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ISSUE #2

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Teach Design Magazine Design & Technology and Engineering Education


Welcome: Teach Design By Teachers, For Teachers...

It’s a big year for the subject with the launch of the new National Curriculum for D&T! Are you a “we already do that” or are you a department that is relishing change and really shaking things up? Either way, Alison Hardy asks the question of “why do we teach D&T” in another through provoking article, which really makes us think about our subject [page 05].

If you are based in London and are crazy about robotics then we want to work with you! Teach Design director Phil Holton launches a Teach Design programme funded through the London School Excellence Fund. This looks to be an exciting project for any London school with great opportunities for teachers and students! [page 08].

One of our new industry partners The Agency of Design look at how they are redesigning products to be fit for a circular economy [page 30]. This article really highlights some new and exciting elements that should be key to D&T in 2014. Why not try asking your pupils to designs a product that can’t be binned?

As the opportunities between D&T, Engineering and Computing strengthen; the Makey Makey provides a fantastic catalyst for young inventors. Lucy Snooks and Ed Charlwood share their experiences [page 34] and even look at new and innovative ways to assess pupils work!

Archbishop Holgate’s School showcases their “starburst” project as a great way to introduce electronics [page 26]. This project case study article also links to Rapid Education with a bill of materials where all parts can be purchased should you wish to have a go? Marion Rutland provides a guiding hand for food technology teachers with an inspiring article about modern food technology [page 19]. Following on from this, why not ask your pupils to eat some bugs? No really, imagine using insects as the main ingredients for food products! Ento tell us about their innovative approach to food products [page 14] and inspire us to deliver something a little different.

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If you are a Textiles teacher then a must read is the “High Tech Textiles” article by Julie Boyd. Julie is a national advisor and consultant and is here to help and inspire you [page 22]. Are you seeking low cost modelling with high quality outcomes? Kerry Truman demonstrates that you don’t need to be a magician to turn some foam into a seriously high quality prototype [page 38]. Are you a new Head of Department managing change? So is our secret teacher who likens being a Head of Department [page 16], to a “cow walking down the stairs!” Looking to network face to face with other teachers? Then why not attend or setup

your own TeachMeetDT [page 49]. There have been lots happening across the UK with lots more waiting to happen or in the pipeline! With the Teach Design Tech Centres now firing on all cylinders, our Tech Centre Director Dave White talks about the place of 3D printing in D&T? [page 12] With so many departments now acquiring a 3D printer, what is good and what is not? Finally, we would like to remind you that we have a lot of things happening in 2014 and we hope to continue to move from strength to strength. Make sure you continue to visit our website at www. teachdesign.org.uk, to register and also join the discussion on Facebook and Twitter.

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ISSUE #2 CONTENTS

for CPD events, updates, news & resources...

The Teach Design Magazine

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What is the purpose of this magazine and how is it free?

Why Do We Teach D&T?

05

Getting beneath the skin of Design and Technology

Developing STEM Leaders in London

08

Robotics through the London Schools Excellence Fund

D&T and 3D Printing

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What does good 3D printing mean for D&T?

Delicious, Sustainable and Healthy foods

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A new company that create lovely food products using insects!

Cows Walking Down The Stairs

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The secret teacher who is also a new D&T Head of Department

Teaching Food Technology

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What’s the difference between Cooking and Food Technology?

High Tech Textiles

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Textiles products that are electrifying

Project Showcase

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A spinning electronic toy that teaches basic electronic knowledge and skill

#DTdropbox

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A digital community of D&T teachers who have never met yet share their resources

Toasters That Won’t Be Binned

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Real Industrial Designers that design for a Circular Economy

Teachers Inspiring Teachers

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TeachMeetDT introduces the best sources of CPD

Makey Makey

34

An amazing interface connecting D&T with Computing

Low Cost Modelling With High Quality Outcomes

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High quality prototypes and models without the expense

Departmental Showcase

42

Fernwood School in Nottingham invite you into their fantastic department

Sheet Metal Digger

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Quality CAD meets advanced CAM

Our Website

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How the Teach Design website can help you teach design

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Magazine: Teach Design Showcasing Good Practice...

What is Teach Design? Teach Design is an initiative focussed on improving and modernising Design & Technology and Engineering education in the UK. The Teach Design team is made entirely of D&T and Engineering teachers, with an ethos of “for teachers by teachers”. We think Design and Technology and Engineering education is extremely important and plays a key role in producing the county’s designers and engineers of the future. We don’t believe in charging teachers extortionate prices for CPD and where possible we don’t like charging anything at all! We are funded through our kind partners, various grants and other companies that know the importance of making sure the next generation of employees is technological prepared.

is edited by the Teach Design Team, and supported by our partners. You will see a few advertisements but unlike other publications our magazine isn’t littered with these! D&T teachers, designers and engineers all contribute to the Teach Design magazine. The magazine has been designed so that each edition has specific articles for a specific purpose. Articles types include: Thinking Forward, Designer in Residence, Case Study, Secret Teacher, Thunking about D&T, Project Showcase, Departmental Showcase and Teach Design in Action, all explained in a little more detail below:

The Thinking Forward article is usually written by an academic researcher within D&T and aims to create thought provoking questions about D&T. The Designer in Residence shares industry standard experiences to help bridge the gap Since our formation in February 2013 we between education and the “real world”. have continued to establish a very strong Case Study articles showcase work from network of teachers, knowing that the best real teachers in schools and the not so source of CPD is from teachers themselves. secret, Secret Teacher article shares real experiences and worries about the D&T What is the Teach Design Magazine? profession. Thunking about D&T turns things upside down and asks searching The Teach Design magazine is free to questions about the subject’s purpose. every UK secondary school in hardcopy The centre pages pull out to become format, as well as being available in digital the Project Showcase, which includes format globally. There are three editions everything you need to know to kick-start per academic year (September, January and a new project in your department. The April), plus one special edition focusing or a Departmental Showcase is a virtual tour particularly important topic. The magazine (on paper) of a department we think are

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doing things pretty good. Finally, the Teach Design in Action explores everything we have been doing to help meet our aims since the last edition. We hope that you too will contribute to this CPD resource in the future and share your own good practice nationally. We believe in industry standard practice and think this should be the case in schools too where possible. This publication aims to lead by example and we really hope you think the same too! If you have any questions about the magazine or would like to contribute toward it, then please email steve@teachdesign.org.uk.


Why do we teach D&T? Alison Hardy @hardy_alison

‘Why do we teach D&T?’ a question I ask our trainee teachers at the beginning of their QTS journey. An important question I think. I have found it so difficult to give a simple answer to I decided to turn the question into a PhD, which may not lead to a simple answer but has got my brain cells working! For my research I’ve been interviewing D&T teachers, trainee teachers and researchers to find out why they think D&T should be taught in schools. I am sharing some early findings and thoughts in this article which I’ve organized using five arguments justifying D&T: social, cultural, democratic, utility and economic. These argument categories are not my own but Robin Millar’s, a former president of the Association of Science Educators. He used them to argue for a science curriculum for all. An email conversation with him has led me to frame my answers to the question I posed earlier: ‘Why do we teach D&T?’. Each argument ends with two summary statements; these may help you answer the question yourself: ‘Why do I teach D&T?’ Cultural argument All pupils should study D&T because the fields of design, technology, and design and technology have provided important cultural achievements that children need to understand and appreciate. In my interviews and desk research only two

voices only intimated to the cultural value of D&T. One teacher said, ‘[D&T helps pupils] to understand why something is the way it is’ and James Dyson backs D&T because through it children understand the value of engineering and science and how they can be turned into a commercial reality. These declarations only hint at the breadth of cultural achievement made by designers, engineers and technologists. Limited space here means I can only give three examples but I think they are interesting examples of cultural significance, not always with a positive outcome (is thin white sliced bread a success story?), but all three have impacted on culture. • Chorley wood bread process developed by food technologists in the 60s as a response to our reliance on imported wheat; • One Laptop per Child (OLpC) project led by Yves Behar and Nicholas Negroponte that challenged the computer industries perceptions about quality design and low-cost products and • Microfibres developed by DuPont, used originally for extreme sportswear but now used for everyday fashion and sports garments because designers saw how its qualities and functions could change the way we dress. In the classroom D&T’s cultural achievements are usually investigated through product analysis but the critical

and creative thinking processes used by designers, engineers and technologists is an alternative way to embedded achievements from design and technology in the classroom. • D&T encourages the examination and questioning of the made world • D&T helps the understanding of human beings’ development and existence in the modern world. Social argument We become indifferent to how technology works as it becomes more complex and subsequently we distance ourselves from the effects these complex technologies have on the wider world and us. This is the social argument’s justification for teaching D&T. A teacher declared D&T was about ’making sure that you cannot only better your life but better someone else’s life as well’; to do this pupils need opportunities to debate possible future ethical and technical decisions faced by designers, engineers, manufacturers and retailers. Case studies give pupils opportunity to practice the decisions they will make in their design projects, in turn helping them they connect with the nature of technology and the effects it may have on society in the future. After critically evaluating case studies of old and new technology pupils can create future

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scenarios and debate the decisions professionals have to make. Whilst similar to the cultural argument this argument focuses on future scenarios by critically evaluating past and present technological achievements. • D&T provides meaningful activity to solve real problems with real solutions • D&T considers the ethics of technological development Economic argument A consequence of pupils studying D&T is a positive impact on our economic wealth. Teachers interviewed said D&T ‘contributes to the nation’s industrial and economic competitiveness’ by ‘creating future designers and makers for the country’ and its ‘good for the economy in the long run’. This was also one of the strongest arguments presented by the ‘I believe in D&T’ campaign: ‘If you turn a thought into a drawing into a car you can give twenty thousand people a job - its as simple as that’ believes Ian Callum, Director of Design at Jaguar Cars. The underpinning message in much of the campaign was ‘the creative and engineering industry, and therefore the economic wealth of the UK, will suffer without D&T’. If this argument is the main justification for D&T many children could be excluded from lessons, as only a few children will go onto careers that directly use or relate to D&T. • D&T is valuable because of the vocational learning of skills and techniques which open doors to a range of D&T related careers. • D&T contributes to the nation’s industrial and economic competitiveness. Utility argument Some D&T teachers might have booked onto courses to refresh their domestic and craft skills if the curriculum proposed last February had survived. This alarming scheme was consigned to history, thanks to the D&T community, industry, D&TA, #includedesign and many others. But let’s not forget the authors of that curriculum thought it essential knowledge. Many parents and politicians probably agreed. After studying woodwork, home economics and sewing at school they will

identify with a D&T where practical life skills are predominant. Do we need the subject of D&T to be able to cope with everyday life? Probably not. Maybe learning how to make scones, a pencil box and a cushion cover is worthwhile in the same way it is helpful to understand that some metals get hot quicker than others (science), or saying hello in another language (MFL) or how to play in a team (PE). But do children need these facts to cope with everyday life? Sometimes these simple arguments are presented to support a subject’s usefulness for all but can led to a subject’s denigration. An example of this is evident in the new programmes of study with cookery and nutrition included as part of D&T. Scones, boxes and cushion covers all utilise the same fundamental concepts, which is combining and joining. It’s learning to apply these concepts to a range of applications which is the usefulness of D&T; scones, boxes and cushion covers are just three applications which utilize these concepts. The practical application of design and technology’s fundamental concepts through different learning activities is the subject’s usefulness. • In D&T learning happens through using brains and hands together • D&T is important because raw materials are used to make a product Democratic argument The democratic argument for D&T is declared in the National Curriculum’s purpose statement for D&T: ’Through the evaluation of past and present design and technology, pupils develop a critical understanding of its impact on daily life and the wider world.’

pupils have a breadth of knowledge about how design and technology impacts on daily life is beyond the time and scope of the curriculum. But there maybe hope. Perhaps it’s not the materials, products and processes (the facts) pupils need from D&T to enable them to have an informed view but the fundamental principles on which their design decision making rests. Understanding design situations and evaluating products from a different perspective can empower them to become informed citizens. For example, asking pupils to think who wins and who loses because of their designs or wearing a blindfold to use a product will develop their skills in critically understanding the wider world. • D&T encourages the examination and questioning of the made world • D&T empowers a democratic society to improve the world These arguments are only one way of answering my opening question but I think they challenge us to reflect on why we teach D&T and how these arguments are shown in classroom practice. In the next stages of my research I will be comparing how different teachers rank the arguments and how this ranking is shown in their teaching. If you are interested in taking part or curious about my findings you can find me on Twitter @hardy_alison. Further reading: Glimmer: how design can transform your life, your business, and maybe even the world by Warren Berger. Towards a Science Curriculum for Public Understanding by Robin Millar.

Today, and in the future, pupils will make decisions. How informed they are is a role for D&T. Pupils will choose whether to buy locally produced food or imported specialist food, they will choose whether to replace a coat bought last winter with this winter’s new fashion or they may debate the location of new wind farms near their home. Teaching about new and impending materials, products and processes so that

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Developing STEM Leaders in London Phil Holton Director, Teach Design

Introduction In a fantastic development for London, the Mayor of London is funding a wide range of exciting initiatives across the capital, through the London Schools Excellence Fund, to develop key areas of curriculum improvement, which include Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics programmes. Teach Design Ltd are proud to be the holders of a major grant provided to deliver engaging support to teachers of STEM across London over the next two years. STEM Leaders Our approach to the LSEF grant was to propose change by developing and investing in teachers, and providing them with all the tools they needed to improve the prospects and experiences of students in their classrooms. We recognised a need to develop teacher confidence in design and programming both at Primary level and early secondary education, to coincide with changes to the National Curriculum from 2014 and the growing interest across all ages in learning about building smart responsive engineering based products. We also recognised that the cost to launch and develop new teaching practice is often high, without inclusion of the cost of teacher CPD. With a host of fantastic partners supporting the programme, including Innovation First, Autodesk, and National Grid, we set a lofty target of developing

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20 new STEM leaders in London in the coming year. With the support of our partners, we are able to grow this to 30 and hope this will have a major impact on the provision and expertise of London teachers. These individuals would be passionate teachers who, with our support, training and free resources, would develop a new STEM club for their school to build teacher confidence and support growth of the topic into the classroom. We would then support the natural growth of the programme by supporting each teacher to train and develop another to achieve similar success in the 2nd year. Our aim is to see each of the 30 teachers train just one more colleague, and result in 60 expert teachers across London by September 2015, when major changes to the GCSE courses will take place. We would also like to see every single teacher supported with free kit to develop his or her club and then move teaching into the classroom. STEM Clubs Our aim is to identify individuals who believe that their students will thrive on the opportunity to work with outstanding resources and equipment, enjoy the chance to develop new and employable skills, and love the idea of sharing their experience with a neighbouring school. We intend on finding and training aspiring teachers, and gifting each with sizeable amounts of

equipment to pioneer the new STEM club, and in doing so build a sustainable platform for current and future students to learn about technology and programming. We are looking for you We want to hear from secondary schools with primary links who want to be part of this programme. This could include secondary schools working with their own feeder schools. Thanks to our partners and the GLA grant, we are going to provide all 30 schools with equipment and materials to create a new and exciting STEM club, which will encourage the exploration of programming and robotics. Each school will have one teacher as a STEM leader for London, who will be passionate and motivated to develop their own career through our support. Teachers involved will see their own skills and chances of career progression greatly increase thanks to the on-going CPD. Local groups of schools will form small hubs who share ideas and compete against one another in mini STEM challenges. Best of all, everything is included free in our programme. All we need are the right teachers with the right amount of passion. How to get involved Are you passionate about developing the future of your students? Would you like to develop your teaching and set up a STEM club? Do you want to be a STEM leader

for London? Do you teach in a London borough? We would like to hear from you. Our request is that you give us your time one day per term, and in return we will give you everything you need to develop not only your teaching, but the provision you offer to your students, and the opportunities at your school. Our partners have a commitment to ensuring excellence, just like we do. We hope that those who can join our programme will go on to train and support others to take the steps already taken, and grow the programme naturally until London can proudly offer all of its children the chance to explore their potential and be excited about engineering and programming. Contact If you feel you and your school want to join our programme, please contact us directly by emailing Phil Holton [phil@teachdesign.org.uk]. Please provide the following details: - Your name and position in the school - Your full school address - The age group you could create a new STEM club with - The number of students you could engage with - A contact phone number and email address

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D&T and 3D Printing Dave White

Design and Technology Teacher

It seems to me that everywhere you look on the Internet someone has something to say about 3D printing. From adverts for 3D printers in your local stationery shop right through to President Obama in his State of the Union Address, everyone is getting in on the act. But is it all hype? And why 3D printing in D&T? I am pretty certain that 3D printing isn’t just hype or “here today, gone tomorrow”. It is one of the fastest developing technologies and is now seeing application in engineering, medicine, architecture, fashion and more. On a consumer level thousands of machines are being sold to hobbyists and enthusiasts. So can we afford to let this technology bypass our students in D&T? But what can a 3D printer actually do for a D&T department? There seems to be two answers to this. It allows students an insight into the new ways that business and industry are prototyping and manufacturing products and perhaps more importantly it offers students a way to apply iterative design principles in the making of their own projects and products. It is this ability to enable students to iteratively design and make that appeals most to me. Manufacturing using traditional hand tools can be mind numbingly slow, especially if we insist on the students making quality products. Usually the product that the student makes is the end

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of the line no matter whether it “does the job” or not. Rarely can we afford the time to make improvements.... And that’s not the way it works “in the real world”. But with 3D printing things can change, students can design using CAD software ranging from the easy to use Autodesk 123D Design through to professional programs like Autodesk Inventor. It is simply a matter of a couple of hours until they can hold, test and evaluate their 3D printed product. With this sort of timescale it is appropriate to go back to the drawing board, or in this case CAD program, modify the design to improve it and print it again. But what about the cost, surely we can’t afford to do that? In my experience most 3D prints done in my school cost pence rather than pounds, a favourable comparison to projects made using traditional materials. And even better, the students produce products that work, products that they value, take home and use! What about printing files downloaded from the Internet? Well it sounds tempting and often has a wow factor the first time the students see an object appear on a 3D printer. But if that’s all we do with the growing number of 3D printers in schools we will be doing our D&T students a great disservice. For me it’s the learning processes and the iterative designing and making that 3D

printing provides that must come first. So if, or rather when you get access to 3D printers please don’t just download and print chess pieces and key rings... They are not all that different to the string winders, CD racks or bookends of yesteryear. So, where does Teach Design fit in all this? In January 2014 Teach Design will officially launch Tech Centres all over the UK. These Tech Centres are centres of excellence; each of them is equipped with 3D Systems Cube and CubeX printers and will be offering training, courses and advice. So before you take the plunge into the new industrial revolution of 3D printing why not get in touch via the Teach Design website and maybe book up at a training event or taster session. (Dave was an early adopter of 3D printing in his school and has been using 3D printers with students for about 5 years. He teaches at Clevedon School where a Teach Design Tech Centre is located to provide training in the Bristol area and South West)


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Delicious, Sustainable and Heathly foods

Aran Dasan ENTO

Who are you and what are you doing at the moment? My name is Aran Dasan, and with Julene Aguirre, Jacky Chung and Jon Fraser, together we have formed our company Ento, in order to introduce insects to the western diet as a delicious, sustainable and healthy food of the future. Where did you study/what did you study at University? We all studied different things! Four our undergraduate degrees, I studied mechanical engineering, Jon studied manufacturing, Julene studied product design and Jacky did aeronautical engineering. We met whilst studying on our postgraduate course: Innovation Design Engineering MA/MSc at the Royal College of Art and Imperial College London - this is where Ento was born as our graduating design project. What is your philosophy on food/design/society? Good ingredients speak for themselves, and insects are *excellent* ingredients! And at Ento we believe that if a food is

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genuinely delicious as well as healthy and sustainable, facilitated and communicated by good design, society will accept insects as a great addition to their diets. This is the power design has - to make connections between problems and solutions. What have been your stumbling blocks so far? Time! We’re running Ento in our spare time, whilst we have fulltime and freelance design jobs, which makes Ento business happen in the evening and weekends. There aren’t enough hours in the day to keep up with all the exciting stuff happening in Ento right now. How can teachers get involved with teaching this in the classroom? We think our project is a good example of design reaching out to other subjects as a source of challenging, exciting problems to solve, and innovative solutions that just need design thinking to break them out into new areas. We would love to see product design teaching in secondary schools collaborating across more


of the curriculum - including food and cooking! We wonder what would happen if students were taught a more investigative, experimental approach in cooking, where instead of just following a recipe, students could modify and explore, make mistakes, and try to create a food or dish to fit some sort of design brief. Where can teachers go to get more information? Check out our website and this news article for how we’ve applied design thinking to solving a really complex problem like food security. This interview with us describes what our day-today work on Ento is like too. Any advice for wannabee design students like yourselves? Fake it ‘til you make it! Keep pretending to be who you want to be (a superstar designer, someone who changes the world, an entrepreneur…) and one day, you’ll look at yourself in the mirror, and that’s exactly who you’ll be!

What does the future hold for the UK/What’s next for Ento? Food products! Over the next year you can expect some delicious food products that you can buy. We’re busy designing just how we’re going to get these products to our customers - it may be an online crowd funded campaign, or it may be in a local sandwich shop, or even a supermarket. The UK can expect some pretty dramatic changes to its diet over the next 50 years, as our world changes around us - its up to designers to make sure that these changes are good ones, that benefit the environment and all of us living in it. How are you going to convince people to eat grasshopper burgers? Our first and strongest message is that insects taste great! Even though sustainability and health underpin everything we do, we also start out by saying that insects possess subtle savoury flavours, and are entirely delicious.

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Cows walking down the stairs Secret Teacher

A New D&T Head of Department

Cows walking down the stairs. Not impossible, but difficult. Implementing the new National Curriculum. Not impossible, but difficult. I am hoping the lessons I learn from my experiences this year will ease your cow down the stairs. I can be your guinea pig. Your stair lift, so to speak. Over the course of this academic year, I will be writing about my implementing of the new National Curriculum to a previously neglected department in which I have just started a new job. I have been tasked with the role of ‘Head of Product Design’ and am attempting to write the whole KS3 and KS4 curriculum from scratch, as well as set up the workshop with new equipment and clear out the rusty relics left by the previous teacher (not to mention get used to a new school and their methods). We are all in different situations; it may be that you are in a position where you already have the technology in place. You may even have some suitable projects already. This means that you don’t need to change everything, but instead tweak and improve them in line with the new national curriculum. If, however, you intend on merely tweaking 20 year old projects to make them fall in line with the new national curriculum (*cough birdboxes, hand steady games and memoboards*) then you need to ask yourself either of the following questions: ‘Is this really engaging my students?’ (ask them!) or ‘Is this the best

project I can deliver to give the students appropriate skills which modern day employers require?’ (ask industry!). If you are tweaking these old projects (because you are stuck for ideas, not because you don’t want to change them completely) then read on. If it’s because you think it’ll be too much work to change them, why are you still teaching?.... Step 1: How am I going to do it? First step; I planned the projects and lined up where they ticked off the new curriculum in order to check I hadn’t missed anything out (these can be seen on the attached curriculum plan). I opted for shorter projects which focus on certain skills or knowledge, such as a focused product analysis task. I find this keeps the students more engaged than a 12 week project. (I see each group for 1 term and they rotate to food or textiles.) Then I wrote a shopping list and ordered the equipment. You may need to convince the bursar/governors why it is vital to purchase new equipment. This comes down to you selling them the idea of having a modern dept. and the opportunities it will give the students, but ultimately, you must be able to deliver content in line with the N.C. Therefore you need the equipment. Thankfully, the SLT and governors here are aware (and supportive) of the investment needed to get my dept. up to speed, so it wasn’t too much of an issue. Why not also ask local businesses for funding?

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Step 2: How will I get the time to do it? Your school should theoretically be supportive of your work load and give you opportunities to write the new resources. This is often not the case and it will mean putting in some extra work out of hours. It will pay off when you see the students get excited about their new projects. I love the reaction I get when I tell the students what we will be doing – they think I am winding them up most of the time; “We are making our own USB sticks?!” If you are anything like me, you will want it all done at once and will have to keep reminding yourself that you can’t do it all at once. One thing at a time. Make the job easier on yourself and grab resources from elsewhere. Obvious examples being TeachMeetDT events, Twitter, #DTdropbox, Facebook and other resource websites. Step 3: Delivering the content – does it ever go to plan? I planned the first two weeks prior to starting back. This gave me the time to get my feet under the table. However, I didn’t take account of two key things which were to alter my plans thereafter. Firstly, how much time it would actually take to

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get the technology up and running (my 3D printer and robotics software are still not operational). Being a Local Authority school, the IT systems are like fort knox and it takes time to get the programs installed and working. More time than you would expect. Factor this time in and have a plan B. Secondly, I didn’t anticipate just how low the ability of the students would be (due to their previous teaching). It has taken me time to figure out the best way to pitch to them. My year 11 students didn’t know how to follow a tutorial video and couldn’t even draw a cube. A CUBE! I had to really go back to basics and spend a lot longer on basic skills than I expected. Take into account that if they are learning new skills, this could take longer because A) the students may take longer to get to grips with it and B) you may have to tweak your lessons until you find something that works for them. This initial trial and error process takes more time than you might expect, so accept that you may not get through all of your new projects first time round. Step 4: What next? At the time of writing, I still have 3 weeks of the first rotation left (at the end of the

first term). Due to the aforementioned delays, I will not get through all of the mini projects with the current rotation. However, I hope that with the projects I have delivered now being more efficient, coupled with (hopefully) the technology and equipment being in place, I will be better positioned to deliver additional projects to term/rotation 2. Next job: write the other projects! What has the effect been so far? The department has changed massively in the 12 weeks so far. The students (and staff) have had their heads turned and I have a huge volume of students wanting to get in my room and use the equipment. The students are reinvigorated and massively engaged in the subject – they just can’t get enough of it. I am slowly changing opinions from ‘stick them in RM so they can make something’ to a subject which has a real impact on the world. Things are changing round here; do you want them to change for you too? The Secret Teacher


Teaching Food Technology Marion Rutland

Food technology teacher

Introduction

So what could/should we be teaching?

I will begin by picking up a point made by David Barlex in the first issue of Teach Design. David asked the question ‘So what is D&T?’ and said that the problem is that we lack agreement of the nature of D&T.’ He quoted a situation where newly qualified science and D&T teachers were asked what they thought were the ‘enduring ideas’ in their subject. The science teachers responded quickly and were able to agree but the D&T teachers spent most of their time disagreeing about the nature of D&T and what might or might not be ‘enduring ideas’. I would argue that there is a similar situation with food technology. People have different views and ideas of what it is and what and how it should be taught in schools.

Studying food as food technology is academic subject that provides motivation and challenge and supports the development of higher order thinking skills together with pupils’ understanding of scientific concepts. Learning to cook is an important ‘life skill’ and an important aspect of pupils developing healthy lifestyles. Food science and food technology play a significant role in Britain’s economy; the food and drink industry is the largest sector of manufacturing activity, employing 400,000 workers and 16% of the manufacturing workforce. Pupils may study chemistry, biology and physics but if they do not study food science and technology in school they are unlikely to study it at higher education levels resulting in a lost career opportunity and too few graduates to meet the demands of the food industry.

In recently published book ‘Debates in Design and Technology Education’ edited by Gwyneth Owen- Jackson the two perceptions discussed by Suzanne Lawson were a) the important contribution of food technology as an academic subject with intellectual rigour in a modern D&T curriculum and b) the importance of pupils learning to cook as a ‘life skill’. HMI and Ofsted have commented that there has been confusion and a lack of clarity about the relationship between teaching food as a ‘life skill’ and the use of food as a medium for teaching D&T.

A modern food technology curriculum In 2009 I explored what secondary school pupils should learn in a modern food technology curriculum for the D&T Association. The work investigated the views of a range of professionals interested in teaching food technology and suggested: Responses to the conceptual framework In 2010 I interviewed two initial teacher educators and a curriculum developer. Considerable debate was generated by the external examination board’s requirements

for designing with food. Key issues raised were the overall curriculum time required to teach about food; the need for an understanding of new technologies and the food industry by informed consumers and the importance of a cross-curricular approach to prevent overlap, provide links between food technology and science and add a new dimension to the STEM agenda in school. Four food technology teachers were then interviewed and a genuine concern was expressed about the examination boards’ interpretation of designing in food being pupils’ ability to ‘draw and sketch’. The teachers were very clear that there are a range of other more appropriate design strategies for food technology and that designing and making projects that covered all stages of the design process for every age phases restricted assessment opportunities. Pupil’s understanding of science, cooking and nutrition was considered crucial for designing and developing food products for a target market and the integration of underlying scientific principles into practical, food based tasks was strongly favoured. Links between food technology and science provided an added dimension to the national STEM agenda in schools. This was followed in 2011 by interviews with a university lecturer concerned with food related degree courses, food technology examiners from a national

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Examining Body and a researcher for the food industry. Key issues identified were a lack of understanding of how to design with food, the importance of science, and not just nutrition when teaching food technology and the role that food can play in supporting the development of pupils’ scientific understanding. These stakeholders also believed that pupils should know about the basic concepts used by the food industry when processing food and the impact on their lives of new and emerging technologies. In 2012 Gwyneth Owen- Jackson from the OU and I analysed of a small sample of KS3 food technology SoW and the framework was elaborated to give more details of the potential content. A key finding was that a modern technological food technology curriculum fit for the 21st Century required KS3 pupils to have a broader and more challenging curriculum. This should include a wider range of appropriate designing strategies aimed at making design decisions that were conceptual, technical, constructional and marketing and not purely aesthetic. It was concluded that more attention should be given to progression and continuity from the KS2 in the products the pupils design and make and the scientific and nutritional knowledge and understanding that underpin their work. In addition the pupils should learn about new and existing food technologies, food sources and sustainability and gain more understanding

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of themselves as consumers and the role of the food industry and government agencies in their lives. We followed this later that year by an analysis of the specifications from four GCSE Food Technology examinations. Although, there were many positive expectations of pupils’ learning in a modern food technology curriculum there were some areas of concern. These included an emphasis on ‘drawing’ as a designing strategy and a lack of consistency and clarity regarding the depth and breadth of knowledge and understanding of scientific concepts and industrial practices required in some of the specifications. There was a general lack of expectations for pupils to be informed consumers with an understanding of the impact of eating highly processed food and the role of the food industry and government. A key issue, as previously identified, was the need for progression across the age phases. Finally, this year the views and ideas for further developments of practicing food technology teachers and KS3 pupils were explored. It was found that both teachers and pupils thought that food technology should be taught and that designing was important as designing and making with food helped pupils be creative, understand how to make ‘healthier’ foods and provided links with future careers. The development of practical skills and nutritional knowledge

were key aspects of food technology, though there was little evidence of teaching the implications of eating highly processed foods and nutritional intake measures. The teachers considered that understanding what ingredients do and aspects of food technologies were important, for example preserving foods and emerging technologies but there was little evidence of these being taught to the majority of pupils before KS4. All pupils thought that learning to cook and knowledge of food and ingredients were important aspects of food technology. Lack of curriculum time was cited as a key issue by teachers and pupils, reflecting local rather than national concerns. A key finding was a huge variation in access to food technology for KS3 pupils. Some schools had been given extra curriculum time for subject enhancement courses, though this was at the expense of offering examination courses to older pupils. Overall, the conceptual framework for has proved to be an effective tool to review, analyse a range of people’s responses and identify key thinking about the teaching food technology. So where are we now? In February 2013 the DfE published for consultation a new draft D&T curriculum for pupils aged 5-16 years. The response of the D&T community was summed up by Peter Luff (20.03.13) (Member of


Parliament) in the ‘Today’s Commons debate in Parliament, the Design and Technology Curriculum’. He cited three themes, the narrowness of focus returning to the 1950’s ‘do it yourself ’ or DIY curriculum with a focus on basic craft and household maintenance’; secondly a lack of academic or technical, challenge or ambition and thirdly a reduction in value and popularity reinforcing the perception that applied subjects are less valuable. In relation to food technology, there was no mention of designing and making with food and the underpinning knowledge, understanding and skills but there was a focus on pupils learning to ‘cook’. In the following months the D&T Association, the Royal Academy of Engineering and the wider D&T community developed a radically revised version. The changes between February and July were immense. In the version put forward in July and published in September, the reference to repair and maintenance had gone and pupils continue to design and make using a range of materials such as textiles, construction materials and ingredients. However, there is a separate section called ’cooking and nutrition’ where it states that as part of their work with food, all pupils will learn to cook and apply the principles of nutrition and healthy eating. So why teach food technology? As I write this BBC News tells us that the supermarket giant Tesco threw away almost 30,000 tonnes of food in the first six months of the year and of that total,

21% was made up of fruit and vegetables and 41% of bakery items. Food waste is a national and global issue and it is important to remember is that food technology does not just teach pupils to cook and about nutrition but covers much wider issues relevant to their future lives. Yet as can be seen above, there are issue to address to clarify the nature of food technology for teachers, schools and the general public. Next, I will set out a map of the ‘enduring ideas or timeless concepts’ food technology. Conclusions Currently, there is a substantial lobby for children to be taught to cook in schools. The government sees it as a way of dealing with society’s obesity health problem. This was very apparent in the draft D&T National Curriculum when first published in February 2013 with the only mention of food as ‘cooking’. However, in the latest curriculum document ‘ingredients’ are included in designing and making with a separate section on ’cooking and nutrition’ and healthy eating. If schools base their KS1-3 food technology curriculum on the progressive development of the conceptual framework and the ‘timeless concepts’, this would provide a sound base for examination courses in KS4 and above. Also, pupils would automatically be taught about nutrition and how to cook and this would, I believe, provide them with a much richer educational experience. There are issues of curriculum time, teacher availability, the

physical resources to teach all aspects of food technology together with developing high level ‘cooking skills’ that would affect the range and quality of the food technology curriculum taught. An ideal situation could be that schools were able to provide additional curriculum time for pupils to develop higher level of ‘cooking’ skills outside D&T, but this would require negotiations with senior management. It is a key issue for teachers and school of how to deal with this. D&T curriculum time for pupils is not large and has to cover all specialist areas in schools, and food technology teachers in secondary schools will need to make decisions. Will they opt for just teaching pupils to ‘cook nutritious meals’ or will they give their pupils a broader, rigorous and more intellectually demanding curriculum that develops them personally, intellectually and provides potential routes into interesting future careers? Schools and teachers will need to decide and establish what will be taught in food technology to their pupils, think flexibly and creatively making use of all resources. I would be very pleased to hearing from food technology teachers who have ideas to share to ensure that pupils have the worthwhile, interesting, meaningful and fun experience that I have always, and continue to believe is possible.

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High Tech Textiles Julie Boyd

Education Consultant

engineering as well as traditional design and manufacturing skills. I have always loved teaching D&T, and textiles in particular, but never before has it been such an exciting and high tech materials area. Did you know?

A carbon fibre car part, baby clothes that change colour if a child’s temperature is too high, and a radio inside a cushion, complete with soft switch on/off, volume control and tuning dials. All of these are some of the sample products I use with students and teachers when teaching D&T textiles. And then there are the drawers full of LEDs, circuit boards and conductive threads, all of which sit alongside more traditional textiles materials and components. How textiles has changed since I first started teaching twenty something years ago! The modern textiles curriculum couldn’t be more different from traditional ‘needlework’ lessons I experienced as a child (and which I taught just after I qualified!). Nowadays students are as likely to learn about making a bulletproof vest as they are about making dresses. They handle high tech, engineered fabrics designed by the army and NASA alongside traditional materials. Their potential career routes embrace skills in science, maths and

• Textiles materials such as Kevlar and carbon fibre can compete (and beat!) traditional woods and metals for strength and durability but with the advantage of flexibility and low weight (www.dupont. com/kevlar) • Formula 1 racing cars are made from 85% textiles materials; not just the obvious stuff like seats, but the chassis and suspension, which are made from twill weave carbon fibre fabric that starts off on a roll like a dressmaking material. Around 30 square metres of carbon fibre fabric goes into each car with individual fibres being five times thinner than human hair (http://bit.ly/PIgqWP ) • Silver can be woven into fabrics; its natural anti bacterial properties mean it helps fight infections, and it’s often used in textiles items used in hospitals. (www.xstaticperformance.com/) • Replacement arteries and veins are knitted or embroidered; in fact if you have an embroidery machine in your department in theory you could make one yourself! (www.ellisdev.co.uk) • Fragrances and medication can be microencapsulated into textiles fibres releasing scent or medicine when touched

(http://bit.ly/1cdzrw6) • Blue tooth clothing and accessories allow you to control and access phones and MP3 players remotely (www.zegna.com/ us/zegna-sport/icon-jacket.html) as well as having functional uses such as monitoring health (www.lifevest.zoll.com/) In the classroom Products that use smart, modern and electronic textiles are common in the shops and this should be reflected in our classrooms. Boys in particular find this area interesting, and it’s a great way to get them engaged and enthusiastic. These components and materials have a real ‘wow’ factor too, and their use can help raise the profile of textiles showing a high tech side many students, parents and teachers aren’t aware of. The materials and components can, however, be expensive, so listed below are some cheap ways of getting these areas into the curriculum. If your school has strong STEM links and funding it’s worth pushing for your fair share of funds; don’t let Science, Maths and other areas of D&T hog it all! Resource ideas Here are some ideas on how to easily incorporate smart, modern and electronic textiles into your curriculum:

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• Over time put together a handling box for product analysis exercises. This is easier to do than you think, and you can even find smart, modern and electronic textiles products in Poundland! At the time of writing they have memory foam heel inserts, microfibre tea towels and toys with electronic sound modules in them. You can also buy specialist items, like bulletproof vests and fire fighter uniforms, cheaply on Ebay. • Look out for smart threads and beads as little is needed to add a dramatic effect to a product. Güterman’s Sulky Solar thread is about £4.50 for a 100 metre reel, although personally I think the range of colours available are quite pale when they change. I prefer Pony solar beads (250 for £8.50), as the colour change is strong and quick (www.colourchanging.co.uk) • 3M reflective tape is about £1.80 per metre (5cm wide), and a small amount used for appliqué has a real impact (www. chesterford.co.uk). • There are various glow in the dark products, including Hama Beads (1000 beads for around £2.50 www.hamabeads. com). Güterman produce a glow in the dark thread called Glowy which is about £4.50 for 100 metres. (both Solar and Glowy can be bought from www. colessewingcentre.co.uk) • E-textiles components and materials can be expensive. Don’t forget lots of toys and other products have electronic sound modules built in and many can be taken apart and reused. You could also consider offering e-textiles after school clubs, where products are made to be sold, as this could

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fund the materials and components for the club. • If you have extra funding take a look at an industrial magazine called Future Materials. It’s about £260 for an annual subscription of 6 issues so it isn’t cheap, but costs could be shared across local schools or try asking the school library to subscribe. It’s a glossy magazine with a range of short and long articles that are good for keeping the teacher’s knowledge up to date as well as for use with A level students in particular. It has a textiles focus, but other materials areas in D&T will find the magazine of interest (www.wtin. com/e-store/future-materials/) Project ideas Including smart, modern or electronic materials and components can easily spice current projects up. Why not use glow in the dark thread for a project that includes appliqué or use a colour change or glow in the dark bead tied onto a zip pull? Below are ideas on projects you could use as a starting point for developing your curriculum: • The January to June editions of Sewing World magazine have 6 high tech projects that might inspire you. Buy back copies from http://inspiredtomake.com/ zone/sewing-world/home. Alternatively see images and short descriptions of the products and develop your own instructions http://bit.ly/11jqqyA. These articles are aimed at the magazine’s craft target market but most are still a good starting point for school projects.

• Free to download e-textiles projects at http://bit.ly/141iOSV. New ones are added about once a month. Most projects have a PDF set of instructions plus a video, making them great for independent learning. • Free to download ‘how to’ guide with all the basics for using e-textiles components (http://bit.ly/141iOSV). Want to find out more? • Attend a course - have a look at courses available throughout the year (http://bit. ly/11PLbOE). • Take a look at the teaching resource ‘Modern, Smart & Electronic Textiles’ at http://bit.ly/10fG64f which has a wide range of resources for use in the classroom including schemes of work and project ideas • Buy e-textiles components from www. textileshotline.co.uk [I sell a range of resources from Kitronik • Get regular updates, information and ideas via Twitter [@julieboydonline], Facebook [www.facebook.com/ julieboydonline] and Pinterest [www. pinterest.com/textileshotline] • Sign up for a free newsletter for all D&T teachers, which includes a section on textiles [email: Julie@julieboyd.co.uk]. • Take a look at my website for free to download resources, resources to buy, and courses to attend, both in textiles and linked to teaching and learning generally in D&T [www.textileshotline.co.uk.]


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Project Showcase... In each edition we will share and look to equip you with resources and ideas you can use to introduce modern technologies into teaching and learning in design and technology.

Starburst y! electronic spinning to All pupils will make an s handle, th is activitie By compressing the es us it wh ich in turn ca a basic motor circu ate. to the motor to rot the PCB mounted h B are two tilt switc Populated on the PC ugal ated through centrif wh ich become activ The the spinning PCB. force created from r allows for three colou complete circuit then D’s operate. changing Rainbow LE

Pedagogy The primary focus of this project is to introduce Year 7 pupils to Design and Technology. Pupils explore a whole host of materials, equipment and processes. There is NO DESIGNING as the task is MAINLY MAKING. On a basic level, this

teaches basic electronic systems with a clear understanding of the input, Process, Output concept. Pupils all explore a range of other skills from CAD, to heating materials to finishing material surfaces.

S h oppin g Lis

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PCB Acr ylic Handl e Coin Cell Ho lder Coin Cell Tilt Switch x 2 Rainbow LED ’s x 3 Push to Make Switch Battery Box 2 x AA 3V Motor Heat Shrink Multicore Wire Red Multicore Wire Black

Am I Making Progress? What progress looks like?

Activity Type

#1 PCB’s are man ufactured extern ally which mea there is no require ns ment for specia list equipment 026 | teach design

is out there and The new draft curriculum includes the use of with the recommendations rollers. For some, electronics and microcont the electronics this may mean moving into perhaps a little area for the first time and the CPD required daunting or just lacking making it happen.

#2 v llogwresssc”o akCinBg Paro “A sicI MP Bam ves pro nic imro r ct mnaktoe eole y io woth duect hinotr


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Aims:

Introdu ce Input > the “Systems Approa Proces s > Out ch”, put Explore a and equ nd use a range ipment of tools In worksh op expe troduction to t he rience

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deliverin es home k ta il p u p t every #3 duct tha o r p y t li ts ua to paren A h igh q of D&T e g a im positive

How we do it... Our technician has previously designed and manufactured the PC B’s in house using a chemical etch tank, however it is now more cost effective to get these made externally. Having PCB’s manufactured by a professional company increases the quality and appearance and reduces the error rate amongst pupils.

Tools & Equipment Electronics Tool Kit Solder Station or Iron Solder Heat Strip Laser Cutter Pillar Drill Files Silicone Carbide Paper

fy ilstito onideanntid wpoppuupla llo a t ls n a e u n is o v p om in a lesson es progress

Mainly Designing Mainly Making Designing & Making Exploring the Technological Society

√ #4 Working drawing s allow progres pupils t s o make indepen dant teach design |

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#DTdropbox Jon Martlew

Cardiff High School, Cardiff mrmartlew@gmail.com @jonmartlewCPD

Who would have thought 5 years ago that Social Media websites such as Twitter and Facebook would be such a driving force behind the networking of teachers across the world. For those of you who are signed up, you are obviously aware of the benefits. For those of you who have not got accounts yet because “Facebook and Twitter is not for me”; give it a chance from a professional perspective. I have been using Twitter as a professional development tool for 3 years now. Since then it is obvious that the community of teachers is ever growing. About a year ago I started discussing resources and exchanging resources via email with several other Design Technology teachers in the UK. This soon evolved to the creation of shared folders on Dropbox to make things a lot easier. I then got thinking about how it is always said that we should be sharing good practice. As Design Technology teachers we do tend to reinvent the wheel, suffer in silence and rely on our own creative juices to solve our problems and create innovative projects for our pupils. I got thinking that this shared folder could be a lot bigger and therefore a lot more useful. I am aware that there are some websites that host banks of resources but none of which allow you to communicate directly or put out a request for a specific topic or type of resource.

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I sent out open invitations and tweeted to see how many D&T Teachers would be interested in being a part of a sharing community. The response was great. Instantly about 30 teachers signed up and were on board sharing their resources via Dropbox. The sole communication method for some time was through Twitter using the hash tag #DTdropbox. Teachers were now able to Tweet a request for a specific resource and in response other members of the #DTdropbox would upload the requested resource. Simple, effective and so beneficial. The main idea is that everyone shares. It works on the “Share and share alike principle” to encourage everyone to contribute. Obviously it has not been all smooth. We have encountered problems that have resulted in some simple principles: 1. If you are a member you must share resources by uploading them to a folder with your name on. 2. Only upload your best resources or requested resources. 3. Try not to upload more than a total 50mb of resources. 4. Do not delete anyone else’s resources or folders.

The DT Dropbox has now grown with an impressive number of contributors from all over the UK, Ireland and even Australia. Members are now communicating with each other via email, Twitter and Facebook. Twitter users search for the #DTdropbox handle Facebook users search and request to join the following groups: DTdropbox, Product Design Surgery or Design Technology Teachers. For those now wishing to use social media then you can contact me directly using the email at the end of this article. The #DTdropbox is now a strong community consisting of some of what I believe the most innovative Design & Technology teachers who are dedicated to improving the teaching of our subject. This is a prime example of the quality and dedication that is consistent in so many schools across the UK. I envisage this community continuing to grown in strength and quality that will in turn contribute towards to growth and consistency of the teaching of Design & Technology.


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Toasters that wont be binned Rich Gilbert

Co-Founder, The Agancy of Design

The Agency of Design embarked on a project a few years ago called Design out Waste. Excited by ideas of cradle-tocradle systems and industrial ecology, we identified electrical products as our target. Reality hit when we visited an electrical product recycling centre. Whole products were dumped by lorries, thrown on a conveyor belt and dropped through an industrial shredder, emerging as 1cm square flakes on the other side. While steel and aluminium could be separated, plastics were mixed and resulted in a low-grade output. The most valuable output is the circuit boards, which are separated and passed on to a smelter to capture a tiny fraction of precious metal, while the bulk goes to waste. We had started the project thinking we would come up with all sorts of clever design solutions, but this visit revealed the truth: there is no point designing a product for disassembly if it will end up in a shredder. It highlighted the division between manufacturer and recycler. Even with the best design for end-of-life, there is no financial motivation for the manufacturer to change when only the recycler will profit. The manufacturer’s primary motivation is to design for quick and cheap assembly. Shortly after, we met with Orangebox, an office chair manufacturer which offers to remove old chairs from a company before

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delivering new sets. Primarily, this was to offer a better service to customers, but it had a big knock-on effect. Orangebox started disassembling old chairs to recover and sell materials. It was taking an employee 45 minutes to take the chair apart, however, and the labour cost was wiping out the value of recovered materials. Orangebox’s design priorities changed and its next chair, The Ara, could be pulled apart by hand; materials were standardised and the next life of the product had been planned. These were simple design changes that made material easy to recover and process and, most crucially, the manufacturer was getting its product back. These design changes would have made no difference in the collective model of waste recycling witnessed at the recycling centre, but by taking products back, Orangebox was motivated to recover material value as quickly and cleanly as possible. The solution was in concurrently designing products and systems. Designing a product without an understanding of where it will end up is useless. We wanted to see how we could apply this thinking to electrical products. We had seen from the recycling centres that anything smaller than the diameter of a household bin is unlikely to get recycled, so we decided to design toasters, a simple everyday product. We named our toasters the Realist, the Pragmatist and the


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Optimists. \\ The Optimist Part of the problem we were trying to solve was the obsolescence of products. The Optimist was designed to last for generations. A sturdy piece of die-cast aluminium, so simple there was nothing to break. The aluminium housing was also selected to future-proof its eventual recycling. Aluminium recycles to a high quality and the toaster itself was made of recycled aluminium, which can be infinitely recycled into other aluminium products. Rather than a popping mechanism, the arms rotated out to the side so there were fewer moving parts, while four bolts on the base provide access to the inside where elements can simply unclip and be replaced. As it was going to last a long time, we designed details to celebrate its age. The toast counter on its front clicks for every slice of toast, so when it’s handed down

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through generations, your children will know you’ve enjoyed 45,316 rounds of toast... \\ The Pragmatist The Pragmatist was a reinterpretation of the Orangebox model for toasters. We built a modular toaster, individual toasting slots clipped together to form the whole toaster. When an element eventually fails, the failed slot could be taken out of the toaster (leaving the remaining slots functioning) and returned to the manufacturer to be reprocessed and a new slot posted out. This modular approach allowed us to make the individual slots thin enough to fit through a letterbox so the product return could be as easy as possible. \\ The Realist The realist looked for the closed-loop solution at the cheapest end of the market, something that would work for the £4.99 toaster available from a supermarket.

We had visited dry recycling processing facilities with impressive visual identification and separation of products. In the future, this could be a route for small electrical products, but will require a method of separation that doesn’t degrade and mix materials. Knowing that any labour time could eliminate the value of the materials, we developed a small pellet that sits next to a snap-fit joint, the whole product can be placed in a vacuum chamber (a cheap piece of capital equipment) and the pellets expand to undo the snap-fits, disassembling the product. Design out Waste was an eye-opening journey into designing for a circular economy and sparked a string of further circular-economy projects, from lightbulbs to mobile phones and tool hire systems. There is a myriad of solutions out there; the key is thinking concurrently about products and systems.


TeachMeetDT

Teachers Inspiring Teachers Jim Smith

Teaching & Learning Director

TeachMeetDT

‘Pass it on’ Project Ideas

Up and Coming TeachMeetDT Events

TeachMeetDTs create the opportunity to share ideas and network with other D&T teachers and this has never been so important with the changes to D&T education and qualifications.

All teachers attending TeachMeetDT are asked to bring a project that they are proud of to showcase on the day. There will be many opportunities to network with other teachers and share project ideas.

TeachMeetDT Christchurch Twynham School 28th April 2014

A TeachMeet is an organised but informal meeting (in the style of an unconference) for teachers to share good practice, practical innovations and personal insights in teaching with technology. The format of TeachMeetDT will be a little different than a normal TeachMeet with the proposed format being:

One to One

Micro Presentations These are 7minutes long. You could talk about things that have happened in the classroom. Don’t worry if it is just about showcasing a product, a piece of software, or a tool or a strategy to improve learner interest or engagement. This provides an opportunity for teachers’ professional learning.

Everyone who attends will talk about an idea they have used in the classroom one to one is usually with a fellow TeachMeetDT attendee that they you don’t know! Teach Design has developed TeachMeet’s with a Design and Technology and Engineering focus to help develop how D&T is taught, along with project and lesson ideas. The rationale is simple; D&T teachers spreading and sharing good practice and it doesn’t matter how big or small your ideas are, share them!

Over the past six months there has been #TeachMeetDTs in Newcastle, Bolton, York, South Wales and Northumberland Nano Presentation with over 150 teachers attending. There are many more planned in 2014 all over the These are 2minutes long and over in a flash. country and we want to achieve the target You can talk about experiences from the of 500 D&T teachers attending by the end classroom and workshop and are ideal for of this year. What a powerful message this those who want to share good practice but could be with D&T teachers empowered don’t want to be on centre stage for too to set the agenda of CPD and driving the long! subject forward to be cutting edge and up-to-date.

TeachMeetDT Solihull Arden Academy 30th April 2014 TeachMeetDT Bradford Dixons Academy 7th May 2014 TeachMeetDT Nottingham Fernwood School 7th May 2014 TeachMeetDT Rotherham Bernard’s Catholic High School 14th May 2014 More Info? Check our website [www.teachdesign. org.uk] for more details. If you would like to host a TeachMeetDT then contact Jim Smith directly [jim@teachdesign.org.uk]. The success of TeachMeetDT is down to the number of DT teachers who host, attend & present, so please do get involved! We want to empower other D&T teachers to organise and host their own TeachMeetDT and will support you in making this happen.

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Makey Makey Lucy Snooks and Ed Charlwood Latymer Upper School @mrcharlwood

Following recent seismic events Design & Technology we spent time revising our Schemes of Work, considering how we could address a number of perceived issues and face up to some of the challenges the subject were grappling with. (1) How could we generate open and cross-curricular projects without losing the rigor of our previous schemes of work? (2) How might we transfer ownership of projects to students and address the fixation on a ‘take home’? (3) How can we assess ‘creativity’ in a collaborative and cross-curricular project? Our current Programme of Study is built on a process of a focussed/skills task followed by an application task format, working in half termly rotations. We decided to focus on our Year 9 CADCAM module as this where we had seen hints of outstandingly creative work and high level technical thinking, but student feedback suggested that they were not excited by the artefacts that they had ‘designed’ and made, for example, toothbrush holders. Although there was a clear skills rationale for these mini-projects; for example; learning the skills of dimensioning, raster and vector cutting, the outcomes were very procedural, rarely valued by students and offered limited opportunities to reflect on the design process. So how to find the

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balance between skills, process, logistical constraints and open/inspirational tasks? Initially we reviewed what was working well. We had recently begun to use 2mm corrugated card simply because it allowed for a much faster manufacturing time compared to 3mm acrylic and plywood. This increased speed allowed us to introduce the concept of iterative design and ongoing reflective loops during the design process. We had also successfully used a quick turnaround design to manufacture introduction where our classes all designed a small item to be cut in 3mm acrylic, but to overcome the logistical issues of sending, saving and processing files we introduced the concept of batch manufacture where the class voted on their favourite design and this was the one fabricated for the whole group. We also had developed another quick skills task to teach the students to vectorise shapes and to create tolerance fit slots to allow CAD design to move from 2D to 3D. To do this we set task to design chess pieces to make a class set; differentiation came in the form of the piece chosen as a pawn has a relatively simple 2 planes of reflective symmetry while a knight does not and therefore needs deeper creative and problem solving thinking. The real revelation in all this came with the


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Image 4

discovery of MakeyMakey by Jay Silver and Eric Rosenbaum from the MIT Media Lab.

Our structure was beginning to take shape: 1. A design & make, batch production task in 3mm acrylic. 2. An individual and differentiated 3D slotted chess piece design & make task in laser ply. 3. An open brief to design & make something using a MakeyMakey, in pairs.

Image 1

We next had to consider how we could scaffold task so that the risk of failure was not intimidating and the openness of the task was not overly ambiguous. The structure here came from an assessment system we developed with Dr David Barlex.

For example, they may decide to work up a very creative, playful and imaginative concept (targeting a 9) but the complexity of this proposal may mean that it takes a long time to execution the design is (gaining a 9). However, through insightful self-reflection of their design and their process they can gain valuable points (a 3 or 4 perhaps) and the overall score is 22. An example is the Space Invaders joystick (see images 2 and 3). Image 2

Us teachers were immediately playing - seeing how many people could hold hands to transmit a signal, what types of fruits and vegetables worked (see image 1) and scrambling in our desk drawers to find things that conducted. What could imaginative and curious Year 9’s come up with?

Image 3

After playing with a MakeyMakey we were struck by how intuitive it was to set up and use, but mostly by how much fun it was. The MakeyMakey works by using anything that conducts electricity into an input so your computer thinks it is a keyboard or a mouse. Therefore it works with all programs and webpages, because all programs and webpages take keyboard and mouse input.

This structure has three aspects to it; conception, execution and reflection. Students make decisions at an early stage to target an overall number and can then make choices based on their figure.

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Compare this to a pair who decide to mostly copy an existing design, but with some alterations and iterations, they also slightly modify a Scratch programme to suit their own concept (5 points) and they make it with very high levels of accuracy and craft (8 points). They carry out a very detailed evaluation of their work and suggest ways they could redesign their product to improve the way it functions by limiting the amount of materials it uses (gaining 9 marks); their overall score therefore is 22. A good example is to be found in the video game controller (see image 4) used to play Mini Minecraft.

Another unexpected avenue that we saw our students keen to develop was that of the Scratch programme they had previously been taught back in Year 7. (See image 5) Image 5

http://makeymakey.com

Scratch is a free, tile-based visual programming environment and toolkit, again from the MIT Media Lab. It lets students make games, animated stories, interactive art, and share with them. The physical manifestation of an input designed and made by the students really was inspirational and led many of them to go back and rework the programmes that had written or to modify the games they found online, to tailor them to their design concept. From the first moment that the MakeyMakey was introduced the students were immediately engaged and inspired. The initial sense of disbelief was soon overcome and they were itching to get started. Throughout the project student feedback was recorded. A condensed SoW outline:


to I could have also gone along to Computing club on a Tuesday for extra help.”

“We didn’t really understand the reflection assessment until we were half way through the project. Once we had made a couple of versions it was really obvious that we had been doing the reflection and we just need to explain the changes we had made.” “Really enjoyed this project as we had control of what we were doing. Miss Snooks told us what was expected of us and then we could get on with it. I haven’t had much experience of being so independent during a project before.” “I thought that we were going to score really low as we both couldn’t remember

how to use Scratch. Once everyone else started to make games we thought we would give it ago I was pleased how after a bit of thought I remembered what to do - although it did take ages!” “I didn’t really want to take my cardboard model home. I was happy enough that what I had made worked - its all recorded as I took a video on my phone and I’ve still got the Scratch and 2D Design files anyhow.”

Just thought of something - in the last lesson I got them to do a 3 min presentation of their work - not demoing it a we did not have enough time but they either held up their work: • In future we will trial working in threes, as opposed to pairs, with each team member having a specific ‘reflection’ reporting job i.e. design development, Scratch development. • Do we need to keep the introduction tasks, or is there an alternative way of scaffolding teaching of the skills? e.g. videoing common ‘how to tasks’ e.g. slotting, vectorising. • How can we share the project process and success with parents and colleagues? Can we leverage the connectivity of the internet e.g. via a YouTube channel. • New technologies are emerging, such as the instrument maker ‘Ototo’ from Dentaku http://dentakulondon.com/work/ ototo/ that are more subject specific than the MakeyMakey board.

‘Mr Mathews, my computing teacher, came into our lesson and helped some of us out with our Scratch programming; I found that really helpful. If I had wanted

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Low cost modelling with high quality outcomes Kerry Truman Senior Technician @ kerry_truman

For a long time now I have become used to a model making culture where the cost of materials for design projects are never an obvious issue, especially where a student’s final year piece of furniture is involved for example. The student generally self-sources materials, so the outlay of expense for their final year piece is seemingly outweighed by the relentless drive to create a ‘masterpiece’ and impress future employers. This is their chance to make an object of career carving potential. After supporting students at degree level for 25 years in subjects as diverse as Product and Furniture Design, Decorative and Visual Arts, Interior Architecture and Architectural Design, I have seen many models and many concepts and therefore many material choices made without hesitation or thought as to the use of cheaper and sometimes more practical alternatives suggested. In more recent months I have joined the ranks of Secondary Design and Technology Education here at Nottingham Trent University and The School of Education. We are a small group of educators but an innovative team none the less, and a team with a very clear vision toward developing high quality design practice for the next generation of D&T Teachers. As a way of trying to rethink my whole approach to high quality model making for use in an educational Design and Technology context I found that it was best

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to go back to the basics, call on my past experiences and start by asking myself the question… why do we make a model? We make a model to problem solve. We conceptualise an idea in our mind and ultimately model materials to realise this idea in the third dimension. Although developments in 3D Computer Aided Design have made it far easier to simply visualise our products on the computer screen, getting hold of a physical product in your hand still gives that level of ‘tactile’ exploration not possible with a CAD model. So how do we make high quality models whilst keeping a close rein on material costs..? Again, back to the basics of modelling we need to understand our desired outcome and make choices on what kind of model we want to be making to realise these outcomes. As well as cost there are many other factors that bear influence on the type of model we will ultimately make; is the model merely a solid shape used to represent final form or is it a representation to show functional use of the product? Do you create a scale model taking more time or one of low precision achieving quicker results? What tools and processes do you want to make available or plan to use? How much time do you have available to achieve a fully rendered product?


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Rendered HIPs

Repetitive modelling

Scale (mixed media)

Looking back over the projects I have seen pass through the workshops here at Nottingham Trent University, and more specifically at those occasions where having very limited resources allowed for creative alternatives to be explored and developed, one good example would be around the inclusion of ceramics in lighting design.

known materials and the way these can be used to create complex forms. The adhesives and processes involved are fairly constant throughout material choice, and once you have a mould the whole process can be easily repeated numerous times.

just the waste left over from your session on the vacuum former or even the scrap sections of card or foam core from the posters taken from down from old displays or presentation work.

So what about letting students use ceramics? Why not? Working at a University where students are exposed to many types of project disciplines then this option is a viable one should they choose to use another course’s workshop. We all know students would always choose to make their product from ‘real materials’ if they could… but for a 3 week project? Using an unfamiliar material and process? In an unfamiliar workshop environment? How hard could it be...? Never one to put off a student who is prepared for hard work and commitment, in a conversation like this about material selection I still always have at the back of my mind the thought, ‘what are the known alternatives available and how can I make this thing as low cost as possible without compromising on the quality of the final product..?’ Laminating is another good example of a process open to experimentation with

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Just because you are using known materials, and not the ‘real thing’, it doesn’t mean you shouldn’t try experimenting with them. Have a go at pushing their useable boundaries and maybe you will create results otherwise only thought achievable with more costly materials. Why not use High Impact Polystyrene (HIPS) for projects where glass or ceramics are the real world solutions. Why not use card or paper to create some of those laminate sketch models or projects? The cost is fractional in comparison with both of these alternatives, and if the material is otherwise heading for the wastebin, then that is even better! Experimenting in this way can only lead to open the door to creativity and raise awareness to the design possibilities of these familiar materials and maybe change the thought of them only being fit for one particular purpose. If some of these materials are unfamiliar to you then chose a quick and simple object to model, and keep modelling it. Get your hands on any material you can, even if it’s

This form ‘repetitive modelling’ is purely an exercise in material testing and not one of testing model accuracy or model making skill. Use the exercise to ask yourself: How did this material react compared to the previous one you used? How did it feel in your hand? What did it feel like to work with? What processes did you make use of? What type of finish did you achieve? Can I use this material for my given need? If not, what can I use it for? To quote the author Bjarki Hallgrimsson, taken from his excellent reference guide Prototyping and Modelmaking for Product Design, “..material properties do not have any real connection to the real world we live in unless we first inform our senses in a hands-on way. By experiencing real materials and real processes, the material qualities gain meaning… the experience gained from this is essential for conceptualisation…” Happy model making..!!


“..material properties do not have any real connection to the real world we live in unless we first inform our senses in a hands-on way.�

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Departmental Showcase Fernwood School Design & Technology

How could you not love this subject!? Design & Technology is permanently on the very edge of the modern world, pushing the boundaries of creativity, and building a country full of inhabitants bursting with ideas, and the capability to realise these concepts into makeable, marketable and world changing revolutions. Every year in DT we take another leap towards the future, where design trends change, machinery capabilities advance further, and the programmable robotics get a little closer to taking over the world! At Fernwood, we love it. We embrace it. We are excited by what the future holds, and we try our very best as teachers to open that window to the future for our children too. Faculty Family Design & Technology sits within a wider faculty of Art, Design & Technology (Art & Textiles, and Computer Systems being the other two departments), and this incredibly close relationship helps propel the learning forward, and rationalise the work for the children. D&T can never be a subject in isolation, it plays well with others, and in many cases enhances the content in both directions. Within Fernwood we have worked hard to build a faculty brand image, with a clear ethos that the children buy into. All hand-outs are of top quality (we teach design after all, how can anyone hand out something which isn’t an exemplar of best practice?), everything has logos on it

and a style of its own. Children know what is acceptable in ADT, and children know that their teachers are looking for the very best at all times. We are really strong at searching out this talent and celebrating it widely. We put many hours of work into displays, we constantly post great examples to our twitter feed, we create videos of work which are on show via a projector in the foyer, we send home postcards, award staff made trophies for excellence, and take the time to actually say how proud we are of children. The carrot is so much more effective than the stick! Children have a desire to succeed in DT. All faculty areas have a ‘Roll of Honour’ board displayed too, where one child in each year group is celebrated for a term for doing something outstanding in the subject. Not necessarily being the best, but just bursting through their own ceiling of capability. It’s brought a great deal of pride for the children involved, and we make a big deal of the new students when they are awarded their place.

DT teacher from somewhere else in the country). It’s a feeling of pride and external verification, rather than their normal teacher telling them how great they are. Most staff have twitter on their phones, and we all use the same account. It’s also been great in terms of CPD, and searching out new ideas for projects, and methods of delivery. We also have instagram and vimeo accounts for other photos and videos (you can see a department tour at www.vimeo. com/fernwoodschool). It’s sneaky really, we are managing to get a little bit of extra teaching into their normal lives! We certainly had to ‘drum up’ followers to begin with, through QR codes on work booklets, and @fernwooddt on nearly everything, but it’s now self-perpetuating, through comments and word of mouth. KS3 Projects

The world is full of amazingly talented students, bursting with ideas, who are keyed to the modern world. It’s tough to ensure Twitter, and instagram, and vimeo and…… what you offer as a department ticks all the boxes, as our curriculum rarely narrows, it We began our Twitter adventure (@ just has extra dimensions added on, but we fernwooddt) around two years ago work at ensuring we embrace these new primarily as a vehicle for publicising and technologies and ideologies and make them sharing great work to other children part of our everyday practice. It is hard to and their parents too. The bit which has avoid diluting work that is being squeezed, surprised us though is how much of a but we try to keep excellence in a narrow positive feeling it’s been for children when field, rather than small tasters of everything. someone they don’t know comments on This has led to a fantastic experience for how fantastic their work is (it’s usually a KS3, and all pupils experience all areas each

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year through the much questioned carousel system, but this works for us. We map out the skills to ensure they build year on year, so CAD for example, builds from 2D to 3D to assembly work and 3D printing. Each product has a graphically designed booklet, which gives it importance and prestige, with matching power points in the same brand image. What we supply in a project is an exemplar to the pupils of good design. Good work in, good work out. The projects are stimulating, modern, and pass the acid test that the pupils want to take them home! We strive to use industry standard software and equipment, with the mind-set of preparing children for the real world, setting them apart from the rest of the field through their capabilities. If you want to see what we do, take a look on twitter! Design Day Children sometimes find it challenging to tie what they learn at school with the real world, so last year we held our inaugural ‘Design Day’. The concept was simple, take year 9 off timetable for the whole day, and invite 10 companies to set a brief that they wanted solving. The briefs covered the full spectrum of DT and children then opted for the briefs. The response was heart-warming, and companies were more than willing to take a day off and come into school to work with our children. The pupils were totally inspired by our guests, and the children talked about it for weeks. We have just hosted our second ‘Design Day’, and its firmly fixed as an annual

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event. As always within the faculty we are incredibly lucky to have excellent support (and funding!) from the senior leadership team, the school governors and the fantastic school PTA. Design leaders and the ‘Genius Bar’ Where next? One of our aspirations is to build on the great work of our year 11 prefect team in DT, and make more of them than supervisors and display helpers, as they are outstanding designers in their own right! The idea is for a few of them to base themselves in a computer room at lunch (which they supervise for us already) at a ‘genius bar’ in the same style as you would find in an apple store. Children in other year groups can then seek help from them at lunchtime. We are also starting to use the term ‘Design Leaders’ for them, building prestige into the role. The future’s bright. The future’s DT.


< Food flavour experiments

< Zero

teachdesign.org.uk

< Faculty wide branding

Lunchtime ‘Genius Bar’ ran by students v

> KS3 assessment booklets in use

^ Entrance foyer

^ 3D drawing only, all 2D drawing is banned!

@FernwoodDT

Fernwood School Design & Technology Department < Apple Mac Room

> Year 8 Mood Lighting

< iPad’s to analyse mechanisms

^ In house made door signs

^ Design videos on show in the foyer

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Sheet Metal Digger Steven Parkinson

Head of Technology & AST Archbishop Holgate’s School Since I started teaching Engineering, I have been really disappointed with the types of projects and activities that are done at KS4 and 5. In a lot of cases, whether GCSE, A-Level or BTEC, Engineering appeared to be treated as “Resistant Materials but with a bit more metal”. This particular project is designed for the CAE unit within the L3 BTEC qualification. I wanted to create something, which would really inspire pupils and at the same time send out a message of what Engineering in the department was all about. The project provides an experience of the mathematical challenges similar to that of a real engineer. Also, it calls for an iterative design approach including prototyping to discover proportions and dimensions, pneumatics and mechanisms. A variety of processes are explored including sheet metal fabrication, welding, plasma cutting, rapid prototyping and the CNC manufacture of components. The use of CAD to provide 3D simulation and finite element analysis (FEA) is a key high level skill that really showcases what engineering is all about. Throughout the project we use Autodesk Inventor, Boxford equipment and the VEX robotics platform. Iterative Design Starting Point Firstly, through an iterative design process, students build prototype card models of digger arms using corrugated card and butterfly clips. This enables the production

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of various versions, which demand the application of mathematical calculations and help to understand functioning mechanisms. Using elastic bands helps to understand forces on a basic level and as a result a scaled yet proportioned prototype idea is ready to be developed further in the CAD section.

Using CAD like an Engineer Using the sheet metal feature in Autodesk Inventor, the cardboard prototypes can be reverse engineered in CAD. The huge benefit here is of course the accuracy, ability to export to CAM and of course stress analysis. Other components, which are not manufactured from sheet metal, can be created in the standard file area of Inventor. Finally, all drawings can be exported to STL and DXF files ready for manufacture. Creating engineering drawings is also speedy and useful for

more traditional manufacturing processes in the latter stages. CAM & Computers in Engineering We manufactured the sheet metal parts using a Boxford Plasma Cutter. This amazing piece of kit is the same price as a laser yet enables fast cutting through various metals with a DXF file. Other parts such as the pneumatic fasteners were rapid prototyped from ABS using an STL file as the driving force. To reduce friction in the joints and between the arms, nylon sleeves are manufactured using the lathe feature on Boxford Duet’s. Finally, the use of the VEX robotics platform enables the pneumatic system to be operated autonomously. Resources for this project, including assessment documents and exemplar files will soon be available through the Autodesk Design the Future website [www.autodesk.com/designthefuture].


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We have recently made some major changes to our website to help people navigate it a little easier. We now have graphical icons tonsure everything is accessible from the homepage. During

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Autodesk advert 1page

Ideas brought to life. Autodeskâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Design the Future program offers FREE Autodesk software and resources to all UK Secondary Schools to support design and technology subjects.

www.autodesk.com/designthefuture

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Shaping ideas into reality Our unrivalled knowledge in making 3D machines for education helps Bethany from Penwortham Priory Academyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s ideas happen at the touch of a button. If youâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;d like to talk to us about shaping the future of your students, please call +44 (0)1422 324810 or visit boxford.co.uk

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Teach Design Magazine Issue 2