Once Upon Forever

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ONCE UPON FOREVER



ONCE UPON FOREVER

These things will happen once, but are forever.

Inspired by true events

Student

Tea Ferrari 12 June 2020

Thesis submitted to the Master Institute of Visual Cultures, St. Joost School of Art & Design, s’ Hertogenbosch In partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Graphic Design Thesis Tutor

Barbara Neves Alves Personal Tutor

Marton Kabai Word Count

6181



If we understand the past, we will be better able to continue a culture legacy of beautiful form and effective communication. If we ignore this legacy, we run the risk of becoming buried in a mindless morass of a commercialism whose vision ignores human values and needs as it burrows forward into darkness.1 – Philip B. Meggs

1. Philip B. Meggs and Alston W. Purvis, Meggs’ History of Graphic Design - Fifth Edition. ( John Wiley & Sons Inc, 2011.), VIII.



Abstract For over a century events have been promoted through the use of posters. Posters don’t merely provide practical information on events, but more importantly showcase how aesthetics and styles have evolved by presenting specific moments in time. Once archived to history, posters reflect the moods of their age, providing visual records that refer to different periods. Speaking a visual language, they carry unspoken messages to events’ crowds. Today these posters are losing their voice, silently appearing around our social media feeds and streets, they are becoming increasingly unable to stand out in the contemporary media landscape. Targeting sales rather than emotions, designers tend to use the poster as a disposable tool forgetting how to fully exploit their visual potential. In recent decades unconventional approaches towards this medium’s design have begun to emerge, especially within the promotion of club and rave culture events. My thesis investigates the unexplored potential of promotional posters for electronic musical events, proposing design methods that reconsider this medium through visual production. “Once Upon Forever” proposes a nostalgic approach towards design, using the time variable encoded into posters in a way that offers a new perspective to events. This study results in a series of posters that intend to illustrate how digital tools can be integrated to emotionally address the observer. By obliging the viewer to note cultural associations, the ancient and the contemporary are visually merged together on the poster’s surface in a selection of impossible events in which technology insinuates the passage of time, allowing the audience to aesthetically navigate through different moments in history.


TABLE OF CONTENTS


Introduction More than just a flat surface

1. The Event Poster A Time Sensitive Medium Do You Speak Visual? Club and Rave Culture Posters Research Methods

10 11

12 13 15 19 22

2. Visual Nostalgia Nostalgia as Design Approach Deriving Methods

25 29

Contextual Dissonance Curiosity Excitement Storyline Invention

24

3. Once Upon Forever

Parallel Realities

The Poster is a Visual Portal

Aesthetic Entanglement Graduation Project

Collateral Narratives – Inspired by true events

42

43

44 45

Conclusion

48

References

50

Appendix

52

Acknowledgments

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INTRODUCTION

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More Than Just a Flat Surface What is “the poster” today? A flat surface, often found hanging on city corners that talks to crowds on the streets? Or is it perhaps something more? I suggest seeing posters as a cultural testimony to human life, in the sense that they inform both present and future viewers about the times they belonged to by illustrating past objects, styles, and events. When a poster presents an event, its surface is filled with information that can potentially turn it into a visual record. My sensibility towards humanistic culture and indeed history in general, increased my curiosity regarding the poster as a medium as all events are, in fact, a part of history. The poster stands as a two-dimensional surface upon which facts can be visually interpreted, allowing designers to tell observers stories. I find it poetic that this medium has surrounded us for over a century2 and has never lost its voice. My interest lies in discovering how this medium talks to us today. What stories do we want to hear and do we still listen? With an aim to investigating connected design approaches, it was both the visual and historical connotations regarding posters that pushed me to choose this topic. The study looks into event posters and explores their potential in promotional design projects in the Club Culture context. Being myself a visual designer employed in the production of illustrative material for electronic musical events (in the Netherlands), the present work is a critical evaluation of the methods that I implement in my own productions. The investigation was conducted through the study of available archive material, interviews and pertinent projects created during my professional practice. The aim of the present research is to question the role that posters play in our society today and to investigate design in such a way as to explore the potential of event posters that combine modern representational techniques and cultural references through technology. The research and its relative findings led to the delineation of three design methods regarding the promotion of electronic musical events. The examination of my projects and the insights provided during interviews resulted in the production of new posters, further developing my experience as a visual designer. Whereas the study of a series of event posters, aimed at finding a key to the empirical interpretation of history through posters, provide a cultural reflection on the modern perception of time. The objective in this visual study is to propose a retrospective approach to image construction that will appeal to an audience’s imagination, interrogating them as to the connections between space and time in history, in order to understand the observed material. The things we look at always have a meaning because we give them one by simply observing them. The contrary would only lead to us to not knowing what to make of the world. The way in which we observe is that of an expert, this is because the eye’s explorative paths differ depending on the observer’s cultural background and thoughts.3 This space-time alignment, rather than corresponding to a mere “box office” function, could be seen as a solution for structuring posters in a more subliminal manner in which, through visual design, the medium itself becomes a portal to re-imagine the sense of time in the present.

2. Ibidem, 201. 3. Riccardo Falcinelli, Critica Portatile Al Visual Design (Turin: Einaudi, 2014), 15.

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1. THE EVENT POSTER

1. 1 Krebs Litographing Company, poster for the Cincinnati Industrial Exposition, 1883.

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A time sensitive medium When deconstructing its communicative elements, it is evident that the information revealed by a poster designed for an event places it within a precise framework of time and space. Actually, based on my research, in most cases a poster needs to answer three main questions, in order to communicate an event:

When? – Time Where? – Space What? – Fact

Most posters designed to promote an event are structured around a date and a place: this makes them objects of ephemeral function. In fact, their functionality lasts only for a restricted period – the timeframe needed to reach the targeted audience: from the poster’s publication to the end of the promoted event. According to Professor Jeroen Boomgaard, the poster is a time sensitive medium: it refers to a particular moment in time and its function is to present such moment: Posters belong definitively to the terrain of transience. They announce actions, performances, concerts, meetings, special offers — all things that are connected with specific dates that determine the duration of the life of the poster. 4 Therefore, posters designed for events cannot be recycled: they are tied to the age that produced them and belong to the cultural and societal contexts that they aim to promote. Yet, at the same time, the product value5 of this medium allows to use it in a more speculative way, encouraging a psychological reflection based upon the viewers’ own experiences and values. This fact led me to consider the event poster also as holder of a moment’s memory, standing as a visual witness of which events happened and when, how they looked like and why they had a certain style. In this sense, we are confronted with a powerful medium that echoes human experience: posters designed for events, more than selling a product, tell us about culture, acting as a theatrical field of action. A sign to operate with6. Event-based posters haven’t merely an informative function, rather can be seen as media that reflect signs of different ages. Now, given the documental feature of the medium, to which designers can convey the feelings of an epoch, I wonder: are we aware of its potential? I believe that we are forgetting the potential of this medium and that it is worth highlighting its cultural importance. Increasingly, we are surrounded by images promoting events just for the sake of the attendance, without focusing on the concept of such moments, aiming for sales rather than emotions. I see posters become purely functional when they address us merely as buyers7, instead of asking us to use imagination. I think that posters should cause excitement at sight, by engaging with the viewers’ experience. In this study, I question the state of event posters, aiming to find out what stories they can bring to the audience today, and what are the best formats for telling them. In a lecture8 from 2017, the designer David Rudnick9 reflects on how we might find solutions for the current problems of graphic design practices by moving towards a new paradigm, where the viewer is no longer an observer of the content, but becomes its protagonist.

4. Jeroen Boomgaard, “Permanent Signs of Transience.” in Poster N° 524, ed. Rianne Petter and René Put, (Amsterdam: Valiz, 2012), 7. 5. Jouke Kleerebezem, “Read/Write Imaging”, in Poster N° 524, ed. Petter and Put , 13. 6. Bik Van der Pol, Far Too Many Stories to Fit Into a Small Box – exhibition based on the collection and archives of the Ujazdowski Castle Centre for Contemporary Art, curated by Joanna Zielinska (Warsaw, 2019). 7. Boomgaard, “Permanent Signs of Transience.” in Poster N° 524, ed. Petter and Put, 7. 8. Strelka Institute, David Rudnick. Lecture “Crisis of Graphic Practices: Challenges of the Next Decades” YouTube video, 1:03:14, August 14, 2017, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-ejp4AvetSA. 9. Rudnick, David. Personal Website, https://davidrudnick.org/.

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The crisis of graphic design, which we will have to address, [is] the notion that […] (we) move […] towards (a paradigm) that still privileges an audience who view themselves as protagonist with wonders worth seeing and dreams worth aspiring to, and not give up to the notion that this is now a world in which graphic design has been written off the picture. Within this framework, consulting the relevant literature10 provided the basis of a recording process that could answer my queries. I investigated the evolution of this medium from its earliest ancestors on (1. 1, 1. 2), noting the related visual technologies and innovations that varied over time. The poster’s development illustrates the evolution of how events were presented and the interconnections between earlier styles, different visual languages, contexts and means, up until the present day’s transformations. The outcome of this chronological analysis will be outlined in the following section.

1. 2 Jules Chéret, poster for Orphée aux Enfers (Orpheus in Hades), 1879.

10. The literature will be outlined later on in this chapter.

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Do you speak Visual? Graphic design constitutes a kind of language with an uncertain grammar and continuously expanding vocabulary.11 Posters speak a visual language. A chain of connected facts made designers and artists convey different visual languages to posters over time12. In order to explore such languages, it was important to research an overview of different styles and how they relate to printed matter, to find influences and connections among visual technologies. The poster is the classic medium for presentation and promotion, a field where image and text need to be economical, meaningful and memorable, since their (re)production needs to satisfy global consumption demand13. Although such reproducibility disconnects the poster from the artistic sphere14, its function gives it a voice in society and the power to silently tell us stories as it reaches out our surroundings. The influence behind event-poster design, that re-arranges stylistic characteristics over time, can be mapped by finding connections between different visual languages. Even though, through the use of innovative design approaches15, they change in mood over time, analysis reveals the manner in which the different styles share visual elements with their predecessors. Psychedelic Posters16 (1. 4, 1. 6), for example, reinterpreted Art Nouveau17 (1. 3, 1. 5) style but added a contemporary sensibility by proposing a more intense use of colour and exaggerating readability in the type style.

1. 3 Alphonse Mucha. Poster for Job cigarette papers, 1898.

1. 4 Jim Kweskin, Jug Band. Poster for Wolfgang’s Avalon Ballroom, 1966.

11. Richard Hollis, Graphic Design A Concise History (London: Thames and Hudson, 2001), 10. 12. Lars Bang Larsen, “Tracing Circles with other centers”, in Can you Feel IT? ed. Freek Lomme (Eindhoven: Onomatopee, 2018), 46. 13. Hollis, A Concise History, 10. 14. Falcinelli, Critica Portatile, 38, 57. 15. Vox. “Where the 1960 “psychedelic” look came from” YouTube Video, 05:40, November 14, 2019, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9vuqI2v2IRs. 16. Hollis, A Concise History, 182. 17. Art Nouveau was an international decorative style that thrived roughly between 1890 and 1980, griding the turn of the century. It encompassed all the design arts and consequently embraced posters, packages, and advertisement. Its identifying quality is an organic, plantlike line. [Meggs and Purvis, Meggs’ History, 200].

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Designers — either by marketing or by fiction — perpetually innovate the seductive regime of surface, which stimulates other designers to do the same thing, disconnected from the non-negotiability of the brutal material ground, historical structure and political struggles on which, originally, surface itself was premised. In their first publication18, the multidisciplinary Dutch collective Metahaven19 explains how surface today multiplies beyond any measure of necessity, distribution or reason, generating an “information overload” that is currently representing the (virtual) reality of design. In such a reality, with all its implications, posters are produced easier and faster, causing in some contexts a progressive visual standardization, also resulted from the increase of image’s demand and consumption20. Today, the urban and virtual space became the environment to promote an event21: visual material has always populated the cities’ streets, and has now reached out to screens, where our attention as consumers has shifted from the surroundings. We face the need of a multiplicity of formats caused by the proliferation of surfaces of various shapes22, in which visuals are displayed and consumed. Although new ways of creating and consuming images emerged, the printing process still relates to poster design, showing a constant presence of the medium’s traditional format in promoting shared environments23. 1. 5

1. 6

18. Metahaven, White Night Before A Manifesto, (Eindhoven: Onomatopee, 2008), w.p. 19. Metahaven’s work enquires the role of graphic design in a global-capitalist system and the consequences for its related practices. http://metahaven.net/. 20. Falcinelli, Critica Portatile, 83. 21. Kleerebezem, “Read/Write Imaging”, in Poster N° 524, ed. Petter and Put, 13. 22. Falcinelli, Critica Portatile, 263-273. 23. Kleerebezem, “Read/Write Imaging”, in Poster N° 524, ed. Petter and Put, 14.

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1. 7 Visual medley inspired by data scraping and image categorisation on social platforms, in what seems to be a hopeless effort among a carnival of false appearances.

1. 5. Alfred Roller, sixteenth Vienna Secession exhibition poster, 1902.

1. 6 Wes Wilson, poster for Fillmore Buffalo Springfield, 1967.

1. 7 Jonathan Castro X Norman Orro, “Data Carnival�, 2018.

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Club and Rave Culture Posters An aesthetic based on quantity and standard templates doesn’t allow daring experimentations. (1.8 - 1.10) In Introducing the visual research Poster n°524, Boomgaard underlines this lack and remarks the ignored potential of the medium. The poster today speaks with a single voice and actually with a single message. It no longer expresses an opinion or passes a comment. [...] Posters address and stimulate us first and foremost as consumers.24 In response to this argument, I explored how posters can demonstrate their potential in the context of electronic music events, a scenario in which experimentation can be pushed beyond its standard limits. This environment precisely depicts our time’s mood, representing a musical culture that is the result of a creative approach to technology25, which is not viewed as opposed to the human state but rather as a channel of expression. In an interview26 about his logo design for Aphex Twin27, designer Paul Nicholson emphasizes the freedom of expression prioritized by the electronic music scene, which enables innovative visual production. By relying extremely on creativity and technology, the club and rave movements developed a strong aesthetic28. DJ Bill Brewster illustrates how designers gave a face to Club Culture’s events29, trying to catch the freedom of extremely evasive contexts, often lived as escape moments from everyday’s monotony. Energic feelings and spirit of experimentation originated an unconventional style30, reflecting the nature of the promoted events. From the showcased examples (1.11 1.16), it becomes clear how, in club and rave culture, designers try to move away from the standardization of the medium’s aesthetic and, recalling Boomgard, the average singularity of its message, increasingly unable to address our emotions. This is why I decided to investigate the state, role and format of the event-based poster today, looking for conceptual and practical solutions in the promotion of electronic music events.

1. 8 Poster for Madball Rebellion Tour, Melkweg Amsterdam, 2014.

1. 16

1. 9 Poster for Sziget Festival, Budapest, 2015.

Aphex Twin logo

1. 10 Poster for Ultra Music Festival, Miami, 2020.

24. Boomgaard, “Permanent Signs of Transience.” in Ibidem, 9. 25. Nav Haq, Rave: Rave and Its Influence on Art and Culture, (London: black dog press, 2013), 18. 26. Resident Advisor. “Aphex Twin logo designer Paul Nicholson shows more unseen sketches” YouTube Video, 2:46, April 6, 2017, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vDSFMxLQBsk. 27. Aphex Twin (born 1971), is an English musician. He is best known for his idiosyncratic work in electronic styles such as techno and ambient music in the 1990s. In 2001, Guardian journalist Paul Lester called James “the most inventive and influential figure in contemporary electronic music”. [Wikipedia, s.v. Aphex Twin]. 28. Haq, Rave, 20. 29. Bill Brewster and Rick Banks, Clubbed – A Visual History of UK Club Culture. (London: Push, 2018), 3. 30. Emily Gosling, “What Rave Culture Is Teaching Modern Graphic Designers,” Eye on Design, accessed August 24, 2016, https://eyeondesign.aiga.org/what-rave-culture-is-teaching-modern-graphic-designers/.

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1.11 1.12

1.13 1.14

1.11 Kristýna Kulíková. Poster for Medicine, Prague, 2018.

1.12 Kristýna Kulíková. Poster for Lovers Disco, Oslo, 2017.

1.13 David Rudnick. Poster for Evian Christ, Copa Sudamerica, 2015.

1.14 Afterlife. Poster fot Tomorrowland’s techno stage, Belgium, 2020.

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1.15

1.15 Jonathan Castro. Mannequin Records Berghain Poster, Berlin, 2019.

1.16 Poster for Temp Affairs, IPSE Berlin. 2016.

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Research methods The documentation that was presented in the previous section increased my curiosity concerning design methods for electronic music event posters, in particular when focusing on the subject of message content. I became interested in deepening my inquiry of how to readdress the functionality of the poster’s content through visual design and the understanding of the implications that digital tools and media can have on today’s design for the event-based poster. In order to pursue my study on this subject, I will now approach event-based poster design and how it can be explored and transformed through my own practice, in such a way as to focus on visual experiments within the framework of the present research. Particular attention will be given to understanding what messages can be conveyed by images through posters today and how this can be empowered by careful design decision making. Being the literature not enough to fulfill my curiosity towards the topic, I looked for answers among contemporary practitioners. A set of interviews helped me to investigate the topic outside my personal practice. I gathered opinions and feelings about the challenges and the advantages of making posters for electronic music events today, by discussing with other designers the function of the medium, and the consequences of its ongoing transformations.

Interviews as a methodology

Being curious about exploring the use of cultural references and (3D) animation as design methods for posters, I interviewed designers that are approaching such methods, proposing cutting-edge material for electronic music events. (1.17, 1.18) Semi-structured open ended interviews helped to analyse particular aspects of the designers’ different practices, in relation to my research. I contacted eight designers that I thought could offer diverse insights because of their different approaches. From those, two replied: Lion Sauterleute and Tobias Raschbacher31. Both of them are visual designers based in Germany. Even if both focusing on event-based posters, these designers propose very different stylistic choices. The conversations concerned doubts I had regarding the value of the poster as a medium today and the different trends and approaches (image selection, digital tools) used for the promotion of electronic music events. Each of the two interviews was structured in two parts: a first general section regarding today’s party promoting (formats, context of work, artistic freedom, message) and a second section that posed specific questions that varied for each of the designers. I prepared the interviews by writing down the main points of each section 32 and sent them, in advance, to the two designers. Both interviews were conducted and recorded via Skype and lasted respectively 51 and 35 minutes. To use the collected material in accordance with my research agenda, I repeatedly listened to the conversations in their entirety and selected the more relevant parts, transcribing them. Talking with these practitioners it was interesting to investigate how they design for club culture contexts, conveying the feeling of an age that faces a progressive (cultural) dematerialization33. From these conversations emerged relevant opinions on the role of the poster as medium in today’s media landscape.

31. Sauterleute, Lion, personal Website: http://lion-sauterleute.de/i; Raschbacher, Tobias. personal Website: hello@tobiasraschbacher.com. 32. Appendix. 33. Larsen, “Tracing Circles with other centers”, in Can you Feel IT? ed. Freek Lomme, 42.

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1.17 Lion Sauterleute. Poster for Semantica, Fold, London, 2019.

1.18 Tobias Rachbacher. (Moving) poster for Tesselate, London, 2019.

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2. VISUAL NOSTALGIA 2.1

2.2

2.1 Space Invaders. “WTF is going on in my Kingdom?” Instagram post, May 2019.

2.2 Alexay Kondakov for Rhythm Büro. Boilerroomtv Instagram post, Jan 2020.

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The experience I gained with event promotion projects made me wonder about my design approach. I noticed connections throughout my work, which made me curious to further explore the methods I employ. Since I started experimenting with posters for electronic music events, the challenge has been to respect a commission’s constraints, while trying to use my own sensibility and background in order to pass a personal voice. Due to the temporality of the medium, it goes without saying that the posters I design are embedded in the contemporary. However, there is in my work a recurrent need to visually reconnect with the past. The past confirms about human roots, origins and beliefs: it is a way to prove our existence, but at the same time it is inhabitable and thus can be mysterious, hence intriguing. Visual attachment to historical and artistic imagery is a common aspect to several posters I design, so I based my exploration on it. Three relevant projects are used to investigate my design approach regarding the promotion of electronic music events. This practice-led research allowed me to define the concept of Visual Nostalgia, which I consider as leading design approach, that unfolds in consequent declinations, distinguished in the three different methods.

Nostalgia as Design Approach The relevance of historical and cultural signs that I came across during my practice made me linger on my personal experience of nostalgia, by definition, “a feeling of sentimentality regarding the past, typically for a period or a place with happy personal associations”. This made me wonder about the effect that such feelings could have in the field of poster design for events. I therefore decided to use this sentimental approach as a tool to bring knowledge into my visuals. When creating content for the electronic music world I follow my natural curiosity regarding humanism 34, that, in an increasingly tech-centered discipline, I see as a way of empowering my work’s results. In visual design, I define Visual Nostalgia as the process of selecting elements that belong to different periods’ aesthetics and blending them together in a visual composition (2.1 – 2.4). This results in the re-interpretation of vintage styles with a modern mood.

2.3 Tea Ferrari. “Aristotechno”. Personal Work, 2018.

2.4 Tomlefrench. “Digital Natives”. Instagram post, April 2019.

34. Humanism is intended as “the belief that there is an essential human condition that emerges regardless of historical circumstance and that this can be used as the basis for developing an understanding of the past.” [Oxford dictionary of Archeology, 2008 s.v. “Humanism”].

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2.5.1 Cubic. Cover art for Renaissance, Ibiza, 2002.

2.5.2 Cubic. Cover art for Renaissance, Ibiza, 2000.

2.5.3 Cubic. Cover art for Renaissance, Ibiza, 2001.

In many works for electronic music events is evident the approach of Visual Nostalgia. (2.5 – 2.8). Particularly, I find two cases worth of note (2.10, 2.12), not only because of the choice of image, but more importantly for the way this is included in the composition — well balanced within the elements, both for aesthetic and layout. The image’s selection in these examples is a clear sign of Visual Nostalgia: their makers tap into the work of earlier painters, well known for their illustrations, connoting their production with the need to invoke obscure gems from artistic archives. (2.9, 2.11) In these posters, digitally-selected portions of vintage artistic material are crafted and given a dominant role, becoming leader of the poster’s visual dimension, in a sort of digital classicism35. I believe that these examples show how contemporary designers, in a call for mysterious romantic emotions, are representing the uncertain spirit of our age with a melancholic tone of darkness. I see their attitude as an attempt to emerge among the information overload, by introducing artistic elements into digitally-made posters: these visual choices propose to elevate the content’s topicality, addressing an audience by now unused to emotionally react to event-based posters.

2.6 Teresa Schönherr. Poster for Sleepless, Melt Festival, 2019.

2.7 Lion Sauterleute. Poster for Onyx, Fuchs2, Prague, 2019.

2.8 David Rudnick. Poster for Oneohtrix Point Never, Paris, 2018.

35. Classicism is intendend as the classical aesthetic ideals of simplicity, form, order, harmony, balance, clarity, decorum, restraint, serenity, unity, and proportion — together with an emphasis on reason. The term is not limited in its application to art of the classical period. [The Oxford Companion to English Literature, s.v. classicism].

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2.9 Gustav Doré. Death on the Pale Horse, 1865.

2.10 David Rudnick. Poster for Makingtime, Philadelphia, 2017.

2.11 Albrecht Dürer. Knight, Death and the Devil, 1513.

2.12 Tim Lindacher, Alexander Dueckminor. Poster for LFEK at Saüle, Berghain, 2019.

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2.14 Teatro Litta. Recital flyer for Promesse Promesse, Milan, 2012.

2.13 The frame is textured with digital effects to convey a feeling of artificial technology to its fluid shape. The title combines a gothic type, for the article (the) with a sans-serif font, for the name (Opera). Images of theatrical scenes and digital instruments are inserted in the composition and given an effect that recalls serial printing, flattening down together the different elements.

2.15 Leonetto Cappiello. Posters for Campari and VOV, 1921-22.

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PROJECT 1: The Opera

I started practicing Visual Nostalgia in my first project within the field: The Opera 136. This event was the first production of The Orchestra37, a non-profit music collective of young internationals, which I joined since its establishment. This event took place in LAB-1 Eindhoven, in May 2019, with around 350 people. In the identity and promotion for The Orchestra, the visual world of the Opera theatre is reinterpreted and assembled with contemporary awareness, combining elements from the traditional folklore with the (post) industrial vibe of Club Culture events. “Opera is the mother of clubs”38 — The metaphor with theatre is the starting point for the logo design and for the visual choices in later promotion phases. An illustration of a Venice theatre mask is combined with a Sci-Fi font in the logo. (2.16) The experimentation evolves in the poster (2.13, 2.19), which content is settled into an Art Nouveau frame, inspired by a recital flyer template from Milan theatre Litta. (2.14)

The first experiments with The Opera promotion were the starting point in the process of understanding how to visually translate my sensibility towards history, and the ways it can be approached. This material shows a first step into an experimentation that evolved through later projects. Visual Nostalgia as approach in promotion design implies a series of (design) decisions that decline into three different methods: Contextual Dissonance, Curiosity Excitement and Storyline Invention.

Deriving Methods Contextual Dissonance The approach of Visual Nostalgia generates a mixture of styles and references, often combined with irrelevance towards the hierarchy of the visual elements figuring in a composition. In fact, inserting earlier iconography in a more recent context automatically generates dissonance, bringing old aesthetics into a newer visual dimension. For this reason, I define this method as contextual dissonance: presenting well known references in an unexpected way, switching their traditional context to give them a voice in the present. This is done to surprise the audience by demanding an association process that makes the viewer reflect on the image’s content. Blending the “old and the new” implies learning to re-envision the past into contemporary aesthetic, understanding how to reach a good balance between elements, triggering surprise through (contextual) dissonance39. Other material I designed for The Orchestra illustrates how elements from earlier iconography are given a new dimension by means of digital representation. The theatre mask becomes techno in a superfast GIF (2.17), assuming digital propriety; a figure from the Venice carnival tradition is blended into a bitmap look, emphasized by the mixture of the image’s RGB channels. (2.18)

36. The Opera 1, RA Event Page, 2019, https://www.residentadvisor.net/events/1255945. 37. The Orchestra Collective, Facebook Page, 2019, https://www.facebook.com/theorchestracollective. 38. Michelangelo Viglianisi , temporary slogan for the Opera. – The Orchestra., 2019. 39. In a commercial context, Leonetto Cappiello’s compositions (2.15) represent a good example of poster design that incorporate vintage elements. The featured characters are inspired by tales, myths and theatrical plays that are all close references to popular imagery that at the time, reached out to a vast audience. This use of the characters is particularly innovative as people feel connected to fictional figures. Their attention and curiosity are drawn to the product’s brand by the image. Carnival masks and gods are decontextualised and resettled into the advertising environment in a process that aims at connecting worlds belonging to different periods and styles (mythology and advertising). Topic’s of entertainment that interconnect with promoted products become the merging concept between characters and brand, serving the commercial purpose particularly well.

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2.16

2.17 2.18

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2.13 Tea Ferrari, Michelangelo Viglianisi. Poster for The Orchestra, 2019.

2.16 Tea Ferrari. Moving logo for The Orchestra, Facebook cover, April 2019.

2.17 Tea Ferrari. GIF for The Orchestra, Instagram post, April 2019.

2.18 Tea Ferrari. Facebook banner and post for The Orchestra, July 2019.


2.19

2.19 Tea Ferrari. Poster for The Orchestra, 2019.

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Curiosity Excitement PROJECT 2 – Kei Black X the Orchestra

In 2019 The Orchestra collaborated with Kei Black40 for an event with 200 people at Coffeelab, a small place in Eindhoven City center. During Dutch Design Week, the Night Major Siem Nozza41 used this space to collaborate with different local creatives, funding their projects and creating a platform for emergent artists. We managed the space for the whole Saturday, proposing an event that started as an exhibition with a laser interactive sculpture, to become a techno party for the night. (2.20) The material I designed to promote this event show the second method individuated in experimenting with the medium: Curiosity Excitement. The introduction of a 3D element allowed to generate subversion by representing the typical theatre mask with a digital model, choosing an improbable material for it. (2.21) This process aims to give a new environment to the Opera element by showing it in a newer technological key, that characterize the scenario of a techno party. In the animated post, rotating in a loop, the mask’s transparent curved shape creates refractions and thus changes the experientiality. The viewer needs to stare at it in order to read all the text: in this way movement allows to excite curiosity among the audience by decomposing the message within separated phases. (2.22) 2.20

Tobias Raschbacher, who animates most of the posters he does, recognizes the increasing importance of the (animated) digital versions of event-based posters. […] (The animated version) for the client serves a big purpose because of social media: when something is moving is just more interesting to see. The animation usually gets more coverage from people that interact with it. […] When you have new technologies and you don’t use all the possibilities, which are an advantage, it just wouldn’t be smart. However, I don’t think is necessary to add animation to every artwork you make if it’s not giving advantage to it. You have to think if it really makes sense, if there is an excitement behind, asking yourself: “can you make a curve or is it just flat?”. 42 Curiosity Excitement increases interaction with the audience and assists the process of merging elements coming from dissonant contexts: this method can be seen as a development of the first one. This project shows an implementation of the digital qualities, but it fails in blending well the old and the new: better results could be found increasing a stylistic contrast.

2.21

40. KeiBlack Website, 2019, https://keiblack.com/. 41. V.V.A.A. “Night Mayor of Eindhoven: Siem Nozza,” This Is Eindhoven, accessed May 4, 2018, https://www.thisiseindhoven.com/en/visit/editors-picks/inspiring-people/night-mayor-of-eindhoven-siem-nozza. 42. Appendix: interview 2, section 2.

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2.22a

2.22c

2.20 Kamil Parzychowski. Pictures for The Orchestra, 2019.

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2.21 Tea Ferrari, Michelangelo Viglianisi. Poster for The Orchestra, 2019.


2.22b

2.22d

2.22 Tea Ferrari. Timeframes from moving post for The Orchestra, 2019.

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Storyline Invention PROJECT 3 – Deep Valentine

On Valentine’s day 2020, Deep Under43 collective organized a 150 people party44 at Dynamo, in Eindhoven. For the promotion of this event I was asked to design a “dark” poster, which sounded like an interesting oxymoron. I decided to use the event title to make a lettering experiment45 (2.23) that combines darkness with the fluidity of passion. The lettering style is inspired from ancient calligraphy and black letter typography, usually associated with medieval aesthetic. Red details are added on top of a black background to maintain darkness without losing connection with the romance of the lovers. The same attention leads the image’s choice: an illustration from romantic painter Gustav Dorè, whose work is characterized by a gloomy vibe. The illustration style reminds the printing technique of wood-engraving, typical of the XIX century, making a connection with a previous aesthetic. Through a series of effects, a burning fire-like shape is overlaid to the image suggesting the lovers’ passion. Such effects make the image content less evident, in order to increase curiosity. The poster (2.24) is framed with alternated round edges (in a similar way to the arches that renaissance painters put around their works), to suggest an imaginary architecture that surrounds the image while containing the other elements. The use of such shape for the frame is a way to detach from the fast-digital aesthetic, that can’t afford rounded angles as it needs to be immediate and free from useless stylizations. The choice of a sans serif font for the texts is a way to both create contrast with the romantic vibe of the drawing and connect with the footer requested by the venue for all their events’ posters. Since the experimentation was limited by this element, I evolved it in the moving banner, used as promo-post in social media. (2.25)

2.23 Tea Ferrari. Facebook banner and post for Deep Under, 2020.

43. Deep Under Collective page, Dynamo Website, 2018, https://www.dynamo-eindhoven.nl/ vrijwilligersgroepen/deep-under/. 44. Deep Valentine, RA Event Page, 2020, https://www.residentadvisor.net/events/1375133. 45. Leonhard Laupichler, who, in his publication New Aesthetic categorizes his fonts neoclassical, (clearly inspired from ancient mythology) underlines the importance of experimentation and decorative styles within typography in contemporary design.[Leonhard Laupichler, New Aesthetic. (Pliezhausen: GmbH Offsetdruckerei, 2019)]

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2.24 Tea Ferrari. Poster & Flyer for Deep Under, 2020. The image is initially hinted in the social media banner, giving a preview, to then be revealed in the poster, where it becomes the protagonist of the composition.

The need for multiple formats allowed to think of translations for the poster, testing its adaptability to the present media. The possibility to include a timeline on the medium by animating its elements, was helpful to merge the different aesthetics. The moving banner shows better results in the combination of typography and image, with the addition of a fluid moving texture that wants to recall the fire dynamicity, while creating a reading sense and bringing tension into the composition. The timeline feature of the video enables to show elements separately: the message can be carried in a different way, alternating pieces of information in the attempt to build a visual storyline around the event, without opening its curtains yet. 37


2.25a

2.25c

38


2.25b

2.25d

2.25 Tea Ferrari. Screenshots from moving post for Deep Under, 2020.

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A Matter of Format The presented projects allowed me to realize how, in curating the promotion of electronic music events, one approaches design from a variety of angles – not only making posters, but also creating identities and curating digital posts— developing a system of visual outputs for the event’s promotion. The virtual environment, where events are promoted today, is demanding that designers adapt to new formats, even begging the question if we still need posters for their promotion. Formats are standard measures deriving by media and leading to different means of reproduction for each age. Despite the transformations and the new formats required by social media standards today, posters continue to be printed and considered the ultimate format to express statements46. Lion Sauterleute sees the importance of the poster in its relation to its surroundings. Most of the work he does is digital only: his opinion on the poster’s value today further shows how contemporary designers are recognizing the values of this traditional format. Unconsciously we reconnect to the poster, as in some places we find them hanged up illegally and this tells us about the political status of the poster.47 The experience gained through these projects allow me to say that the importance of the poster format in relation to Club Culture’s events is (almost) untouchable. Its surface connects designers with their audience and with the external world. However, I become always more aware of how digital media and tools are changing these poster’s state: the traditional format needs to be adapted to an audience that gets increasingly disinterested in well-organized or static images. The concept of “ultra-reality”48 and its implications, is proposed by by Rudnick49 (above), as approach in the process of reconsidering the traditional way we think of posters. As graphic designers we should put serious attention to (ultra-reality) because it has big implications for how we view the construction of legacy media like print, like posters, like books. We should not move under the assumption that these things, these formats, will make sense to the viewer of the future who spends more time on the internet and in the cinema, in ultra-reality, than in the modernity from which our profession emerged. The conducted research led me to the decision of further investigating the poster, starting a project that focuses on experiential features that this medium could achieve through interactions as movement or sound. Recent articles, platform, and exhibitions witness an ongoing experimentation towards this potential among contemporary visual designers50. It would be interesting to move forward from the traditional format, attempting to evade its standard while respecting its importance.

46. Lars Bang Larsen, “Tracing Circles with Other Centers”, in Can you Feel IT?, 42. 47. While discussing on the importance of posters today and their transformations, Lion underlines how “the header task” is often annoying for him, as “the poster feels like a painting, that has to be thought into a certain composition”. Header, or banner, is a typical format for online ads. According to Facebook, the header image displays at 820 x 312 pixels on computers, and 640 pixels x 360 pixels on smartphones. [Appendix: interview 1, section 1.]. 48. Ultra-reality is a set of five of the major tools of modern cinematography: 1. Gradual disappearance of the linear understanding of time; 2. The effect of one continuous frame; 3. Freedom of movement; 4. 360-degree movement; 5. Interpad camera. [Sasha Dorfman, “​David Rudnick: The Ultra-Reality of Graphic Design,” Strelka Mag 2019)]. 49. Strelka Institute, Rudnick, “Crisis of Graphic Practices: Challenges of the Next Decades” YouTube video, 2017 50. Luc Benyon, “A New Poster Moement”, (New York: Eye on Design, 2016); Madeleine Morley, “Poster Design is on the Move. But Where is it Going?“(New York: Eye on Design, 2017); Josh Schaub, “The Spectrum of Moving Posters”, (Zurich: themovingposter.com, 2017).

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3.1


41


3. ONCE UPON FOREVER

3.2

3.1 Tea Ferrari. “Impossible Reality” Personal Work, fictional event, 2019.

42

3.2 Tea Ferrari. “Collateral Narratives” ep. 1, poster detail (work in progress) 2020.


As I previously anticipated, a double nature51 allows to use the event poster in a way that offers new perspectives on events, if considering the medium beyond its expected function. Often, posters designed to promote an event have an expiring date, which determines the moment of their function’s end — they are needed once. Curiously, this kind of poster celebrates its very expiring date. However, once archived52, this medium stands as permanent material to inform future viewers about previous habits and styles — and can be seen forever. By investigating different visual languages combinations of different visual elements and aesthetics are sought, to begin a practical process that aims to invert the proprieties of the poster, making its function permanent and its entity ephemeral, in a quest for interesting visual results.

Parallel Realities The poster for events is a visual portal

Lion Sauterleute motivates the aesthetical choices of his work as an attempt to catch a moment’s particular feeling. Whenever you go to a club, is also that, what people are drawn to: the scene that you enter a world and forget about your shit. You live this little time in your phantasy world, and I think that’s what I am proposing. A kind of aesthetical world building.53 Some existing realities are out of space and time, because they don’t belong to any space. The philosopher Michel Foucault analyses these realities defining them as heterotopies54. Exhibitions, parties, fairs, concerts, the poster for events itself: all are experienceable with a variable, or change entity depending on time and space, transforming. Spaces-not spaces, worlds within worlds: mirroring and yet upsetting what is outside. Some heterotopies are in relation with time “not in the sphere of eternity” (as the archives) but in “the world of the party”: gorgeous empty spaces (festival, clubs, warehouses) that periodically get populated by crowds, transforming. These complex spatial transformations of events made me think of parallel realities, as in spaces that don’t belong strictly to any place. The poster for events could be (considered as) a visual portal to enter such realities, creating spaces that exist in function of the medium itself. Communicative (active) surface, or screen, is classified by its capacity to reveal and open up doorways to visual worlds. (…) Active surfaces are inhabited by worlds in worlds.55 The idea of using a (visual) surface to build worlds, connects to the entity of digital surface articulated by Metahaven. When consuming visual material through digital media, we interact with our devices’ surface. Active surfaces are, according to Metahaven, self-containing multiple dimensions, and operating various tasks. The introduction of time and sound into a poster brings the medium to a deeper communication level: the viewer is confronted with an immersive experience that requires to engage with the poster by interacting with its content. The future of Media is a moving from a system of grids to a system of overlays56.

51. The event poster’s ephemeral functionality is opposed by a permanent product value. (see chapter 1). 52. When talking about the concept of archive, I refer to it as Foucault does, when elaborating on Heterotopias. (see footnote 52) [Michel Foucault, Utopie Eterotopie. (Naples: Cronopio, 1966), 20-21]. 53. Appendix: Interview 1, section 1. 54. Foucault describes museums, libraries and archives as heterotopies of time that accumulates itself endlessly, introducing the concept of archive as the idea of stopping somehow time, building the general archive of a culture. This will of enclosing every time and epoch into a single place, building a space for every time, as if this place could be out of time, is for Foucault a modern idea, belonging to western culture of the ninteenth century. [Foucault, Utopie Eterotopie, 20-21]. 55. Metahaven, White Night Before A Manifesto, w. p. 56. Strelka Institute, Rudnick, “Crisis of Graphic Practices: Challenges of the Next Decades” YouTube video, 2017

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These considerations led me to the idea of designing posters of impossible events, to address the viewer on a cultural level by demanding space-temporal associations for relating to the content. In this way, I see the representation of past events with unconventional aesthetics as the creation of parallel (impossible) realities, that are experienceable (only) through the medium itself: the poster becomes a visual portal.

Aesthetic Entanglement When having to present an event of our time, I tend to combine elements from different aesthetics, merging worlds by manipulating earlier iconography. Enquiring visual language with image making, implies diving into ancient iconography and understanding its modern perception. Visual references that recall facts, stories or characters, are part of a collective wisdom57: I want to address such wisdom with this project, in order not only to provoke, and stimulate the audience, but also to show my perspective towards the past, exploring the time sensitiveness of event-based posters. This is done in the attempt to empower the image’s function, including historical references in contemporary design, visually bringing knowledge to my audience. In relation to this project’s aim, it was helpful to consider Siegfried Zielinski’s perspective on media archaeology, which suggests to adopt an experimental attitude that finds something new by excavating the deep time of media’s development. (…) There is something akin to a topicality of what has passed. However, if we are to understand history as being present not only when it demands to be accepted as a responsibility and a heavy burden, but also when there is value in allowing it to develop as a special attraction, we will need a different perspective from that which is only able to seek the old in the new. (...) Now, if we deliberately alter the emphasis, turn it around, and experiment, the result is worthwhile: do not seek the old in the new, but find something new in the old. If we are lucky and find it, we shall have to say goodbye to much that is familiar in a variety of respects.58 Instead of presenting future facts with ancient styles (old in the new), I will present facts that belong to the past, with a modern stylization as contrast (new in the old). In this way I begin a further exploration of design methods for event-based posters, trying to generate an engagement between history and contemporary. By using aesthetic entanglements, I adopt a different perspective towards time and events: this process enables a constant temporal tension in the posters’ content. The focus stays on the unexplored potential of the medium and the re-functionalization of its content, while modern digital tools could represent the “new” that Zielinski pushes us to find in the process of revisiting the “old”. The experimental attitude suggested by Zielinski is applied using digital media, through moving (audio)images. The moving poster generates excitement, focusing on temporal aspects that are outside the material sphere of tactility but involve time as interactive mechanisms and loops (self-contained time). (…) Because If you’ve grown up on the internet you know that cuts are unsophisticated, and infinity is the digital property that the world can’t keep up with. So, if you have infinite space, why not use it? Why not envision a world that never stops?59

57. The psychiatrist and psychoanalyst Carl Jung theorized the existence of a collective wisdom, which shows how myths and dreams are expression of a humanly shared experience. [Carl G. Jung, Man and his Symbols, (New York: Anchor Press, 1964), 248.]. 58. Siegfried Zielinski, Deep Time of the MEDIA, (Cambridge: MIT Press, 2006), 3. 59. Strelka Institute, Rudnick, “Crisis of Graphic Practices: Challenges of the Next Decades” YouTube video, 2017

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Graduation Project Before starting the production, I analysed the medium considering its communicative aspects (When, Where, What) in order to understand how to use its (informative) elements for presenting a logical selection of past events. While wondering how the event poster could inform its observers about history and culture, addressing indifference to our past, I came across the approach of Jonathan Castro, visual designer who uses posters to enquire history. Castro’s approach aligns with my idea, being an attempt to express history with contemporary media. Most of my work is inspired by indigenous craft traditions in a way to express or interpret a specific historic moment in time. A celebration and homage to my culture, a culture that is not stating and living of the past but that is moving and alive! History is not knowledge accumulated but knowledge constructed.60 Inspired by the concept of history as alive and moving entity, I decided to represent it through a poster series. Three parameters were set for the selection of events’ dates, in relation to each poster’s content: 1 - Theme; 2 - Date; 3 - Dissonant aesthetic. These two examples show the production’s parameters applied: Example 1 1. Theme: Censor 2. Event Date: November 1633, Galileo Trial 3. Aesthetic: NASA Moon discoveries Example 2 1. Theme: Apocalypse 2.Event Date: 1389 Black Death 3. Aesthetic: Coronavirus 3.3

60. Seibundo Shinkosha, IDEA 388 – The Current State of Online Portfolios. (Tokyo: LABORATORIES, 2020), 029

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Collateral Narratives – Inspired by true events

I selected six events in the timeline of history, that are representative of humanistic culture, showing the evolution of thoughts in relation to spirituality and technology. The religious and the scientific, the fictional and the real, are the true protagonists of this poster series, a fictional promotion of buried events and impossible realities, that become visible in the (active) poster’s surface. Episodes: #1. MYTHICLASH: Kernel Panic – Death of Pan God. (45) #2. EPOCHALYPSE: Zoom Doom – End of the World. (46) #3. ESCAPE MODE: Human Drama – Mystery Plays VR. (47) #4. CENSORED: Heretic Thoughts – Galileo Space Trial. #5. FIVENIGHTS: (Silent) Protest – Tiblisi Rave Riot. #6. CONTROL-ME: Interfaces – 1984 Dystopic Systems. The chosen topics connect to a selection of facts that wants to show my understanding of time through Visual Nostalgia. In this series I am representing a feeling of distance towards destinated moments in time (episodes), using event-based posters to explore it. The temporal complexity encoded into event-based posters, allows me to imagine a different sense of time through the combination of design methods and digital tools. I am interested in finding out how technology can become an insinuation of time: merging visual elements and styles, I propose a new way to tell stories from history. The viewer is asked to look back at the past, rather than forward to the future. The logic of this process is to reference dissonant iconographies in order to enable visual realities where time is relative. Where ancient statues appear in low resolution, where artistic paintings coexist with system errors, where Galileo can look at the moon from space. The focus is on the different perception of events between distant epochs, and how to visually reflect on it. Bringing heavy concepts, I create moments for people to experience. I choose to present events that cannot be captured, in order to attract the audience, increasing curiosity by presenting something mysterious, hard to grasp on. Designing these posters, I want to show the ephemerality of events, addressing an excitement for those things around historical moments. These posters should be seen as the tip of the iceberg of the whole stories behind them. My aim is to present these hidden stories, using the poster as a door to parallel realities (Collateral Narratives), combining visuals, movement and sound, in order to create an immersive experience for the observer. The content looks modern, but forces you to go back, using imagination to find cultural associations in time and space61. In this way, I explore the potential of the poster for events through technology62, in order to reinterpret the medium’s function today, proposing alternative ways to envision its content.

3.3 Tea Ferrari. “Collateral Narratives” ep. 2, poster detail (work in progress).

3.4 Tea Ferrari. “Collateral Narratives” ep. 3, “ESCAPE-MODE”

61. Falcinelli, Critica Portatile, 85. 62. The poster series will be presented into an online environment, focusing on the non-linearity of time on the internet. The six posters will be animated in loops, and each of them will have a short audio loop that plays over the animation. The sound will be used as a way to create additional contrast in the posters.

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CONCLUSION

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In conclusion, through a nostalgic approach to image-making, my thesis analyses the potential of event-based posters by exploring innovative design possibilities. The present research aims to understand how new techniques and technologies are providing designers with increasing control over posters’ experimentation. Such technologies however, also prove themselves to be currently transforming the way in which this medium is displayed and perceived. The state of event-based posters is transforming, yet this transformation isn’t necessarily a limit, but rather an opening of new possibilities for highlighting this medium’s contemporary perception. The study outlines the fact that the role that technology plays in the production of eventbased posters is crucial to implementing its potential. As design is a social matter63, a cultural awareness as to the materials that are used to generate effects is needed, in such a way as to reach out to the viewer’s emotions by addressing collective human experiences. When combined with such an awareness, the use of digital tools for experimenting with design methods stands out as an interesting way to elevate content, offering a deeper message as opposed to those that the average media currently propose. The present investigation allows me to state that although the potential of this medium is often underestimated, in some contexts, it reveals itself to be a means of evading conventional schemes. Today, event posters and fliers are all but covering the globe as both digital and physical images are inevitably seen and shared constantly among party and internet crowds. Could this type of media take on the task of spreading the aesthetics of bygone times on a new scale, highlighting a visual awareness of the past? The outlined examples of club and rave culture posters may represent the starting point of a process that aims to revisit the medium’s design approach, even outside the sphere of this research’s field. Subverting conventional composition systems and changing visual standards by combining past cultural references and digital tools can be seen as a way of reintroducing poetic and cultural values to poster design whilst maintaining a connection to the present and its visual values. The series of posters that constitute the result of this research should be viewed as a way of illustrating how far experimentation with this medium can be taken. The aim of finding innovation through the re-interpretation of what is old or vintage is pursued only on the assumption that contemporary design approaches are projected towards the future, without however, ignoring the past.

63. Falcinelli, Critica Portatile, 302.

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REFERENCES

Bibliography Boomgaard, Jeroen. “Permanent Signs of Transience.” In Poster N° 524, edited by Rianne Petter and René Put, 6-10. Amsterdam: Valiz, 2012. Brewster Bill and Banks Rick. Clubbed – A Visual History of UK Club Culture. London: Push, 2018. Falcinelli, Riccardo. Critica Portatile Al Visual Design. Turin: Einaudi, 2014 Foucault, Michel. Utopie Eterotopie. Naples: Cronopio, 1966. Haq, Nav. Rave: Rave and Its Influence on Art and Culture. London: Black Dog Press, 2013. Hollis, Richard. Graphic Design. A Concise History. London: Thames and Hudson, 2001. Jung Carl G. , Man and his Symbols. New York: Anchor Press, 1964. Kleerebezem, Jouke. “Read/Write Imaging”. In Poster n 524, edited by Rianne Petter and René Put, 11-15. Amsterdam: Valiz, 2012. Larsen, Lars Bang. “Tracing Circles with other centers”. In Can you Feel IT? edited by Freek Lomme, 41-62. Eindhoven: Onomatopee, 2018. Laupichler, Leonhard. New Aesthetic. Pliezhausen: GmbH Offsetdruckerei, 2019. Meggs, Philip B. and Purvis, Alston W. , Meggs’ History of Graphic Design - Fifth Edition. London: John Wiley & Sons Inc, 2011. Metahaven, White Night Before A Manifesto. Eindhoven: Onomatopee, 2008. Seibundo Shinkosha. IDEA 388 – The Current State of Online Portfolios. Tokyo: LABORATORIES, 2020. Zielinski, Siegfried. Deep Time of the MEDIA. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2006. V.V.A.A. Oxford Dictionary of Archeology, 2nd ed. Oxford: University Press, 2008.

Videography Resident Advisor. “Aphex Twin logo designer Paul Nicholson shows more unseen sketches” YouTube Video, 2:46, April 6, 2017, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vDSFMxLQBsk. Strelka Institute. “David Rudnick. Lecture “Crisis of Graphic Practices: Challenges of the Next Decades” YouTube Video, 1:03:14, August 14, 2017, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-ejp4AvetSA. Vox. “Where the 1960 “psychedelic” look came from” YouTube Video, 05:40, November 14, 2019, https://www. youtube.com/watch?v=9vuqI2v2IRs.

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Sites David Rudnick https://davidrudnick.org/ Dynamo-Eindhoven (Deep Under) https://www.dynamo-eindhoven.nl/vrijwilligersgroepen/deep-under/ KeiBlack https://keiblack.com/ Lion Sauterleute http://lion-sauterleute.de/i Metahaven http://metahaven.net/ Resident Advisor (The Opera 1) https://www.residentadvisor.net/events/1255945 Resident Advisor (Deep Valentine) https://www.residentadvisor.net/events/1375133 The Moving Poster http://www.themovingposter.com/ The Orchestra (Facebook) https://www.facebook.com/theorchestracollective Tobias Raschbacher https://www.tobiasraschbacher.com/ Unfun Design https://blog.unfun.de/#closer-bbbbq

Online Articles Benyon, Luc. “A New Poster Movement,” Eye on Design, accessed September 28, 2016, https://eyeondesign.aiga.org/a-new-poster-movement/. Dorfman, Sasha. “​David Rudnick: The Ultra-Reality of Graphic Design,” Strelka Mag accessed January 17, 2019, https://strelkamag.com/en/article/david-rudnick. Gosling, Emily. “What Rave Culture Is Teaching Modern Graphic Designers,” Eye on Design, accessed August 24, 2016, https://eyeondesign.aiga.org/what-rave-culture-is-teaching-modern-graphic-designers/. Morley, Madeleine. “Poster Design is on the Move. But Where is it Going?” Eye on Design, accessed October 30, 2017, https://eyeondesign.aiga.org/poster-design-is-on-the-move-but-where-is-it-going/. Schaub, Josh. “The Spectrum of Moving Posters,” The Moving Poster, accessed May 31, 2017, http://www. themovingposter.com/. V.V.A.A. “Night Mayor of Eindhoven: Siem Nozza,” This Is Eindhoven, accessed May 4, 2018, https://www. thisiseindhoven.com/en/visit/editors-picks/inspiring-people/night-mayor-of-eindhoven-siem-nozza.

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IMAGE SOURCES 1.1 Meggs, Philip B. and Purvis, Alston W. , Meggs’ History of Graphic Design - Fifth Edition. London: John Wiley & Sons Inc, 2011. 1.2 Meggs, Philip B. and Purvis, Alston W. , Meggs’ History of Graphic Design - Fifth Edition. London: John Wiley & Sons Inc, 2011. 1.3 Meggs, Philip B. and Purvis, Alston W. , Meggs’ History of Graphic Design - Fifth Edition. London: John Wiley & Sons Inc, 2011. 1.4 Wolfgangs. com, https://www.wolfgangs.com/posters/jim-kweskin-jug-band/poster/FD029.html 1.5 Meggs, Philip B. and Purvis, Alston W. , Meggs’ History of Graphic Design - Fifth Edition. London: John Wiley & Sons Inc, 2011. 1.6 Fine Arts Museum of San Francisco, https://art.famsf.org/wes-wilson/buffalo-springfield-steve-miller-bluesband-freedom-highway-april-28-30-fillmore 1.7 NXS, NXS #3 - Viral Bodies. Amsterdam, Drukkerij Raddraaier SSP, 2018. 1.8 Legendsraising, https://legendsarising.com/2014/04/15/win-2x2-tickets-for-rebellion-tour-melkwegamsterdam/. 1.9 Pinterest, https://nl.pinterest.com/pin/413697915754257297/. 1.10 Ultra Music Festival, Official Website, https://ultramusicfestival.com/. 1.11 Font review Journal, https://fontreviewjournal.com/ogg/?mc_cid=161309a493&mc_eid=23cd66f172, accessed December 2018. 1.12 Kristyna Kulikova, Instagram page “krstnklkv”, https://www.instagram.com/p/BZBMoLGD_vQ/. 1.13 David Rudnick Website, https://davidrudnick.org/. 1.14 Afterlife Facebook Page, https://www.facebook.com/Afterlifeofc photos/a.753560094773999/1805225272940804 1.15 Seibundo Shinkosha. IDEA 388 – The Current State of Online Portfolios. Tokyo: LABORATORIES, 2020. 1.16 Unfun Blog, https://blog.unfun.de/#summersession-2014. 1.17 Lion Sauterleute Website, http://lion-sauterleute.de/i. 1.18 Tobias Raschbacher Website, https://www.tobiasraschbacher.com/. 2.1 Space Invaders, Instagram page “invaderswashere”, https://www.instagram.com/p/BxcKXeGpL3x/. 2.2 Boiler Room, Instagram page “boilerroomtv”, https://www.instagram.com/p/B7eHXnbB18w/. 2.3 Tea Ferrari. Personal Work. 2.4 Thomas Ollivier, Instagram page “tomlefrench”, https://www.instagram.com/p/BwWXMxKnObn/.

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2.5 Brewster Bill and Banks Rick. Clubbed – A Visual History of UK Club Culture. London: Push, 2018. 2.6 Seibundo Shinkosha. IDEA 388 – The Current State of Online Portfolios. Tokyo: LABORATORIES, 2020. 2.7 Lion Sauterleute Website, http://lion-sauterleute.de/i. 2.8 David Rudnick Website, https://davidrudnick.org/. 2.9 Malan, Dalan. Gustav Doré | Masterpieces of Art, London: Flame Tree Publishing, 2019. 2.10 David Rudnick Website, https://davidrudnick.org/. 2.11 Open Culture Website, http://www.openculture.com/2016/05/1-8-million-free-works-of-art-from-world-classmuseums-a-meta-list.html 2.12 Tim Lindacher Instagram Page, “timlindacher”, https://www.instagram.com/p/BxctdHxClEl/. 2.13 Tea Ferrari, The Orchestra works collection. 2.14 Michelangelo Viglianisi, recital flier from childhood. 2.15 Manifesto Storico, http://manifestostorico.xoom.it/Cappiello.htm. 2.16 Tea Ferrari, The Orchestra works collection. 2.17 Tea Ferrari, The Orchestra works collection. 2.18 Tea Ferrari, The Orchestra works collection. 2.19 Tea Ferrari, The Orchestra works collection. 2.20 Kamil Parzychowski Photography. The Orchestra X Kei Black official pictures. 2.21 Tea Ferrari, The Orchestra works collection. 2.22 Tea Ferrari, The Orchestra works collection. 2.23 Tea Ferrari, Deep Under works collection. 2.24 Tea Ferrari, Deep Under works collection. 2.25 Tea Ferrari, Deep Under works collection. 3.1 Tea Ferrari. Personal Work. 3.2. Tea Ferrari. Iteration from poster of Collateral Narratives Series. Graduation Project 3.3 Tea Ferrari. Iteration from poster of Collateral Narratives Series. Graduation Project 3.4 Tea Ferrari. Iteration from poster of Collateral Narratives Series. Graduation Project

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APPENDIX

Tea Ferrari 26 March 2020 –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––

INTERVIEW PREP QUESTIONS

-

-

Intro Introduce myself and my work. Give insight on Once Upon Forever project.

Interview Goal Investigate on design approaches among designers of interest for my research. + reason why your opinion is relevant to my research

Visual Design Today – Party Promotion First section is about poster medium and promotion design for underground music events. The aim is to get designer’s perspective towards these aspects. Questions of this section will focus on: -

Poster medium today: value, role, function. Context of work preferences, why music environment. Design approach: artistic freedom vs. visibility of information. Relation between content and viewers and clients.

Your Work – The Past & The Future This section is more about your work and the visual elements you use. The aim is to understand the reasons behind interesting design decision concerning visual culture, in relation to the events promoted by your posters. -

Past as an inspirational source Intention and value of visual references. Contrast between digital aesthetic and the past/classical aesthetic. Archival property of the poster object.

Lion Sauterleute. Interview structure

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Tea Ferrari

2 April 2020 –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––

INTERVIEW 2

PREP QUESTIONS

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Intro Introduce myself and my work. Give insight on Once Upon Forever project.

Interview Goal Investigate on design approaches among designers of interest for my research. + reason why your opinion is relevant to my research

Visual Design Today – Party Promotion First section is about poster medium and promotion design for underground music events. The aim is to get designer’s perspective towards these aspects. Questions of this section will focus on: -

Poster medium today: value, role, function. Context of work preferences, why music environment. Design approach: artistic freedom vs. visibility of information. Relation between content and viewers and clients. message Your Work – Exploring Tools and Medium

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Possibilities of motion and 3D: what's the added value of new tech to format make complexity from simple elements geometry and distortions: create confusional shapes with realism: what purpose archival property of the poster object

Tobias Raschbacher. Interview structure

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Contributors

Nikoletta Csillag Martino Ferrari Max Frimout Giulia Fuel Zeynep Gursel Marton Kabai Kees Kluskens Carla Pagani Luca Pupulin Tobias Rachbacher Lion Sauterleute Aiwen Yin

Collaborators

A)) Project Deep Under Max Frimout The Orchestra

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