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time of wa r

1940

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Italy declared war on Britain First successful helicopter flight First color TV broadcast

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1943

Radar was into operational use Doolittle led air raid on Toyko German troops reached Stalingrad

Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor Birth of »Superman« Air-conditioned automobiles

1944

Round-the-clock air raids on Berlin Paris was liberated Scientists discovered link between DNA and heredity

German armies in North Africa surrendered The Pentagon was oened Jacques Cousteau invents the Aqualung.

Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor Birth of »Superman« Air-conditioned automobiles

The Second World War took place in the first half of the decade, which had a profound effect on most countries and people in Europe, Asia and elsewhere. The consequences of the war lingered well into the second half of the decade, with a warweary Europe divided between the jostling spheres of influence of the West and the

Soviet Union. To some degree internal and external tensions in the post-war era were managed by new institutions, including the United Nations, the welfare state and the Bretton Woods system, providing to the post–World War II boom, which lasted well into the 1970s. However the conditions of the post-war world encouraged decolonia-

lization and emergence of new states and governments, with India, Pakistan, Israel, Vietnam and others declaring independence, rarely without bloodshed. The decade also witnessed the early beginnings of new technologies (including computers, nuclear power and jet propulsion), often first developed in tandem with the war ef-


time of c u lt 1945

Germany surrendered First atom bomb was dropped on Hiroshima Trademark »Coke«

1946

1947

Cambridge Universiity allows women students Diary of Anne Frank Earl Silas Tupper Patents Tupperare

President Truman officially ended WW II hostilities Civil war in China First electronic computer

Even with the challenges imposed by shortages in rayon, nylon, wool, leather, rubber, metal (for snaps, buckles, and embellishments) and even the amount of fabric that could be used in any one garment, the fashion industry‘s wheels kept chugging slowly along, producing what it could. After the fall of France in 1940, Hollywood drove

fashion in the United States almost entirely, with the exception of a few trends coming from war torn London in 1944 and 1945, as America‘s own rationing hit full force, and the idea of function seemed to overtake fashion, if only for a few short months until the end of the war. Fabrics shifted dramatically as rationing and wartime shortages

1948

1949

First Non-Stop Flight Around the World NATO Established

The »big bang« theory Israel was created McDonald‘s Restaurant

controlled import items such as silk and furs. Floral prints seem to dominate the early 1940s, with the mid-to-late 1940s also seeing what is sometimes referred to as »atomic prints« or geometric patterns and shapes. The color of fashion seemed to even go to war, with patriotic nautical themes and dark greens and khakis dominating the color pa-


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Watch out On every picture, where you can find this square, you will find articles and more picture of it’s designer.

Hedy Lamarr _ 50 Actress & Revolutionary in Walfare Finn Juhl _ 54 100 Years furniture design Grete Stern _ 60 Artist, Photographer & Graphic Designer Irving Penn _ 64 Artist & Photographer Franco Grignani _ 70 Graphic Designer Eugene Smith _ 74 War Photographer


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Noma Bar for IBM _ 82 Advertising Campaign

Preview _ 115 Looking forward to new new-the 50s

Quality rather than Qantity _ 86 Sweet Candy from P채rlans

Imprint _ 116 Adresses & Names

Antiqua-Frakur Dispute _ 90 Frakur present & past

Postface _ 117 Short Summary from the editor

Frida Gustavsson _ 96 looks stunning in 40s inspired fashion Hey _ 102 Design agency from Barcelona Beetle _ 106 From Hitler to Hippies


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Photography, unknown Photographer, ca. 1943,


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Unwed Sailor, Scott Campbell, ca. 1947

Advertisment, unknown Designer, ca. 1943

Bazaar Cover, Alexey Brodovitch, 1943

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Eugene Smith, Worldwar II, 1940


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Hedy Lamar, Distance temptation: ÂťWhite CargoÂŤ from 1942

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Womans place in war, unknown Designer, ca. 1943

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Original Bra, unknown Designer, ca. 1943

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In the streets of Paris, unknown Photographer, ca. 1943

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Founder of an industry, Herbert Matter, ca. 1943

Neocid, Karl Gerstner, ca. 1949


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Redflower, Herbert Matter, ca. 1940

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Penguin Book, Unknown Designer, 1943

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Original Dishes, Unknown Designer, 1940s


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Ivring Penn, Vogue, 1946

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Knollpost, Herbert Matter, 1945

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Pellican Chair, Finn Juhl, 1940

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Hollywood Patterns, unknown designer, 1944

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P채rlans, Menu, 2011


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Bauen & Wohnen, Cover design by Richard Lohse, 1948

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How to make friends by telephone, unknown designer, 1940s

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Rainbow ballet, unknown photographer, 1940s


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Grete Stern – Dream Nº 31, 1949

Grete Stern, 1940s

Container corporation of America, Herbert Matter, 1941

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Frida Gustavsson, Shot by Andreas Ă–hlund & styled by fashion editor Linda Lindqwister, 2011

Precious face powder, unknown designer, 1940s


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Cover VU, unknown designer, 1940s


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Indian stamp, unknown designer, 1940s

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Cuno, Ladislav Sutner, 1940s

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Black mountain, Alvin Lustig, 1940s


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Model and Mannequin, American Vogue Cover Erwin Blumenfeld, 1945

Original shoes, unknown designer, 1940s

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Vogue cover, unknown designer, June 1940


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Scovill, Ladsilav Sutner, 1940s

Film poster, unknown designer, 1940s

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Vogue Cover, Herbert Matter, January 1948


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Original gloves, unknown designer, 1940s

Stelltubing, Ladsilav Sutner, 1940s

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Franco Grignani, ad for DompĂŠ pharmaceuticals, circa 1949

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Franco Grignani, Artrosil B1, 1949

Hanging girls, unknown photographer, 194os

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The Consensus of opinion, alexey brodovitch, 194os

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a r t i c l e o n pa g e 1 0 2 Hey Barcelona, Monocle inside cover, 2012

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Franco Grignani, Atrosil, 1948


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Cover Harper’s Bazaar, August 1940

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Noma Bar, IBM Advertising Campaign, 2012

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The Beetle Poster, unknown Designer, 1963

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Sew and save, unknown designer, 194os


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P 12, Max Huber, 1940s

Kirkman Borak Soap, unknown designer, 2013

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first movie orgasm ideal beau r e v o l u t i o n a r y i n wa r fa r e d a r k - h a i r e d va m P

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Ideal Beauty: As a child, so Hedy Lamarr told in her autobiography, »Ecstasy and Me«, it was because of her nose always denounced as »ugly duckling«.

Hedy Lamarr

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Famous for the first movie orgasm, notorious for her affairs: In the thirties actress Hedy Lamarr was considered the most beautiful woman in the world. No one suspected that the dark-haired vamp researched in her spare time on a weapons technology that would revolutionize modern warfare. »Loni! Loni,« shouts the beautiful Eva after her horse. In the sweltering heat of the summer day she had a bath in the lake stripped her dress and put on Lonis back. But just shortly after she had her first trains her horse which was thrown up and with it her dress. Naked now desperately fleeing into the undergrowth. But already approaching rescue: The charming Adam has captured Loni and returns it. He stops in front of Eva and scrutinizes her perfect body as she tried to hide in the tall grass. A smile on his lips. When the Czech film »Ecstasy« 1933 was released, it caused a scandal, not only because his 19-year-old actress was seen naked in it for several minutes. But also because it brought the first movie orgasm in a non pornographic movie to the screen. Of course, the film brought in the world moral police against her. And of course, many a male audience sat spellbound at the end of the film before the trailer and waited for the name of the so beautiful as permissive actress appeared: Hedy Kiesler. 64 years later, on 12 March 1997, gathered the board of the American Electronic Frontier Foundation, a nonprofit corporation dedicated to the civil rights on the Internet, in Washington, to the EFF to give Pioneer Award a prize awarded each year for the strengthening of the individual in the use of computers is. This year’s winner should be honored for the invention of frequency hopping, which has the bug-proof mobile, wireless networking and mobile Internet, as we know it today, made it all possible. But the most elusive prize winner, who had his face in decades shown publicly sent, only one alternate: Anthony Loder, a telephone salesman from Los Angeles climbed the podium and started a tape of the acceptance speech of the inventor his mother, Hedy Kiesler.

in the golden cage of the cartridge king By her beauty had Hedy Kiesler, on the 9th November 1914 in Vienna had been born Jewish bank director and a concert pianist, has benefited as a teenager: The drama school she was not indeed struck by extraordinary talent. But her appearance opened doors for her in the film industry: in 1931 allowed the 17-year-old »You need no money« to play on the side of Heinz Rühmann and teasing in skintight swimsuit rolling around on the floor. Czech director Gustav Machatý was impressed by Kiesler Lolita appeal and made them with »ecstasy« in 1933 as famous as infamous. Pope Pius XI. condemned the liberal film publicly. Quickly, he was banned in Germany and the USA. But even if the movie flopped commercially: He made a sex symbol Hedy. Her parents had other plans for his daughter: Still In 1933, she married Hedy’s 14 years older than Fritz Mandl, known as »King cartridges«. As one of the largest weapons manufacturers in Europe made these transactions, among others, Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini. Mandl for his attractive wife was primarily a trophy with which he impressed on meeting customer business. For hours she sat smiling next to him and listened to talks on arms, money, or technical details such as the susceptibility of the wireless remote control of torpedoes. To her dismay, her husband turned out to be Kontrollfetischist: He forced them to convert to Catholicism from Judaism. He tried to buy up all the copies of »ecstasy«, so no one could see his wife naked. He did not even go swimming alone and put down a house girl she should always have in mind. After four years of marriage, she bore it no more: They drugged her housekeeper with sleeping pills that she gave to the coffee, and fled to London.

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There she met the film producer Louis B. Mayer of Metro-GoldwynMayer (MGM), who was looking for talents. He was enchanted by the dark-haired beauty instantly. With the ship »Normandie«, they traveled to the U.S., and even aboard Hedy signed a movie contract with MGM for five years. But because Mayer did not want to be with the scandal of »Ecstasy« brought together, he insisted that it had to change its name. From Hedy Kiesler was »Hedy Lamarr« inspired by Barbara La Marr, a film star who died in 1926 after heavy heroin addiction. Of evil omen to let the Austrian apparently not irritate.

Sex bombs and torpedoes radio Soon, Lamarr, MGM advertised as »the most beautiful woman in the world«, one of the most desirable women of the dream factory: On the big screen she was subscribed to the role of exotic tempt, as a lover of the master thief Pepe Le Moko in »Algiers« and is, Egyptian-Arab beauty Tondelayo, white colonists in »White Cargo« turn your head or fraudulent Philistine in »Samson and Delilah«.

Antheil was another flash of inspiration: In the twenties he had »Ballet Mécanique« written, a listed of 16 fully automatic pianos tune. About to roll out the punch card pianos were controlled and played perfectly synchronized to the beat. One would merely transfer the principle to torpedoes and go instead of piano keys, radio frequencies and have a non-blocking secure remote control.

Even for the female lead in »Casablanca,« it was considered in this. Privately, the diva has a reputation as a man of murderous vamp justice: Six marriages and divorces and numerous affairs withinactors, filmmakers, musicians and so a Texan oil baron she went through during her career. A man who was over all her affairs and marriages give their lives an unexpected turn.

Lamarr and Antheil began to develop her idea more concrete: Antheil and Lamarr took first contacts to the Navy, the actress spent her free time now frequently at the naval base in San Diego at Navy experiments on frequency hopping. Finally they sent a draft of their idea to the National Inventors Council, the American Association of Inventors. Charles Kettering, the director of the.

Was the avant-garde composer George Antheil. Lamarr met him in 1940 at a dinner party in Hollywood know. The actress, who was very interested in music became friends soon become used to with sympathy and visited him often. She played the piano and talked about music, art and the question of how they could support the U.S. in the fight against the Nazi regime. How Lamarr was Antheil.

Wrote them back personally and advised them to leave the principle of patenting. It had been transformed »into a kind of Frankenstein«. Even with close friends at the end Lamarr communicated only by telephone. When on her 19th January 2000 was found dead in her home in Florida, her name in show business was long no longer a concept. Your last she had made headlines in 1966 .

Who had fled from Hitler from Europe, so for personal reasons a passionate opponent of Nazism. At one of these meetings was probably because Lamarr remembered designs her ex-husband Mandl the speech on the effective use of torpedoes. Enemy ships were unguided torpedoes then swerve slightly, and controlled by radio from enemy torpedoes could be disrupted by blocking the particular radio frequency. You had an idea: If the torpedo.

Sinful temptation in »ecstasy« of 1933, which appeared cut in 1935 as a »symphony of love« in Germany.


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A kind of Frankenstein On 11 August 1942 was so far: U.S. Patent No. 2,292,387 for a »secret communication system« that (corresponded to the 88 keys on a piano) between 88 radio frequencies changed, was issued. Lamarr and Antheil is presented free of the U.S. Navy are available. Showed no interest: the military seemed to absurd the idea to use parts of a piano for arms control. And so the Second World War was won without the support of the composer and the diva. In 1957, the U.S. military continues to research the idea of frequency ​​ hopping. In 1962, the new wireless technology finally came for the first time during the Cuban Missile Crisis to use as Lamarr and Antheil patent had long expired. The credit for their invention was decades in coming: Only after the U.S. military had released in the eighties, the technology of frequency hopping, unfolded the true revolutionary potential of the invention. For not only torpedoes, also the communication between mobile phones, wireless networking and mobile internet can be made by the method of interference and eavesdropping. Virtually every smartphone, laptop each and every navigation system currently operates on the basis of the invention, the film star. A Berlin-based initiative called even since 2006 the 9th November Hedy Lamarr’s birthday the »Day of the inventor« of where Europe should be honored the most innovative thinkers. Lamarr could no longer enjoy the late fame: After her contract expired with MGM, she had barely been offered roles. Late fifties she completely withdrew from the outside world. In a number of cosmetic surgery they tried to preserve their youth, but even her son Anthony Loder took as 2004 in the film »Calling Hedy Lamarr«.

Distance temptation: »White Cargo« from 1942.

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100 years Finn Juhl Celebrating a Scandinavian icon


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On 30 January 2012, the internationally recognised Danish furniture designer and architect Finn Juhl who died in 1989 would have turned 100. Events all over the world – from Tokyo via Cologne to Milan as well as in his native Copenhagen – celebrate his lifetime achievement. After graduating from the School of Architecture at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, Finn Juhl started his career as an architect at the renowned office of his former professor Wilhelm Lauritzen. At the same time, he designed furniture for his own apartment that he had made by cabinetmaker Niels Vodder. Juhl presented some of his designs at the Cabinetmakers’ Guild exhibition at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts. Being an architect, he had a different approach than cabinetmakers he was more open and unconventional in his approach and his organic and sculptural idiom attracted much attention. In 1937 Finn Juhl and cabinetmaker Niels Vodder started a successful collaboration which was to continue until 1959 and whose success was based among others on Vodder’s understanding and artful implementation of Juhl’s designs that were pieces of art as opposed to mass-produced articles. Together they developed new techniques for the creation of furniture using teak – a material not previously employed in interior design: as a result of intense forest clearing on the Philippines due to the Pacific War, teak was available at a very low price on the world market. In Denmark, Finn Juhl became known above all for his furniture of this time which had a profound influence on style, such as the Poet Sofa of 1941 and the Chieftain Chair of 1949. Together with the later founder of the renowned Danish furniture maker France & Daverkosen, Juhl developed upholstered chairs and armchairs. C.W.F. France spent several years in a concentration camp of the German NS regime. Confident that he was going to survive.

first furniture r e q u i r i n g s e pa r at e s e at c u s h i o n s He thought about new business fields for his mattress firm Lama and came up with the idea of a modern upholstered chair with separate seat cushions. However, first furniture requiring separate seat cushions needed to be designed. France survived and implemented his plan. He contacted the best furniture designers as he wanted to develop a high-quality product. Together with cabinet maker Daverkosen, he founded France & Daverkosen; later he operated independently with his own furniture company, known as France & Son. His vision was a success – it was the beginning of an era during which modern Scandinavian design conquered the world. In addition to his collaboration with Finn Juhl, he also worked with other design icons such as Peter Hvidt & Orla Mølgaard Nielsen. Finn Juhl’s later home was, of course, also furnished with creations of his own design. Juhl perceived furniture as part of the spatial effect forming a unified whole with art and space installations. This holistic design which also provides insights into the Scandinavian home decor of the 50s and 60s was integrated into the adjoining Ordrupgaard museum forming a permanent exhibition. A few years ago, much of the interior of the house was stolen. So fortunately the burglars were unable to transport everything and left behind among other things a table in the garden. Until today, everything has disappeared without a trace. Juhl also founded his own school which greatly influenced a generation of interior designers. Juhl’s students mostly turned into fervent supporters and passionate ambassadors of his style. Their teacher, too, showed this passion and unwillingness to compromise when implementing his ideas. Finn Juhl, for example.

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46 Sofa 1946

m a n u fa c t u r e d in volume The assignment for the design of the interior of the UN headquarters in New York City marked the breakthrough for his furniture in the US: He met Edgar Kaufmann, then director of the New York Museum of Modern Art, who made Finn Juhl known through publications and exhibitions. As a result, Juhl’s furniture was manufactured in volume. Today, a Danish company holds the license: after being commissioned by Juhl’s widow Hanne Wilhelm Hansen with the sofa of an exhibition, the founders of onecollection, Henrik Sørensen and Ivan Hansen were given all production rights in 2001. With knowledge and passion they were able to relaunch production of the collection even during a time of economic crisis.

Onecollection organized several international exhibitions for the Finn Juhl Centennial. Even in distant Japan, Finn Juhl is held in very high esteem. The Scandinavian craftsmanship with its elaborate design details, the skillful use of the inherent properties of the teak wood preferred by Juhl, and the minimalist, yet soft sculptural idiom which contrasts with the harder shapes and strong geometry of Japanese architecture appeal very strongly to the esthetic perception of the Japanese. Toshio Mitsufuji, in the 60s professor of architecture at the Showa Women’s University, expresses this as follows: »Putting together the chair by Finn Juhl I had a chance to gain a clear understanding of details. It made


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Interior with original furniture by Finn Juhl


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Interior with original furniture by Finn Juhl

the onecollection The extent to which the admiration for Finn Juhl forms a strong bond between his followers and surpasses all other interests is underlined by a fact that is highly unusual in the furniture business: The Japanese company Kitani produces Juhl’s furniture in Japan with the unspoken consent of onecollection, the official Danish license holder, while other companies nearly ruin each other in long-lasting license disputes. For the Juhl anniversary, the director of Kitani, Kiyofumi Tanaka, even constructed an exact copy of Juhl’s original house in a small Japanese village – with the consent of the Wilhelm Hansen foundation.

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Grete Stern Photographer exploring artistic pa r a m e t e r s


Grete Stern – photomontage, 1947

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The diversity of their artistic backgrounds was assisted by a period in which photography functioned as an adjunct of other disciplines, as well as a rich source of experimentation in its own right. Artistically speaking, it was an international language, with the Paris-based American Man Ray experimenting in solarisation, and the Hungarian Moholy-Nagy, having fled his home country, incorporating many images more familiar to cubism and early modernism. Renger-Patzsch and Umbo, Lotte Jacobi and Florence Henri were among others of Ringl & Pit’s contemporaries and influences, three years before the Nazi takeover.

One can be born with talent, Miss Grete Stern’s talent was that she could turn dreams into reality. Her photomontages, are an ideal conjunction between Dada collage and surreal photography.

Auerbach’s permanent exile, the studio became a cultural centre that afforded the two women the choicest subjects from among the avant-garde. While portraits, such as the famous one of Bertolt Brecht as starkly clipped as his haircut extolled the characteristic, and often deceptive, simplicity of the Bauhaus neue sachlichkeit, or new objectivity, many other subjects, such as nudes and still lives, took off into the realms of the surreal.

The work of the photographer Grete Stern, who has died aged 95, spanned two distinct periods, styles and continents. Born into imperial Germany, in Wuppertal-Elberfeld, she spent three years studying graphic arts in Stuttgart, and a further two apprenticed to the photographer and fine arts lecturer Walter Peterhans during the time of the Weimar republic. Then, in Berlin at the end of the 1920s, she encountered the starkly dramatic Bauhaus style, which marked such a break with the flowery decadence that had preced.

Just as Grete Stern won the Brussels international photography prize, she was forced to close the studio and leave her country. She settled first in London, where she made photo-propaganda with her companion and colleague, latterly her husband, Horacio Coppola. By 1936 the pair had decided to move on to his native country of Argentina. That year Stern and Coppola opened a studio in Buenos Aires, where their advertising work retained the Bauhaus style Stern had made her own.

Enthused and encouraged by Peterhans, one of the great teachers and innovators of his time, Stern was offered his studio when he became head of photography at the Dessau Bauhaus. In 1929 she opened it with her friend and colleague, the sculptor Ellen Auerbach, under joint childhood nicknames of Ringl and Pit.

The portraits were intended to combine what’s striking in the new vision of Edward Weston and Paul Strand with the style of old masters such as Hans Holbein and Albrecht Durer. Once in Buenos Aires, Stern became more widely published and exhibited, began lecturing and held ground-breaking exhibitions with Coppola.

Grete Stern Man on Rooftop ca. 1930

In 1940, she decided to make a break and established a studio in the provincial town of Ramos Mejía. There she successfully reproduced something of the atmosphere of her Berlin days, as an artistic vanguard gathered at the house, which doubled as a studio and exhibition centre. A new expression going to Ramos was born and the place of pilgrimage became synonymous with a new cultural mecca. Increasingly, however, Stern was developing a project she had started with the Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes to document the remaining indigenous peoples of Argen- tina. She has left a huge body of work on the Chaco Indians, a people few had previously bothered to record. Stern has also left a legacy of work in direct succession to her late mentor, the German portraitist August Sander.

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portraits Grete Stern – photomontage, 1949

reality turned into dreams Grete Stern – photomontage, 1947

her own theories of light, as exemplified in her Ramos house filled with natural sunlight and whitewashed walls, without studio lamps; a love of the arts and, as the catalogue for a 1950 show of hers in Washington described it: A bitter realism neither shouting nor showy. It is something more intimate and real. Her desire is to enhance things, teaching the eye to rest on them, not looking but admiring so that what’s most insignificant can be seen for what it truly is: marvellous.

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Michael Glover

Irving Penn Irving Penn was a master at capturing the true character of his subjects, as a new exhibition exploring the work of the American portraitist reveals.


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Irving Penn, 1949

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He is the only man here without a face. That is the first thought that strikes you as you are about to leave this extensive, 70-yearspanning retrospective of photographic portraiture by the late Irving Penn, one of the great American innovators of our time, at the National Portrait Gallery. We’ve seen Dietrich, Duke Ellington, Giacometti, Stravinsky, Nureyev, Nicole Kidman, Al Pacino, Woody Allen tricked out to look like Charlie Chaplin and, last but not least, the swashbuckling portrait of Julian Schnabel that Penn took in 2007, not long before his death.

Penn’s story begins in the 1930s, and it opens in spareness, austerity, a skilful use of economy of means, traits that would be forever associated with the Penn portrait. Pared back to their essentials, that is how Penn’s subjects always look when they are photographed in his studio. The studio setting itself is usually pared back too. There’s almost a sense of visual drought. Everything is in monochrome, from first to last. The walls look a drab, hazy, pocky grey; the floors have bits of threads adhering to them. The lighting is never fussy or stagy or glarey.

But where, amid all these artists, movie stars, painters, writers, musicians and ballerinas, is Penn himself? There is not a single image of him in this show. The snapshot of him on this page is a rarity indeed. The photographer whose image – by Penn – we do see and remember here is that of his contemporary Cecil Beaton, the flamboyant society photographer, looking as loud, elegant, and wispily charmlessly charming as ever.

It is either daylight or simulated daylight. There are scarcely any props. Rather than using a table for his sitters to sit at he would throw a length of carpet over a plinth, and let his subjects lean or lounge against it, or settle into it like swimmers beached among the waves. Or he would take a couple of theatre flats and enclose his sitters within them, as if they are being squeezed by two enclosing walls. So there is no glamour about the context, no baroque extravagance, nothing to distract from the matter in hand, which is, from beginning to end: dissection of character.

Penn’s tactics as a photographer could scarcely have been more different from Beaton’s. In the world of Beaton, Beaton himself was a large and raucous part of the glamorous society story he was telling. He was among the glamorous beauties he was offering up to the world on a sugary platter. Penn was never that sort of a man. He was gentle by nature, as self-effacing as his Rolleiflex, someone who preferred to notice rather than be part of what was noticed.

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Ivring Penn 1953


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Ivring Penn 1948

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The Twelve Beauties - Vogue, Irving Penn, 1947

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»a movement of the hand, a n i n c l i n at i o n of the head« In a striking portrait of Al Pacino, the actor seems to be pinioning, almost skewering, us with his gaze. Our entire focus is drawn to that eye of his. This intense focus upon the subject includes a minute degree of attention to the least little gesture – a movement of the hand, an inclination of the head. How hands work with faces is an enduring interest from first to last, how the hand is used to conceal or to lend gravity to a face. It is these things that we tend to remember about a Penn portrait; it is these tiny details that make them especially memorable, the way in which Peter Ustinov clutches his chin, or Le Corbusier his temple. And these small things seem to yield up a great deal. An entire characterisation is gifted to us by the way in which Truman Capote is oddly hunched, if not crumpled, inside these two flats. Time and again, Penn seems to have captured character on the wing, unstudiedly, unlabouredly, as if the hidden inside of the human has, all of a sudden, become visible to the naked eye. Some of his subjects even look like more exaggerated and over-emphatic versions of themselves – take the portrait of Duke Ellington for example, from 1971. If it were not a photographic image, you might be inclined to accuse it of being a bit of mischievous caricature. The very first portrait in the show is an image of the painter Giorgio de Chirico, taken at the foot of the Spanish Steps in Rome in 1936. The young Penn had never met the man, but he knew what he looked like. And de Chirico allowed himself to be photographed by this eager, near-idolatrous stranger. The portrait is a marvel because of its humour – although Penn had a capacity for humour, it was a weapon he used sparingly. De Chirico’s head seems to be enveloped in a wreath of leaves, as if he is a force of nature. Or perhaps he is wearing the laurel crown.

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Fra nco Grig nani

Now and again it’s nice to look back on some of the incredible graphic design that predates your birth and marvel at the output of men who’d mastered their craft before you’d even learnt to draw breath. It’s an intimidating and humbling activity but always reveals a handful of practitioners who demand to be posthumously acknowledged for their influence on today’s design landscape. One such design legend is Franco Grignani, a man famed almost exclusively for the creation of the ubiquitous Woolmark logo, a mark often lauded as the best around by the design community at large. But Franco’s contribution to global design is much greater than a single logo mark; his Swiss-influenced modernism and geometric experimentation can be seen in many facets of contemporary design today from small design studios like Hey in Barcelona and Studio Dumbar in Rotterdam, right the way through to major world players like Pentagram.


portraits Franco Grignani, Pure Wool logo, 1964.

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I feel that it’s about time to feature more of the exceptional designs that were so very much part of our lives in the mid-20th century. Foremost among the great designers of that period was Franco Grignani of Milan, with whom I had not only the great good fortune to meet but also the challenge of working in his studio for in the autumn of 1959. If I had to describe him in one word, I would say formidable. It’s even stronger in Italian, formidabile! We always addressed him in the third person, architetto, as in, Buon giorno, architetto, or, Has the architect seen this? Franco? Never, ever, not on your life! Just the thought ot it!

He worked as art director and exhibition designer more than fortynine solo exhibitions from 1958 in Italy, the UK, Switzerland, Germany, the US and Venezuela. He was the winner of the Palma d’Oro della Publicità (1959) and the gold medal at the Milan Triennale. Grignani also won an award at the Warsaw Poster Biennale (1966) and the Venice Biennale (1972). Many museums in Italy, as well as Hamburg and Caracas, have acquired his work. His works are preserved in the MOMA in New York, the Stedelijk Museum of Amsterdam, the Victoria and Albert Museum in South Kensington in London and the Museum of Modern Art in Warsaw.

Franco Grignani studied architecture in Turin and was involved in Futurism. The movement was a kin to Abstract and Geometric Constructivism which he related to by conducting analytical research through pictorial means and photography, experimenting with photograms, photomontages and overlays.

The international fame came in large part design graphics. Surely one of the best known is the project for the brand of Pure Wool (International Wool Society) and advertisements for pharmaceutical Dompè and for the publisher Alfieri & Lacroix.

The AGI (Alliance Graphique Internationale), which honored him with membership in 1952, says of him: He studied architecture but became more interested in graphic design. He devoted himself to experiments in optical and visual design, painting and photographs. The Milan printers Alfieri & Lacroix allowed him a free hand with his typographic experiments. In later years he devised outstanding and novel photo compositions, based on optical systems he invented. He influenced many of his contemporaries

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Artrosil B1, 1950, Franco Grignani

Fiat 2800, 1939, Franco Grignani


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Artrosil B1, ca.1949, Franco Grignani

Guaiacalcium, 1949, Franco Grignani

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eugene smith W. Eugene Smith’s photographs reflect his boyhood in the American heartland and his coming of age in the agony of World War II. His work, imbued with moral fervor, evinces a clear difference between good and evil, the individual’s ability to transcend his or her circumstances, the inherent goodness (even heroism) in people, the capacity and willingness of one person to help others, such as the healers in country doctor, nurse-midwife and Albert Schweitzer. In the photo essays which he did after World War II, he demonstrated a belief in the human spirit and the ability of humanity to rise above the immense destruction it had sown. Like the country which he came from and the magazine, LIFE, which hired him, Smith’s work was refreshingly direct, sentimental and optimistic.


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The credos of those who have been awarded the W. Eugene Smith Grant in Humanistic Photography are generally more sober, less drawn to epiphany. Few seem to agree with Smith that the meek shall inherit the earth; none seem capable of taking an image as sweetly, optimistically romantic as The Walk to Paradise Garden. Whether in a hospital emergency room, or mired in the conflicts of Belfast or Palermo, hardly any of the individuals depicted by the Grant recipients seem to be able to provide profound healing and resolution. Problems seem more endemic, more difficult to change.

WWII: W. Eugene Smith’s Pacific

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I’ve never made any picture, good or bad, without paying for it in emotional turmoil.


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Photography is a small voice. It is an important voice in my life, but not the only one. I believe in it. If it is well conceived, it sometimes works. The intention of this Grant has never been to find photographers who replicate Smith’s particular preoccupations or his photographic style. It has been, and continues to be, to find worthy recipients who in their own way will explore and report upon aspects of the contemporary world that are of significant importance. Grant is given to allow photographers to escape from increasingly formulaic demands of the mass media. The photography, as it should, will evolve.

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W. Eugene Smith, Marine Demolition Team Blasting Out a Cave on Hill 382, Iwo Jima, March 1945


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Eugene Smith, The Walk To Paradise Garden, 1946

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Smith’s wartime work was cut short when he was wounded, and he returned to his wife and children in upstate New York. When he was ready to work again »I needed to make a photograph that was the opposite of war.« The photograph, »The Walk to Paradise Garden,« was of his son and daughter stepping through the woods into a clearing. It proved to be one of Smith’s most enduring and best-loved photographs.

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noma bar for i b m

As part of their Smarter Planet campaign, which launched last year, IBM teamed up with illustrator Noma Bar for a very clever set of posters. Just what does IBM mean by a smarter planet?

When we talk about a smarter planet, you can say that it has two dimensions. One is to be more efficient, be less destructive, to connect different aspects of life which do affect each other in more conscience and deliberate and intelligent ways. But the other is also to generate fundamentally new insights, new activity, new forms of social relations. So you could look at the planet as an information, creation and transmission system, and the universe was hearing its information but we weren’t. But increasingly now we can, early days, baby steps days, but we can actually begin to hear the planet talking to us. Noma Bar’s illustrations are the perfect way to visualize IBM’s hope for a better tomorrow. Born in Israel into a highly artistic family, Noma Bar, graduated in 2000 from the Bezalel Academy of Art & Design with a B.DES Bachelor of Graphic & Type Design. Now based in London he describes craft as visual communication, combining the skills of artist, illustrator and designer. His two stunning and highly acclaimed books, The Many Faces of Noma Bar w and Negative Space have become a must have for design school library’s and tutors.


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»I am after the maximum communication with minimum elements« Noma’s development process takes place in the sketchbook, going on to digitally produce finished work on the computer once the idea is fully conceptualized. Duel strategies of his practice, efficiency and humour, come from a keen understanding of how the brain accesses and understands imagery. With a limited pallet he subtlety and precisely manipulates shape and form where familiar symbols and pictograms evolve to form new meaning. Negative and positive spaces tessellate

creating several images in one, that sometimes need a few moments to see the embedded, sometimes poignant, message. Noma uses this technique to its best effect when dealing with social and political issues. Subjects such as nuclear warfare, corporate greed and national identity are illustrated with a hidden twist of humour. His portraits merge the subject’s features, with images that epitomise their fame, to form an instantly recognisable face. Noma’s ingenuity in turning complexity into simplicity exemplifies this idea and his dedication to his own principles means Noma continues to achieve his personal challenge, time and time again, with universal elegance.


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quality RATHER than quantity Sweet candy from P채rlans, based on recipes from the 30s and 40s.

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»In the kitchen with bead Confectionery, we spend days at a delicate craft. With us, it boiled toffees of fresh organic cream, butter of the best class, sugar and glucose in copper saucepan.

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Warmly welcome to our store on Södermalm in Stockholm, enjoy a cup of coffee, and see when we boil the schools beguiling young.«


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Kolans golden age was the 40s. When chewed all the beans and peers toffee like there was no tomorrow. The smoke well a the other seal but kolorna was sweet, smooth and utterly irresistible. More recently, the lovely hand-cooked kolorna relegated most of the festive season, but what shame when you can enjoy caramel year round in all seasons of flavors. P채rlans Confectionery remedy the withdrawal. We boil toffee, year round. By organic cream and real butter, sugar and prima glucose. Here stingy not on anything, especially not in jazz speakers. One of the things we enjoyed the most in Stockholm was to be able to find some traditional craftmanship and small shops existing besides the mainstream chains. It is amazing to see how the people and the city manage to add a modern twist to old fashioned traditions and translate them into modern life. One of the best examples is a small shop we found at Nytorgsgatan 38, that is producing candy all by hand and all with deep love and understanding for the elaborated procedure. One of the employees Leyli had many different jobs before, but today she is a candymaker, she told us with a canny smile on her face. In the shop, called P채rlans, she and her friends make candy based on a recipe from the 30s and 40s, concentrating rather on quality than quantity. When talking to her customers she had that contagious laugther that you recognize immediately and she seemed so satisfied and happy with what she is doing that it makes you want to come back, if not fot the delicious candy than at least to enjoy the wonderful atmosphere.

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Antiqua– Fraktur dispute Fraktur is a calligraphic hand and any of several blackletter typefaces derived from this hand. The blackletter lines are broken up – that is, their forms contain many angles when compared to the smooth curves of the Antiqua typefaces modeled after antique Roman square capitals and Carolingian minuscule. From this, Fraktur is sometimes contrasted with the Latin alphabet in northern European texts, being sometimes called the German alphabet, despite simply being a typeface of Latin. Similarly, the term Fraktur or Gothic is sometimes applied to all of the blackletter typefaces. Besides the 26 letters of the Latin alphabet, the ß and vowels with umlauts, Fraktur typefaces include the long s. They also sometimes include a variant form of the letter r known as the r rotunda, and a variety of ligatures once intended to aid the typesetter and which have specialized rules for their use. Most older Fraktur typefaces make no distinction between the majuscules »I« and »J«, so even though the minuscules »i« and »j« are differentiated. One difference between the Fraktur and other blackletter scripts is that in the small-letter o, the left part of the bow is broken, but the right part is not. From at least the 16th century, Danish texts already generally employed ø in preference to the German and Swedish.

origin First Fraktur typeface was designed when Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I (c. 1493–1519) established a series of books and had a new typeface created specifically for this purpose, designed by Hieronymus Andreae. Fraktur quickly overtook the earlier Schwabacher and Textualis typefaces in popularity, and a wide variety of Fraktur fonts were carved. It became common in the German speaking world and areas under German influence (Scandinavia, the Baltic states, Central Europe). Over the succeeding centuries, most Central Europeans switched to Antiqua, but German-speakers remained a notable holdout.


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Trigot is a modular font. Any form and each letter are based on the geometric shape of the triangle. Trigot very reminiscent of a Gothic script, inspired by the ductus and the shape of medieval writings. The basic idea came to Michael HĂźbner in 2007 in a workshop on pixel fonts.

Typesetting in Fraktur was still very common in the early 20th century in all German-speaking countries and areas, as well as in Norway, Estonia, and Latvia, and was still used to a very small extent in Sweden, Finland and Denmark, while other countries typeset in Antiqua in the early 20th century. Some books at that time used related blackletter fonts such as Schwabacher however, the predominant typeface was the Normalfraktur, which came in slight variations. From the late 18th century to the late 19th century, fraktur was progressively replaced by antiqua as a symbol of the classicist age and emerging cosmopolitanism in most of the countries in Europe that had previously used fraktur. The debate surrounding this move was hotly discussed in Germany, where it was known as the Antiqua–Fraktur dispute. The shift affected mostly scientific writing in Germany, whereas most belletristic literature and newspapers continued to be printed in broken fonts. This radically changed when on January 3, 1941, Martin Bormann issued a circular to all public offices which declared Fraktur to be Judenlettern (Jewish letters) and prohibited their further use. It has been speculated by German historian Albert Kapr that the rÊgime had realized that Fraktur would inhibit communication in the territories occupied during World War II. Fraktur saw a short resurgence after the War, but quickly disappeared in a Germany keen. Fraktur is today used mostly for decorative typesetting; for example, a number of traditional German newspapers such as the Frankfurter Allgemeine, as well as the Norwegian Aftenposten, still print their name in Fraktur on the masthead, and it is also popular for pub signs and the like. In this modern decorative use, the Fraktur rules about the use of long s and short s and of ligatures are often disregarded.

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Like an overcooked knackwßrst, Blaktur is bursting with all the flavor you’ll need for your next Riesling wine label design, church bulletin masthead or Udo Dirkschneider heavy metal tribute album. Blaktur goes from hip-hop to Bach with the click of a mouse.

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Kaas from Incubator, 2005 Version 1.0


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frida g u s t av s s o n looks stunning in 4 0 s - i n s p i r e d fa s h i o n


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This editorial is from 2011, but that doesn’t make it less inspiring. Super model Frida Gustavsson models pretty 40s-inspired outfits from the likes of Miu Miu and Marc Jacobs in this beautiful editorial for Swedish Elle. Shot by Andreas Öhlund and styled by fashion editor Linda Lindqwister.


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get the look Far far away, behind the word mountains, far from the countries Vokalia and Consonantia, there live the blind texts. Separated they live in Bookmarksgrove right at the coast of the Semantics, a large language ocean. A small river named Duden flows by their place and supplies it with the necessary regelialia. It is a paradisematic country, in which roasted parts of sentences fly into your mouth. Even the all-powerful Pointing has no control about the blind texts it is an almost unorthographic life One day however a small line of blind text by the name of Lorem Ipsum decided to leave for the far World of Grammar. The Big Oxmox advised her not to do so, because there were thousands of bad Commas, wild Question Marks and devious Semikoli, but the Little Blind Text didn’t listen. She packed her seven versalia, put her initial into the belt and made herself on the way. When she reached the first hills of the Italic Mountains, she had a last view back on the skyline of her hometown Bookmarksgrove, the headline of Alphabet Village and the subline of her own road.


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Project Monocle Thailand

introducing

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Project Agenda CCCB

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For a couple of years now we’ve been in thrall to the brilliance of Barcelona-based Hey studio but in the main our focus has been on their fun, colourful approach to print. How nice then to get word of a new string to their bow – namely the ability to render god-like figures as geometric characters. Yeah, you heard us. For their new show at the Mitte-Barcelona space, appropriately entitled Oh My God, the Hey trio have created this sublime series of deities. »In ancient Greece they had something better than superheroes,« the show’s organisers say. »They had gods – each with their own powers, weaknesses, history and followers. Jupiter and Mars came, Jesus and Mohammed, Buddha and Elvis. 2,500 years later, they return to claim their place and remind us that there is nothing more dangerous than believed immortality.«


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Film C o m m i ss i o n Chile Rarely the most exiting thing you’ll ever be given, the pamphlet has built a bad rep for itself – even the name has an underwhelming ring. But you haven’t seen these bad boys designed by Hey, a studio based in Barcelona that’s definitely more than a casual greeting. Creating work that’s clean, simple and so aesthetically pleasing that I want to frame it, it’s great to see them ridding the pamphlet of its clutter and overload of information. Bright snapshots of colourful patterns against neutral backgrounds give a sophisticated and well-considered edge to their projects. I love how they’re work is presented as well – so neat and beautiful. The attention to detail and the broad applications of their identities from.


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Hitler admires a VW model as designer Ferdinand Porsche points out, evidently to the Fuhrer’s delight, that the KdF’s engine is located in the back.

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hitler hippies

In 1933, Adolf Hitler gave the order to Ferdinand Porsche to develop a Volkswagen. The epithet Volks- literally, people’shad been previously applied to other Nazi sponsored consumer goods such as the Volksempfänger–people’s radio. Hitler required a basic vehicle capable of transporting two adults and three children at 100 km/h. The People’s Car would be available to citizens of the Third Reich through a savings scheme, or Sparkarte (savings booklet), at 990 Reichsmark, about the price of a small motorcycle. Initially designated the Porsche Type 60 by Ferdinand Porsche, the design team included Erwin Komenda and Karl Rabe. In October 1935 the first two Type 60 prototypes, known as the V1 and V2, were ready. In 1936, testing of three further V3 prototypes, built in Porsche’s Stuttgart shop,began. A batch of thirty W30 development models, produced for Porsche by Daimler-Benz.


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Wa r t i m e p r o d u c t i o n

P o s t- wa r production and boom

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The factory had only produced a handful of cars by the start of the war in 1939; the first volume-produced versions of the car’s chassis were military vehicles, the Type 82 Kübelwagen and the amphibious Type 166 Schwimmwagen, about 14,000 built. A handful of Beetles were produced specifically for civilians, primarily for the Nazi elite, in the years 1940 to 1945, but production figures were small. Because of gasoline shortages, a few wartime »Holzbrenner« Beetles were fueled by wood pyrolysis gas producers under the hood.

In addition to the Kübel-wagen, Schwimmwagen, and a handful of others, the factory managed another wartime vehicle: the Kommandeurwagen; a Beetle body mounted on the Kübelwagen chassis. 669 Kommandeurwagens were produced up to 1945, when all production was halted because of heavy damage to the factory by Allied air raids. Much of the essential equipment had already been moved to underground bunkers for protection, which let production resume quickly after hostilities ended.

In occupied Germany, the Allies followed the Morgenthau plan to remove all German war potential by complete or partial pastoralization. As part of this, in the Industrial plans for Germany, the rules for which industry Germany was to be allowed to retain were set out. German car production was set at a maximum of 10% of the 1936 car production numbers.

Mass production of civilian VW cars did not start until post-war occupation. The Volkswagen factory was handed over by the Americans to British control in 1945; it was to be dismantled and shipped to Britain. Thankfully for Volkswagen, no British car manufacturer was interested in the factory; »the vehicle does not meet the fundamental technical requirement of a motor-car, it is quite unattractive to the average buyer. To build the car commercially would be a completely uneconomic enterprise.« The factory survived by producing cars for the British Army instead. The re-opening of the factory is largely accredited to British Army officer Major Ivan Hirst. Hirst was ordered to take control of the heavily bombed factory, which the Americans had captured. His first task was to remove an unexploded bomb that had fallen through the roof and lodged itself between some pieces of irre-placeable production equipment; if the bomb had exploded,


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the ple’s car the Beetle’s fate would have been sealed. Hirst persuaded the British military to order 20,000 of the cars, and by March 1946 the factory was producing 1,000 cars a month, which Hirst said, »was the limit set by the availability of materials«. During this period, the car reverted to its original name of Volkswagen and the town was renamed Wolfsburg. First Type were made in 1945.

window. More dramatically, in August 1957 a much larger full width rear window replaced the oval one. 1964 saw the introduction of a widened cover for the light over the rear licence plate. Towards the end of 1964, the height of the side windows and windscreen grew slightly, giving the cabin a less pinched look: this coincided with the introduction of a very slightly curved »panoramic« windscreen.

Following the British Army-led restart of production, former Opel manager Heinz Nordhoff was appointed director of the Volkswagen factory. Under Nordhoff, production increased dramatically over the following decade, with the one-millionth car coming off the assembly line by 1955. During this post-war period, the Beetle had superior performance in its category with a top speed of 115 km/h (71 mph) and 0–100 km/h (0–60 mph) in 27.5 seconds with fuel consumption of 6.7 l/100 km (36 mpg) for the standard 25 kW.

Though the curve was barely noticeable. The same body appeared during 1966, with a 1,300 cc engine in place of the 1,200 cc: only in the 1973 model Super Beetle did the Type 1 acquire an obviously curved windscreen. The flat windscreen remained on the standard Beetle. There were also changes under the bonnet. In 1954, Volkswagen added 2 mm to the cylinder bore, increasing the displacement from 1,131 cc to 1,192 cc. This coincided with upgrades to various key components including a redesign of the crankshaft.

This was far superior to the Citroën 2CV, which was aimed at a low speed/poor road rural peasant market, and Morris Minor, designed for a market with no motorways / freeways; it was even competitive with more advanced small city cars like the Austin Mini.

This increased power from 33 bhp to a claimed 40 bhp and improved the engine’s free revving abilities without compromising torque at lower engine speeds. At the same time, compression ratios were progressively raised as, little by little, the octane ratings of availble.

Opinion in the United States was not flattering, however, perhaps because of the characteristic differences between the American and European car markets. Henry Ford II once described the car as »a little box.« The Ford company was offered the entire VW works after the war for free. Ford’s right-hand man Ernest Breech was asked what he thought, and told Henry II, »What we’re being offered here, Mr. Ford, isn’t worth a damn!« During the 1950s, the car was modified progressively: the obvious visual changes mostly concerned the rear windows. In March 1953, the small oval two piece rear window was replaced by a slightly larger single-piece

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posT fa c e PUBLISHER Teresa Hausgnost

Culto cons vidius bonsilicae, nulut avolicie con tem orumum moenatque per ut publis ocus ponfeceris? Nihicit; in sesse consum des cla elinam diendiena, opubli, nes hortem, quemquerrid in stemenium omniqui tus, C. Ris sulem publiu vividet; iam que inticaet, qua inat gra verei sesilne nonsum adeesil inihilis etid int C. Tis consuli emorus, videsuli, que non tatum posta, veritia publium istis. Damed num feripsent, se et a vivivis, nont L. Ifecus halin venatusat. Ihintisquiu maximur, sum vitia? Quis vid cae a deori patque tu quius omni publicibus audam aut vivivatis Martemus. Se prac meraequ astimus consim atus aliessu caes, culium fur linti, cum, nos ipiorum omacte iam prox sessilis, o haberor pernium atquit Castriam iaedervis ori publictus hacem se ips, occis es hos praet cotia reo C. Graet? Nosultor uncla remurei publica tuitus, verficon haederis cris; nitro Casdamei pribunum, vesende murorei ta, sestis cris, teat. Culto cons vidius bonsilicae, nulut avolicie con tem orumum moenatque per ut publis ocus ponfeceris? Nihicit; in sesse consum des cla elinam diendiena, opubli, nes hortem, quemquerrid in stemenium omniqui tus, C. Ris sulem publiu vividet; iam que inticaet, qua inat gra verei sesilne nonsum adeesil inihilis etid int C. Tis consuli emorus, videsuli, que non tatum posta, veritia publium istis. Damed num feripsent, se et a vivivis, nont L. Ifecus halin venatusat. Ihintisquiu maximur, sum vitia? Quis vid cae a deori patque tu quius omni publicibus audam aut vivivatis Martemus, se prac meraequ astimus consim atus aliessu caes, culium fur linti, cum, nos ipiorum omacte iam prox sessilis, o haberor pernium atquit Castriam iaedervis ori publictus hacem se ips, occis es hos praet cotia reo C. Graet? Nosultor uncla remurei publica tuitus, verficon haederis cris; nitro Casdamei pribunum, vesende murorei ta, sestis cris, teat.

I M P R I N T PUBLISHER _ Teresa Hausgnost Newnew Ltd. Studio 35, Riverside Yard, London SW17

PHOTO EDITOR _ Michael Schmidt

EDITOR IN CHIEF_ Lara Smith

EDITORS_ Tamara Schall, Kerstin Passecker, Markus Zaun, Melanie Wind, Mario Bergham, Sabine Bachlechner, Lukas Hausmann, Michael Stone, Tobias M端ller, Christine Smith, Alfred Hammer, Stefan Noa, Simone Mayer, Cornelia Bischof, Henrik Maurer, Simon Hummer, Ludwika Wen, Eva Tiess, Alexandra Unterweger, Silvia Ansaloni

ART DIRECTION _ Teresa Hausgnost ONLINE _ Thomas Amar TEXT _ Lisa Smo, Gustav Lohr, Nana Egger

MARKETING & PR _ Irina Bahar

The publisher assumes no responsibility for the accuracy of all information. Publisher and editor assume that material that was made available for publishing, is free of third party rights. Reproduction and storage require the permission of the publisher. Photos and texts are welcome, but there is no liability. Signed contributions do not necessarily represent the opinion of the publisher or the editor. COPYRIGHT _ Newnew Ltd., London, 2013 All rights reserved

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