traces in Halal products have provided a key research focus to ensure the integrity of the Halal status of the products consumed by Muslims. The criteria of the newly developed Halal detection technique must not only be specific, but also rapid, reproducible and reliable. With the aid of the continuous and rapid development of molecular techniques and the advancement of bioinformatics software, various MBS methodologies have recently been developed. These include 32 THE HALAL JOURNAL | NOV+DEC 2008

detection methods utilising deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), which is regarded as one of the most prominent and useful molecular markers for Halal and Haram authentication. Specific DNA can be easily detected in various animal-based products via optimised DNA extraction protocols. As a result of these innovations, an accurate, rapid, reproducible and reliable method (Polymerase Chain Reaction, PCR) has been developed. PCR was first described by Kleppe, Khorana and colleagues in 1971. The technique was further commercialised as Polymerase Chain Reaction in 1982 by its inventor Kary Mullis, a Nobel laureate in Chemistry in 1993. In the late 1990s, the PCR evolved into realtime PCR, which was then commercialised further. This innovative technique enables the analysis of DNA samples in consumer products on real-time basis—and this is the key element of the rapidity of the system. It also enables the sample to be quantified accurately. The accuracy of this method is based on the molecular engineering and design of specific primers and probes. The advantages of the realtime PCR technology include replacement of conventional postprocessing procedures of the 1980s (such as gel electrophoresis and imaging analysis) with computer-aided analysis. At present, as observed in our research, the real-time PCR technique (with the optimised DNA extraction kit we developed) has proven successful in rapidly detecting the existence of the porcine DNA contamination in various

We have thus produced a novel MBS-based Halal detection system via real-time PCR that can be utilised for the benefit of the Ummah. food and pharmaceutical products. We have also invented a novel DNA extraction protocol and specific primers and probes optimised for use with the real-time PCR system. We have thus produced a novel MBSbased Halal detection system via real-time PCR that can be utilised for the benefit of the Ummah. In terms of performance, the system is capable of detecting 1pg of porcine DNA per 0.5g sample (10-12g porcine DNA per 0.5g sample) and porcine DNA specificity of 100 per cent. This means that the developed system

is accurate in terms of porcine DNA detection, and will not detect any other DNA (a crucial factor of any porcine DNA detection system). The system is also rapid and can determine the Halal status of 100 samples in less than an hour. Our research will also be extended to develop an MBS-based system for determining food hygiene (and the presence of micro-pathogens) via Real-Time PCR. With such technology, the Halal industry will be equipped with comprehensive Halal and food hygiene/safety detection systems. hj

References: Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. http://atn-riae.agr.ca/africa/e3281.htm Al-Qaradawi, Yusuf (translated by Kamal El-Helbawy et al, translation reviewed by Ahmad Zaki Hammad). The Lawful and The Prohibited in Islam (Al-Halal Wal Haram Fil Islam). Indianapolis, IN: American Trust Publications. Publishing year not indicated. Chand, Muhammad Umar. Halal & Haram: The Prohibited & The Permitted Foods & Drinks According to Jewish, Christian & Muslim Scriptures. Kuala Lumpur: A.S.Noordeen 1416/1995. Eliasi J.R. and Dwyer J.T., “Kosher and Halal: Religious observances affecting dietary intakes” J Am Diet Assoc, 102(7), 2002, pps. 911-3. Griffiths G.L., McGrath M., Softly A., and Jones C., “Blood content of broiler chicken carcases prepared by different slaughter methods” Vet Rec , 12;117 (15), 1985, pps. 382-5. Hartley B.A. and Hamid F., “Investigation into the suitability and accessibility of catering practices to inpatients from minority ethnic groups,” in Brent. J, Hum Nutr Diet. 15 (3), 2002, pps. 203-9. Hussaini, Mohammad Mazhar, Ahmad Hussein Sakr, Islamic Dietary Laws and Practices, The Islamic Food and Nutrition Council of America, 1984. Iafrica.com. http://lifestyle.iafrica.com/brain_food/bf_features/352092.htm Little C., Gillespie I., de Louvois J., and Mitchell R., “Microbiological investigation of Halal butchery products and butchers’ premises,” Commun Dis Public Health, 2 (2), 1999, pps.114-8. Madhok R. and Bhopal R.S., “Jhatka and Halal meat”. Lancet. 336 (8722), 1990, p.1075. Mollette J.A., “The state of food and agriculture in Islamic countries,” Food Policy 11(4), 1986, p.278-84. The ASEAN Ad-Hoc Working Group on Halal Food Guidelines. Reports of the 1st - 4th Meetings. Waines D., “Dietetics in Medieval Islamic culture,” Med Hist. 43 (2), 1999, p. 228-40.

Note: Khairul Adzfa Radzun and Norazlina Ahmad are lecturers at Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia, from the Faculties of Applied Science and Pharmacy respectively. They can be contacted at khairuladzfa@salam.uitm. edu.my and norazlina060@salam.uitm.edu.my


THE GOVERNMENT OF SARAWAK IS THE PROUD HOST OF THE TWO MAJOR WORLD CLASS EVENTS

THE STRATEGIC RICE AND FOOD SECURITY CONFERENCE INVESTMEN T AND HALAL INDUSTRIAL ZONE DEVELOPMEN T

UNFORESEEN CHALLENGE IN GLOBAL FOOD SECURITY

JANUARY 2009 C R O W N E P L A Z A R I V E R S I D E • K U C H I N G , S A R AWA K • M A L AY S I A

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PENETRATING THE GLOBAL HALAL MARKET:

UNDERSTANDING MARKET FAILURES

In today’s competitive economies, those with access to the most accurate and comprehensive information and market knowledge are those with higher possibilities to win the competition and disassociate themselves from market failures.

Words By IRFAN SUNGKAR, KASEHDIA HEAD OF RESEARCH AND STRATEGY

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arket failures are typical for most Asian Halal food companies when they are trying to tap into foreign markets. Mistakes relating to international market selection occur through inadequate or inappropriate evaluations of market potentials. For starters, the term ‘market potential’ itself may have different meanings with different bearings. It should always be noted that market failures are almost always much more expensive than the costs associated with systematic evaluation. If a systematic market evaluation is conducted at the initial phase of the programme, occurrence of market failures could be prevented. There are many examples of market failures, such as failure in choosing the best country as a stepping stone to a much larger market; failure in market positioning strategy; failure in branding and promotional direction; failure in contacting the ‘correct’ government agencies and officials; and worst, failure understanding that different export markets have different socio-economic situations. The existence of market

DEM

WRONG SUPPLY

WR

ONG

failures has raised the need of what is called the ‘competitive information’. Competitive information is slightly different with ‘information’: it is normally used side-by-side with ‘market intelligence’ in the sense that the competitive information can be directly used to assist in strategic and high level decision making process. For example: what products to be exported to which regions or countries. To understand and to be able to provide competitive information is not an easy task. One needs the ability to see a situation from a private sectors’ perspective as well as from the perspective of governments and industries as a whole. Insights from competitive information are normally

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PLY

brief, but the impact and implication can be deep and may lead to a reformation of the way things are done. The global Halal industry is now emerging as a mainstream industry: Halal products are no longer seen as low-quality products on the shelves of leading hypermarkets. Halal products have become premium, worldclass and high quality products with the best standard of safety, traceability and assurance system. For many Halal food exporters, it is high time to search for competitive information, which will enable them a fair competition in a globalised nature of highquality products.

THE EXISTENCE OF MARKET FAILURES HAS RAISED THE NEED OF WHAT IS CALLED THE ‘COMPETITIVE INFORMATION’. Many people and organisations claimed that they are able to provide these information, and that they belong to the Halal market economy, but it essential to first research their background, achievements and so on. The emergence of profiteering type of people trying to extract economic rent by announcing they are part of this trend does not help the sustainable growth of the Halal market. The global Halal market needs credibility, integrity and uniformity. It needs to grow at a sustainable rate. Nothing more can be said, but surely as businessmen, manufacturers and exporters of Halal products, let’s give our best together: the way forward is still bright. hj

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SHARI’AH SERIES > PART 3 OF 3

Halal Industry within Islamic Principles: A SHARI‘AH PERSPECTIVE ON HALAL AND HARAM

Following the earlier parts of this series, I shall proceed, in the third and final part, to review the Fiqh rules governing the valid slaughter of animals. The remaining sections provide an overview of the role of general custom in the determination of what is lawful and unlawful in foodstuffs, and then also a general characterisation of the relationship between Islam and science, as far as this concerns our subject.

OF CUSTOMS AND FOR DETERMINATIO LAWFUL & THE UN REQUIREMENTS OF A VALID SLAUGHTER

The rituals of a valid slaughter and its accompanying requirements of cleanliness are fairly well-known to the Halal industry, and the prevailing practices are also deemed to be compliant with Shariah guidelines. Discussions have indicated some of the features of a valid slaughter and what may be regarded to be Mandub or Makruh. The discussion that follows highlights some of the additional requirements of a valid slaughter, and also some disputed issues: 36 THE HALAL JOURNAL | NOV+DEC 2008

1) The element of intention: A lawful slaughter occurs only when it is with the intention for a valid use, and not merely to kill an animal for the sake of killing. Hence, a slaughter without such an intention is non-Halal. 2) Reciting the Tasmiyah (i.e. Bismillah) at the time of slaughter is obligatory (Wajib) according to the majority of Madhahib, whereas the Shafi’is considers it to be recommended (Mandub) and abandons it as Makruh.


Words By PROF. DR. MOHAMMAD HASHIM KAMALI

SCIENCE N OF THE LAWFUL

Tasmiyah is an affirmation and acknowledgement of that. Richard Foltz, author of Animals in Islamic Tradition (2006) draws the following conclusions from his review of the evidence: “First, the tradition takes the relationship between humans and other animal species quite seriously. Second, animals are seen as having feelings and interests of their own. And third, the overriding ethos enjoined upon humans is one of compassionate consideration.” 3) Ritual slaughter is allowed by a person who is a Muslim or follower of a revealed scripture, including Christians and Jews. The Quran has thus affirmed that “the food of the Ahl-alKitab” is Halal for Muslims, and vice versa (al-Ma’idah, 5:5). The food and slaughter of the Ahl al-Kitab is Halal to us generally even if they omit the Tasmiyah, or recite the name of Jesus Christ or Moses, peace be on them. Some Muslim jurists have disputed this last position, but since the Quranic permission is conveyed in unqualified terms, it is Halal for Muslims to consume their food and their slaughter. 4) According to a general consensus of the leading Madhahib, severance is required of the four vital passages in the slaughter of animals, namely the trachaea, oesophagus and jugular veins. Some minor disagreements have arisen to the effect that slaughter occurs even if the oesophagus is not cut, though it is recommended to sever the four sections all at once.

All schools would, on the other hand, exonerate from these requirements the case of genuine forgetfulness without intentional preclusion. Intentional preclusion on the other hand makes the slaughter non-Halal. It is noteworthy that the

Qur’an stipulated Tasmiyah for slaughter in contrast to the pre-Islamic Arabian practice of reciting the names of deities. It is also instructive to note that mankind is not naturally entitled to take the life of an animal unless it is with the permission of the Creator, and

The following slaughter practices are recommended (Mandub): a) Recitation of both Tasmiyah and Takbir; b) Completion of slaughter in daylight so as to prevent error in the correct procedures;

c) Facing the Qiblah, although the Maliki School does not require this; d) Except for the camel (which requires Nahr, as opposed to Dhabh, in standing position with a left leg tied up), all animals should rest on the left side with their heads lifted upwards; and e) Clemency to the animal and avoidance of rough handling. The following are considered reprehensible (Makruh) in the slaughter rituals: a) Slaughter by a disabled person; b) Abandoning the Tasmiyah according to those who do not consider it obligatory, namely the Shafi’is and some Malikis; c) Facing the animal in a direction other than the Qiblah; d) Nahr of the cattle and Dhabh of the camel; the normal method is in the reverse order. e) Inflicting pain on the animal such as by severing the head completely or breaking the skull, dragging the animal, and slaughter from the back of the neck; and f ) Slaughter by a dull and unsuitable knife. Certain aspects of the distinction between the Makruh and Haram are not always accurately stated. Note for instance that some individual writers have labelled as Haram that which may actually amount to no more than Makruh. Some of the Halal procedural guidelines also stipulate ritual cleansing for leather materials made from animals that have not undergone Halal slaughtering. This is evidently not a requirement of the renowned Hadith, recorded by Muslim and Abu Dawud, which provides: “when any hide THE HALAL JOURNAL | NOV+DEC 2008

37


The law may recognise some food as Halal but may not be liked by the people and may thus to all intents and purposes be relegated to the category of Makruh, or else that a Mubah is elevated to the level of Mandub by the people’s preference for it.

is tanned, it is purified.” The ruling of this Hadith is general (‘Aam) and unqualified, hence it includes “all hides even of the dog and the pig. This is the position of the Zahiri School, also recorded by Abu Yusuf, the disciple of Abu Hanifah, and it is preferred by al-Shawkani.” Furthermore, it is quite obvious from our perusal of the relevant rules that the Shariah prohibition of carrion is confined to eating and does not extend to the use of its hide, horns, bones and hair, all of which are permitted. They are valuable Maal, and if they could be put to a good use, they should not be wasted. THE ROLE OF CUSTOM (‘URF)

General custom (‘Urf, ‘Adah) is a recognised source of law and judgment in Islam. It is defined as “recurrent practices that are acceptable to people of sound nature.” To constitute a valid basis of judgment, custom must be sound and reasonable and must not contravene a clear text or principle of Shariah. Custom is rejected if it is in conflict with a clear injunction of Shariah, such as some tribal practices that deny women their rights of inheritance. In the event, however, of a partial conflict between a text and custom, the latter may qualify or specify the former. A valid ruling of custom often takes precedence over the normal rules, or the ruling of analogy (Qiyas). This is because custom represents the people’s convenience, and adopting it 38 THE HALAL JOURNAL | NOV+DEC 2008

is often tantamount to removal of hardship, which is one of the expressed purposes of the Shariah. It is commonly acknowledged that a great deal of the Fiqh rules and the rulings of Ijtihad have taken their cues from the prevailing practices of the time. The role of custom is evidently recognised in the evaluation of the Mandub and Makruh in foodstuffs, which often correspond with what is approved or disapproved by the people of sound nature (often referred to as the Ahl al-‘Urf ). The law may recognise some food as Halal but may not be liked by the people and may thus to all intents and purposes be relegated to the category of Makruh, or else that a Mubah is elevated to the level of Mandub by the people’s preference for it. When this is the case, then according to a leading maxim of Fiqh: “Custom is the basis of judgment (ala’datu muhakkamatun)”. For instance, custom determines the question of whether or not an object is regarded as valuable property, or Maal, that carries market value. For instance, honey bees and silk worms were at one time not regarded to be Maal but were later determined to qualify as Maal by the people’s usage and acceptance of them as such, and a Fatwa was accordingly issued in its support. Custom is, moreover, changeable with the advancement of science and technology, which often set in place new practices

that may soon gain wide recognition and acceptance. People’s tastes regarding foodstuffs are also affected by the media and advertisements and so forth. New practices take hold among people as and when they prove to be convenient, which is often reflected in their lifestyle and food varieties. All of this is likely to carry the seal of Shariah approval if no principles have been contravened. Furthermore, people’s approval and disapproval also play a role in the determination of what may be regarded as a compelling necessity (Darurah). ISLAM AND SCIENCE

Islam and science are too broad and also too important to be treated in a short passage intended merely to identify what bearings they have on the Halal and Haram in Islam. However, the first question that arises concerns the basic premise of these concepts: Halal and Haram are evidently not determined by reference only to human reason or scientific knowledge, but a combination of these and the guidance mainly of divine revelation (Wahy). With the exception of a limited number of dietary prohibitions that Islam imposes, it is on the whole receptive to scientific evidence. If one considers the Islamic prohibition of carrion, spilt blood, alcohol and pig meat for consumption, most of these, if not all, can perhaps stand the test of scientific knowledge. Scientific rationality

essentially confines reality to the data of sense perception, which precludes metaphysical reality and revealed knowledge as well as some of the nonphysical sides of the human existence (such as reducing intelligence to the level of neural chemistry where mental and behavioural phenomena are understood merely as manifestations of physical processes). Islamic juristic thought recognises various levels of distinction with a view to addressing temporal reality within its own perimeters. For instance, the distinction between Shariah and Fiqh did not exist during the first century of the advent of Islam, and the triple division of the Shariah into theology (Kalam), morality (Akhlaq) and Fiqh (practical rulings) also developed at a later stage. A certain level of separation was thus recognised between theoretical theology and the practical rules of concern to the daily life and conduct of the individual. In the sphere of the applied sciences and the benefits they can bring to humanity, Islam maintains an open outlook. Thus it is not only acceptable but may even rank as Maslahah (public interest) to employ scientific knowledge for the good of the people. This aspect of pragmatism in the Islamic tradition is reflected in the fact that Muslims have not seen their faith as a hindrance to scientific knowledge. They have, on the contrary, made significant contributions to the advancement of science. The Prophet pbuh advocated beneficial knowledge (al-‘ilm al-nafi’) that responds to people’s legitimate needs, and accordingly instructed his followers to seek knowledge “even if it be in China.” Thus it is not difficult to see that Islam accepts beneficial scientific knowledge from any source.


The robust advocacy of ‘Ilm in the Qur’an, its open acceptance of knowledge gained through sense, perception and observation, and its encouragement of us to investigate the world around us, all in all depict a basic alignment and convergence of interests between Islam and science, and not otherwise. Islamic philosophy that mainly studies purposes, as against science (which mainly studies causes), sees objects and events as signs (Ayat) of the Divine presence in the universe. Faith is understood by Muslims not as a limitation on science but as its vista for enrichment and perfection. Thinking Muslims should therefore work to vindicate the symbiotic relation of faith and reason, of knowledge and science, and advance a broader understanding of the civilisational objectives of Islam. Consider for instance, the use of stunning and the thoracic stick procedures, and whether they are acceptable from the Shariah viewpoint. Questions may arise as to how stunning and thoracic stick practices were originally introduced: For reasons of industry convenience, for animal welfare, or both. Although the Shariah favours the smooth flow of lawful trade in the marketplace even at the expense of some compromise on other grounds, it does not favour measures that would present a threat to higher values.

* Paper presented at the World Halal Forum “Sustained Development through Investment and Integration,” Kuala Lumpur, May 12, 2008. See for details al-Qurtubi, Bidayah, I, 328; al-Zuhaili, alFiqh al-Islami, III, pp. 659. Foltz, Animals in Islamic Tradition, p. 27(see note 35). See for details al-Qaradawi, alHalal wa’l –Haram, 61; al-Zuhaili, al-Fiqh al-Islami, III, p. 659. Qaradawi, al-Halal walHaram, pp. 61-62. al-Qurtubi, Bidayah, I, p. 325f; Zuhaili, al-Fiqh al-Islami, III, pp. 661-663.

40 THE HALAL JOURNAL | NOV+DEC 2008

Talfiq differs from Takhayyur in that the latter selects the ruling as it is of a different Madhhab to that of one’s own, whereas Talfiq attempts to combine certain parts of different rulings/interpretations into a SINGLE FORMULA for purpose of implementation.

The Fiqh discourse essentially elaborates the textual guidelines on Halal and Haram, which also have devotional (Ta’abbbudi) features that go beyond common rationality. One can promote uniformity in Halal standards with regard to the Halal/Mubah, and also the Makruh and the Mandub, by recourse to the principle of selection (Takhayyur) and by singling out among the various rulings of the Madhahib one that may be most suitable for that purpose. As an accepted method

of Islamic jurisprudence, Takhayyur is premised on the recognition that the leading schools of Islamic law have extended to one another and accepted one another as equally valid interpretations of the Shariah. Another method of selection is the patching up (Talfiq) of certain aspects of the rulings of different schools or jurists with a view towards amalgamating them into a single formula. Talfiq differs from Takhayyur in that the latter selects the ruling as it is of a different Madhhab to that of one’s own, whereas Talfiq attempts to combine certain parts of different rulings/interpretations into a single formula for purpose of implementation. The setting up of a Shariah advisory council is already under consideration. This should ideally bring together a group of learned figures of standing, and which is internally diversified so that its deliberations, advice and Fatwa are informed by the Madhabs, countries and cultural zones of the global

Idem, I, pp. 327-328; Zuhaili, al-Fiqh al-Islami, III, pp. 663-664; Qaradawi, al-Halal wa’l-Haram, p. 55f. Abu Dawud, Sunan Abu Dawud, Eng. Tr. Ahmad Hassan, vol. II, p. 1149, Hadith No. 411. See for a discussion also Kamali, Jurisprudence, p. 153. Qaradawai, Al-Halal wa’lHaram, pp. 51-52. Idem, p. 51. Cf., Kamali, Islamic Jurisprudence, 369; Shabir, al-Qawa’id al-Kulliyyah, p. 244 f. Art.36,the Mejelle Ahkam-e Adliyye. The Mejelle records several other legal maxims on custom, including “the usage of people is a proof

that must be acted upon.”(Art. 37). See for further details Kamali, Islamic Jurisprudence, p. 371. Cf., al-Qaradawi, al-Halal wa’l-Haram, p. 24. Cf., Muslim, Mukhtasar Sahih Muslim, p. 494, Hadith No. 1871 thus records the Prophet’s supplication in which he distances himself from “’Ilm that brings no benefit.” For details, see M. H. Kamali, “Islam, Rationality and Science,” Islam and Science, vol. I (2003), pp. 56-77. For details, see Roger Garudy, “The Balance Sheet of Western Philosophy in this Century,” in International

Any decision that a Shariah specialist makes on stunning and thoracic stick issues, without the required scientific input, is bound to be based on externalities and assumptions that would be less than adequate – given the sensitivity of the issues and extensive application of the decisions in question. This also serves to illustrate the symbiotic relationship that we envisage between the Fiqh and scientific knowledge. CONCLUSION

Ummah. This should also include representation from Muslim minorities in the West. A set of procedural guidelines should be formulated for rule-making purposes, and plans should be drawn up that envisage high-level media impact and market penetration. A brief reference is also in order to an aspect of Islamic jurisprudence that enables the ruling authorities (Uli’l Amr) to raise the Mandub into an obligatory command, or a Makruh into a prohibitive rule, regulate certain aspects of Mubah, and even make a suitable ruling on doubtful matters – if such would be to the manifest Maslahah of the people. This is an aspect of what is known as Shariah-oriented policy, or Siyahah Shar’iyyah, which is a recognised principle of Islamic public law. The lawful authorities are thus empowered to introduce laws and formulate policies that secure the people’s best interests in the light of prevailing circumstances. Finally, there is a need to form a research unit (or units) that brings together researchers in Shariah studies, food sciences, market specialists, and social scientists who can conduct research on market particularities, and the customs and cultures of the various countries and regions of the world. The unit can then submit recommendations to the Shariah advisory council and the marketing sections hj of the Halal industry.

Institute of Islamic Thought, Towards Islamisation of Disciplines, Herndon: VA, 1986, p. 399f. See for details on Takhayyur and Talfiq, Mohammad Hashim Kamali, “Shari’ah and Civil Law: Toward a Methodology of Harmonisation,” Islamic Law and Society 14(2007) 391-421 at pp. 406-411. See for details on Siyasah Shar’iyyah, M. H. Kamali, “Siyasah shar’iyyah or the policies of Islamic government,” The American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences.


BUSINESS OWNERS UNION AN INVITATION TO BUSINESS OWNERS

The Business Owners Union is an exclusive club of business owners established by the Islamic Chamber of Commerce and Industry (ICCI).

“Allow me to address you as the elite of the community and the most capable of its brackets, to comprehend and grasp the word ‘ECONOMICS’; to get familiar with it and contemplate together the objective of this word in the past and in the present ages, for economics as we all know is the backbone of life; it is what determines its features and draws happiness and misery at the same time. In its shelter the means of living of nations and the style of their lives is determined, whether prosperity or distress, peace or war”. Sheikh Saleh Abdallah Kamel President, Islamic Chamber of Commerce & Industry

ME MBE RS H I P P RI V I L E GE S • Priority access to projects and companies originating from ICCI • Fee exemption for ICCI’s annual meeting in Makkah Al-Mukarramah, Madina Al-Munawwarah and elsewhere or at any ICCI activities • The priority of promotion of a member’s projects and initiatives among other Union members after assessment of economic viability • The priority for any bids within ICCI and OIC

• VIP reception by ICCI and assistance in all necessary procedures and authentication of documents related to establishment of any projects or commercial exchange within the OIC member countries, • Annual subscription to the summary of researches and studies prepared by ICCI and a 30% discount for the full version of the reports

Business Owners Union aims to further encourage intra-OIC trade and investment and sharing of evaluated projects within the OIC member nations. Membership fee is USD2,000 per year. Online application form is accessible at www.halaljournal.com/bou. Alternatively, kindly email to bou@kasehdia.com for more information.

change through business A Programme of Islamic Chamber of Commerce & Industry


fast track | EUROPE

Are products described as Halal really Halal? Besides discussing the Halal method of slaughtering animals, it is very important that a strict controlling system is applied when it comes to the entire Halal production process. BY DR. MOHAMED SALAH MESSIKH AND DR. THOMAS STERNICKI, MSM-INT, HALAL POLSKA, POLAND

THERE ARE MANY essential factors to consider, such as nutritional systems, plant pollution, air pollution in cultivated areas, animal transport, the condition of animals before Zabihah, the construction of the slaughter box, the storage of goods produced, distribution and so on. For example, Halal fish that come from waters polluted by plumbum and radioactive or carcinogenic substances may be considered Haram. The same fate would befall products with dangerous ingredients such as anabolic substances or melamine, the substance that was recently discovered to have tainted a number of food products in China. Therefore, it is useless for a certification body to give the Halal logo to supposedly Halal food products without scientific research and control. The term Halal means permissible, good, healthy, and so on. More often than not, the term Halal is applicable to many aspects of life. In reference to food, products must be permissible according to Islamic laws or Shariah. As stated in the Quran, 2:172173: “O ye who believe! Eat of the good things that We have provided for you...” Halal products must therefore be healthy and of the highest quality for all customers, whether they are Muslims or non-Muslims. In the global Halal market it has been estimated that 70 per cent of Muslims follow Halal food standards, but in many countries it is estimated that Halal procedures are only followed in 50 per 42 THE HALAL JOURNAL | NOV+DEC 2008

In the global Halal market it has been estimated that 70 per cent of Muslims follow Halal food standards, but in many countries it is estimated that Halal procedures are only followed in 50 per cent of the production process, primarily during the slaughtering of animals. LEFT: Halal Polska Global Products Assurance Monitoring System – Halal logo used on products identified as Halal in Poland.

cent of the production process, primarily during the slaughtering of animals. That makes it vital for Halal food producers to collaborate with scientists to ensure that their products are Halal and are not contaminated. International research groups can be initiated to oversee issues such as air pollution and plant cultivation systems. For example, the Polish Halal Institute, which originated from MSM-INT Halal Polska, is presently working on creating an international Halal System Quality Apply – the first quality system for pure Halal products.

This system is responsible for global products assurance monitoring and general Halal production, including Halal inspection, certification, distribution, trade and export. All research in Halal production must be in strict co-operation with a council of Imams, with European Union standards (in the case of Europe), and with committees on the environment, public health, food safety, and veterinary health. In the spirit of transparency, the production system should also be open to inspection. Although this article has dealt primarily with

a Halal system for food products, such a system would also provide healthy solutions for goods from other areas, such as nutrition, cosmetics, pharmacology, fashion, logistics, hospitality, finance, and so on. It is important to remember that quality-assured Halal products are ecological and healthy for everyone. Certifying bodies must pay attention to strict controls in Halal production to ensure and guarantee consumers the integrity of Halal-certified products. It is not enough, therefore, for a product to merely bear the Halal logo.


fast track | EUROPE

Information is not knowledge; but education enables us to acquaint ourselves with history and with the present, and to transform that into knowledge...

Religious Tolerance in France BY HARIZ KAMAL

EDUCATION is an important tool not only to ensure that individuals flourish, but also to sustain a country’s political or economical growth and prosperity. Islam attaches great importance to knowledge and education; even when the Quran was revealed to the Prophet Muhammad (p.b.u.h), the first word of its first verse was “Iqra”, which means “read”. However, young Muslim students in France are finding it difficult to obtain an education and be spiritual and religious at the same time. With only four Muslim schools available, the 8,847 Roman Catholic schools have become a refuge for Muslims students seeking a good education and what the secularist public sector often lacks – spirituality. It is important to have an environment where good

With the booming Halal industry and increased Halal transactions, it would be logical to see Halal stakeholders undertake Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) projects or even Waqf to help the Muslim schools in France stay afloat. manners, good values and godliness are taught alongside mathematics and other academic achievements. Financial difficulties in running Muslim schools and the infamous 2004 ban on the use of headscarves in public schools prompted an outcry, which consequently led Muslim students to attend Catholic schools instead. Imam Soheib Bencheikh, a former grand mufti in Marseille whose oldest daughter also attends a Catholic school, said,

“Laïcité has become the state’s religion and the republican school is its temple and it’s ironic, but today the Catholic Church is more tolerant and more knowledgeable about Islam than the French state.” Of the four Muslim schools, only one -- the Averroës high school which is located on one floor of the Lille mosque -- has qualified for state subsidies. The other three Muslim schools have to charge significantly higher fees to survive. Even the oldest secondary school for

Muslims in France, Le Reussite, is struggling for funding and reportedly may have to close down by February 2009. With Muslim schools being hampered by the relative poverty of the Muslim community, as well as by laws forbidding the use of headscarves, the future of the Muslim youth in France seems bleak, unless something is done promptly and effectively. With the booming Halal industry and increased Halal transactions, it would be logical to see Halal stakeholders undertake Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) projects or even Waqf to help the Muslim schools in France stay afloat. CSR encompasses a wide spectrum of activities ranging from business ethics, corporate governance, and investing in environmental sustainability and community investment. The Waqf concept is actually flexible and may be directed towards any worthwhile Shariah-compliant needs, and may be used for humanitarian purposes beyond the Muslim exclusivity. However, in France, it would be interesting to see whether positive outcomes will surface after French President Nicolas Sarkorzy made it clear he defended the notion of a “positive laïcité,” and recognised the importance of religion in daily life. Will his new and revamped policies prevail? Will it champion the true meaning of liberty? As liberty provides the power or right of doing, thinking, and speaking in accordance to choice, will we see hijab-wearing girls coexist with public schools in the near future? It is evident that Muslims can coexist in Catholic schools – the question now is what divides us...

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fast track | AFRICA

Embracing, Celebrating and Preserving South African Muslim Heritage and Culture THE CAPE MALAYS community recently launched an organisation focused on preserving its cultural and religious heritage. The Cape Malay Cultural Heritage Tourism Commission was launched in the Malay Quarter (Bo-Kaap) of Cape Town. The event was attended by business members within the Muslim tourism industry as well as Bapa Andradjati, the ConsulateGeneral of Indonesia. “The services of South African Muslims in the tourism sector and allied businesses will be promoted both locally and internationally,” said Aqeelah Hendricks of Ottery’s Khanizeni Tourz. Many foreigners visit South Africa to enjoy an authentic Muslim experience, in which Halal dining is essential. This, Aqeelah said, was a platform to promote Islam and the culture and heritage of South African Muslims to the rest of the world. African Spirit Travel and Tours’ Rehana Allie, based in Grassy Park, added: “We are driven by the need to make a positive contribution to the reconstruction of our South African identity. Cultural and heritage tourism provides the ideal platform – a journey into the past whilst experiencing the present before venturing into the future. We strongly believe that understanding where we come from will help us understand where we are going.” The Malay communities in Africa have experienced a rapid transformation in all spheres, whether it is political, social, educational, cultural, economical or religious. The awareness of religious and cultural heritage will furthermore intensify through the establishment of the 44 THE HALAL JOURNAL | NOV+DEC 2008

From left to right: Kader Hendricks, Riedoh Allen, Mogamat Ganief Kamedien (Slave route researcher & published author), Keynote Speaker Ebrahim Rhoda (Cape Slave Project participant; Trustee of the Tana Baru Trust; & Principal Archival Research Advisor of the Cape Family Research Forum), H.E. Bapa Andradjati (Consulate-General of Indonesia in Cape Town), Ghosein Kamedien, Brian Sochenywa (Dept of Trade & Industry), Izwandy Idris (Producer of VOC’s “Malaysian Hour”).

“In a world fiercely eager for niche markets, Muslim heritage and cultural tourism will enable us to embrace, celebrate and preserve our heritage and our culture whilst investing in our human capital,” Cape Malay Cultural Heritage Tourism Commission. “In a world fiercely eager for niche markets, Muslim heritage and cultural tourism will enable us to embrace, celebrate and preserve our heritage and our culture whilst investing in our human capital,” said Nazreen Salie of Rondebosch East’s Cape Malay Consultants. “It will enable us to create employment in those fields and to afford opportunities for future entrepreneurs. By training our youth in a structured work shadow scheme, they can learn

on the job, in the old-fashioned style of apprenticeship. “To provide possible income streams for some of our own living national treasures and valued senior citizens, we can have them train the next generation of trainers – ensuring that their skills, knowledge and talent will live on, a living legacy to who we are as a people,” Nazreen added. “We are inspired by our strong, rich heritage; it is a guiding principle in our dreams and our plans,” said Faseeg Salie of Bo Kaap-

based Crescent Tours. By preserving heritage, communities not only learn to appreciate and learn the struggle of their ancestors who were discriminated against economically, but also generate income for themselves. “We pay tribute to the undeniable courage, strength of character, absolute faith in their way of life, sophistication, glamour and elegance of our forefathers, who despite slavery, segregation, forced removal, deprivation, hardship and tears, prevailed; and left an indelible mark on the cultural heritage landscape of this country, South Africa,” concluded Fatima Shaik of Cape Essence Tours in Paarl. For more information call 021 696 01 90 or 079 315 8631, send an email to info@capemalaytours. com or log on to www. capemalaytours.com.


A N I N V I TAT I O N TO J O I N

THE INTERNATIONAL HALAL INTEGRITY ALLIANCE (IHI ALLIANCE) IS AN INTERNATIONAL, NON-PROFIT INITIATIVE CREATED TO REPRESENT THE INTERNATIONAL HALAL INDUSTRY PLAYERS WITH ONE DEFINITIVE VOICE. THE IHI ALLIANCE’S MISSION IS TO STRENGTHEN THE HALAL MARKET AND UPHOLD THE INTEGRITY OF HALAL FOR THE BENEFIT OF ALL. THE IHI ALLIANCE WILL INITIALLY FOCUS ON 5 MAIN PROGRAMS: TO PROMOTE AND DEVELOP BEST PRACTICES FOR ASSURING HALAL INTEGRITY ACROSS THE ENTIRE SUPPLY CHAIN OF THE HALAL INDUSTRY. TO PROMOTE THE UNDERSTANDING AND ACCEPTANCE OF HALAL GOODS AND SERVICES GLOBALLY TO BOTH MUSLIM AND NON-MUSLIM CONSUMERS. TO MAKE HALAL PRODUCTS AND SERVICES MORE WIDELY AVAILABLE ESPECIALLY IN NON-MUSLIM COUNTRIES BY ENCOURAGING MORE MANUFACTURERS/ SERVICE PROVIDERS TO INTRODUCE OR EXPAND HALAL PRODUCT LINES. TO FACILITATE RESEARCH IN CREATING A KNOWLEDGE BASE ON HALAL AND DEVELOPMENT OF NEW PRODUCTS AND TECHNOLOGIES THAT WILL PROVIDE SOLUTIONS FOR HALAL INDUSTRY PLAYERS. TO WORK HARMONIOUSLY WITH VARIOUS GOVERNMENTS IN GLOBAL HUMANITARIAN EFFORTS TO DEVELOP THE HALAL INDUSTRY AND FOSTER INTRA-OIC TRADE. THE IHI ALLIANCE IS NOW INVITING COMPANIES, ORGANISATIONS AND INDIVIDUALS WITH CERTAIN EXPERTISE TO JOIN AS IHI MEMBERS AND HELP BUILD A STRONGER AND ROBUST GLOBAL HALAL INDUSTRY. LOOKING FORWARD TO WELCOMING YOU AS PART OF THE ALLIANCE TO HELP STRENGTHEN THE HALAL MARKET. For more membership details including benefits, categories and fees, please log on to www.ihialliance.org or email to info@ihialliance.org


fast track | AMERICAS The US World Trade Center tragedy on September 11, 2001, or what is commonly referred to as 9/11, has left a black mark on world history. Since then, the quest to find Osama Bin Laden has constantly made headlines; the Taliban have been expelled from power in Afghanistan; Saddam Hussein was removed from power in Iraq; and the ‘war on terrorism’ was created...but then something positive mushroomed all over Washington.

A Dialogical Evolution BY HARIZ KAMAL

“ALTHOUGH THE EVENTS OF 9/11 were a painful experience for the United States, it was a wakeup call for the Americans to the existence of Muslims in their community,” said Professor Dr John Obert Voll, a professor of Islamic History and associate director of the Prince Alwaleed bin Talal Center for Muslim-Christian Understanding at Georgetown University in Washington DC. Voll recently visited the International Institute of Advanced Islamic Studies (IAIS) in Malaysia, and delivered a public lecture entitled The West-Islam Dialogue: Where Are We and Where Are We Going? Unfortunately, the newfound realisation of the existence of Muslims living in American society has caused a myriad of misconceptions and negative stereotyping towards Muslims around the world. For some, their first encounter with Islam and Muslims was through the 9/11 attack, which naturally gave birth to negative perceptions of Muslims. Due to ignorance and widespread fear, the image of Islam and Muslims has been tainted by specific individuals and groups who have abused the name of God and religion to justify violence and terrorism. This has in turn encouraged numerous conferences and dialogues to help ease tensions, correct misconceptions, and break negative stereotypes. There have been countless meetings held under the banner of

46 THE HALAL JOURNAL | NOV+DEC 2008

Dialogues not only need to engage religious scholars and intellectuals—they must also encourage the participation of the wider public, especially the youth. inter-faith, inter-civilisation or inter-religious dialogue intended to create a better climate of understanding between Muslims and nonMuslims. These dialogues are normally themed around topics about the relationship and interaction between Muslims and non-Muslims in the societal, cultural, and historical contexts (amongst others), such as “Islam vs. the West”, “Muslims in the West”, “East-West dialogue”, “the Muslim world and the West: Bridging the Gap”, and so on. Dialogues are indeed a necessity, especially after the traumatic catastrophe of 9/11, and may occur in the form of formal events or simply in casual gatherings over a meal. They can be one-time events or long-term, and generally they are sustainable activities that

take different forms and styles. The essence of post-9/11 dialogue is not merely to define what Islam is, but also to explain how Islam plays a role in the daily lives of Muslims. Therefore, dialogues would be more effective with support of the US government to not only challenge the growing anti-Islamic discourse, but also to correct some of the misunderstandings that the government itself may be harbouring about Islam and American Muslims. Dialogues of this nature are no longer geographically bound: They have expanded and are not only limited to the United States. As such, more effort from other parts of the world is necessary to halt the spread of Islamophobia and misconceptions about Islam and Muslims. Seven

years have passed since 9/11, and dialogues must reach new heights in engaging Muslims and non-Muslims to create a better climate of understanding and tolerance. Dialogues not only need to engage religious scholars and intellectuals—they must also encourage the participation of the wider public, especially the youth. It is not enough to produce intellectual works and present papers in scholarly meetings: As important as these might be, the wider public must be engaged for the intellectuals and scholars to really learn about youth and society as a whole, and to be prepared to educate the public on the issues faced by all. Thinkers and researchers must play their parts in broadening public understanding of religion and its role in promoting peace and better understanding. Therefore, dialogues need to address complex cultural and historical realities and not just religious and theological ones. Ignoring these issues is the basis of misunderstanding about Islam and Muslims, and it is where the line between cultural and religious practices are neither drawn nor identified. Thus, regardless of whether these dialogues are in the US, Europe, Asia or Africa, they need to address issues that affect Muslims, such as social, economic, and political issues rather than focus only on theological aspects.


fast track | ASIA As a constructive platform for industries to communicate and network, the International Halal Integrity Alliance (IHI Alliance) has been assiduously bringing together industry players, academicians and stakeholders to uphold the integrity of the Halal concept through certification, collaboration and membership.

IHI Alliance: Going Places to Develop International Halal Standards BY HARIZ KAMAL

Technical meeting on Halal Logistics Module- Halal transportation at Century Logistics in Port Klang

AFTER A FRUITFUL industry roundtable on the Halal Logistics Module, which brought logistics industry players, subject matter experts, Shariah advisors and various certification bodies together, IHI Alliance continued its efforts to formulate a strong global Halal standard with a follow-up meeting in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, for the logistics module. The meeting was hosted by the Port of Rotterdam, with participants coming from logistics service providers, food manufacturers as well as a number of Halal certification bodies. The meeting was the first to be held in a non-Muslim environment, which offered a different perspective on the practical implications of a Halal 48 THE HALAL JOURNAL | NOV+DEC 2008

logistics guideline. The logistics and supply chain of Halal products and the effective control of these chains are more complex compared to traditional logistics operations and supply chains. “Holding the meeting in a non-Muslim environment was important to highlight that it was more challenging to implement compared to a Muslim-majority country,” said IHI Alliance Chief Executive Officer, Darhim Dali Hashim. The next meeting on the logistics module will be held in Abu Dhabi in the United Arab Emirates during the Halal World Expo in November, which is also where Darhim will be presenting a paper on the global Halal certification scenario.

The IHI Alliance has been and will be moving around the globe to establish contacts and to gather pivotal Halal stakeholders to push the industry to the next level. Recently, the IHI Alliance senior delegation was in Brunei Darussalam to meet with the Minister and Deputy Minister of Industry and Primary Resources to discuss a possible collaboration on harmonising Halal standards. In addition, the IHI Alliance also attended the Committee for Economic and Commercial Cooperation of the Organization of the Islamic Conference meeting in Istanbul, Turkey, to discuss the OIC Halal standards. The IHI Alliance has also been actively involved in other multilateral discussions.

Having chaired two sessions for the business forum on the Halal Industry during the Developing Eight (D8) summit in Kuala Lumpur, IHI Alliance had a chance to meet delegates to discuss a common Halal standard. The summit was attended by delegates from Bangladesh, Egypt, Indonesia, Iran, Malaysia, Nigeria, Pakistan and Turkey, all of which have great potential to develop the Halal industry. The IHI Alliance is also pursuing meetings with a few countries on a bilateral basis to discuss Halal standards and certification. The IHI Alliance met the office of the President of Bosnia and Herzegovina during His Excellency’s official visit to Malaysia to discuss the potential of codeveloping one of the modules that will form part of the international Halal standards. The IHI Alliance also met with a representative from Palestine to discuss potential assistance in developing Halal certification systems. In addition, the IHI Alliance management also made a formal visit to Bogor Agriculture University in Indonesia, where representatives from Majelis Ulema Indonesia (MUI) were also present to discuss developing protocols for the testing and analysis of products for certification. “The main focus of the international Halal standards is in the process. We want to engage with various countries and industries to give these stakeholders meaningful opportunities to participate in the process,” Darhim said.


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This report covers key elements on procurement for the food industry in Malaysia. This includes all elements concerning current food safety, practices and other key consideration. The report provides the necessary insights valid for a period of 1 year supported by a 5 year trend projection, which provide a representation of the potential direction of this industry.

Target Audience

This report is targeted at those manufactures and suppliers who wish to leverage of the “Halal Concept” and related elements . A brief insight is given on the overall benefits of the Halal industry; however the key focus of this report is information relevant to the various producers that are supplying the food industry, covering restaurants, hotels and caterings services . This report contains information that will allow your organisation to effectively maintain market dominance in their respective food service domain.

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Performance of Foodservice Sector in Malaysia • Number of outlets • Estimated sales and growth rate • Proportion and sales value by type of outlets • Major trends; Consumer purchasing behavior • Etc

Major Procurement Characteristics (From Field Survey) • Major Purchasing Characteristics • Food safety/ quality requirements • Halal requirements • Raw materials requirements • Etc Analysis of Market Potentials of Malaysian Foodservice Sector • Analysis on major purchasing trends • Projected sales • Projected sales of purchased raw materials • Analysis of raw materials (food, beverages, packaging materials) • Present and future trends; Tourism, etc • Opportunities: Suppliers, Vendors, etc Summary and Recommendation

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fast track | ASIA

HDC and the International Halal Certification Dialogue BY HARIZ KAMAL

The Halal Industry Development Corporation (HDC) was established to co-ordinate the overall development of the industry, with its main focus being the development of Halal standards, audit and certification, and capacity-building for Halal products and services. THE HALAL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION (HDC) has a Halal Integrity Division which protects the integrity of Halal through the development of a regulatory framework, comprehensive standards, an efficient certification process as well as world-class research and development (R&D) and training facilities. Protecting Halal integrity is essential with an increasing demand for Halal goods and services, which has been driven by numerous factors, including the rising standards of living. At the same time, the economies of Muslim countries continue to grow and benefit from increasing global trade. Consequently, the demand for Halal goods is expected to rise even further. In ensuring that Halal integrity is protected and developed, HDC recently organised the International Halal Certification Dialogue in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia that brought together some of the world’s leading figures in the global Halal industry. The two-day dialogue discussed the needs and evolving certification requirements of the global Halal market. In total, some 47 Islamic bodies from Austria, Brunei, Japan, Germany, New Zealand, Taiwan, Turkey and India were represented at the dialogue. The Halal logo is slowly emerging as a symbol of quality assurance, not only for foodstuff, but also for toiletries, cosmetics and pharmaceutical products. Halal foods no longer offer just meat but also items such as milk, bread, juices 50 THE HALAL JOURNAL | NOV+DEC 2008

HDC Photo - HDC’s Vice President of Halal Integrity, Pn. Mariam Abdul Latif delivering resolutions of the conference

and soft drinks, sauces, as well as ready-to-eat meals. With the current outbreak of melamine-contaminated products in the market, HDC’s Chief Executive Officer Dato’ Seri Jamil Bidin said that the food industry could benefit from Halal-based certification, which provided assurances in quality and safety of products for the mass market. In his opening address HDC Chairman Tan Sri Dr. Syed Jalaludin Syed Salim said, “The desire to ensure that the entire production and manufacturing processes involved in the global economy was Halal-compliant had led to an increasing level of awareness among Muslims and non-Muslims.” The dialogue had four sessions over two days. The first two sessions contained

two presentations from Mariam Abdul Latif, HDC’s Vice President of the Halal Integrity Division, and Professor Yaakob Che Man, the Director of Halal Products Research Institute at Putra University of Malaysia. The dialogue culminated with a presentation of resolutions and recommendations for the Halal Industry, formulated from input provided by the participants at the dialogue throughout the sessions. “The viability of the entire Halal Industry rests largely on the foundations of promoting awareness of Halal products and ensuring the integrity of Halal, without which there can be no Halal industry to speak of. At its most fundamental, consumer confidence in the goods and services produced within the Halal industry is

primarily confidence placed in efforts and initiatives to ensure that the Halal integrity of the goods and services concerned are rigorously maintained,” said Jamil. “Through the International Halal Certification Dialogue, we aim to further develop and enhance global understanding of the challenges and concerns that face the integrity of Halal and develop solutions which will meet with Shariah requirements as well as the commercial needs of the Halal market,” he added. Since it assumed the responsibility for Halal certification from the Islamic Development Department of Malaysia (JAKIM) last April, HDC has been aggressively focusing on capturing international markets – especially the United States, Europe and Japan.


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fast track | ASIA

Is Soy Sauce Halal?

Made from fermented soybeans, soy sauce is widely used around the world as an essential condiment and flavouring in Chinese, Japanese and Thai cuisine. The fermentation process, however, raises the question: What is the Halal status of soy sauce? BY ZAAHIRA MUHAMMAD

SOY SAUCE is a staple condiment and ingredient essential to several Asian cuisines, and although there are different types of soy sauce, they all have the same salty and earthy taste. However, individual types of soy sauce may differ in precise terms of taste, saltiness and colour depending on the region or culture it is from. Chinese soy sauce, for instance, is divided into two types. The first is light soy sauce, which is used as a seasoning because its saltiness adds more flavour to certain dishes. The second type is the thicker dark soy sauce, which is slightly sweeter and less salty. It is usually 52 THE HALAL JOURNAL | NOV+DEC 2008

added during cooking as the flavour develops with heat, and is normally used to add flavour and colour to dishes. Traditional Japanese soy sauces, on the other hand, are known as shoyu and are grouped into five categories depending on ingredients and method of production. To give a slightly sweeter taste compared to Chinese soy sauce, wheat is added to Japanese soy sauces. Shoyu is used in almost all Japanese dishes. Soy sauces are made through fermentation; in the old days, soybeans were mixed with water and salt and placed under the hot sun in urns. Now, soy sauce is fermented under

machine-controlled conditions. Because soy sauce goes through the fermentation process, the question arises about whether soy sauce is Halal. Is soy sauce (or anything fermented that produces alcohol) considered non-Halal? It must be stated that every fermentation process inevitably produces elements of ethyl alcohol. According to Canadianhalalfoods.com, “Alcohol is widely used as a carrier in many food flavours. This alcohol will evaporate if used in baked or heat-treated products. Some Islamic scholars consider a food product Halal if it’s made with all Halal ingredients including food flavour containing

alcohol as a carrier, which will evaporate during food processing. But other Islamic scholars do not consider such products as Halal.” Some say “as long as it does not intoxicate, it is Halal.” Consequently, how much alcohol is permitted before it becomes intoxicating comes into question. The main ingredients of naturally brewed soy sauce include soy, water and wheat. According to Canadianhalalfoods.com, naturally brewed soy sauce is considered non-Halal because it is made just like wine and contains two to three per cent ethyl alcohol. Alternatively, Halal soy sauce is known to be made from corn syrup, hydrolysed soy protein, salt, water and sodium benzoate. However, most soy sauces marketed today aare Halal. With the myriad of complexities in certifying and identifying Halal products, the Halal industry needs to address the question again on how much alcohol is permitted before it is deemed to be intoxicating. Industry experts, Shariah scholars, manufacturers, producers and consumers need to come together to discuss and be more aware of the Halal issues relating to ingredients in food and other products. Such awareness will ultimately create demand for transparency and clarity in the case of soy sauce. There is a basic need to understand the processes of soy sauce production and to ensure that there will be no misunderstanding between consumers and manufacturers, and between manufacturers and the industry. “He who asks is a fool for five minutes, but he who does not ask remains a fool forever.” – Chinese proverb.


fast track | ASIA

Muslims practicing Yoga: Another Pandora’s Box? BY RUZANNA MUHAMMAD & HARIZ KAMAL

THE MALAYSIAN NATIONAL FATWA COUNCIL recently issued a ruling discouraging Malaysian Muslims from practising or propagating yoga, a move that triggered a heated public debate. The controversy began when a Malaysian university lecturer advised Muslims who had taken up yoga to stop practising it for fear that they might deviate from the teachings of Islam. Yoga is an ancient Indian physical and mental discipline. The ban is based on the premise that, as a form of Hindu meditation, Muslim practitioners might deviate from Islam. Therefore, Muslims should not use yoga for worship. Yoga, however, is not itself a religion. An article (The “Yoga” of Islamic Prayer) published on www.islamichealingnetwork. com explains the similarities between Muslim prayer postures and yoga, and its benefits to body and mind.

Halal certified

The author Karima Burns wrote: The Takbir and Al Qiyyam together are very similar to the Mountain Pose in yoga, which has been found to improve posture, balance, and self-awareness. This position also normalises blood pressure and breathing, thus providing many benefits to asthmatics and heart patients. The placement of the hands on the chest during the Qiyyam position are said to activate the solar plexus “chakra” (nerve pathway) which directs our awareness of self in the world and controls the health of the muscular system, skin, intestines, liver, pancreas, gallbladder and eyes. When the hands are held open for Du’a, they activate the heart “chakra,” said to be the centre of the feelings of love, harmony, and peace, and to control love and compassion. It also governs the health of the heart, lungs, thymus, immune system, and circulatory system. Additionally, the Ruku’ position in the Islamic prayer

(Solat) is very similar to the Forward Bend Position in yoga. The Ruku’ position stretches the muscles of the lower back, thighs, legs and calves, and allows blood to be pumped into the upper torso. This helps tone stomach muscles, the abdomen, and kidneys. It must be emphasised that not all yoga positions are found in Solat. According to current scientific research, the five positions in Solat coupled with recitations of the Holy Quran have a corresponding relationship with spiritual and mental well-being. Body postures, breathing exercises, as well as sleep and mental disciplines are the tenets of both yoga and the Solat. Muslim prayers can help one could attain peace with one’s inner-self as stated in Surah Ar-rad, verse 28, “… Only in the remembrance of Allah can the heart find peace.” Muslims practising yoga should thus exercise care not to deviate from the teachings

of Islam. Ultimately, yoga is a form of exercise to improve and maintain health and well-being, and is not solely a religious practice of Hindus. It must be highlighted that most yoga classes conducted in Malaysia are purely for the purpose of exercise and not as a religious ritual. As the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said (as relayed and narrated by Muslim and Ibn Majah following Abu Huraira): “Be keen to do what is beneficial to you”, and as ascribed by Al-Bukhari to Ibn Omar: “Store up enough health to draw on during your illness.” Muslims practising yoga should be allowed to continue as long as they avoid its religious aspects. With the controversy, however, the question remains: Is yoga as an exercise Halal for Muslims? This is something that must be deliberated and pondered upon by Islamic scholars, scientists, researchers and academicians.

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country in focus

Taipei 101 - from a distance

Eslite Shopping Mall in the city of Taipei

TAIWAN OVERVIEW OF THE ISLAND KNOWN AS ILHA FORMOSA

T

he main island of Taiwan is located in East Asia, off the coast of mainland China. The island is surrounded by the Pacific Ocean, the South China Sea, the Luzon Strait, the Taiwan Strait and the East China Sea. The island is 394 kilometres long and 144 kilometres wide with steep mountainous terrains covered by tropical and subtropical vegetation. Taiwan is also known as Ilha Formosa, which means ‘beautiful island’ in Portuguese, who were said to be the first Westerners to set foot on the island. It is considered as one of the most diverse destinations in Asia – with its world of contrast and a mélange of cultural influences1 - and is rich in history. THE ECONOMICS OF TAIWAN Today, Taiwan is recognized as a major world high-tech supplier and is known to be one of the fastest growing economies for the past five decades, thus praised as an economic miracle for its development. Taiwan gradually revised its industries with high technology over the past two decades and currently has the fourth largest information hardware and semiconductor industries in the world. Taiwan’s GDP grew at a fast pace by 5.7 per cent in 2007. With major impetus to growth were merchandise exports, which grew by some 10 per cent in nominal terms due mainly to a sustained demand for Taiwan’s electronic products. In the blueprint of its long-term economic development plan stretching to 2015; the Taiwanese government aims to maintain an average annual growth of five per cent for the economy during 2006-2015, with per capita GDP reaching USD30,000 by 2015. It also targets to increase the share of services sector in GDP from 73.3 per cent in 2005 to 76.2 per cent by 2015. To ensure the long term economic plan is achieved, the government are enhancing the land and labour supplies as well as upgrading the infrastructure, and to provide assistance to small and medium-sized enterprises and traditional industries in order to improve Taiwan’s investment environment. Additionally, the government has also determined to promote new initiatives such as wireless broadband and related items, digital living, health care and environmental protection. In terms of exports, which are a major contributor to Taiwan’s economic growth, the figures grew by 16.5 per cent to USD157 billion in the period of January to July 2008. Taiwan’s major export product categories include electronics, steel products, machinery, precision 54 THE HALAL JOURNAL | NOV+DEC 2008

instruments, information and communication products, and chemicals and electrical appliances. The main export markets for Taiwan are mainland China, Hong Kong, the US, Japan, ASEAN and the EU, which together accounts for some 80 per cent of Taiwan’s total exports. Taiwan had approved a total of 36,911 projects of investment in the Chinese Mainland, with cumulative investment amounting to USD70 billion. Manufacturing industries – including those of electronic items like electronic parts, computers, electronic and optical products, electrical equipment, metal products and plastic products – are the major targeted sectors of such Taiwan investment. Jiangsu, Guangdong and Shanghai are the major regions that receive the majority of Taiwanese investment in the mainland.2 AGRICULTURE IN TAIWAN Taiwan’s hills and mountains comprise 75 per cent of the area, leaving only 850,000 hectares suitable for agriculture. However, agricultural development, advanced technology and modern production techniques have not only provided residents with abundant and quality foods, it also resulted in environmental protection

and ecological conservation, creating USD 40.9 billion in gross productions. The main agricultural products in Taiwan include rice, poultry, shrimp, eels, squid, tuna, granulated sugar and bananas. However, having entered the World Trade Organization (WTO), Taiwan’s livestock products are also bound to suffer tremendous pressure under global competition. Since the outbreak of the Food-and-Mouth Disease (FMD), government policy priorities have been shifted to the domestic market, reducing livestock export to a role of balancing production surpluses. Taiwan is also constantly working to improve meat health and safety standards. The Council of Agriculture (COA)’s Bureau of Animal and Plant Health Inspection and Quarantine is in charge of the country’s meat inspection and employs around 400 meat inspectors to conduct inspections in the country’s 84 registered slaughterhouses. The bureau is also responsible for dealing with cases of illegal slaughtering, as well as preventing pests and diseases entering Taiwan via imported goods.3 TAIWAN’S DEMOGRAPHICS Originally Taiwan was settled by people of Malay-Polynesian descent,


Night market in Taipei

Paddy field in Jiao Xi

Scenic view of Yilan County

View from the Nangang Exhibition Centre, Taipei

Bicycle: common transport for the locals

Taipei Food stalls

ACCORDING TO TAIWAN’S FOOD INDUSTRY RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTE, THE ISLAND’S DOMESTIC FOOD AND BEVERAGE INDUSTRY WAS WORTH USD13.56 BILLION IN 2006, AN INCREASE OF 2.56 PER CENT OVER THE PREVIOUS YEAR. who settled in the low-lying coastal plains. They were the ancestors of the present-day aborigine groups. With a population of 22 million, Taiwan is now inhabited by the descendants of immigrants from the various provinces of mainland China, particularly from the south-eastern coastal provinces of Fujian and Guangdong. Taiwan is also highly diversified in terms of religious faith, with its people practicing Buddhism, Daoism, Christianity, Mormonism, the Unification Church, Islam, and Hinduism, as well as native sects such as Yiguandao. With its rich culture and diversity, Taiwan has become a place of many delicacies where it seems the people live to eat. It is said that there is a snack shop every three steps and a restaurant every five. Delicacies in Taiwan is blessed with all kinds of Chinese food, from roasted duck, smoked chicken, lamb hotpot, beef with green peppers, and scallop and turnip balls of the north to the camphortea duck, salty fried chicken with spices, stir-fried shrimp, dry-fried eggplant, and spicy bean curd of the south. HALAL OPPORTUNITIES According to Taiwan’s Food Industry Research and Development Institute, the island’s domestic food and beverage industry was worth USD13.56 billion in 2006, an increase of 2.56 per cent over the previous year. But although domestic sales are strong, Taiwanese food

suppliers covet the U.S. food market.4 Speaking of food, Taiwanese companies are also doing their bid to tap into the lucrative Halal industry. It was recently reported that the Taiwan’s Sea Party Group will invest more than RM2 billion to develop aquaculture, farming and food processing activities in the Tanjung Manis Halal Park of Sarawak in Malaysia, over the next three to five years. The proposed investments include RM147 million for biotech prawn farming, RM141 million for eel farming, RM68 million for marine fishing, RM480 million for organic chicken and egg production facility, RM44 million for feed mill, and RM150 million for a downstream processing factory. Sea Party will also invest RM20 million for a research and development centre in Tanjung Manis in collaboration with the National Taiwan Ocean University to support its marine and aquaculture industries.5 Local producers in Taiwan are also on their toes in keeping up with the development of the Halal industry, with a rise of local companies seeking Halal certification. Halal-certified beef are available after months of building a special ranch where cattle are raised to the construction of a Halal abattoir and a Halal packaging

facility. The availability of the Halal beef will help meet the demand from Taiwan’s approximately 150,000 Muslims, COA officials said. Officials from the Taipei Grand Mosque said the beef from the specially designated store meets high food security and sanitation standards and is absolutely free of excess water, which is sometimes injected by unscrupulous dealers into local cattle prior to slaughter in order to artificially increase their market weight. “If the Halal industry flourishes, Taiwan might consider making inroads into other Muslim markets around the world with Taiwanese Halal products,” a COA official said. The idea of producing Halal beef locally came after the COA heard complaints from Muslims living in Taiwan as well as buyers from other Asian countries that they had seen very few Taiwanese food products hj carrying Halal certification.6

Footnotes 1 As cited in Lonely Planet, www.lonelyplanet.com 2 Market Profile: Taiwan, http://info.hktdc.com 3 Taiwan, Government Information Office, www.gio.gov.tw 4 Exporters make their mark in Big Apple08, http://taiwanjournal.nat.gov.tw, 25/7/2008 5 RM2b deal for Sarawak Halal park, thestar.com.my, 13/9/2008 6 Local producer secures Halal beef certification: COA, Taipei Times, www.taipeitimes.com, 29/3/2008

THE HALAL JOURNAL | NOV+DEC 2008

55


islamic finance

ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF SHARIAH SCHOLARS IN SHARIAH ADVISORY SERVICES SERIES - PART 2 OF 2

By Dr. Mohamad Akram Laldin, Executive Director of the International Shari’ah Research Academy for Islamic Finance in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

AS DELIBERATED IN PART 1, A SHARIAH ADVISORY BODY CAN EFFECTIVELY SHAPE THE ISLAMIC FINANCE SYSTEM AS LONG AS SHARIAH SCHOLARS PLAY THEIR ROLE SIGNIFICANTLY. LET US NOW LOOK AT THE ROLES AND CHALLENGES OF SHARIAH ADVISORY BODIES...

The Roles and Challenges oF

Shariah Advisory Bodies

S

hariah advisory services are common to all sectors, as they ensure the health, integrity and successful operations of the Islamic finance industry and effectively shape the Islamic financial system. Likewise, Shariah advisory bodies – usually comprising a number of Shariah scholars who advise and provide guidance on Shari’e matters – advise Islamic finance product and service providers on Shariah compliance matters. This body is highly important, as it distinguishes Islamic banks from conventional banks. In fact, it is the actual distinguishing factor1 between Islamic institutions and other institutions.

SHARIAH ADVISORY BOARD A Shariah Supervisory Board comprises several Shariah advisors, who are defined in the Accounting Standards of the Accounting and Auditing Organisation for Islamic Financial Institutions (AAOIFI), as follows: Shariah advisors are specialised jurists, particularly in Fiqh Muamalah and Islamic finance, entrusted with the duty of directing, reviewing and supervising the activities related to Islamic finance in compliance with Shariah rules and principles. The views of Shariah advisors are binding in the specific areas of supervision2. Unlike other advisory bodies, the decisions of Shariah Advisory Boards are binding in relation to Shariah matters. In certain countries, Shariah Advisory Councils act at central levels independently of the financial institution’s in-house Shariah Advisory 56 THE HALAL JOURNAL | NOV+DEC 2008


islamic finance

Board.3 The central Shariah Advisory Council might review the decisions or Ijtihad of Shariah scholars in individual financial institutions. Such arrangements are not applicable in jurisdictions where the decisions (or Ijtihad) of the Shariah Advisory Board at the institutional level are binding and not subject to the review of a higher authority—this is based on the argument that an Ijtihad cannot be nullified by another Ijtihad (al-ijtihad la yanqudu bi al-ijtihad). Additionally, the decisions of Shariah Advisory Bodies do not constitute Ijma’ (consensus)—they operate on the basis of collective Ijtihad where Shariah scholars decide as a group. However, in the event that they cannot reach a unanimous decision, the views of the majority will prevail. The composition of Shariah Advisory Boards usually includes experts in the fields of Shariah law, accounting and finance. This assists Shariah scholars in considering the macro and micro dimensions of the products and policies, allowing them to reach better and more precise decisions. There is no fixed number of members in any Shariah Advisory Board: Membership depends on the need and extent of the services required. The AAOIFI Standard recommends that there be at least three members, and the same is recommended by the Central Bank of

Scholars must

be involved in

product development and be aware of

issues discussed by

practitioners in the areas of finance,

risk, law, taxation, and others.

Malaysia through its Guidelines on the Governance of Shariah Committee for Islamic Financial Institutions. Different Shariah Advisory Bodies may have different roles or tasks. However, normal tasks include advising financial institutions in all Islam-related matters; ensuring Shariah compliance of an institution’s products and operations; being a reference point for issues in the Islamic banking and finance industry; supervising and monitoring industry practices and aligning them with global standards; and representing financial institutions or countries of origin in conferences and dialogues. These are, among others, the roles prescribed to the Shariah Advisory Council of the Central Bank of Malaysia. Boards can be assisted by special secretariats or committees that provide necessary resources, references and research materials; collect Fatwas and banking reports, and provide other forms of assistance to facilitate decision making.

CHALLENGES IN SHARIAH ADVISORY Shariah scholars must be wellequipped and developed in line with the rapid advancement of the industry. Furthermore, there are still many challenges and weaknesses that need to be settled by contemporary Shariah scholars: First, the lack of knowledge and comprehension among Shariah scholars about modern financial practices must be resolved. Not many scholars have adequate knowledge of both Shariah and finance, and this affects the integrity of the Islamic financial industry. Secondly, there is an absence of new Shariah scholars, which is one of the industry’s current concerns. All relevant authorities must invest in developing and training Shariah scholars, and maximise the efforts of existing and senior scholars as mentors to guide young talents. Thirdly, similar to other industries, product innovation is the key to

the development and survival of the Islamic financial system. The conventional system at present is still ahead and leads innovation initiatives. Moreover, the Islamic finance industry has been associated with the syndrome of imitation, rather than innovation. This poses a challenge to Shariah scholars and financial institutions in innovation and product (and service) development4. Shariah scholars also face the task of synergising Shariah regulatory, legal, financial, and tax requirements in product development. There is a tendency merely to replicate conventional products and modify them to be Shariah-compliant. Shariah scholars must be bolder and more proactive if they seek to come up with alternative products that meet all the above requirements. Scholars must be involved in product development and be aware of issues discussed by practitioners in the areas of finance, risk, law, taxation, and others. This requires that competent scholars sit on advisory bodies, and financial institutions must be willing to provide all facilities and assistance to speed up the process (such as by providing funds and assistance for their Shariah scholars to research and explore new avenues). In addition, there is an increased challenge to balance monetary and Shariah objectives through corporate social responsibility (CSR). Such responsibilities should be initiated by Shariah scholars, as the essence of CSR complements many Islamic teachings. Such efforts, however, will fail without firm support from investors and industry players. There is also the challenge of secrecy and confidentiality. The absence of full disclosure on the part of the financial institutions can be detrimental to the legitimacy of products and the rights of customers. Full disclosure about a product’s operation, its purpose, market trend and legal requirements helps scholars issue proper and accurate decisions and facilitates product supervision. Also, it is important to ensure THE HALAL JOURNAL | NOV+DEC 2008

57


islamic finance

Nevertheless,

there is a need for Standardisation

and Harmonisation.

• Yusuf Talal DeLorenzo, Shari’ah Supervision in Islamic Finance, at p. 1. Accessible at: http: //www.djindexes.com/ mdsidx/ downloads/delorenzo.pdf . Accessed on 1 July 2008. • AAOIFI Accounting, Auditing and Governance Standards for Islamic Financial Institutions Governance Standard, 2004-2005, at p. 5 • Such arrangements can be found in Malaysia, Pakistan and Sudan where the Central Shariah Advisory Council exists at the Central Bank level. However, the role of the Central SAC might vary from one country to another. • See Ab. Mumin Ab. Ghani, Sistem Kewangan Islam dan Pelaksanaannya di Malaysia, JAKIM: Kuala Lumpur 1999, at p. 5 • Yusuf Talal DeLorenzo at p. 3 • Yusuf Kamal Muhammad, Al Masrifiyyah Al Islamiyyah: Al Asas al Fikriy, 3rd Ed., Dar Al Nashr Lil Jami’at, Cairo, 2002, at p. 116. • For further discussion on divergence and Ijtihad, see Engku Rabiah Adawiah Engku Ali, Development of Islamic Banking in Malaysia: Constraints and opportunities from the Jurisprudential Perspectives, IIUM Law Journal, Vol. 11, No.2,IIUM: Gombak 2003 at p. 241 - 249 • Imam Al Bukhari, Sahih Al Bukhari, Volume 3, Book 41, Number 592 Other References: • Aidit Ghazali and Dzulfawati Hassan (Ed.), Peranan Ulama’ Dalam Pembangunan Menjelang Abad Ke-21, INMIND: Kuala Lumpur 1997 • Badariah Sahamid, Bank Islam: Konsep dan Amalan, Makalah Undang-undang Menghormati Ahmad Ibrahim, Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka: Kuala Lumpur 1988 • Bank Negara Malaysia, The Islamic Financial System Malaysia (excerpts from BNM Annual Report 2003 - 2005), Kuala Lumpur 2005 • Hasan Yusuf Daud, Al Masrif Al Islami Lil Istismar Al Zira’i: Namuzaj Muqtarah,

58 THE HALAL JOURNAL | NOV+DEC 2008

clear and transparent procedures of decision-making as well as the independence of Shariah scholars. Therefore, AAOIFI recommended that Shariah supervision serve company boards rather than management5. It is highly desirable that Shariah Board members be elected by shareholders, if such an arrangement is viable, in order to ensure the integrity of the Board. Scholars must also be able to play their roles free from fear or conflicts of interest, as dissemination and accuracy of information6 will invite confidence from the industry and the public. Therefore, this matter should not be taken lightly. Moreover, scholars around the globe are facing the challenge diverging opinions, either in relation to the recognition of existing products or in innovation. Comparatively, the latter “attracts” more obstacles, but they are actually the natural outcome of Ijtihad by jurists, as well as differences in local circumstances and conditions affecting various scholars . Active and aggressive Ijtihad is healthy and opens up new horizons. Nevertheless, there is a need for standardisation and harmonisation7. The issuance of Shariah standards by international bodies, such as AAOIFI and IFSB, or findings and resolutions of the OIC Islamic Fiqh Academy, or Dallah Al Baraka roundtable meetings, are as vital as the continuous dialogue of scholars around the world. However, the greatest challenge

of all is the knowledge gap that exists in the industry: Major players and others involved in the industry are not Shariah savvy practitioners. This gap must be addressed by providing more Shariah training and exposure to the practitioners. Also, the market, regulators and practitioners sometimes oppose Shariah proposals if they are perceived to be “alien” to conventional practices. Nevertheless, industry players, financial institutions, investors and the public must be made aware of the unique features of Islamic banking and finance. Good relationships and collaborations will facilitate the different efforts of current and future Shariah scholars.

Dar Al Nashr lil Jami’at: Cairo 2005 • Muhammad Ayyub, Understanding Islamic Finance, John Wiley & Sons Ltd: England 2007 Mahmud Muhammad Babili, Al Masarif Al Islamiyyah: Dharurah Hatmiyyah, Al Maktab Al Islami: Beirut 1989 • Yusuf Kamal Muhammad, Al Masarif Al Islamiyyah: Al Azmah wal Makhraj, Dar Al Nashr lil Jami’at: Cairo 1998 • El Waleed M. Ahmad, Sukuk – A Shari’ah Advisory Perspective. Accessible at: HYPERLINKhttp:// www.failaka .com/ downloads/Sukuk_ Perspective.pdf. Accessed on 1 July 2008 • Hamzah Abdul Karim Hammad, Al Riqabah Al Shar’iyyah fil Masarif Al Islamiyyah. Accessible at: www.cba.edu.kw. Accessed on 2 July 2008 • Lynne, Roberts., Lack of scholars hinders UK Islamic finance. Accessible at: HYPERLINKhttp://www. arabianbusiness. com/505291-lack-of-scholars-hinders-ukislamic-finance. Accessed on 1 July 2008. • Mufti Barakatulla, Role of Shari’ah scholars in standardisation process of Islamic finance. Accessible at HYPERLINK “http://www. newhorizon-”http://www.newhorizonislamicbanking.com/index.cfm?section=lectures &action=view&id=10674. Accessed on 1 July 2008

• Muhammad Al Qurri, Lil Hai’at Al Shar’iyyah Dawrun Kabir fi Ilzaam Al Bunuk Al Islamiyyah Kahfdhi Rusumiha. Accessible at: http: //www. asharqalawsat.com/details.asp?section= 58&article =415334&issueno=10367. Accessed on 2 July 2008 • Interview with Dr Abdul Sattar Abu Ghuddah, Al Muamalat Al Shar’iyyah fil Bunuk Al Islamiyyah. Accessible at: HYPERLINK “http://www.aljazeera. net/channel/archive/archive?ArchiveId”http:// www.aljazeera.net/channel/archive/ archive?ArchiveId =91724. Accessed on 2 July 2008 • Al Riqabah Al Shar’iyyah fil Masarif Al Islamiyyah. Accessible at: HYPERLINK “http://www.arriyadh. com/”http://www.arriyadh.com/ Economic/ LeftBar/Researches/-----------------------------------1.doc_cvt.asp. Accessed on 2 July 2008 • Dawr Al Riqabah fil Masarif Al Islamiyyah wifqan lil Qanun Al Suri Al Nafiz. Accessible at: HYPERLINK “http://www.iqtissadiya.com/archives_detail.asp?is sue=248&id=710&category=local”http://www. iqtissadiya.com/archives_detail.asp?issue=248&i d=710&category=local. Accessed on 2 July 2008 • Tawsiyat Al Mu’tamar Al Awwal lil Masarif wal Muassasat Al Maliyyah Al Islamiyyah fi Suria. Accessible at: http://www.kantakji.com/fiqh/Files/ Markets/Twes.doc. Accessed on 2 July 2008

CONCLUSION The prospects for the Islamic banking and finance industry are very bright, but the task ahead is challenging. The development of a complete and comprehensive system requires not only the active participation of Shariah advisors, but also regulators, practitioners, economists and legal experts. Islamic finance, as one aspect of human life, is a form of Ibadah if it is conducted in accordance with the rule of the Almighty and, as such, has to be upheld by all players in the Islamic finance industry. The ultimate reminder is the Prophetic saying: “Every one of you are guardians and each of you are responsible for the things or people that are under your hj care8 ” and Allah knows best.


Islamic finance update

COMPILED BY ZAAHIRA MUHAMMAD

NOV+DEC 08 UAE’S SALAMA TIES UP WITH DWS INVESTMENT Salama Islamic Arab Insurance Company, the world’s largest Takaful and Re-Takaful Group, announced their partnership with DWS Investments, the global mutual fund arm of Deutsche Bank Group. Salama presents a comprehensive range of diverse Shariah-compliant, unit-linked insurance products to its valued clients. The DWS Noor Islamic Funds can be accessed through these products. As a result of the strategic tie-up, Salama will offer its customers a host of DWS Noor Islamic Funds which are 100 per cent Shariahcompliant and diversified by asset class and geography. Noel D’Mello, Head of Family Takaful of Salama said, “Our partnership with DWS Investments signifies another landmark achievement for Salama in further promoting Shariah-compliant savings and insurance products in the UAE. It will greatly help in achieving our objective of spreading Shariah-compliant insurance plans throughout UAE that are not only competitive in pricing, but also flexible and affordable enough to meet the needs of the average person.” According to Tarek Lotfy, Middle East and North Africa Director of Asset Management of Deutsche Bank, “We are proud to have this alliance with Salama, UAE’s leading and specialised Takaful company. Salama’s credibility, reputation for quality, diversified product range and high standards, makes them our partner of choice in spreading innovative and world-class DWS Shariahcompliant investment solutions.” |SOURCE: MENAFN.COM, 2 OCTOBER 2008

TAKAFUL SIGNS SAAD ACCORD Takaful International Company has signed a mutual co-operation agreement to include Saudi Arabian Saad Specialist Hospital in its network of healthcare providers outside Bahrain. “We are most happy and honoured to include Saad Specialist Hospital in our

network of healthcare providers,” said Takaful International Company Chief Executive Officer Younis J Al Sayed. “Saad Specialist Hospital is one of the most prestigious hospitals in the region with an excellent reputation for providing the best healthcare services at national and worldwide levels,” he said, adding that the agreement was part of the company’s strategy to provide services that suit the demands of this era. He said the company will continue to expand its network of healthcare providers inside and outside of Bahrain. “This mutual agreement will enable us to expand our healthcare services in the Arabian Gulf region,” said Saad Specialist Hospital Deputy Executive Manager Faisal Al Gosaibi. “We always make sure to provide high-quality healthcare services using the latest medical technology. All of this will help us to achieve excellence at all levels.” |SOURCE: GULF-DAILY-NEWS.COM, 16 OCTOBER 2008

QIB LAUNCHES INTERNET BANKING Qatar Islamic Bank yesterday launched its Internet banking service to better serve its customers locally and around the globe. The service is currently available to all QIB customers and will soon be accessible to corporate clients. The new e-banking service allows QIB customers to obtain balance and transaction histories on all eligible accounts, transfer money between eligible accounts with no restrictions on the number of transfers, and pay utility bills. A variety of other services are provided online in both English and Arabic. The programmes are certified to ISO standards. QIB Chief Executive Officer Salah Jaidah said: “QIB consistently strives to provide the best service to its clients and e-banking will allow us to provide a more efficient and innovative service in a very secure banking environment. E-banking is a business-added value project designed to provide QIB clients with efficiency and flexibility when transferring

money or checking balance and transaction histories online. “QIB’s IT department is committed to delivering excellence in information technology services to streamline QIB’s business processes and to researching technology innovations so we may identify and implement new programmes that better serve our clients.” |SOURCE: THE PENINSULA, 13 OCTOBER 2008

MALAYSIAN FIRM SEEKS MENA EXPANSION Malaysian Islamic insurer Takaful Ikhlas is in talks to sell its products in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), Gulf News reported. The company, a subsidiary of insurer MNRB Holdings, will apply for a license to allow it to set up an international currency business unit, the Chief Executive Officer of Takaful told the Business Times recently. An international currency business unit allows Islamic insurers to undertake Islamic insurance and reinsurance business with non-Malaysian residents in foreign currencies, he said. According to industry figures, global premiums in Islamic insurance, or Takaful, currently total about USD2-3 billion and are expected to reach more than USD7 billion by 2015. |SOURCE: MENAFN.COM, 4 OCTOBER 2008

ISLAMIC LENDERS MAY FACE DIFFICULTIES AHEAD, SAYS MALAYSIAN BANKER A Malaysian banker feels that Shariah lenders in the Gulf region may be harder hit by the credit crunch than Asian banks due to their greater direct exposure to the property market. CIMB Islamic Bank Chief Executive Badlisyah Abdul Ghani said deterioration in Gulf property markets could lead to implications for regional lenders. “When the property market blows up, you’ll definitely see problems in that market,” he said, according to Emirates Business. He described sovereignbacked Islamic banks as “very safe” as they would be supported by the sovereign if they had liquidity problems.

“But for privately owned banks, they would feel some difficulty. Whether or not they’re going to fail is anybody’s guess but the expectation is that some will,” the newspaper quoted him as saying. It was reported that the United Arab Emirates would inject 70 billion dirham (USD19 billion) into the national banking sector on top of the 50 billion dirham emergency facility announced on Sept 22 for banks operating in the country. The measures were taken to support the sector against the backdrop of a global financial crisis. |SOURCE: BERNAMA, 15 OCTOBER 2008

KASB FUNDS OFFER FREE TAKAFUL TO INVESTORS OF KASB ISLAMIC INCOME FUND KASB Funds has entered into an agreement with Dawood Family Takaful to provide free Takaful coverage to all individual investors of KASB Islamic Income Fund. It was recently announced that the agreement was signed between Naz Khan, Chief Executive of KASB Funds Limited, and Abdul Halim Nasri, Chief Executive Officer of Dawood Family Takaful. Elaborating on this new initiative, Shoaib Savul, Head of Strategy and Business Development of KASB Funds Limited, said that the concept combines investment management services and life assurance as a planning tool to achieve fiscal advantages and security for investors and their families. This, he added, is a one-of -a-kind scheme where investors do not need to fill out any additional paper work and do not face any hidden charges. Under the agreement, investors can access maximum life coverage for up to Rs. 2.5 million and accidental coverage for up to Rs. five million. Naz Khan highlighted the company’s vision of creating value for customers by providing investment products with added benefits. |SOURCE: REGIONALTIMES.COM, 13 OCTOBER 2008

THE HALAL JOURNAL | NOV+DEC 2008

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The Art oF Stereotyping

THE HALAL JOURNAL

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LIVING

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NOV+DEC 2008

MISCONCEPTIONS OF ISLAM & MUSLIMS JOURNEY TO SARAWAK RESTAURANT REVIEW: ALI BABA’S INDIAN KITCHEN, TAIPEI BOOK REVIEW: ANIMAL WELFARE IN ISLAM

SINCE THE TIME OF THE CRUSADES BOTH MUSLIMS AND NONMUSLIMS HAVE PLAYED A ROLE IN THE MISCONCEPTIONS AND MISUNDERSTANDING THAT EXISTS TODAY, AND THAT ARE BASED, MORE OFTEN THAN NOT, MORE ON STEREOTYPES THAN ON FACTS OR FIRSTHAND KNOWLEDGE.


cover story

THE MISCONCEPTIONS OF ISLAM AND MUSLIMS: A Historical Perspective

Due to historical, political, social, religious and cultural reasons, people today still know little about Muslims and Islam. Many continue to believe writings that portray Islam as atavistic, stuck in the past, oppressive towards women and so on... Words By HARIZ KAMAL

C

onfusion about Islam has led to dialogues, conferences, workshops, summer schools and even policies to better relations between Muslims and non-Muslims. There are many angles to identifying the gaps in understanding, especially in the theological, economical, political and cultural contexts. Unfortunately, the stereotyping is not just one-sided. Both Muslims and non-Muslims have played a role in the misconceptions and misunderstanding that exists today, and that are based, more often than not, more on stereotypes than on facts or firsthand knowledge. However, to completely eliminate these negative nuances is rather idealistic, especially as they have existed for so long, even during the time of the Crusades. The Crusades were a series of military campaigns that had the goal of recapturing Jerusalem and the Holy Land from Muslim rule. It was also when the globalisation process was initiated, as the

62 THE HALAL JOURNAL LIVING | NOV+DEC 2008

movement of goods, ideas and people grew rapidly during this time. According to Malcolm Barber, author of The Two Cities, Medieval Europe 1050-1320 (Routledge, 1992): “During the twelfth and thirteenth centuries the crusading movement was responsible for fundamental changes in western Christendom, for to enable tens of thousands of men and women to travel to and from Palestine, Syria, Cyprus, Egypt and Greece, and to move their horses and supplies, involved a revolution in transportation, finance and government so profound that it must be accounted a major reason for the transformation of the nature of western European society and its economy from that of the early medieval world.” As a result, the Crusades led to expanded trade between the East and Western Europe, which was introduced to new items – such as spices, silks, medicines, perfumes, Damascus steel and so on. During times of truce, even more trade routes opened through contact with Eastern merchants, creating

a whole new world to Europe for exploration. The opening of trade also ignited European hunger for wealth and knowledge, in time to take advantage of Muslim advances in medicine, warfare, mathematics, anatomy, textiles, even cooking. At the same time, the Crusades also played a role in shaping European perceptions of the Muslim world and vice versa, leading to entrenched stereotypes and misconceptions that still exist today.

F

or a start, Europeans widely used the term “Saracens” to address Muslims. Saracens was a vague term used in the West for the Arabs and eventually, other Islamic people of the Near East in both pre-Islamic and mediaeval times. Saracens was one of the many terms that classical authors and ecclesiastical writers used to refer to Arabs. However, Arabs did not use the term to refer to themselves, as it had been coined by the West. Linguistically, the term was composed of ‘Sarak’ and the Greek suffix ‘enos’ and both its etymology and denotations are controversial. Unfortunately,


this stereotype of all Arabs being Muslims (Saracens are Arabs) still exist today. In actual truth, many Arabs are not Muslims, and not all Muslims are Arabs. More than a billion people in the world are Muslims, but fewer than 15 per cent of Muslims worldwide are Arabs. The majority of Muslims live outside the Middle East – in places like Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, India and Pakistan.

B

efore the first Crusades, Muslims showed little interest in Christianity and cared even less about Europe. They only knew a certain amount about Christianity from Christian communities in the Middle East, which did not stop exaggerated writings about the crusading armies of western Christians known as Franks. For example, a Muslim judge in Toledo wrote about the categories of nations where he described the barbarians who lived in the north (that is Europe) as “more of a beast rather than men”. He added that they lacked keenness of understanding and clarity of intelligence and were overcome by ignorance and apathy, lack of discernment and stupidity. The Muslims had heard of the Franks and had long formed opinions about them. These opinions were based on travel accounts, oral narratives from prisoners of war, pilgrims, merchants and diplomats, geographical works and popular stories. Despite the advancement of technology and rapid transfer of information, misunderstandings and conflicts are even more intensified today. For example, there was a study of the portrayal of Muslims and Islam in the British media within one week of news coverage, and the results showed that 91 per cent of articles in national newspapers about Muslims were negative.

Additionally, in a new report released at the NewsXchange conference in Amsterdam entitled Western Perceptions about Islam and Muslims, it was revealed that Arab Muslims are typically portrayed in a stereotypical and negative fashion by the media in Western Europe and the United States.

Many reporters neither understand the local culture nor speak the language, leaving them with access only to English or French-speaking Westernised elites. Therefore, their representation is often a biased account of the political and social events from the point of view of the ruling minority in Muslim countries

T

he Islamic world is poorly represented in the West in terms of Press and media coverage. Not only are there only handfuls of news agencies in Muslim countries; there is also the concern over the number of inexperienced reporters. Many reporters neither understand the local culture nor speak the language, leaving them with access only to English or French-speaking Westernised elites. Therefore, their representation is often a biased account of the political and social events from the point of view of the ruling minority in Muslim countries (Hassan).

As a result, negative images of Islam are becoming more widely spread in Western culture. The Western public is often misinformed about Muslims, especially through television, motion picture screens, magazines, radios, and comic strips in newspapers, all of which easily promote strong messages among their audiences.

O

n the other hand, Muslims also have their role to play in correcting these misconceptions and not indulging in creating their own stereotypes towards the West and the non-Muslims. Verse 11 of the surah alHujjurat in the Quran declares that to deride a folk who may be better than they are; to defame one another; and to insult one another by nicknames are considered evildoings. What is the point of prolonging these misunderstandings and conflicts, when religion promotes virtuous teachings? We just need to be wary of religion being manipulated to serve an unholy agenda by devious people. In these cases, hatred and bigotry are propagated on behalf of one’s religion, for the sake of political gain or personal profit. After all, surah al-Hujjurat verse 13 further states: O mankind! We created you from a single (pair) of a male and a female, and made you into nations and tribes, that ye may know each other (not that ye may despise (each other). Verily the most honoured of you in the sight of Allah is (he who is) the most righteous of you. And Allah has full knowledge and is well acquainted (with all things). hj

Reference: • Anser Hassan, Invitation to Islam: Islamic Stereotypes in Western Mass Media, http://psirus.sfsu.edu/IntRel/IRJournal/sp95/hassan.html • Carole Hillenbrand, The Crusades: Islamic Perspective, 1999 • Malcolm Barber, The Two Cities, Medieval Europe 10501320, ,1992

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63


SARAWAK

BY THE SARAWAK TOURISM BOARD

journey

A Rafflesia at Gunung Gading National Park

Wild mushrooms

A melting pot of culture, adventure and nature The Rainforest World Music Festival

S

arawak, Malaysia’s largest state, is located on the exotic island of Borneo. Endowed with a rich and most diverse ecosystem, Sarawak is the country’s new tourism frontier From pristine underwater marine life and untouched coral reefs to rich heritage and modern cityscapes, Sarawak is a potpourri of experiences appreciated by travellers from all over the world. Such a setting is idyllic for any holidaymaker game for an enriching escape. A former colony of Britain, Sarawak gained independence in 1963 and Kuching has since grown into a vibrant city with a rich skyline made up of a mixture of colonial influences and modern architecture. Sarawak, with a population of more than 2.2 million, has become an attraction for visitors from all over the world. CULTURE AND ARTS Fondly known as the Land of the Hornbill, Sarawak is a place of colourful cultures and is known as one of the most harmonious states in Malaysia – it boasts 27 ethnic groups, and 45 languages and dialects. The main groups of people in Sarawak are the Iban, Malay, Bidayuh, Chinese, Melanau, Orang Ulu and Penan. The Orang Ulu tribe is made up of the Kayan, Kenyan and Kelabit peoples; and there are also several other sub-groups. Heading into Sarawak’s interior, your heart will flutter at the fascinating and entrancing dances of the state’s many tribes.

64 THE HALAL JOURNAL LIVING | NOV+DEC 2008

Inter-marriage is common among Sarawakians, and this cultural mix has inculcated a high level of understanding and cooperation among the many races living in the state. Sarawak’s natural beauty is legendary, and so are its arts and crafts. Inspired by the effortless flight of the hornbill, the supple curvatures of the fern, or even a dream, skilled craftspeople work their hands to shape beautiful works that visitors can take home as souvenirs. The wide selection of handicraft identifies each community living in the state. The Orang Ulu are known for their skilled beadwork, while the Chinese are renowned for their clay pottery—these are beautifully painted with intricate motifs and are famous among locals and visitors alike. The Iban, particularly Iban women, are known to be the best weavers and produce the finest textiles using the tieand-dye method. These colourful fabrics with ethnic motifs are locally known as pua kumbu–and pua kumbu has now made its way into the international market. Both the Melanau and Bidayuh are associated with basketry, hat-weaving, and other crafts using natural resources such as bamboo, palm, rattan and tree bark. Take home any of these crafts to remember the good times you had while holidaying in Sarawak. LOCAL TRADITIONS AND FESTIVITIES Steeped in tradition, the multi-racial community in Sarawak also celebrates a

kaleidoscope of events and festivals all year round. Despite different religious beliefs and cultural backgrounds, the people of Sarawak share a common bond in celebrating their respective festivals: All practice the “open house” tradition and welcome relatives, friends, acquaintances and even strangers into their homes to join in the merry-making. The main festival in Sarawak is the Gawai Dayak, which is celebrated by the Dayak community to mark the end of the harvest. The Dayaks are made up of the Iban, Bidayuh and Orang Ulu peoples. Celebrated on June 1, Gawai Dayak is a festival of thanksgiving to the God of Rice for a bountiful harvest. Other festivals include the Hari Raya Aidilfitri and Chinese New Year celebrated by the Muslims and Chinese respectively. Apart from traditional festivals, Sarawak also hosts other events including cultural and music festivals such as the Pesta Kaul, the Kuching Festival, the Rainforest World Music Festival, the Sarawak Regatta, the Miri International Jazz Festival, the Borneo Cultural Festival and the World Harvest Festival. Like Gawai Dayak, Pesta Kaul is


Travel Note

Kuching is the capital city and is the main gateway to Sarawak. Malaysia Airlines, Air Asia, SilkAir, Batavia Air and Royal Brunei Airlines have regular flights from Kuala Lumpur (the federal capital of Malaysia), Singapore, Brunei and Pontianak in Indonesia. The Rafflesia, the world’s largest flower, grows in abundance in the jungles of Sarawak, particularly at the Gunung Gading National Park. Among the many creatures that are found roaming and flying around the jungle of Sarawak include the Orang Utan, the proboscis monkey, the hornbill, the Raja Brooke butterfly and the leaf monkey. Apart from the many wonders on land and underwater, Sarawak’s culinary delicacies should also not be missed. The state’s signature laksa (vermicelli in spicy gravy), kolok mee (egg noodles served with barbequed meat), umai (a local raw-fish dish), midin (a dish of wild ferns), terubok masin (salted terubok fish) and pansoh manok (chicken cooked in bamboo) are a must-try for the adventurous.

Sarawak potteries

Pua Kumbu weaving

Traditional hand made sunhats

Pitcher plant

celebrated by the Melanau community as a mark of thanksgiving for a bountiful harvest. The festival is celebrated in April with a special ceremony by the beach. Devotees place offerings to appease their god on a basket woven from palm leaves that will be set adrift in the sea. Other festivals that have put Sarawak on the world map are the Rainforest World Music Festival and the Miri International Jazz Festival. Located at the Sarawak Cultural Village—a living museum—the Rainforest World Music Festival is held every year on the second week of July and has attracted thousands of fans over the past 11 years. The Miri International Jazz Festival, held in Miri every year on the second week of May, has been running since 2006 and has also attracted scores of jazz fans. NATURE AND ADVENTURE For those who enjoy nature at its best, Sarawak’s protected rainforest is one of the oldest and most diverse ecosystems in the world. The ancient rainforest is home to many exotic flora and fauna found only in this treasure-trove of nature’s splendour. Here you will find the world’s largest flower—the Rafflesia; squirrels and snakes that glide through the air; mousedeers the size of kittens; and pitcher plants that eat insects—and there are many more species of plants and animals yet to be discovered. Sarawak’s natural wonders are best appreciated in the many protected national parks and ancient rainforests where alluring caves, cascading waterfalls, and pristine

beaches are waiting to be enjoyed. There are 16 national parks and two wildlife centres in Sarawak, and the best of them needs no introduction: The Mulu National Park (which is a UNESCO World Heritage Site). Gunung Mulu, located in Miri, also has the world’s largest cave chamber and the world’s most extensive cave system with razor-sharp limestone pinnacles. Apart from touring the four show-caves (Lang’s Cave, Deer Cave, Lady Cave and Clearwater Cave), visitors can also watch millions of bats fly out of the caves every evening in search of food. Not for the faint-hearted or acrophobic, a walk along the tree-based Canopy Skywalk (the world’s longest) is also a star attraction. Or you could hop on the plane to visit the highlands and the home of the Orang Ulu community. The Orang Ulu are known for their hospitality, the fragrant rice of the Bario highland, and the sweet and juicy apples of Ba’ Kelalan. The adventure on land continues to the sea where pristine waters invite anyone game for vigorous activities like diving, fishing, water-skiing and yachting. Many dive sites off the coast of Sarawak are waiting to be explored. The dive sites off Kuching and Miri offer views of awesome reefs and corals, and many species of fish. There is also the Kenyalang rig, a manmade artificial reef constructed from a decommissioned oil rig off the coast of Miri. Indeed, the state has much to offer its visitors, and Sarawak is hj truly “More Than a Paradise.” THE HALAL JOURNAL LIVING | NOV+DEC 2008

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COMPILED BY ZAAHIRA MUHAMMAD

Restaurant + Foodservice

ALI BABA’S INDIAN KITCHEN Offering a delectable selection of Indian cuisine, Ali Baba’s Indian Kitchen is situated along the Nanjing West Road in the city of Taipei, Taiwan, and is famous among locals and tourists for its Halal menu. With its simple and spacious interior coupled with soft mellow music, diners can savour their meals in a relaxing and warm atmosphere. It is the place to dine in Taipei for those looking for casual, delicious and Halal Indian cuisine. For starters, the papadam (spiced lentil wafers) and vegetable samosas are splendid. The samosas have a moist, satisfying vegetable filling that gives a pleasing contrast to their crisp, thick envelope. For the main course, the Chicken Tikka – cubes of tender, boneless chicken marinated in yogurt and just the right mix of spices, is simply divine. Equally good is the Chicken Tandoori, which is grilled to perfection. It is marinated in yogurt, lemon juice and plenty of spices that gives the dish its distinctive deep red hue. The Chicken Tandoori is served with spicy mint sauce and goes well with Naan bread. Speaking of Naan, Ali Baba has a wide range of breads and the restaurant’s Naan are traditionally baked—slapped onto the inside walls of a stone oven. The selection varies from plain Naan and butter Naan to Aloo-Paratha Naan and Keema Naan—and the exquisite Garlic Naan. Ali Baba’s tasty shish kebab and other grilled meats can be eaten on their own or with briyani rice, which is served in generous portions -- the Prawn Briyani is particularly worth trying. Another recommended dish is the Mutton Keema – Ali Baba’s tantalising traditional South Asian dish of minced lamb curry with peas. Other delicious dishes include the Masala Papadam – spiced lentil wafers fried and served with chopped onions and tomatoes; Mutton Vindaloo – highly spiced lamb cooked with potatoes; and the Paneer Makhanwala – cottage cheese cooked in a spicy tomato sauce. The owner, Muhammad Ali of Pakistan, started off with just a grill stand at a night market. Expanding with strong demand from locals, Muhammad Ali and his Taiwanese wife developed a full Halal menu to suit the Taiwanese palate. With efficient and friendly service, the restaurant has built a reputation in Taipei’s Indian and Middle Eastern communities, and among locals as well as tourists, as the best Halal Pakistani and Indian vegetarian and non-vegetarian restaurant in the city.

Web

SHARIAHPROGRAM.CA ShariahProgram.ca was established in 2003 with the intention of teaching the Ummah the beautiful and unique language of the Quran, specifically the language of Jannah – Arabic. The website is not only dedicated to teaching Classical Arabic but also works to highlight authentic Sunni Islam by dispelling common misconceptions. The ever-growing articles section is a clear indication of their wish to promote traditional Islam. 66 THE HALAL JOURNAL LIVING | NOV+DEC 2008


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Books

Music

BOOK TITLE: ANIMAL WELFARE IN ISLAM

Author: Al-Hafiz Basheer Ahmad Masri Publisher: Islamic Foundation (2007, 1428 AH) ISBN: 9780860375951

Animal Welfare in Islam attempts to highlight Islam’s kind and compassionate teachings regarding animal welfare. The Islamic instructions on animal needs and Man’s obligations to them are so comprehensive that Muslims need not go elsewhere for guidance. Not being cruel or even being condescendingly kind to animals is a negative proposition – Islam wants Muslims to think and act in positive terms by accepting all species as communities in their own right, and not judging them according to human norms and values. The book also examines animal sacrifice as it is practiced by the followers of major world religions. In addition, it examines the mass production of meat and exhorts Muslims, especially those in the West, to tackle the issue of Halal meat in an appropriate manner.

Muadz Dzulkefly Muadz Dzulkefly is a talented young man with a degree in civil law. But despite his having a respectable degree, Muadz has chosen to be a full-time recording artist who specialises in Hadith-inspired songs with hints of classical, bohemian, groove, and pop rock. With a fine talent for singing, Muadz aspires to be a role-model for the young. His first album, Al’Asr... A Moment is a unique album that features songs drawn from widely different knowledge bases. Each song contains exact quotes from the Hadith, and each is presented in a form appropriate to the thousandyear-old Hadiths of Sayyidul Mursaleen. With this wonderful album, Muadz hopes that “Islamic scholars will be able to inspire the masses about Islam and about going back to the true practice of Islam in many different ways. Music is one of these ways. The bright side of music will soon emerge, Insha’Allah.”

BOOK TITLE: MISTER PIP

Author: Lloyd Jones Publisher: John Murray (14 June 2007) ISBN-10: 0719564565 ISBN-13: 9780719564567

A novel by Lloyd Jones, a prize-winning author, Mister Pip is named after a character in Charles Dickens’ novel, and is a delightful tale shaped by the plot of Great Expectations. Mister Pip is an amazing coming-of-age story about Matilda Laimo, a 13-year old Papua New Guinean child, living on the island of Bougainville. The book won the 2007 Commonwealth Prize for literature and was sold for distribution in the United States. Mister Pip is a great read for people of all ages as it is an intriguing, intelligent, and is simply an exciting read! THE HALAL JOURNAL LIVING | NOV+DEC 2008

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COMPILED BY ZAAHIRA MUHAMMAD

Halal products are those that are good, pure and safe for human consumption. It ranges from food to cosmetics, pharmaceuticals to toiletries. Here are some of the products with the Halal guarantee.

MUSTAJAB GINGER LOTION

Mustajab Ginger Lotion from Dunia Herbs has its own uniqueness and identity. Ginger is known to have firming properties and can help ease a cold or indigestion. Mustajab Ginger Lotion is a 100 per cent herbal remedy, suitable for use in massage, as a fat burner and body shaping, for muscles, joint, stomach and back pain, to reduce cellulite and relieve menstrual pain. It is highly recommend for post-natal women. Mustajab Ginger Lotion is available in a 130ml packing tube and can be purchased at most personal care stores.

GATORADE

Gatorade is a flavoured, non-carbonated sports drink manufactured by the Quaker Oats Company, now a division of PepsiCo. Gatorade is intended for consumption during physical activity and is formulated to re-hydrate and replenish fluids, carbohydrates and electrolytes.

JUST JUICE

JUSCO SELECTION GOURMET BURGER PATTIES

Jusco Selection Gourmet Burger Patties promote a healthy concept as they do not contain MSG and preservatives and are available in beef, lamb and chicken. Try some for a healthier burger!

HALAGEL® NIZE GUMMIEZ TM

Halagel® Nize GummiezTM mouth-watering gummy is prepared with the modern technologies using only the best quality ingredients so as to ensure the consumers’ utmost satisfaction. It comes in five attractive colours and flavours of Apple, Grape, Mango, Orange and Strawberry and with Vitamin C. Most importantly, it is a fun snack food made of Halal gelatine. Halagel® Nize GummiezTM is packed in 70 gm packets and in jars of 840 gm. It is the ideal Halal snack that kids love.

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Just Juice offers a broad range of flavours that are known for their quality. All flavours contain a minimum of 99 per cent fruit juice content. The Just Juice range offers a broad range of exciting flavours; from Orange, Apple, and Orange Mango, to more exotic flavours such as Paradise Punch, Apple Berry and Apple Mango. These are available in convenient pack sizes of 6 x 250ml, 6 x 150ml, 1L, 2L, and 3L. Each Just Juice product contains no preservatives, no added sugar, and no artificial colours.

BRAND’S INNERSHINE BERRY ESSENCE

Brand’s InnerShine Berry Essence helps nourish and protect your eyes to keep them fresh and bright all day long. It is made from an exclusive blend of premium, specially-selected berries – including blueberries, blackcurrants, cranberries and chokeberries from Europe – that are rich in anthocyanins, which are beneficial to eyes. In addition, it is fortified with Vitamin A, C, E, beta carotene and zinc to give your eyes the best nourishment.


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THE WORLD HALAL FORUM CEO ROUNDTABLE II

TRADE AND MARKET ACCESS

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6TH NOVEMBER 2008 | MATRADE EXHIBITION & CONVENTION CENTRE (MECC), KUALA LUMPUR, MALAYSIA

KEY SEGMENTS • Local investment strategies for overseas market penetration • Understanding destination regulatory requirements • Global standards & impact on trade • Increasing intra OIC trade • ASEAN Free Trade agreement • Navigating foreign markets • Multi-lateral vs. Bilateral agreements & impact on business • Benefits & roles of Islamic trade finance • Increasing global Halal trade and the challenges it presents • Strategic reverse investment as a facilitator to trade KEY ROLE PLAYERS • Nordin Abdullah, Deputy Chairman, World Halal Forum • Darhim Dali Hashim, CEO, International Halal Integrity Alliance (IHI Alliance) • Dato’ Noharuddin Nordin– CEO, MATRADE • Dr. Irfan Sungkar, Head of Research and Strategic Projects, KasehDia Sdn Bhd • Ms. Amintha Weerawardena, Research & Advisory, Rabobank International

WHO ATTENDED Senior management, decision makers and strategic advisors from • Islamic Finance and Investment Organisations • Companies aiming to penetrate global markets especially the European Union • Policy makers • Economic Planners • Islamic Financial Institutions • Food & Ingredient Manufacturers • Chambers of Trade & Industry • Business Associations • Logistics Supply Chain Companies

FOR MORE INFORMATION AND FOR SPONSORSHIP OPPORTUNITIES, PLEASE CONTACT INFO@KASEHDIA.COM. THE CEO ROUNDTABLE IS HELD IN CONJUNCTION WITH THE WORLD HALAL FORUM AND IS SUPPORTED BY IHI ALLIANCE AND THE HALAL JOURNAL.

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snapshots

IHI Alliance CEO Darhim Dali Hashim, Rene Vacquier of the Netherlands Foreign Investment Agency and Jeremy Deacon of Marhaba Halal Food in Rotterdam

Cheerful... Dato’ Seri Dr Ahmad Zaid Hamidi meeting the delegates at GIFC 2008

-Congratulations! Jumaatun Azmi, KasehDia’s Managing Director, winning the MCBC Best Young Entreprenuers 2008 Award

KasehDia Head of Research, Irfan Sungkar discussing matters at Bogor Agriculture University, Indonesia.

Enthusiastic...participants at the GIFC 2008

Welcome remarks by Prof. Robin Pollard, Pro-Vice Chancellor and President of Monash University Sunway campus.

Deep thoughts... discussions at the GIFC 2008

On candid camera...Minister of the Prime Minister’s Office Zaid Hamidi and the speakers at HDC International Certification Dialogue 2008

Insightful... Ahmad Sanusi Husain, CEO of GlobalPro Consulting delivering his talk on Human Capital Development in Islamic Finance Industry at the GIFC 2008

+DEC 008


360 Approach to Leading Sukuk Issues in International Capital Markets

12th-13th Jan, 2009

SINGAPORE 15th-16th Jan, 2009

HONG KONG "The outstanding global sukuk market has now surpassed the US$100 billion mark...� Bank Negara Governor, Tan Sri Dr Zeti Akhtar Aziz

As one of the fastest growing segments in the international financial system, Islamic Sukuk is becoming increasingly integrated to the international financial system. JOIN us in this exciting journey at the frontier of Islamic Financial System that opens Sukuk and its relations to Islamic financial products that guide economic to socio-economic development. Bringing with you all your questions and concerns and exploiting the opportunities in the vibrant Sukuk market.

Renowned Trainer: YOUSUF IBNUL HASAN Program Consultant, IQRA UNIVERSITY, ISLAMIC BANKING & APPLIED FINANCE

Organised by

Media Partners

Online Media Partner


parting words The Institute of Advanced Islamic Studies (IAIS) Malaysia aims to engage in high calibre research on Islam and contemporary issues, particularly to develop the intellectual and academic aspects of Islam Hadhari and its component principles from the Islamic perspective. The Institute rigorously pursues the mastery of knowledge and balanced socio-economic development. The Halal Journal recently met the Institute’s Deputy Chief Executive Officer, Emeritus Professor Datuk Dr Osman Bakar.

PURSUING MASTERY OF KNOWLEDGE AND BALANCED SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT WHY IS AN INSTITUTE SUCH AS IAIS IMPORTANT TO THE BUSINESS WORLD? IAIS is an independent research body concentrating on major issues confronting Muslim communities around the world. Specifically, IAIS deals with issues of great concern to Muslims in Malaysia; and if for no other reason, Muslims consumers should be of interest to the business world because of their purchasing power. Demographically, the global Muslim community of 1.8 billion is a formidable force. We need to account for the lives and thoughts of Muslims, their aspirations and fears, and their relations with others.

Inter-cultural dialogue on subjects like food preferences are one of the best ways to inculcate these sensitivities among different religious communities that interact daily at various levels of community life.

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These can influence world events and can have important implications for the business world. In the field of economics and business, IAIS seeks to highlight the significance of Islam and the Islamic world as factors in influencing trends favourable to business and trade. IAIS HAS ENGAGED IN NUMEROUS DIALOGUES AND PUBLIC LECTURES. WHAT IS THE SCOPE OF THESE DIALOGUES? We have invited speakers, including non-Muslims, to deliberate on issues of interethnic and inter-religious relations from the perspective of Islam. IAIS is deeply concerned about inter-ethnic and interreligious issues. We believe that the Ummah’s good relations with the rest of the world (not only with the West) are important for international peace.

We are now expanding the scope of these concerns in our monthly seminars and public lectures. Our long-term plans include seminars and research on Islam Hadhari, and Islam and policy issues in areas such as science, technology and environment, education, law, and economics. DO YOU SEE HALAL AS AN INTERACTIVE “DIALOGUE” BETWEEN MUSLIMS AND NON-MUSLIMS? IF SO, HOW? Yes I do. In my little book The Qur’an on Interfaith and InterCivilization Dialogue, I included the subject of human responses to food in its various aspects in the long list of major issues that need to be put on the agenda of inter-cultural dialogue at both national and international levels. In plural societies where many religions and cultures live side by side, inter-religious and inter-cultural understanding has to embrace respect for diverse and contradictory dietary preferences and habits. Sensitivity to the different religious perspectives on food production, consumption and dietary regulations – analogous to sensitivity towards places of worship – are called for in such societies. Inter-cultural dialogue on subjects like food preferences are one of the best ways to inculcate these sensitivities among different religious communities that interact daily at various levels of community life. With more restaurants and other eating places catering Halal food from different cultures, opportunities increase for Malaysians of all races and ethnic groups to eat together in the same place. Non-Muslims are to be congratulated for positively responding to Muslims’ need for Halal food.

HOW IMPORTANT IS THE HALAL INDUSTRY IN HELPING MUSLIMS AND NON-MUSLIMS UNDERSTAND EACH OTHER? The main objective and goal of the Halal industry is to serve Muslim dietary needs. While the definition of Halal and its specific requirements should be deliberated by Muslim experts in Islamic jurisprudence, the industry associated with Halal products is itself open to non-Muslim participation and contribution. There are nonreligious dimensions of the Halal industry such as technology, trade and business that are open to Muslim-Non-Muslim partnerships and collaboration. Such partnerships go a long way towards promoting intercultural understanding. IN YOUR OPINION, HOW CAN THE INSTITUTE COLLABORATE WITH THE HALAL INDUSTRY NOW, AND FOR THE BENEFIT OF THE FUTURE? The Halal industry must realise its vast potential not only in Malaysia but also in Muslimminority countries, including the West, where more than 500 million Muslims live. Like any other industry, the Halal industry needs good research if it wants to properly identify the present and future challenges to its growth and development, and to maintain its competitiveness. IAIS has experts in two of its research divisions that are directly relevant to the Halal industry: Shariah law; and science, technology, environment and ethics. I see opportunities and a wide scope for collaboration between IAIS and the Halal industry so far as our expertise in these two areas is needed by the industry. hj


THE 6TH MALAYSIA INTERNATIONAL HALAL SHOWCASE

6 - 10 May 2009

MATRADE Exhibition & Convention Centre (MECC)

A FUSION OF

HALAL WORLDS

For further information or enquiries, please contact MIHAS Secretariat, Level 8, West Wing, Menara MATRADE, Jalan Khidmat Usaha, Off Jalan Duta, 50480 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Tel. +603 6203 4433

Fax +603 6203 4422

Email enquiry@halal.org.my


The Halal Journal - Nov/Dec 2008  

Issue 25, November/December 2008 | Hajj: The Ultimate Conference In The History Of Mankind - Impact On Saudi Arabia & The Muslim World | Hal...

The Halal Journal - Nov/Dec 2008  

Issue 25, November/December 2008 | Hajj: The Ultimate Conference In The History Of Mankind - Impact On Saudi Arabia & The Muslim World | Hal...

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