Another Regime or, A Tale of Two Cities
Settlement Area 1989
Another Regime or, A Tale of Two Cities
Universit채tsverlag der TU Berlin
“The premise behind the notion of social capital is rather simple and straightforward: investment in social relations with expected returns. (…) Individuals engage in interactions and networking in order to produce profits.” Nan Lin “If I formed two groups, one random (and therefore diverse) and one consisting of the best individual performers, the first group almost always did better. In my model, diversity trumped ability. ” Scott E. Page “The Mission of Social Capital Value Add is to empower investors and management (…) to differentiate more valuable corporate assets (i.e. social networks maximized for social capital) from less valuable ones (…).” Michael Cayley “In line with the increasing tendency to want to gather [innovation and] invention in wherever it may be found, new time-space arrangements have to be designed that can act as traps (...).” Nigel Thrift “I suppose I have a really loose interpretation of “work” because I think that just being alive is so much work at something you don’t always want to do. Being born is like being kidnapped. And then sold into slavery. People are working every minute. The machinery is always going. Even when you sleep.” Andy Warhol “Holidays are in no sense an alternative (…). Quite the contrary. People look to escape into an intensification of the conditions of ordinary life, into a deliberate aggravation of those conditions: further from nature, nearer to artifice, to abstraction, to total pollution (…). No one is interested in overcoming alienation; the point is to plunge into it to the point of ecstasy.” Jean Baudrillard “Doublethink means the power of holding two contradictory beliefs in one’s mind simultaneously, and accepting both of them. (…) to deny the existence of objective reality and all the while to take account of the reality which one denies (…) — all this is indispensably necessary.” George Orwell, 1984 “What was once called the objective world is a sort of Rorschach ink blot, into which each culture, each system of science and religion, each type of personality, reads a meaning only remotely derived from the shape and color of the blot itself” Lewis Mumford “Part of being a winner is knowing when enough is enough. Sometimes you have to give up the fight and walk away, and move on to something that’s more productive.” Donald Trump “Sometimes you have to say: „What is the wrong thing. What is the wrong thing to do.” And then do the wrong thing…” Robert Wilson
ISBN 978-3-7983-2369-8 ISBN 978-3-7983-2370-4
Published in Berlin, Germany, in 2011 by Universitätsverlag der TU Berlin Universitätsbibliothek, Fasanenstr. 88, D-10623 Berlin Tel.: (030)314-76131; Fax.: (030)314-76133 E-Mail: email@example.com http://www.univerlag.tu-berlin.de/ Printed and bound by Frick Digitaldruck, Brühlstraße 6, D-86381 Krumbach ∞
Printed on acid-free, non-ageing paper
Contents Introduction Setting the Stage Only the Best Gravity New Opportunities Streamlining Asset Allocation Symbiosis Limits of Control Acknowledgements & Credits
p. 11 p. 37 p. 59 p. 77 p. 95 p. 113 p. 157 p. 181 p. 193 p. 204
Like many of their generation, my parents emigrated from Europe in the early 2020s. Leaving behind a continent that had been in decline for almost two decades, they never looked back. I was born just a few years later and, growing up in Brazil in the buzzing 30s and 40s, to me Europe was never much more than a vague impression of past glory and present distress.
Two years ago, with the Singaporean weekly “The Economist” running a cover story on Europe’s changed prospects, this suddenly changed. The background was that, for the first time in decades, two European cities had been included in the magazine’s annual survey of the world’s 50 most important urban agglomerations. Even more interestingly though, Basel and Munich were two cities I had hardly ever heard of. 13
What had happened? What had turned two modest provincial towns into Europeâ€™s most important centres? Although the article mainly stated the mere facts (their similar extents and populations, their low GDPs), it also mentioned their role within a â€œvery different continentâ€?, and my curiosity was piqued. 14
Not surprisingly, the two citiesâ€™ enormous growth is just the tip of the iceberg. Within only a few decades, the continentâ€™s spatial structure has changed completely. From a comparably even and homogeneous distribution within distinct nation-states it has become a more concentrated but diverse configuration, with half of the population inhabiting just 2% of its land. 15
From a distance, this suggests a coherent society with a strong collective vision. But closer inspection seems to reveal the opposite: a highly fragmented cultural topography, a spectacular kaleidoscope of opposing ideologies, cults, concepts, thoughts, visions or even political systems. And a perplexing lack of a larger public sphere. 16
Ultimately, both perceptions are true. High densities and elaborate networks provide the economic foundation for this diversity, and strong local boundaries assure that the extremes never touch. The citizensâ€™ indifference towards the whole actually is their common vision, allowing them, in an ocean of interchangeable options and possibilities, to constitute at least some personal truth and commitment. 17
Considering the scale of change, the absence of any obvious signs of resistance is remarkable. It seems that despite their political background the transformations can in fact be interpreted as widely accepted adaptions to a new economic regime. If there is a symbol for this regime, it has to be a person taking a self-portrait in front of something for posting on the net. Through this simple act, every moment of life can be turn20 ed into a consumer good,
communicating status or style just as well as any material object. With a stunning consequence: the attractiveness of social consumption has shifted the focus away from the material world and turned it into a mere cost factor for producing the immaterial. Resulting in an economic system that, to increase profits, has to reduce the absolute use of resources.
In this sense, as a strategy for dealing with scarcity, Europeâ€™s development can be placed in a wider context of modernization, with two different approaches mainly coming to mind. In the 19th century, the West was developed by economic demands forcing 22 political and social adaptions: strong
entrepreneurs pressing to create larger, more efficient markets by taking down customs barriers or unifying nation-states. In contrast, the modernization of the East and South over 100 years later was initiated much more centrally, with adaptions being forced by a strong political sphere. 23
At first, Europeâ€™s recent progress, evolutionary and resilient as it is, seems to fit into a liberal reasoning that is associated with the first model. Here the argument would be that, based on individual responsibility, everyoneâ€™s lone struggle ensures commitment and innovation in dealing with new challenges. We were always very aware of the disadvantages of such a system, its slackness and short-sightedness obstructing swift reactions to pressing 24 problems. But now Europeâ€™s success not only
proves this perception wrong, it also shows a clear advantage over our own approach in dealing with scarcity. While our way of exercising power through social coherence ensures responsive obedience, to the individuals it remains an external force, unable to address the underlying desires. And thus, while Europe enjoys acceptance and stability based on new individual imperatives, we continuously have to exercise constraint, leaving us permanently endangered since our powers could fade. 25
This provokes an unsettling question. Could Europe ultimately be a role model for our own system? While its development can be seen as a third way of modernization (exercised, in a way, by manipulating the cloud of change), 26 it is also clearly a historic
exception that could have gone terribly wrong. Therefore learning from Europe might also require the answer to another question: Could such a development also be achieved through a deliberate political project? 27
Of course, as an architect, why should I bother â€“ weâ€™re usually concerned with buildings, not politics. But the curious thing was that my professional expertise was more than beneficial in understanding Europeâ€™s current condition. Not only was its transformation mainly a phenomenon of a process of further urbanization, but, more significantly, Europe today is inseparable from its unique interplay between fast-changing social relations and an almost static material environment. The economic focus on social relations eases the need for physical adaptions (that would be too slow anyway), but, all the more, the material world has to serve quite specific demands: as environments for producing the social goods, but also by spatially suppor ting a plurality of milieus and 30 identities as the main resources.
As I want to show, especially for architecture and urbanism, these demands constitute something approaching a golden age, which is why Iâ€™m writing this essay. I want to point out that, even for an architect, getting involved in politics sometimes makes sense. Despite the fact that, on first sight, Europeâ€™s built environment seems to say the opposite. Complex only in its spatial properties, its appearance is determined by the scarcity of resources: the greyish colour and utilitarian look of cheap materials and simple constructions, overlaid with dynamic information to ensure semiotic flexibility. â€ƒ31
For two reasons I, like the original Economist article, will also focus on Basel and Munich. For one, their physical oppositeness as well as their differing cultural and institutional preconditions (the diverse border town vs. the homogeneous cultural 34 centre) help to illustrate how the
urban realm answers to certain economic demands. But more importantly I want to argue that the two cities can be seen as one symbiotic entity. As such they showcase how the built environment is used to stabilize Europeâ€™s immaterial economy by satisfying certain tangible desires. 35
Setting the Stage
The stage for all further development was set in the late 2020s. With a series of bold, yet in their outcome almost unconscious decisions, the politicians began a process that I already mentioned as “manipulating the cloud”: an attempt to translate external challenges into internal necessities, thus orchestrating a collective response while still leaving the individuals to freely deal with the consequences. The background was a time of mounting difficulties, where Europe’s general decline in economic power – its staggering debt and defaulting national economies, aging populations and growing social unrest – created a situation that called for severe measures. 39
By employing strict austerity measures â€“ cutting expenditures, consolidating services and selling assets â€“ the politicians reacted predictably. But the situationâ€™s severity forced them to take the concept of a lean state one step further. Through limit42 ing all future investments to just the
most promising parts, Europe has literally condensed, become its own essence. And by privatizing these parts while abandoning the rest, what began as simple budget cuts de facto initiated the territorial disintegration of Europeâ€™s nation states.
However, what seems like a surrender of power was actually much more a shift to a different form of exercising control. Inspired by the rise of advanced information technologies and their emphasis on measuring and evaluating, the politiciansâ€™ reasoning was simple. While the public easily opposed obvious political decisions, whatever seemed to be an economic necessity is beyond any questioning. So, whilst historically the politicians resembled mechanics working closely on the stateâ€™s (or cityâ€™s) body, they then, on the basis of economic agreements, planned to leave the dirty work to others, confining themselves to setting standards, monitoring outcomes and enforcing consequences.
The resulting framework â€“ where, based on compliance with its standards, the state pays the private urban entrepreneurs a defined amount for every citizen â€“ formally established its new role. As an active economic agent, a customer asking for a product of certain properties (from land use efficiency to a happy population) he began to enforce cost efficiency far beyond his usual reach, touching every aspect of society. 47
Formally marking the turning away from a doctrine of spatial continuity, the European programme for territorial excellence (etex) was officially launched in 2029. The first step was a thorough assessment. By developing and benchmarking different indicators regarding economic, spatial and social performance, the continentâ€™s 50 land was classified into four levels
of potentiality. With only the top category receiving full investments, the second only to be fully maintained while the third being partly dismantled and the fourth fully abandoned, fierce political debate unfolded. Although compromises were forced, in 2031 a final selection, mainly consisting of regions with strong economic performance but also including some of cultural or national significance, was approved. 51
In 2032, the EU parliament took the next step and passed the so-called Future Cities Act. Thereby, the top categoryâ€™s territory was partitioned into larger urban entities and subsequently privatized in a series of initial public offerings. Athens was sold first, making 54 Europe come full
circle. With Greece having been the first state to default, and thus in limbo for almost 20 years, its public was too exhausted to oppose.
The press material for this occasion also shows the first widely circulated image of Europeâ€™s New Society: dense islands and corridors in a sea of (almost) wild nature, connected by high-speed railway lines.
The programmeâ€™s social impact was huge. Pushed by worsening conditions within the abandoned parts and encouraged by wealth transaction plans, in just a few decades almost 50 % of the population had moved to join one of the already densely populated Future Cities. 57
Only the Best
Beyond its spatial and economic effects, the framework is mainly important for the institutional freedoms it creates. The Future Cities are undefined shells and their private owners agents of change, thus constituting malleable environments receptive to new demands. 60
Of course only on paper does every aspect seem modifiable. In reality,
multiple factors – the programme’s spatial standards, historic preconditions and natural assets, competition based on the expectations of investors and customers – determine the cities’ attempts to diversify.
For Munich, with all its beauty, diversification could only mean a further idealization of its heritage. With the original city contributing by far the largest population, this already began with the formation of its new territory. 62 Exploiting their strong posi-
tion, Munich’s politicians allowed only the loveliest parts of the surrounding districts to join their vision of a “city of perfection”.
Following Munich’s public offering in 2034, the first board of directors adopted this slogan for their concept. Based on its historic assets and distinct way of life – its culture of gemuetlichkeit – they envisioned a buergerstadt facilitated through a homogenous ownership structure and targeted at a conservative clientele. While its 64 southern districts, home to the most
powerful stockholders, were preserved, the expansion to the North-East reinforced the Maxvorstadt street grid. And whereas public transport was emphasized, to maintain a certain â€˜munichnessâ€™, building heights and materials were strictly limited and defined, restricting larger structures to invisible and subterranean developments. 65
In contrast, for Basel the new era marked a much more radical break. Originally not even a Future City, only massive lobbying as the â€œ3rd largest tri-national integration areaâ€? put it on the map. And despite all parties in66 volved acknowledging the
importance of an alliance, their historic antagonism and parity in size and influence led to a fragile agreement, later easily exploited by its new owners. 67
With the cityâ€™s prospects vague and general interest in its stocks low, a small group of only five investors held a very powerful position. Their concept was a smart combination of a highly speculative enterprise and an attempt to balance the fragile agreement by turning its constituent parts into independent business units. 68
Based on a large public transport grid to overcome the singular focus on the Rhine valley,
they planned to exploit its topographic and cultural diversity, promising “A city for every Dream”. A place that is, in proximity to really important centres, “not first choice, but the perfect compromise”. Large real estate corporations were involved and encouraged to create the much-needed plurality of urban conditions. Thus the autonomy granted to its parts soon became mostly an instrument to stir up internal competition in the vague hope of catching up with the other cities more quickly. 69
Fifteen years later, the programme, having eased not only the economic but also the social tensions, was widely seen as a success. But at a price, because despite its vision of integration â€“ the cities have to support a fixed quota of the unemployed â€“ exclusion had actually increased. Appeased by an (even so limited) guaranteed income, the 70 population had slowly be-
come divided into those with and those without a job, into a first and a second society. The former meant working hard, but having full access to resources and thus leaving last centuryâ€™s consumer culture intact. The latter, despite its roots in the European welfare state, was only a dead end, a sedative to prevent the people from questioning the division.
Regarding its second society, Basel followed a strategy of marginalisation. Its members were housed in large, self-contained compounds in the least accessible areas, built to meet the official obligations with security and efficiency in mind.
In contrast, Munichâ€™s more fragmented ownership structure proved less suited to the segregation model, thus requiring a compromise. By making every district commit equally to the second societyâ€™s accommodation, the problem was literally dispersed, leading in some areas of strong demand and high density to the creation of large underground facilities. 75
By 2050, the second society meant a contained way of life, with basic amenities and endless entertainment, but dull and lethargic, without any prospects. Fearing the sporadic out78 breaks of discontent would
turn into a larger protest, the politicians looked for a way to stabilize the situation without admitting that a problem even existed. And by doing so they unconsciously turned the division into a source of innovation. 79
Their strategy’s key element was a system of so-called “motivated employment”. Seemingly justified by economic necessities, everyone was forced to work. Though mainly targeted at reducing frustration by providing reasons for individual engagement, to secure the first society’s economic integrity it had to be fake. Labour was not only limited to welfare matters. To assure compliance by providing personal relief, numerous exemptions were granted, and any occupation, even if only vaguely useful, could be pursued. Almost like a form of biopolitical supply side economics, romantically enforced by evaluating social network approval rates, this unleashed feverish activity ranging from actually valuable (social) services, over a wave of cultural production, to some old folks ‘lec82 turing’ on their last fishing adventures.
But to the politicians’ surprise, these by-products of social control actually met a strong demand. After decades of forced equality (through exclusion), the population’s desire for social differentiation – and the associated means for expressing status and identity – had increased almost pathologically. Now with their efforts being valued and commodified within the social networks, they once again had products to shop, consume and communicate. Only that, in contrast to the first society, they were predominantly immaterial ones. 83
Enabled by prevalent technologies, this form of immaterial consumption is based on simple mechanics. Every product not only consists of its form and content, but also a certain social meaning associated with it. Now by documenting the actual moment of consumption through posting proof on oneâ€™s social network account, this meaning can be owned like a physical object. Only in contrast, social meaning canâ€™t be precisely produced, but has to be created (and is outworn) by life itself, at all stages of 86 endless cycles of production and consumption.
The latterâ€™s proximity, often within a single individual, turned those early days into the happy time of what soon became cognitive capitalism. Improvised, but intense and promising, with everyone involved every day, crowding numerous makeshift venues that provided endless excitement. In short, a time that had to end sooner than later.
At first this development was rather contained. But regarding the first society’s constant longing for authenticity and vitality (“the real life”), it was only a matter of time before the second society emerged as the new paradigm. By spending more and more of its income on the second society’s goods and services, the first society not only became increasingly involved, but slowly the two once again merged. Being based on extremely localized products irrelevant to the world market, this shift of course didn’t change Europe’s wider economic prospects. However, it strongly levelled access to the material resources (the fruits) the continent still had available. And with profits to be made, this also meant that the early days finally had come to an end. Investors moved in and the once informal new modes of production and consumption soon became more ordered. 88
But with the two societies’ varying spatial relations having turned into local consumption patterns, this process of formalization also became the cities’ first step towards their new role as specialized production environments. In Basel the large compounds, like islands, evolved into quite autonomous local cultures, thus inducing a growing demand for a flamboyant diversity that slowly turned into a regime of innovation. While in Munich the second society’s dispersed nature resulted in a stronger engagement with the city’s cultural sphere: its different parts, their dialogues and rivalries, fuelling a demand for subtle variation and constant refinement. A regime of elaboration based on mild but constant competition.
In the mid-2060s, these modest beginnings of a truly immaterial economy had developed into an extensive content industry that, based on strong but flexible copyright policies, still dominates today, with nodes of small but well-connect-
ed corporations sourcing meaning in one part to quickly sell it to another. Europe as an archipelago of numerous markets and niches, with “Today’s recommendations…” as its central mantra accompanying further and further cycles of fragmentation. 91
Over a century ago, the French philosopher Henri Lefebvre argued in his book “La révolution urbaine” for everyday life to become a liberating force. With the population still mainly a source of physical labour, he hoped to pit its desires and needs against the disciplinary demands of capitalist production. At the beginning of this century, capitalism had simply out96 manoeuvred those aspirations. By
turning workers into consumers, it started to embrace the pluralities of life as ideal outlets for its diversified goods.
But now, Europeâ€™s economy, based on two main types of products, has firmly shifted everyday life back into the focus of production. Relations â€“ where value is generated through the scarcity of social config98 urations and the proximity to them
at one moment in time â€“ can only exist in life itself. And representations, used to facilitate these relations, depend on life as well, as source and reference alike. With both products needing high levels of originality, cognitive capitalism has turned Lefebvre upside down: exploiting everyday life exactly for its subjectivity and otherness. 99
Of course, in reality, only a small group of creative professionals actually produces commercial consumer goods while the rest mostly provides supplemental services. But it still means that, as part of different social milieus, everyone is involved in creating the raw materials.
In this sense, even beyond the early days, production and consumption has remained one and the same, with the latter as a form of curatorial labour that the milieusâ€™ so100 cial and aesthetic elaboration, as the source of value,
is based upon. And every aspect of life, from values to rituals or forms of interaction, has become determined by the economyâ€™s demand for authentic narratives and meanings.
On a larger scale, the discrepancy between longer-termed cycles of life and the fast changing demands of numerous mass markets led to a more fundamental approach. Suddenly, Europeâ€™s diversity of milieus became a form of structural creativity and their systematic cultivation developed in an attempt to simultaneously improve resource supply, production output and market demand. 101
This approach to creativity also constitutes the citiesâ€™ new business opportunities. Their purpose as psychological machines is to provide endless streams of immaterial commodities to the content corporations, which then further process these commodities into goods being sold to the end consumer; thus closing the circle by generating the profits (partly) 104 used to pay for the citiesâ€™ services.
Their compensation is based on a real-time mapping of all symbolic transactions. A detailed image of the world created by re lating and evaluating all available data through a complex set of (former search engine) algorithms. Thus not only rewarding cost efficiency but each cityâ€™s actual contribution to Europeâ€™s immaterial wealth. 105
Therefore, regarding the urban sphere, the new economy can be described as an ideological point zero, a moment where all 106 existing values and percep-
tions are suddenly replaced or reframed. What used to be the European city, an (almost) incidental by-product of historyâ€™s eternal struggles... 107
â€Ś has now turned into a fully intentional result of economic reasoning, with its production fuelled by a proliferation of expertise. At first glance it might look the same as it did decades before, but now all its elements 108 and relations - its physical
configuration, social groups (their placement and interplay), the distribution of access and wealth or even rivalries and tensions â€“ are employed to create a social environment of certain productive capabilities. 109
In this regard, for Basel as well as Munich it turned out to be an early advantage to use the cityâ€™s recent past as the blueprint to follow in the future, with many of the managementsâ€™ past decisions only becoming fertile under the new conditions.
Basel as generator and test bed of the new, with its heterogenic and centripetal structure accommodating strong individuals and (extremely) diverse 110 groups, while its public spaces facilitate the
collision of their values and ideas to create hybrids and mutations: production by chance, like catching butterflies. In contrast, Munich as an industrial scale evolution machine, a processor capable of calculating any possible variation of any given theme. The accessibility of its centrifugal grid provides an ideal vessel for intense interaction and its strong cultural cohesion permits only the exact levels of divergence and competitiveness needed to sustain its endless social chain reaction. 111
From a historical perspective, the adoption of these new paradigms was a much less linear process. In 2057, a 25-year transition period ended with a majority of the Future Cities missing the required performance goals. Massive fines were pending and the EU commission decided to implement another round of austerity measures including tightened spatial regulations.
Regarding the citiesâ€™ management, these external pressures were often accompanied by internal challenges. With their roots usually embedded within the old society, many executives were simply unable to embrace the new times. In Basel, the missed 120 requirements also
became the pretext for installing a new management led by the still young CEO Jacqueline Leduc. Having grown up in the region, she combined her personal interest with her professional background in human resource management. 121
Fully aware of the new social paradigms, she did not so much criticise the original plan (“A city for every Dream”), but its weak implementation. As an adjustment, she proposed an almost stochastic exercise based on the EU’s exact demands. To 122 boost diversity, the three prevalent
types of landscape, as main sources of variation, were multiplied with nine spatial typologies. Derived by allocating the average requirements, these were defined by population density and land coverage and spanned from pure nature to dense urbanity.
The result, considered as 27 autonomous entities, was then simply distributed, creating a zon124 ing that, in its de-
fiance of any other reasoning, resembled a digital array of maximized possibilities. 125
But stating the former partner companiesâ€™ damaging influence by â€œhaving translated the ideas of diversity and autonomy into the absence of rulesâ€?, to realize these possibilities Leduc 126 then insisted on a so-called
â€œinside-the-factory-principleâ€?. A framework that, based on tiered pricing for different spatial qualities, levelled market forces by relating profits to a projectâ€™s contribution to the whole. 127
In addition, she complemented the private projects and autonomous parts with so called “zones-of-interaction” as “centres after the centre”. Enlarged transportation hubs where all the more significant work, leisure and representative activities are gathered to create an intense public realm that assures the mingling of thoughts and ideas. 130
As a human resource expert, Leduc knew that this promise of innovation through diversity could only be achieved by attracting the very best of every culture and ideology. Which led her to establish an extensive recruitment programme offering autonomy and support to promising groups or individuals. 131
At the same time, she also feared the centrifugal forces of so much oppositeness. Acknowledging the need of a basic level of social coherence, she hoped to counterbalance these forces by aesthetic means. On a large scale, the landscapeâ€™s ex134 aggeration through iconic buildings
should create spatial continuities to overcome the zoningâ€™s strict social divisions. And on a small scale, a system of ephemeral and adaptable elements is supposed to ensure a strong but flexible regional identity of varying messages and ideals.
In contrast to Basel’s top-down events, in Munich discontent was so widespread that it led to a much broader demand for revision. Soon supported by a majority of stockholders, the “initiative for restoring gemuetlichkeit” pushed the boardroom to adopt a new strategy.
Instead of continuing to dilute its cultural identity by just adding ever more new parts to an already overstrained centre, the initiative proposed conserving the cityâ€™s way of life by simply scaling its historic configuration, its divisions and spatial properties, to fit the new size. And, along the way, getting rid of all undesired historic relicts. Thus not only starting the next round of idealization, but once again demonstrating Munichâ€™s modernist radicalism fuelled by its longing for the past. 137
The first step in the cityâ€™s reincarnation was to translate the Altstadt and its adjacent quarters into a new 138 central district. By
turning the Amper River and its surroundings into a second Englischer Garten, an area of similar intensity and specificity was defined. 139
Then, top left and lower right of the centre, the more relaxed quarters of Neuhausen-Nymphenburg and Au140 Haidhausen were
recreated as more self contained, less intense areas. 141
While the fragmented heterogeneity of 142 Bogenhausen, top
right, was revived as an irregular configuration of several cores, parts and typologies. 143
And finally, the infrastructure and business corridor along Landsberger StraĂ&#x;e was expanded further to 144 the east to repro-
duce the most picturesque effects of the 19th and 20th century (railways, bridges, high-rises) as a linear spatial otherness. 145
Once again, the southern quarters remained untouched. But to further develop the cityâ€™s natural assets, a large part of Ober146 bayern was deconstructed
and restored to an idealized 19th century state. With only a few large resorts carefully integrated into the landscape to satisfy the citizensâ€™ desire for an occasional escape from city life. 147
Unsurprisingly inspired by Munichâ€™s historic fabric, the initiative proposed a more indirect, almost structuralist approach to implementation. Spatial characteristics were not planned, but vaguely defined by the occurrence 148 and distribution of specific
elements and typologies, while the more generic substance was left for the market forces to play with, required only to provide certain amounts of public space determined by its proximity to the specific. 149
But with the original height restrictions firmly in place, this approach also accelerated the development underground. By extending and connecting the facilities originally established for the second society, almost like a spatial subconscious, large 152 complexes emer-
ged. Providing room for the new spirit of competitiveness while allowing the cityâ€™s surface and its culture of gemuetlichkeit to remain intact.
When I visited last year, this final chapter in adapting the material world to its new role had already taken place. The continent has now reached a state of stability, with only necessary replacements and very few carefully planned and optimized additions being made. A development has come full circle that can be traced back to over a hundred years earlier, to the formation of the Italian design group Memphis in 1980. Emphasizing the shift from functional to representational values, their colourful objects not only became the high watermark of post-war consumerism (and its strategy to overcome market limitations by turning consumption into a form of self-expression). But also, simultaneously, its swansong and future promise. A swansong, since with the ARPANET as the basis for Berners-Leeâ€™s World Wide Web, the technology for replacing object-based consumerism had already been invented. And a promise because Memphisâ€™ focus on communication also pointed to the possibility of a division of object and meaning as a survival strategy in a world of scarce resources. The server farm slowly evolved as the material worldâ€™s new paradigm; a mere tool for creating immaterial values that are then distributed and consumed through ubiquitous displays, augmenting reality with a seamless layer of information.
As mentioned before, this shift can be described as a refunctionalization that, in the European context, has led to a significant decrease in resource consumption. And with the old and new economic regimes both based on the same desires, the underlying mechanics are quite interesting. Here, the decisive aspect is the uneven life cycle of matter and meaning. With both entangled in a physical objectâ€™s form, every item replaced for its faded meaning leads to a squandering that ultimately equates increased profits to increased resource consumption. â€ƒIn contrast, within Europeâ€™s new 164 economy, by turning the material
world into a mere channel for the profitgenerating immaterial goods, both life cycles are decoupled. Thus not only allowing the material worldâ€™s longevity to be fully exploited, but also, as a mere cost factor of production, triggering its reduction to a point where only the most essential functions are provided in the most efficient way. This shift, being based on exploiting life itself, not only requires, as we have seen, a different spatial functionality (to facilitate diversity and creativity), but also concerns the way the material world is administrated, distributed and used.
Because, by equating creativity and meaning with social diversity and a plurality of tangible sensations (as substantial elements of oneâ€™s identity), on a theoretical level the new economy pos166 es a paradox. In the exact
moment the material word, optimized for longevity and universality, becomes more and more abstract and utilitarian, standardized and interchangeable, the need for specificity and variation increases rapidly. 167
But in practice, Europeâ€™s recent history has already answered this demand. The citiesâ€™ competition as a differentiation machine, creating structures of all parts of the spectrum, has resulted in a systematic collection of geometric extremes, a coincidence of all possible opposites: outspread or condensed, one or many parts, composed or chaotic, complex 168 or simple, linear or laminar, historic or newâ€Ś
For the professions, this has meant a subjective turn towards a form of cultural functionalism led solely by the purpose of supporting and strengthening very particular forms of life. Their efforts are directed at questions of behaviour, perception and identity, but also manipulation and social engineering. Elaborate simulation models, derived from thorough evaluations of existing conditions, aid their work and support the evidence based approaches demanded by their business partners. 169
At the same time, this process is mostly limited to architecture and urbanism, where, compared to more integrated products, modular design allows variation at almost no extra cost. Though even here, the relation between density and cost-reduction creates a form of spatial scarcity that ultimately transforms into a scarcity of tangible sensations. Thus turning the EU’s etex-programme into the starting point of an “economy of the senses” needed to allocate and maximize their utilization by regulating access to the built environment. And the privatized Cities as the institutions, that, based on their total ownership, exercise this task as a continuous curation of the material world.
To compensate for the latter’s immobility and invariability, this constant optimization is based on a strong disposition over people’s lives. Originating within the basic income of the European welfare states, but taking scholarship programmes or artist residencies as the new paradigm, a split income not only rewards work but also private performance. Whereas, on a substan170 tial basis, access to resources is dictated by the economy’s immediate
functional requirements, everything beyond is related to the strains of different lifestyles and milieus, one’s commitment and talent or need for stability.
Having to assure the profitability of a certain form of life, the cities not only value all costs and benefits, but also relate them to specific spatial properties. For that, the built environment – mainly consisting of identity-related specificity, production-related neutrality and generic “repositories” (providing social resilience) – is evaluated by seamlessly tracking its use. Thereby a perpetual search for improvement is informed and then realized by adjusting one of many parameters of varying impact, temporality and expense, or simply by reassigning access to someone else. Consequently, the European city has simply become a series of empty shells, freed from any roots and potentially inhabited by everyone (but just for a limited amount of time). 171
All this is also the background of Europeâ€™s social and cultural fragmentation: a complete mobilization of life as a never-ending series of performances and engagements, always different and stable only in its instability. The milieus, like theatre plays, exist independently from a rotating cast, embodied by individuals dropping in and out like ghosts, constantly looking for a better opportunity.
For society, these challenges amounted to a process of psychological modernization in which the ability to control and manipulate one’s emotions and perceptions, behaviour or habitus – by any means from yoga to voodoo to doublethink, but also by deliberate states of paranoia or schizophrenia – became the precondition to quickly adjusting to any new condition and thus, ultimately, for success in life. 175
But beyond these general effects, private compensation has also turned into a localized means of curation, specifically supporting the citiesâ€™ different objectives. In Basel, a finely graded system of gratifications and privileges has reinforced the ideal of individual success at the heart of its regime of innovation. 178
Conversely, Munichâ€™s approach is suited to its more egalitarian principle of a culture of coherence based on very equal living conditions. Here, commitment has been assured by the (rumoured) promise that its most valuable citizens will be rewarded with the luxuries supposedly hidden behind the golden doors ubiquitous in the cityâ€™s public spaces. 179
At this point it has become clear, that, against my initial assumptions, compared to our own attempts in dealing with the objectsâ€™ seductive powers, it isnâ€™t so much the sheer attractiveness of social consumption that is making a difference. Much more, it is the economyâ€™s ability and need, as just outlined, to directly address bodies and identities.
On a very basic level, historic consumerism could be seen as a form of interaction targeted at satisfying social desires, oscillating between individuality and collectivity, through a framework for achievement-oriented (economic) 182 activity; with individualism driving growth and collec-
tivity assuring the similarly important circulation of profits. Consumption, in this sense, was mostly a medium to communicate these achievements to (temporarily) conclude the process of satisfaction. But of course, beyond their social dimension, the desires were more than tangible and the objects’ physicality was essential to satisfaction, thus making it so strongly desired. So while historically one’s body and social status were both shaped by one’s existence as a ‘producer’, as a peasant, fisherman, builder or blacksmith, with office work and its neutral environments becoming more and more prevalent, addressing the body was achieved through the growing possibilities of consumption. 183
But with consumption itself becoming more abstract and immaterial, Europe simply avoided any destabilizing effects by shifting the bodily satisfaction of social desires back into the sphere of production. Or, in short, the 184 successive embodiment of
different milieus, almost as a form of unalienated labour, is creating a new immediacy between oneâ€™s desires and ways to satisfy them, thus constituting the unacquainted social intensity at the heart of Europeâ€™s success. 185
Therefore, the cities not only provide the tangible sensations so much needed in an immaterial economy, but also stabilize the system as a whole. Basel and 186 Munichâ€™s produc-
tive regimes, as almost pure manifestations of individuality and collectivity, form a symbiotic entity that, like a gyroscope, balances the opposing desires of cognitive capitalism.
And this is also the reason behind their success. Accidently positioned within the accumulation regimeâ€™s cen190 tral mechanics and â€ƒ
needs, while other cities provide rich experiences as well, their purity attracts the most radical and ambitioned people of every generation. 191
Limits of Control
Eighty years ago, a French group named ‘The Invisible Committee’ stated in their seminal essay “The Coming Insurrection”, that the next economy would be based on a violent process of adapting individuals to new demands. They were wrong, as Europe clearly shows, since the exploitation of social relations requires very different proceedings than the exploitation of physical labour. Since accumulation is mainly focused on immaterial content and human capital in the form of skills, milieus and creativity, it has to facilitate life itself by granting freedom and autonomy. And where every social mutation, originating in some obscure form of idleness, could become the next business opportunity, the population commits voluntarily. Such a system, as a sort of reversed materialism, with its low resource consumption, self-regulating and consistent, certainly has a host of benefits. However it also reproduces (albeit mostly on an immaterial level) the same pathologies and crises, all the good reasons why capitalism has been 194 abandoned everywhere else. Yet it is still more sustainable than our sys-
tem of self-restraint that, like a diet, works well only in preserving our desires. Where every single individual, cheating the rules for a bit of extra satisfaction, is always a threat to the whole. Based on a liberalist approach, Europeâ€™s development is sure enough only a fortunate historic coincidence that could have gone terribly wrong, thus turning people into helpless children having to watch the show in the vague hope that everything will be alright. Of course leading back to my initial question: Is it possible to turn Europeâ€™s unconscious history into a conscious political project? Or, as we now know, are we able to facilitate our own exploitation to overcome our materialistic dependencies? Like any socio-economic configuration, Europeâ€™s cognitive capitalism can only survive by making everyone believe in its premises. And in this sense, the initial measures of austerity were a decisive historic element. Not only leading to the actual reduction of resource consumption, but also creating the social environments that bred the new desires and habits for such a belief. 195
Therefore, any movement to establish something similar would first of all have to emulate austerity as a form of voluntary abstinence from material consump tion. Not so much 196
out of reason or justness, but simply as an instrument to reach a different condition: as the starting point of a way of life attractive enough to slowly constitute another regime by making everyone believe. Almost like a dream, or more precisely, a stageplay destined to become reality. 197
Moreover, aiming to establish an economy of meaning, such a movement would have to emphasize all forms of self expression â€“ not through objects but by styling and performing life itself. To become viable, this would require an almost religious normativity, a continuous praying to the 200 god of form; like a super youth cul-
ture, but endorsing plurality and relativity, or, in short, a modern movement of post modernity. Regarding the importance of the milieus, these efforts shouldnâ€™t be limited to certain occasions, but comprise the elaboration of everyday life in all its manifestations and rituals. And by this, in an inversion of its historic conception, 201
the members of such a project would become the new bourgeoisie. Not emerging out of a different mode of production but its opposite, out of the voluntary sacrifice of material wealth; their life equally stylized, but instead of a homogenous class a heterogenic accumulation of individuals. Needless to say that despite Eu202 ropeâ€™s promise and cognitive capital-
ism’s compatibility with today’s regime, as a political project it would still be a truly utopian endeavour and, as such, highly unlikely to succeed. But then again, we can always just wait and see how it turns out. Only then we can’t be sure that we will like the results. 203
Acknowledgements First of all, without Mar tin Murren hoff this book wouldn’t exist. Ole Baumann, Gregor Harbusch and Frank Henze have contributed on many different levels, but especially through their continuous moral support. While Arnold and Inge Becker, Rolf Weihermüller and the Frankfurters (Anja, Andi and Ronja) were supportive and patient far, far beyond any usual levels. Finn Geipel I want to thank not only for the inspiration and advice, but especially for never stopping to believe in this work and assuring all the freedom needed for its finishing. Nikolaus Kuhnert, Martin Luce and Anh-Linh Ngo provided an incredibly inspiring milieu, where, in a particularly open moment, many of the original ideas evolved. In ways known and unknown to them, Dirk Baecker, Arno Brandlhuber, Carsten HerrmannPillath, Michael Hutter, Christa Kamleithner, Wolfgang Lücker, Michael Müller, Marion von Osten, Philipp Oswalt and Jörg Stollmann have stimulated this work’s progress without, in any way, being responsible for its contents. Also, Robert Burghardt, Benjamin Cölle, Tashy Endres, Marie Huber, Ragna Körby, Tobias Kurtz and Nino Serbest, at different points and in varying ways, contributed and influenced important aspects and ideas. And for their great efforts with the text I want to thank Elizabeth Calderon Lüning, Rachel Lee and Emma Williams. Above all, this work owes a special debt of inspiration and reinforcement to Anna Heilgemeir and Sophie Jung. In memory of my mother, Inge Becker. Stephan Becker, July 2011 204
Credits This book is partly based on a collaboration between Mar tin Murren hoff and me. As with all the work deriving from this collaboration, it contains thoughts and ideas originating from our joint efforts and creative interaction, unattributable to a single mind. The illustrations in this book contain numerous fragments of photographs obtained from countless sources, all used undocumented by the author assuming a de minimis principle. With the following exceptions, where the author assumed cases of fair use under the German legal principle of ‘Freie Benutzung’ (§ 24 UrhG, Absatz 1). p. 1/2, Illustrations use topographic data from the same source reffered to for the illustrations on p. 63-65, 139-151 and p. 67-69, 123-135 p. 13, Illustration uses The Economist logo and cover design, © The Economist Group p. 54/55, Illustration contains logos by breathtaking Athens, www.breathtakingathens.com p. 63-65, 139-151, Illustrations based on topographic data by Landesamt für Vermessung und Geoinformation Bayern, google.com and microsoft.com, reprocessed and redrawn by Mar tin Murren hoff and the author p. 67-69, 123-135, Illustrations based on topographic data by Swisstopo, Landesamt für Geoinformation und Landentwicklung Baden-Württemberg, google.com and microsoft.com, reprocessed and redrawn by the author p. 72/73, Illustration based on a photograph of Arbeitsamt Bonn-Duisdorf, Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-F079069-0004, (photographer unknown), obtained from wikipedia.org under Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Germany license p. 80/81, Illustration contains icons from facebook.com and digg.com p. 84/85, Illustration based on a photograph by Horst Sturm, Bundesarchiv Bild 183-589200001, obtained from wikipedia.org under Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Germany license p. 118/119, Illustration based on a photograph of Patricia Roberts Harris, online: www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=6892469, (photographer unknown) p. 168/169, Illustration contains numerous images from the book “Morphologie City Metaphors” by O.M. Ungers, Köln 1982, for the original images’ credits see p. 134 in that book p. 172/173, Illustration based on two stage photographs by Arno Declair, showing scenes from the play “Drei Schwestern” at Schaubühne Berlin p. 190, Illustration contains elements from Bernhard Willhelm advertisements p.191, Illustration contains elements from Tommy Hilfiger advertisements p. 201-203, Illustrations contain fragments of photographs by Leah Gordon from the book “Kanaval, Vodou, Politics and Revolution on the streets of Haiti” by Leah Gordon et al., London 2010 If there is any question, please don’t hesitate to contact c.stephan.becker (at) gmail.com For the quotes at the beginning of this book, please see the next page.
Jean Baudrillard, Cool Memories, trans. by Chris Turner, New York 1990 (original edition: Paris 1987), p. 69; cited in: http://www.1-love-quotes.com/quote/40847 Michael Cayley, Follow the Yellow Brick Road: Introducing Social Capital Value Add, eBook, published by author 2008, p. 11; http://www.scribd.com/doc/2634943/ Introducing-Social-Capital-Value-Add-eBook, accessed: 06/16/2011 Nan Lin, Social Capital, A Theory of Social Structure and Action, Cambridge (UK) 2002, p. 19 Lewis Mumford, Renewal to Life: The Conduct of Life, New York 1951; cited in: http://www.quote4soul.com/reality-quote.html, accessed: 06/16/2011 George Orwell, Nineteen Eighty-Four, http://gutenberg.net.au/ebooks01/0100021. txt, accessed: 06/16/2011 (original edition: London 1949), Part Two, Chapter 9 Scott E. Page, The Difference, How the Power of Diversity Creates Better Groups, Firms, Schools, & Societies, Princton 2008, p. xxv (Prologue) Nigel Thrift, “Re-inventing invention: new tendencies in capitalist commodification”, in: Economy and Society, Volume 35 Number 2, May 2006, p. 279-306, p. 290; online: http:// nigelthrift.files.wordpress.com/2008/02/reinventing.pdf, accessed: 06/16/2011 Donald Trump (n.d.), in: 1-Love-Quotes.com, 1-Love-Quotes.com, http://www.1love-quotes com/quote/963472, accessed: 06/16/2011 Andy Warhol, The Philosophy of Andy Warhol (From A to B & Back Again), New York 1975; Ch. 6: Work; cited in: http://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Andy_Warhol, accessed: 06/16/2011 Robert Wilson, Portrait Still Life Landscape, Rotterdam 1993; cited in: Rem Koolhaas, Bruce Mau, S,M,L,XL, New York 1995
Designed by SEASON ASUO. Typeset entirely in Calibri, the default typeface of MS Office. The text in this book consists of approx. 5100 words, amounting to a reading time of roughly 30 minutes. It has a readability level of 16 on the Flesch-Kincaid Grade Scale and scores 23,8 in the Flesch Reading Ease test.
2 3 4
Total area Build-up area
Areal usage and distribution
Basic Starter Mixed use Residential Business
Recreation & Leisure Other facilities Open spaces
10,9 % 4,2 % 6,7 % 19,9 % 28 % 2,9 % 1,1 %
Mixed use Residential Business Segregated
Living space = 1440,9 km²
Floor space per capita
Floorspace = 3102 km² FAR by usage and distribution Integrated
Utilities & infrastructure 1,9 % Transportation 13,3 %
11 Other Uses 12 Forestlands 13 Waterbodies
Population = 12’732’390
Buildings & free space 21,9 % Mixed use 2,6 % Residential 7,5 % Services & retail 6,5 % Business & industry 3,9 % Agricultural facilities 1,3 %
Built-up area = 1949,1 km²
People by living standard
1 2 3 4 5
Total area = 4715,7 km² General landuse
4716 km² 41,3 %
Working space = 1661,5 km² Standard
People by occupation
Full time classic
FT choice PT choice
Relax cl Part time cl
Relax PT Family classic Relax PT choice
Munich 13 1
12 2 3 4 5 6
Total area Build-up area
4788 kmÂ˛ 30,5 %
1 2 3 4 5
Buildings & free space 22,8 % Mixed use 18,7 % Residential 1,8 % Services & retail 1,3 % Business & industry 0,6 % Agricultural facilities 0,4 %
Utilities & infrastructure 0,6 % Transportation 7,2 %
Recreation & Leisure Other facilities Open spaces
4,7 % 0,6 % 4,0 %
11 Other Uses 12 Forestlands 13 Waterbodies
27,5 % 3,9 % 1,7 %
2 3 4
Total area Build-up area
4716 kmÂ˛ 41,3 %
1 2 3 4 5
Buildings & free space 21,9 % Mixed use 2,6 % Residential 7,5 % Services & retail 6,5 % Business & industry 3,9 % Agricultural facilities 1,3 %
Utilities & infrastructure 1,9 % Transportation 13,3 %
Recreation & Leisure Other facilities Open spaces
10 Croplands 11 Other Uses 12 Forestlands 13 Waterbodies
10,9 % 4,2 % 6,7 % 19,9 % 28 % 2,9 % 1,1 %
Europe 2089: Unwitnessed by the world, the continent, now a provincial backwater, has developed a unique immaterial way of life. Based on a shift to social consumption, its still capitalist economy has significantly decreased its need for material resources. And buildings and cities, as factories of immaterial labour, have become the main facilitators of this new regime. This book is not only a speculation about our future that, beyond left-right politics, tries to connect themes as diverse as neoliberalism, social media, the prosumer or our ever-present tangible desires. But, by recapturing Europeâ€™s fictional history through the lens of Basel and Munich, it can also be read as a strategy proposal of how to overcome our materialistic dependencies for the coming times of scarcity. And the (golden) possibilities this could hold for architecture and urbanism.
Our urban civilisation follows patterns of self-organisation that we are only able to recognize if we take games of thought like this one seriously. Dirk Baecker, Zeppelin University
UniversitĂ¤tsverlag der TU Berlin
9 783798 323698