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air air architecture design studio:

tammy junyi hu 538609


Architecture can be interpreted differently according to the lens that you see it through. To me, design holds significance in all aspects of life. Not only does it determine our way of living and inhabitation of space, but also reflecting our cultural understanding and historical significance. Architecture fascinates me everytime because the complexity involved in its design is truelly embedded into our social lives. Studio Air is a subject which would allow for more possibilities to happen because it is a subject that evolves around algorithmic architecture. Although computer generated designes, however I believe by setting useful parameters, software plug-ins such as Grasshopper will be able to translate our needs into a desirable outcome. Entering this new world of algorithms and discourse, I have had little understanding of these complex computative techniques. Previously, I have experience with AutoCAD and Revit as well as Rhino 4.0. Studio Air is a subject that goes beyond these, because the plug-ins that we use not only simply involves straight lines and curves. It is about opportunitiy and setting parameters. In first year architecture, I have learnt the skills of panelling tools in Rhino 4.0, making body accessories into lanterns. From the course of that, it gave me the first experience in deriving patterns and structures by selection base points rather than having to draw every line that is shown.





a1: architecture as a discourse 08 pop music centre: emergent architecture 11 john curtin school of medical research 15

a2: computative architecture 19 graffiti cafe 20 sudpark 24

a3: parametric modelling voronoi skyscraper 31 serpentine gallery pavilion 35

a4: algorithmic explorations a5: conclusion a6: learning outcomes


B1: design focus 47 archipelago parametrically designed pavilion 49 parametric designed wood pavilion 52

b2: case study one 54 loop_3 56 matrix 1.0 59 maple leaf square canopy 60 matrix 1.1

b3: case study 2.0 64 the drape 67 ribs + patterning 71 matrix 2.0 73


B4: technique developement nick van woert 81 jason payne 83 Matrix 3.0 87 b5: technique prototype 89 b6: technique proposal 94 b7: algorithmic sketches 96 b8: learning objective and outcomes 98


c1: gateway project: design concept 102 c2: tectonic systems and elements 113 c3: model photography 119 c4: algorithmic sketches 128 summary 130 c5: learning ojective and outcomes 132

bibliography 134


A1: architecture as a discourse


Architecture is a term that’s open for interpretation. Depending on our own experiences and the changes involved in our built environment, a variety of definitions are presented. With these different meanings, there would be different methods in constructing these structures to fulfill the different demands. Some see architecture as a form of pure art which “satisfies the eye� as well as the environment1, whilst others argue that it strictly under the purpose of shelter and inhabitance. For me, architecture is an expression of culture and society; a sculptural monument that ties all the relevant aspects of life together, following the needs and demands of social change. It has a strong aesthetics sense attached to its meaning as well as serving physical needs such as distinct differences between the interior and the exterior as well as a roof for shelter.

The ability to communicate and translate the ideas from an architect to a desired structure which transposes these effects to users is also important to be considered during the design process. Not only does it consists of relationships between the momunment and human inhabitat practices; as well as the flexibility of communication between architects and users. it can be achieved in many ways, such as our traditional hand sketches and drawings, however modern technology had introduced a broader scope of effective communication where designers are able to understand the issues visually. Algorithims are tools designed as a tranlating system between architectural concepts into physical, accurate object taken by machinery work. The are helpful and are desirable tools because they have the ability to produce precise and accurate prototypes as well as effienctly producing sections and plans.


Machinery such as our every day use of computers benefit the architectual industry by is natuer of being a “superb analytical engine”2. Architecture unique on its own because we are not provided with enough information t raise a single solution. Hence, there is no “best” solution, there is only the “better”- and I believe the better can only be achieved with precision by conforming to constraits that are applied. With the aid of computers, time is saved, meaning a broader range of opportunities can be explored within the ‘working space’. Programmed correctly, computers are able to follow a line of reasoning thus search for the most logical conclusions. Unlike human work, they do not tire or make careless arithmetical errors and is simplistic to refer to historical precedents in its tremendous memory for ideas and possible solutions. It provides an universal language into visual descriptions, facilitating the communication process between designers and with clients to seek opinion, agreement and assistance. This allows for changes and alterations befroe the final product is erected,

eliminating errors and minimalising the difference between the architectural drawings and the final product. I agree with Omer Akin’s ‘breadth first, depth next’ design process because it reduces time constraints yet maintaining a broad range of ideas before undertaking deep investigation in any particular one first.3 Interpretated as a ‘reverse’ design process where the aid of computers come into assistance because it provide architects with promising solutions. Before the intervention of computers, architects oftem spend much time in analysing the advantages and disadvantages for design prossibilities which in the end may only be wasted because various constraints have been omitted. Throughout this journal compiled with precedents as well as my design, I hope to have been able to take this theory into practice, demonstrating a new parameter in future architecture designs, as well as how parametric designs benefits today’s architectural medium.

Richard Williams, ‘Architecture and Visual Culture’ Woodbury, Robert F. and Andrew L. Burrow (2006). ‘Whither design space?’ 3 Woodbury, Robert F. and Andrew L. Burrow (2006). ‘Whither design space?’ 1 2


Backtracking is a common feature of search processes, as demonstrated by the task of arranging the Tangram puzzle in a grid

pop music centre: emergent architecture Design Proposal Designer: StudioEmergent: Tom Wiscomb Location: Kaohsiung


In the world of architecture, modern technology had created vast opportunities in design and interaction between human inhabitance and its functinal use. Facades no longer only serve for as a ‘skin’ or a symbolic representative. With today’s aid of technology, double skins and even triple skins are seen within a designs, acting as a buffer zone between the interior and exterior of the structure. In the Pop Music Centre proposal located on the cutting edge of Taiwan’s coastal area, it is a triple skinned structure, each characterised with experimentation with material, colour and patterning. The two outer most skins are distinct by its colour and patterning effects which follow criteria and are ultimately nonindexical.4 The space between this layers acts as an environmental buffer zone, insulating the building interior.

The Pop Music Centre is a prime example of algorithmic architecture. A variety of different aspects are included and thoughtful during its design process. This can be observed in its proposal claiming to serve as a “cultural combination of green energy, echnology and lush landscaping.”5When we read the design, we see mutiple layers of information layered one above another, which is only made possible by machinary work and organisation. Machines are neat in every way, information strictly organised and objective. With these complex interweaving of information, intersting forms and circulation of public and private spaces are created, as opposed to that allowed by single surfaced models of architecture.



The structure as another characteristic that is only made available through parametric modelling. The structure is split into two buildings aligned on axonomic angles, unlifting one whilst embedding the other into the ground. The interplay between the partial elevation of the first structure with the the sinking of the other offers a landscaping aspect to area. Not ony that, the multi-purpose theme is continued, creating space for a public plaza beneath the elevated building as well as a 12000 seat public amphitheater. Furthermore, with the tops of the skins cut, it reveals interior activities as well as continuing on with the natural contours of the landscape. This aspect of “lush lanscaping� techinique is designed to harmonise with the surrounding environment, as well as reminding local residents the familarity of the installation of such an innovative structure.

Algorithmic architecture not only allows interesting interactions to occur within the building, the structure can also be involved wtih other technology advances. According to the coastal location of the Pop Music Centre, the architect has used a thin film of solar technology to reduce the waste and enhance the environment.6 As proposed, BioWAVE technology is to be distributed randomly on the basis of the coast so that the energy from sea waves are captured and converted to useful energy operated by humans. 7

Pop Music Centre, Pop Music Centre, 6 Pop Music Centre, 7 BioPower systems, 4



john curtiN school of medical research JCSR-ANU Building Designer: Lyons Architects Location: Australia National University, ACT, Australia


Architecture is highly complex because it needs to meet the constraints and regulations of the surrounding environment as well as emphasizing the building’s purpose. Some architects are more ecpressive in their ideas, and tend to be more abstract in translating these ideas , whilst others tend to conceal their thoughts behind a confusing facade evoking discourse and confusion. The JCSMR-ANU Building design by Lyons Architect demonstates the prestigious medical research centre through contemporary desing with a combination of abstract ideas and technological involvement. The JCSMR-ANU is designed for medical research and much of its design elements are thoughtful of future technology changes in order to desing in a sustainable way. 8Parametric architecutural tools has allowed for a more successful translation of abstract forms shuch as the DNA and heliex inpsired interior design. The form is designed to draw upon a varitey of aspects in the area, including its own

prodominant significant as a medical research centre, an entrance hall into an educational world as well as suiting the tastes of local people. Its feature is too used to enhacen the interactivity between research members as well as promoting social exchange between education and external barrier. The interior arrangementis layered with a series of offices, support spaces, corridors and controlled laboratory spaces. The open windoss and thresholds facilitate communiacation between the spaces and provide elongated vistas through layers of building that broadens the campus landscape.9 All in all, these layers of information and communication systems can only be achieved by using parametric tools. By setting these desire parameters into the system, it is then possible to generate interactive social spaces which would result in these yearned for outcomes.



Parametric tools not only assist in the design process and form finding. It is important in terms of producing prototypes as well as precast panels. Prototypes are handy models that assists the construction process of these complex buildings. It minimises the issues present during onsite construction. In addition, parametric modelling involves unrolling all the pieces, thus facilitating precast and prefabricated panels such as those concrete panels on the side of the JCSMR-ANU building. Prefabricaton not only allow for time effiency, but any desired form can be achieved and transported onto site, rather than having to mould the forms on site. This would not be possible for the complex panels of the Medical Research building which captures the form of DNA helixes and chromosomes.

Parametric modelling has allowed for accurate mathematical calculations which assisted in the construction of many desired affects. Such as the angular glass and external facade of the JCSMRANU, the accurate results have been able to facilitate a sense of movement and orientation to the building, which adds to the effect of the original concept. Algorithmic architecure often generates interesting effects to the original design which unfolds unexpected results to magnify its meaning. It is through the help of algorithmic architecture was JCSMR-ANU able to successfully create a “compelling story about science and its relationship to the human condition through its architectural materiality and organisation�. 10

ANU- John Curtin Medical School, ANU- John Curtin Medical School, 10 John Curtin Medical research centre, 8 9


a2: Computative architecture


graffiti cafe Designer: STUDIO MODE Location: Varna, Bulgaria


Claiming to be the “world’s finest cafe”11, the Graffiti cafe in Varna, Bulgaria had combined aesthetic values with functional values through the aid of computative architecure. During its design process, one of the greatest challeges faced was the issue relating to interior ventilationm sound and acoustics, yet maintianing its aesthetics value. With this major problem aside, architects were also keen in creating an environment that as trendy and modern as the Gallery situated on the level above. By setting these parameters into the computer system, designing efficient plug-ins, they managed to develope a design that enhanced their initial intention of concealing the acoustic and insulation service systems. The resulted solution was a seperation of spaces into two zone. The front zone emphasises the public and private spaces, whilst the rear zoneis a combination of the floor and roof design to “reduce the depth of space wihile keeping the paranoma”12. Computer generated patterning are charaterised in in the front zone. beginning in a simple honeycomb

pattern for the tile patterning, designers are able to alter it so that the tiles blend perfectly with the street tiles, hence blurring the interior and exterior spaces13 This design is intended to create a comfortable environment for visitors; entering a distinctively different medium, yet maintaining something familiar. As for the rear zone, columns and roof are constructed in a continous array of timber slats. In the design of there is a highly complex layering of information and funtion involved. It is only through the detailed profile of the material as well as past precedents was the design made possible to be drafted on screen. The blur of the timber sectionings were constructed to dilute acoustics from the cafe in reaching to the gallery above. Effective use of parametric design also reduces the cost to construct a meaningful structure. Through prototyping parametric models and experimentations with material types, designers were able to achieve the same ventilation and acousitc barrier in an aesthitical way; exposing its structures rather than concealing, which would involve a bigger budget.



The involvement of computers and extreme mathematics had created new paradigms in architectural history. It simplifies the problem solving process by minimalising mathematical errors and strict organisation of information. Although many of these designs are subjected and derived from complex mathematical funtions and relationships, prompting worried conservatives that architectural design has an inclination towards computer programers and mathematicians rather than designers.14 If we put on their conservative lenses to interpret architecture, it is true that architects no longer has the opportunity to create forms from sketches and modern architecture is less of an “art”. However, when we look take a

closer look at this, although many past architects were painters and artists, however architecture is not purely art. There is definately an aesthetics component to it but its creativity needs to be translated to a structure that can is made possible to be become a physically built project. Architecture today tends to environmentally friendly, therefore many aspects needs to be considered. To create a structure so complex with different layers of meaning, it is crucial that we use machines to organise and calculate in order to make these structures physically possible.

Graffiti cafe , Graffiti cafe , 13 Graffiti cafe by Studio MODE, 14 Richard Williams, ‘Architecture and Visual Culture’ Page23 11 12

sudpark Due to completion 2013 Designer: Herzog & De Meuron Location: Basel Switzerland


Compromisations are always made to gain profit somewhere else. Thus, it is important to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of each and choose the best solution within the choices that we have. A new age of architectural design had arrived due to the introduction of computers and technology, hence architects and designers are faced with a choice of utilising the traditional design tools or whether to make use the modern tools. Although there are flaws in using technology for the design process of architecture, however it can be compensated if we have enough information and undstandings of parametric tools. As the director of the Digital Technology Group, Kai Strehlke quotes, “we try to find the right tool, and develop the tool to make the oncept work.”15Architects design for the best of human comfort and sustainability, and its these choise of tools help make them achievable.

By using computative techniques, it allows more people to be involved in the design process.16This means that the responsibilities are spread amongst a group of poeple, equalising the responsibilities on an individual scale, as well as facilitating more thought and ideas due to a variety of perceptions and opinions. Furthermore the tedious design process are broken into fields: digital fabrication, CAD management, built information modelling, parametric design and modelling as well as visualisation video. Changes can be consulted directly at any stage because of efficient profiling and data system in computerisation. Individuals work more efficiently, knowing exactly what is expected of them in the course of design. Designers are responsible to translate clients’ needs and requirements into abstract forms and general concepts whilst specific computer programming groups design these plug-in toools that serve precise purposes that assist in solving these problems. “Normally wha we do is write one tool, one piece of sofware for one project...each buiding stands for itself”.17












The most fascinating feature of the Sudpark is its outermost facade which acts to conceal the public and private spaces contained within. The tetris like silver broom facade creates an illusion for evternal viewers, making it difficult to speculate the sophisticated interior floor plans.18 The facade is informed by computerisation from the Digital Technical Group at Herzog & de Meuron.

As mentioned above, there are always compromises for choice. No matter which tools are chosen to be the starting point, it will lead us to differnt interpretations and inspore us in various directions. And architecture is about finding this balance of contradicting constraints, performance, aethetics and funtion should be constered equally as long as the primary idea is maintained.

Computerisation aslo insisted in the construction process by minimalising Before the wndow pattern was the differences between drafted finalised, programmers hadn entered drawings and the physical product by the listed required to generate a “family” of possible solutions through providing the opportunity of efficient randomisation points. After selecting fabrication. Physical models allos the the few optimical alternatives, designers testing of design concepts and create a nore thorough understanding of were able to futher manipulate the architecture; anticipating construction of codes and functions. its structrual compnenets to make sure that “design is not only buildable, but meaningfully buildable, buildable in a way that does not explode costs.”19

Yehuda E. Kalay, Architecture’s New Media Yehuda E. Kalay, Architecture’s New Media 17 Sudpark, 18 Sudpark Basel, 19 Yehuda E. Kalay, Architecture’s New Media Page27 15


A3: Parametric modelling


Advanced technology had changed many aspects to our living habits, and I believe that it will lead to another architectural movement soon due to the introduction of parametric modelling. Parametric Modelling, unlike past computative programs, intergrates itself within the desing process, broadening the definition of architecture and the way that we think.20 Parametric modelling introduces a new level of precision to our responses to complex problems. past computative sofwares such as SketchPad and other eary 2 Dimensional drafting softwares were designed to increase the accuracy of simple drafting techiniques; simply replacing our pen and paper. However, in recent years, many softwares and plug-ins have been

introduced by architectural technology groups, sharing ideas rapidly across the network. The rapid regeneration of algorithmic rools shared amonst the network have now opened up opportunities to more people and ideas. Plug-ins are desinged specifically for each individual obstacle met by designers. They have a specific purpose and can be manipulated through coding. Coding is the method of humans communicatiing with computers, setting in parameters and constraints so taht computers can provide us with a variety of possible solutions for futher investigation.


Now arises the question regarding whether architects are becoming scriptors, which may divert novice architects away form orignal ideas.21 This is one of the major deficiences of today’s parametric techniques because it forces designers to abandon conventional thinking of hand-ye coordination, rather, focussing on the end product than the design process. As Sherry Turkly describes this may lead to “modernist trasparency” where designers fail to recognise that they are gradually being diverted from original design ideas due to the nuance of translations form the mind to coding.22 Also, oarametric softwards are difficult to function when students are not familiar with its coding process, hence may become a constraint to new users who have limited knowlege of handling the sofware instructions.

“Architecture is much more about geometric realions and proportions than concerned with precise dimenstions” states GenerateComponents (GC) director Aish. Here is tielling us that contemporary designs are npt about the “accuracy of dismensions”, rather designers whould spend time and effort in providn a more direct and become more aware of existing constraints in order to refine and optimise our desing solutions. Thus, we will be able to gradually depart from the conventional direct appoach to an indirect, re-executable configuration.

Galorath Incorporated, Galorath Incorporated, 22 Ryne, 20 21


Voronoi skyscraper 2011 Skyscraper Competition Designer: Geoffrey Braiman Location: United States


Architecture can be a physical structure expressing the needs and wants of the time period. For example, during the heirarchical age, complex facades and statues were fancied, demonstrating piety and royalty. During Modern architecture, it was the total opposite, desiring simplicity and use of innovative material. These traditions of the Modernist architects have been one solution to the sudden densification of population due to World War 2, however these array of floor slabs have “very little to futher the human condition beyond limited, linear, regular and the expected.”23Conventional architecture limits its effectiveness to horizontalitiy and has little flexibility of space interaction and continual change over time. 24

Parametric Modelling has the ability to justify these restrained conditions by creating multivalent hybrid infrastructures by borrowing mathematical essense from the world of natural science. One of the advantages of paramatric modelling is that once a mathematical formular is erected to suit a purpose, the forms would evolve by itself simply by setting parameters into the formular. The Voronoi tower demonstrates this, and hence the structure has the ability to “grow over change of time”.



The Voronoi tesselation was generated by the natural properties of foam. Investigating in nature is a sensible act because one the “fittest� and finest survive the harsh realities of the world. Hence, the structures formed and patterns resulted often the most rigid and a reliable source. Instead of relying on the scatter of points, the randomnised structure is based ont he packing of spheres in the same way that cells aggregate and ossify over time into structural systems.25 In relation to architecture, designers need to pack programs according to the common requiremenst such as adjacencies, access to the sun, view, etc. These programmed spheres can then be converted into an accurately modelled three dimensional array of irregular polygons using scripts designed to gollow the pattern structure algorithm.26

Hence, parametric modelling are a result of extracting mathematical rules and functions and very often they offer possibilities that enhance our design. For example, the use of natrual physics had the ability to minimise material, ability to accodate varible programs and the structure is able to grow and evolve over time. These are qualities that are only successful in parametric modelling tools because of its accuracy andh effiency in translating data into physical structures.

Voronoi Tesselation, Voronoi skyscraper, 25 Voronoi skyscraper, 26 23 24


serpentine gallery pavillion 2002 Designer: Toyo Ito Location: London


One of the most amazing things that algorithmic tools provide that pen and paper can not achieve is its flexibility for change and simple manipulation to produce complex copies. Computers function under mathematical codificaiton, thus all numerical data entered are interelated in order to produce a coresponding solution to today’s complex architectural problems. It lacks the design and creative human mind, however its intellegence comes form its series of logical procedures that can transform a set of parameters into a functional whole instantly. Occassionally, unexpected results may provide inspreation through the process of “sketch algorithm”. However, this form of experinmentation should be seen as an alternative method for architectural encounter, and should not be replied upon.27 Many young architects fail to realise the flaws of computational design and may fall into the trap of being misguided to divert from their initial design idea.

Experienced designers however should experinment with the parameters available in today’s world of parametric tools. The Turing model28 had insproed many prize winning architects becuase of its obvious connection with the environment. Computers can be used to replace much of human memory of statistics and data knowlege. It can produce a variety of solutions according to these preset datas which offer a definite solution to the problems. Futhermore, since it is congtrilled in codification and is interrelated, when we recognicse and alter part of the quantitative data, the comper will automatically modeify the rest of the data so that everything maintains in correspondence.


(Right)Precast windoes and tesselation strips delivered on site. Prefabrication assists in time effieciency, costs and minimising errors


Looking at the Serpentine Gallery Pavilion, the patterning of its glass and is inspired by random distribution of voids in during the creation of its frame structure. Through the accuracy of parametric modelling, the physics are all in correspondance no matter which voids are chosen to be filled and which left for glass. In the small diagrams, it shows the design process of colour coding had influenced the choice of open and closed area of the building. Its explicite definitions and algorithms allowed the translation of human ideas into a tangible product with specific dimensions and fabrication assistance. Like many of the algorithimic architectures, its structures are prefabricated in warehouses before transporting it to site. It is possible because parametric modelling had simplied the process of unrolling stips and columns on screen, and with the combination of today’s fabrication technologies, time is used effectively, reducing cost. Possible errors on site are also limited because site parameters are accounted for in the computer system, and results have been determined through these site parameters.

Woodbury, Robert F. and Andrew L. Burrow (2006). ‘Whither design space? Woodbury, Robert F. and Andrew L. Burrow (2006). ‘Whither design space?

27 28




By investigating the precedents that I studied, it had stirred much curiosity into creating forms in Algorithmic sketches. Firstly, I want to understand the differences between NURB surfaces and grasshopper meshes. I believe in doing a few experinments from tutorial guidances, I will have a better understanding of each, and so can decide which choices are better to be used in different occasions. As a beginner in algorithmic architecture, i have experinmented with a few tools with Grasshopper plug-in to identify the differences. I’ve looked at lofting in Rhino 5.0 as well as lofting in Grasshopper. With the same curves, I’ve noticed that Rhino mesh geometry is quite limited, where the form cannot be altered according to control points after being lofted. A new loft is needed to be made in order

to change the form. However in grasshopper, much more flexibility can be achieved, simply by altering sliders, which would change the scale, arrangement and even the form of the structure. I have also experinmented with a recursive function that continous to boolean its geometry out of its original one. This can be done in Rhino 5.0, however, again it is much more efficient when we utilise the grasshopper plug-in ones we become familiar with its inputs and outputs. A diagram is provided to show the process of generating these booleans and its flexibilities.



























Algorithmic architecture offers many unforeseen opportunities during the design process. By setting parameters and known constraints, we are able to find solutions which can be used for further investigation. It is time efficient, and is simple and clean for representation and communication of ideas amongst colleages and clients. Hence, for the gateway project presented, my group members and I have decided to experinment with algorithmic architecture.

and prototyping process much more efficient due to its ability of mass production and accuracy. Learing from the beginning and getting familiar with the input and outputs of the parameters, we will be able to search further into the world of design.

We are no longer restricted with forms that we need to draw with pen and paper, henceforth, complex forms which includes layer upon layers of information can be expressed to its audience. The more layers and Since we are all beginners in complexity there are in a piece using grasshopper and liked of architecture, will encourage a parametric tools, we will have the greater variety of interpretations. chance to learn to present our As a gateway project that prompts design intent in an interesting interest and faciliates thought, it way; more opportunities are is important to design a structure ahead of us, difficult geometries that is intriguing, yet highly are affordable. Modern complex so that it leaves a lasting technology had made the design impression on visitors.


a6: Learning outcomes


Before commencing Studio Air, I had no experience in Algorithmic architecture. At the time, my design concepts were more restricted and had little flexibility in alteration and geometrica form, because of limited precision and complecity. Previously, I have had experience in two dimensional architectural programs such as AutoCAD, and little knowlege on Rhino 4.0. Rhino itself is a create three dimensional program that allows the generation of NURBS, meshes and great rendering effects using T-splines and Flamingo respectively, however, the alteration process was always tedious and had little precision. I recall in first year of my architecture course I undertook a subject Virtue Environments, and our final project was to develop a interesing body lantern using panelling tools in Rhino. In the development of my design, I had to trace the basic form on Rhino rather than accurate line sweeps which

would be possible in parametric modelling. Furthermore, the project was strictly on a basis of a waffle structure. Each individual notch was manually trimmed and extended. Until I did a waffle structure using Grasshopper, now that i understand how simple it can be to create a uniform notch design in rib structures as well as unrolling them for fabrication. All in all, the course of Architecture Studio Air had introduce a new level of understanding in regards to design processes. The form and function is important, however the expression and presentation of it can vary greatly depending on the choice of tools that are used. And parametric modelling can surely produce structures that includes layering of complex information, prompting questions and discourse.


B1: Design Focus PRECEDENTS


There is always a design objective in creating a design; especially for something that carries such significance that serves as an iconic image for the City of Wyndham. Acknowleging that our site is located next to the busy Pricess Freeway we realised we only had 40 seconds of driving time to create a change between Metropolitan Melbourne and Suburban Wyndham. Due to this short time of contact, it is crucial that our design is bizzare enough to create a lasting impression for drivers.

in the design examples provided, we are interested to investigate the ‘strips and folding’ method because it has the flexibilty generate free forms which and create sophisticated geometrical repetitions. Also, in responding to the brief in creating contrasting themes during the day and night views, “Strips and Folding” allow for concealment of lights during the night, as well as providing interestings patterned shades at different times of the day in response to the angle of sunlight.

Whilst there is no time for road users to get close and inspect the work itself, the aim is to leave an “ongoing interest”, encouraging viewers to consider the piece of art in various levels of understanding according to their personal interpretation. To stimulate their curioustiy, our intial concept is based on generating mystery by complex geometry and pattern repetitions. Our core objective here is to facilitate users’ reflection provoked by our innovative and unexpected design which holds meaning beyond their imgination. Hence

In focusing on “Strips and Folding” however, our group decide to explore and combine the other mothods such as Biomimickry and Tesselations. We believe that to create a sophisticated “BLUR” that we are trying to create will only succeed if a combination of methods are used instead of just exploring one. In the following seciton of this journal, I will be exploring the various precents we investigated which helped us understand the concept of “Strips and Folding”, suggesting ideas for our design for our Gateway Project.




One of the strengths for using “Strips and Folding” is that the joints between each strip can be uniqually designed to enhance the project. It provides stability for complex geometry in which in many cases does not stand upright. Such that of the Archipelago Parametric Pavilion here, its joints are specially designed to suit its material and and form, resulting in a stable physical production as well as enhancing the overall aesthetic design. Under careful observations, the structural bolts are only visible on the exterior, yet creating an illusion of conceal joints in the interior. This may be minor detail to its overall design purpose, but it is obvious been considered and carefully monitored by the architects. The fittings of the construction joints is also a response to its purpose. In this experimental project it has a clearly defined objective because it is a structure reacting to the site inefficiencies. It is a built proposal


for 33 architectural students (Komatina, http:/aconstructionsite., 22-4) to create a “focus point” during the constructon phase, as well as “exploring digital fabrication and turn it into real, built architectural projet” (Komatina, http://, 224) Very much similar to our project, it is enriched with a embedded purpose and it is how we as designers define and demonstrate this action. In translating thier initial ideas from the islands of archipelagos, its form and interior spaces are explored, and is made possible by exploring material and organic patternings. With a purpose of a pavilion, it is ideal to create an interior that maintains its dry environment and cooling effect in summer months in Sweden. This is

achieved by exploring material, and is only made possible with stainless steel (Grozdanic,, 224). For their project, it was the purpose and material choice that influenced their decision for strips and folding as a constructional method. It was through this method was it possible for maintaing the form to have a interior such as those archipelago islands, as well as imprinting the organic patterns onto these steel strips to ensure users an experience similar to the actual environment (omatina, http://, 22-4).

The Archipelago Parametrally Designed Pavilion is a good example to demonstrate the way strips aer beneficial in creating meaningful forms including its curvature of a complete cylindrical geometry. It is a precended example showing that strips are capable to be created as flat objects in the fabrication process to ease the construction process. It is generally a intricate and complex form yet with the use of parametric modelling, its meanings were demonstrated with a strong sense of harmony.



Stefanescu-Bedarf-Hambasan Romania


The Parametric Designed Wooden Pavilion too has a purposeful background to begin their design intents. It is a student innovative project designed and erected for the ZA11 Speaking Architectural event in Romania. With such as demanding purpose, it is similar to our project in creating a iconic and “representational” sculpure to attract the attention of passerbys and drivers. It is a visual intrigue, which relates strictly with our purpose of our design.

Similar to the Archipelago Pavilion, the strip connections are produced in accordance to its material conventions and strengths. This design was highly challenged by the sponsored material sponsors and budget expaectations, therefore its final production could only afford the size it is. The physical production involved 746 pieces and its major feature was essembled without the use of nailing or bolts. It is evident that they have designed this deliberately in order to limit the cost, hence establishing all connections by In fulfilling its goal, they made it legible, they notches. Dedicated to the use of computative achieved it by documenting their design form techniques, the size of the noches in realtion by the definitions for strips and folding. Strips to the area size of the strip was accurately and folding is flexible in making alterations calculated, and minimal size was achieved. individually to its every component, meaning Although in their project, they had put much that every joing and strip surface can be effort into the design of connections because of controlled indepently, minimsing material, cost cost matters, it has inpired us to consider various as well as providing “extra flexinbilty and less connection types, and notches is an economical joint stiffness” by altering different thicknesses of as well as effienct way of physical construction. material. This inspires us consider this flexible component not seen frequently in other projects.


b2: case study one BIOTHING Alisa Andrasek


Biothing, founded by Alisa Andrasek 2001 is a architectural research group interested in exploring the shift from techiniqical based approach to a more explicit computative appraoch. Hence, their designs are very much similar to our objective in exploring the new generation of computative tool; scripting directly in an open source movement, listing the constraints of a design rather than its desired outcomes. Its method of transcoding icludes te constraints of material choice, structure, farbrication process and assembly.

In their project of the Seroussi Pavilion they have emulated the creative patternings of vectors based on eletro-magnetic fields (EMF) by adopting strip and folding. Their form modifications were controlled by the attractions and repulsion trajectories computed by sin functions. Through the use of strips and folding, they were able to create three dimensional objects that represented these obscure conventions.

Here is a simple explaination of the developing process of their defintion, which we chose as our basic function for our experimental process:

develope curve in relation to concept

divide points on these curves

divide points on these curves


creating geometrical circles at these points

Further division of points on these circles

protruding lines at these points

LOOP_3 Alessio Erioli (Co-de-iT)


Loop_3 is a project which mathetmatics have been a major contribution to its design. It demonstrates an effective use of computative design by utilising “mathematics as a privileged tool for tracing systematic paths as well as enhancing their expressive language” (Loop3, Furthermore, the product of it shows the links between philiosphies and art disciplines, unifying and expressing it through coding. Loop_3 demonstrates the complexity fof olding can what it can offer with its unique form and dynamic shape. the project evokes


a sense of fluidity and movement, enhanced by the multiple folds and ripples, creating a smooth three- dimensional palatte for the eye to move across. Loop_3 explores a use of rationality in complex shapes that “merges user spatial interaction, curvature as a stuctural and expressive strategy...the voluptuous ripples also strengthen the overall shape.”(Loop3, http:// Similiar to our objective of of explorations, Loop_3 also uses matematical trigonometric functions explored through parametric softward as a means of aesthetic device.


MATRIX 1.0 By altering the sliders of the biothing we were able to create simple twodemensional patterns. In relation to our concept of complexity we added a different dimension to to the original function. We realised that simple geometry was not favoured with this function because all its alterations were very basic; differing in the length of the spikes and radius of the pointed circular geometries. Therefore, in the second line of the matrix, it is reflected examples of the original function hence the geometry is inversed to the original ones (first row), where the spikes are extending in the opposite direction.

examples, the geomtry became even more complex expressed in its ribbon like characteristic.

Exploring the tecniques of the Loop_3, it inspires us to generate forms which are complex in meaning yet simple in form. It is very different to the Biothing: Seroussi Pavilion in which its meaning is translated directly to its form, whilst in Loop_3 its complexity doesn’t neccessarily come from its form. It is the complexity lays between each connection of each individual strip and play with material. Therefore, in our matrix here, we tried to re-create the biothing definition in order Inspired by the biothing definition itself, so create simpler forms yet maintaining the forth row down of the matrix is made its skeletal meaning. However we realised into a three dimensional shape by dividing that shapes that are too simple can only more points on its strips. Although the generate two-dimensional geometry in model of this is not possible for fabrication which it would not work in our conxtect of because of its highly complex repetitions creating a sculpture. Such as the Loop_3 of single lines, yet it that was the first project, we are thinking of combing a model made that was three-dimensioned simple strip support whilst expressing our and can be stood up independently. By understanding of complexity in the use creating points onto the original shap and of patterning morphed on top of it. By connecting these points with lines, we studying the two precedents above, we have were able to create this innovative diagram a deeper understanding of complexity, similar to the original function. which suggests the next design process of creating patterns. The last two rows of the matrix is a result of substituting the line connctions between points with surfaces geometry. We chose to change the connections with surfaces because we were interested in creating independant objects in which it is threedimensioned. However, as seen in the



United Visual Artists Toronto 2010


The Maple Leaf Square Canopy has a project agenda similar to our proposed philosophies. Located in the the CBD of Toronto, it acts as a differentiation between the “built and the forest environment” (Saieh, http:// Its purpose is to create a distinct difference in the CBD in which visitors will be able to relate to the natural Maple canopies within the busy streets of Toronto. Also, it can be seen as a transition point when viewed at a vertical latitude, as it is seen as part of the “busy streets” of the city from above (bird’s-eye-view) whilst it function brings a totally opposite experience for users.

for complex patterns, we hope to develop meaningful and sophisticated patterned tesselations resembling the complex relatioships between the Melbourne CBD and suburban Wyndham City.

It’s unique geometrical productions provides an interesting use of light and shade under daylight, yet the structure is intended to “come to life” after the sun has set. Through the 8000 crystallin cells, daylight is filtered through during the day, creating a natural resemblence of natural Maple canopy. At night when the lights are lit however, the passage way transforms itself, embedding its natural form into the busy nights of The patterning of the crystalline material Toronto. Although it is still early in the is reminiscent of the maple leaf cells. It is designing process however this characteristic generated by utilising advanced computative of the Square Canopy should be noted in algorithms, hence each cell is a translation of response to the brief for creating contrasting “natural geometry” of mathematics (Saieh, environments between day and night time. It reliance on natural creations is the essense of our exploration in the project. In our search



MATRIX 1.1 The research of patterning was to enhance our strips and folding structure. There are various methods in order to how the patterns can be embedded into our design to create a more sophisticated design. The more sophisticated the patternings are the better it will translate our intentions in making a distinct difference between the busy metropolitan and the simple suburban districts. In the matrix on the left, it shows the various mutations of patterning formed by “natural geometry” of computative algorithm. Beginning with a hexagon grid on Grasshopper to form an arrangement of shapes, we decided to choose a simple geometric rectangle as the starting geometry because we believe that its length and softness of its edges can create interesting and innovative explorations. To initiate the process, the rectangle geometry was repeated twice in order to have three separate rectances to rotate on a centre axis in different directions. We made sure that the axis of each set of the three rectangles aligns to the hexagon grid. Problems arose when we tired to create the axis in the centre of each set of the three rectangles. It opposed to what was originally happening with the entire grid of “Rectanglular shape 1” and “Rectangular shape 2”, rotating around a point in the


bottom left corner of the hexagon grid. This was overcome by giving each curve a plane to rotate around and altering the number sliders to control the length and edges of the original rectangular shape. When alterations were made in the sliders for shape 1 and 2, the shapepe in the axis also rotated on the specified angle. This is demostrated in Matrix 1.1, in the first two rows. Having the geometry rotate on an angle, it creates an illusion of diagonal strips from afar, and promotes an interesing pattern evoked from speed and movement from the viewers. Further research for our facade design is required so that we can explore in controlling light and shade and its distinct difference with night time experience. This will be further explored in the next section of the journal.

B3: CASE STUDY 2.0 DOUBLE AGENT WHITE Marc Fornes/ Theverymany 2009


As the result of a new era of prototipycal architecture, Double Agent White designed by Marc Fornes and Theverymany is one the most prodominant examples. The structure is devided into two main elements- the double curvature facade and internal structural component. Its fluid form is generated by using method of ‘object orientated’ computing technology and is only made possible by its double curvature characteristic.

these explorations was its gaol of structural continuity, visual interplay and logistical efficiencies achieved.

Looking closely at the double curature of spheres, they have different properties to maintain its structural intergrity. The first curve about generating its overal geometry, where the techniqual convention was to limit and minimise the elements able to be cut with the spefidied number of flat sheets of The highlight of the structure is its fluid aluminium. The second curvature located double curvature facade. The continuous on top of the first, is full of expression curve is composed of nine unique spheres in and morphologies that crafts “aperture as exploration of material rigidity and optimal ornament”. With these two “skins” working use of nesting storage for larger decomposible together, the resulting structure is becomes a units (Escobedo, Via logcal assembly of mobility.

Formal Constraints


Technological Constraints



Dynamic Structure


Spatial Nuance



Attempt 1


In attempting to recreate the form of Double Agent White, we experinmented with two major course, in which the first attempt was using the “Drape” method to recreate the spherical geometry. In creating it, we realised that using merely Grasshopper was not achievable because of its form regiditiy and restraints, we began to explore in Kangaroo (plug-in designed for Grasshopper), in which there was the command of the “Drape” function. The intent of the “Drape” is basically creating a hollow indent on a flat surface from an object. As we are trying to create a circular facade for the project of Double Agent White, we have used a sphere as the starting object for the indented shape. In documenting the process of using this drape command, we were confronted with many problems because we were all unfamiliar with the Kangaroo plug-in. Beginning with a definition we found online, we slowly became a little bit more familiar with the new functions we were presented. A simplified version of the steps taken is provided on the bottom of this page. During our explore process, we found out that the shape of the drape was not only influenced in the shape of the initial object (which we used a spherical three dimensioned ball), the input force also help creating a smooth

Create sphere in Rhino

Mesh surface by Grasshopper directly above sphere

Array of points in mesh surface


Set springs onto the mesh surface

Indicate Movement is needed in the process

surface. In the examples on the opposite page, the first two samples are resultants of high force (fast draping action), hence it is not in a very smooth finish. The final baked model however, there is a smooth and continuous finish because we have adjusted the “u-force� to 1, meaning the mesh surface cascades on the spherical balls slowly, creating a smooth finish. In the project of Double Agent White, there are patternings on the exterior of its form, therefore we too, tried to create different patternings on our form by morphing a point grid onto the mesh surface in order to create a range of small flat surfaces to make the drape possible. Since the patterning was generate through functional purposes rather than organic geometry, the patterns were not adopted. All in all however, this exploration was not quite successful becauase its form is not possible for fabrication. Although a similar form to Double Agent White is formed, however it is not possible to have the form maintaining its structure through fabrication because it will only print out as a two-dimensioned patterned grid with no form what so ever. Hence in our next exploration method we are breaking the model into two parts- structural and aesthetic facade.

Force constraints

Fall Duration

Fall Duration


Fall action

Mesh Preview





MATRIX2.0 Our second exploration process involves the separation of stuctural form and aesthetical facades. In this section I will be discussing our process of developing the structual design. During our computative design process, we chose to begin with using varanoid cells as the basis of our structure because we wanted a “less- simplistic” form of ribs and foldings. Although goal for this section is to re-create our chosen project- Double Agent White, however we believe that this is part of creating our future final model as well. We disected the essence of Double Agent White, into ribs and facade, which in return influence our design to our own form making as well. In relation to creating a differentiated environment between metropolitan and suburbia, By analysising Double Agent White we have decided to show this difference by relationship between relative simple structure to the more complex patterned facade. In the matrix on the opposite page, i have shown a variety of experiments three-dimensioned voronoi cell making in both the horizontal and vertical latitudes.

The images on the first row of the matrix shows broken ribs therefore will not be functionable to our intentions. By connecting these ribs together, it forms a relative stable and tensil structure evident in the second row. The third row is experimenting with vertical protrusions in which it has the flexibility of different heights of the structural diaphram. For the re-creation of Double Agent White project, this height variation property helps to achieve its “minimum contact with” the facade, whilst maintaining its structural component. Here we are trying to draw relations between the project of Double Agent White and its influence in forming our design. Furthering our research of ribs structures, we looked at spherical ribs and tubes because the form of Double Agent White is of cylinderical spheres. The first two images of row three indicates the use of tubes in various levels of complexity. Tubes is different to ribs because the grasshopper function that we created were not quite flexible in designing its joints and connections; its only adjustable feature was the number of tubes to form the spherical geometry. Comparing the two, the second one is relatively desirable for the next stage because the form of the shere is clear, meaning the patterned can be “draped” onto the surface easily.


Ensure that all vertical and horizontal structures intercept each other.

Select any of these intersections as reference point

Extrude and thicken all horizontal strips thats has intersection like reference point

Extrude and thicken all veritcal strips thats has intersection like reference point


make a cube in the ribs intersection

extrude this cube on both sides of original cube (su as pinning throug two elements)


uch gh

Through the management of many steps in Grasshopper, the production of ribs were the most sophistcated to drawn. We were confronted with many issues in the exploration process, yet the most difficult one to solve was the fomation of the rib notches. A simple generation of the notches is provided on the bottom of this page. One of the featural essense of Double Agent White is its ease of construction, therefore in the process of rib and notches design we hope to have achieved its structural stability as well as ease of development. The form of the structural waffle is also the basis of our design intent because it its structure will be gradually revealed as drivers drive past our structure. Updating on our desing process, unlike Double Agent White where its whole strucutre is hidden by its facade, in our project we will hide parts of the waffle structure to demonstrate the busy metropolitan, yet gradually revealing its structure, paraphrasing the important support of the suburbs in order to have such a outstanding CBD.

set slider to intersect these new generated cubes

delete original cube and decide to keep the top or bottom cube

Trim edges of ribs


Delete original cube and one of the protruded ones

Notches should now be visible on all intersections same as the reference intersection

After the investigation in ribs and notches we realised that the voronoi three-dimensional base structure are too complex for the Double Agent White project. Voronois are random geometry generated by the mathematical calcuations according the number and spacings of our intial point references; therefore it is considered an organic pattern, similiar to the facade design in Double Agent White. The conventions involved influencing our decision of voronio patternings includes the negative and positive spaces as Page76

well as its smooth finish to suit the original patterning. Our final stage of recreating the Double Agent White in the second attempt was combining structural ribs with the patterned voronoids. We found two methods in to achieving that: projecting and mapping to surface. However none of these reached our desired outcome because of time constraints and our understandings of the requoired elements. A simple flow diagram is provided to document the progression and outcome of our design.

PROJECTION METHOD open 2D pattern and lofted surface directly on top

Hide surface and set pattern into Grasshopper

Offest patterns so that has a thicker dimension to it

connect these offseted curves and hide original

project verticles onto loft

project horizontals onto loft

project successful however, lines failed to connect

MAPPING TO SURFACE Indentify curves on pattern

Create surface directly on top of pattern

Map patten curves onto surface

Fail resultsophisticated number of curves in between the two deisticnt elements

Output curves

mapping pattern


scale pattern to double agent white


create double curve

explode/ seperate the curves so it will map to surface

create sphere suface in Rhino

Map to surface


B4: B4:Technique development

Change In Brief


After further research on the techniques investigated in B3: CASE STUDY 2 as well as a slight change in the brief presented, our design form has been modefied. To emphasis the idea of a border corssing, rather than have a physcial gateway and booth design, the new brief included the separation of given area into three distinct sections- gateway, no-mans and object. Morphed from our previous philosophies and precendent influences, our concept now is to emphasise the distinct differenct between metropolitan CBD and suburban area Wyndham City, yet reminding viewers the unity of these two at a different scale. This would be presented through the concept of action an abscence. To create the innovative environment, our ideas were inspired by meteors and its movement across the Earth’s surface to create an “alienated lanscape” yet welcoming. The intended effect is to evoke curiousity and an after effect rather than creating a horrifying scenery to the lanscape.

Responding to our brief, our object will be invisible meteors which has fallen from outerspace and crashed onto the area of Wyndham. The impression of its fall is our emphised point in which “craters” are left behind as the evidence of its arrival. And the gateway that devides the CBD and the suburban is the imagery of its first occurance. The “no mans” land in between the two territories on either side of the border will be where our “alien lanscape” will be situated. In this new designed brief and new form, we are continuing our innitial concept of complexity because its forms are open for interpretation- not menacing but greeted in surprise. By creating such a greeting statement, we wish to create an object that jolts the views into remembering their surroundings, and being aware and appreciate their surroudings by asking questions and evoke their personal expereinces. This design will encourage viewers to carefully observe the surrounding landscape whilst passing through.



Motional Art


By taking classical buts and turning them horizontally, dripping melted plastic on them, then standing the product back upright, Nick Van Woert has put a huge twist on something so well known and classical. Exploring in the fields of gravitational forces, the dripping plastic moves naturally in one direction and creates this sense of movement and dynamism in the work. With the bust standing upright, the direction of the movement has shifted from a gravitational pull to a horizontal plane. His designs not only explore in the gravitional force conventions but also the natural drip of plastic to create an uncontrolled result.

in. Uncontrolled actions result in uncontrolled results and this is the philosophical objective we are trying to achieve in our design. The sculpural representations of Nick Van Woert creates a sense of motion and speed in its outcomes due to the direction of plastic flow. This idea here ties our initial idea of speed and motion as well as the “pushed through� effect in our new developing model. By creating illusive images, it provides a direction for viewers to imagine and be effected by our intentions.

To assist our project, the uncontrolled result and deliberate rotation of his product to become final is what we are most interested



Disco Balls


In a similar vein, Jason Payne’s mirrored disco balls have create a totally innovative approach to something so ordinary. His distortion and alterations in its form and material have been its phenomina and excting qualities. Inspired by meteors and irregularities of outerspace (Kepford,, it questions to the ideas as such , to what degree should it be similar if not the same. Payne explores these qualities by abstracting the scale of his objects and experinmenting the materials used.

His ideas are similar to ours because the changes are subtle but the result is subjective and may be criticised by its alienated design. Our design too may cause unease for some because of its “alien� concept, therefore we are very careful in the production form and interaction in order to minimise the misinterpretaition by some viewers. We wish to capture a similar sentiment with our innovative lanscape and make suggestions to viewers to take a double take and keep them on edge.

His use of fragmented mirror elements is interesting because th effect it brings when light is reflected off it is immense. Most importantly is that its resulted effect relates directly with the emotional and experience of the users. Hence, this increases the value of its innvative design because users enjoy the different effect to what it can bring.




MATRIX 3.0 New Concept Development Similar to my other exploration matrixes, the matrix on the left is the process of finding the “best fit” model for our new brief and conceptual desires. Here we are attempting to explore the concept of action and abscence in physical form therefore in our matrix there are both the presentation of the resultant outcomes as well as the “invisible” objects that sets its natrual conventions. Learning from Nick Van Woert, our proposed design is a representative of motion and action therefore the second line if the matrix is the result of separate particles. The geometry is a controlled feature yet its allocation and set at by the calcualtions of computative algorithms. Algorithm has surely assisted the development of our design because it had created a succession “illusion” of differently shaped “meteors” hitting into Earth’s surface.

The dints are in shaped differently because in our “tale” that supports our design, is natural to have a number of differently shaped outspaced rocks. In the matrix, the direction of the dints are present in both on the internal and external of the sphere, whilstsome are even seen as a “second skin” to its original sphere. These are experiments to show how the random nature can create interesting patterns on planar surfaces. Although the proposed models that we have at the moment are still in developement and can be modified into a more compatible form, we have chosen the model on the right for further development. Documenting its process, after we have developed its form with Grasshopper we sliced it in half so that the “craters” become visible, assisting us on the decision of its posistioning and prototype.





Although we have began our desgining process through investigating strips and folding, however as we explored further into its concept, the ideas of motion and subsequent complexity cannot be expressed in challenging terms. The result of strips and folding are relative simple to interpret, which we are trying to avoid. In response to the brief as well as our intention of the project, we wish our design to suggest various levels of interpretation due to viewers’ own interpretation, hence our search for our

second concept of action and abscence. Furthering into our design prototyping, the most appropriate material used for our “craters” would be casting steel. Joints are not desired because it would effect the smoothness property on either side of the model. If in real life it is to be casted, it is only utilising the medthod of 3D printing as the device for erecting our prototype.






Alienation Is Not What You Thin




We all have strengths and weaknesses in our designs yet the weaknesses can be improved by ongoing alterations and modifications. In our project, the philosophies behind are rich and the form is not only interesting, but is definately a scultpural development that provokes the emotions of viewers and travellers. The form contrasts distinctively with the natural landscape, and whilst travelling at 100km/hr, viewers will be influenced by its force attractiveness which are the predominant theories of our design concept. We believe that the romance between viewers and the sculpture is the most important rather than developing a product that does not embedd with the lanscape.

Our project is similar to “recreating” the landscape so seemingly it has been invaded and bombarded with meteors. However we avoid sharp edges and massive scales in order to create a welcoming gesture for visitors to Wyndham. Wyndham is a developing suburban area, therefore it is calling for a totally different experience for passerbys. Enritched by precendent projects the “craters” are stood upright from the ground at different angles so that the idea of movement is catered across the lanscape. In our proposal too, this particular lanscape should be continued throughout the city of Wyndham so that the story of meteor invasion is rienforced.


B7: algorithmic sketches MESH BOOLEANS


During the course of experimenting and exploring algorithmic functions to generate a digital prototype, I have became much more familiar with the Grasshopper plugin for Rhino. Starting from scratch, all three of us in the group was clueless about parametric modelling, yet now produce some “juicy� models which are quite interesting. In this course of desgin, we started with the exploration of strips and folding, whilst looking at some biomimickry and tesselation voronoi techniques as well. The journey of creating ribs and notches were interesting and challenging at the same time, yet nothing was as exciting as touching on Kangaroo and its unique flexibilities. All in all however, it was the making of the Mesh Boolean that we used in our final design outcome which I enjoyed the most. The Boolean function in grasshopper had made it possible to translate our philosophical ideas into physical objects. A simplified version of the steps taken in this function is provided below. Set point in Grasshopper

Set mesh sphere at the point

Set mesh sphere at the point

Set Points on Mesh

Add sphere on points (adjust size and space)


BOOLEAN extract or add spheres on original mesh

smooth out edges




There are many things in which our design can be improved to create a more dynamic structure. The idea of it is interesting and evoking, however the form has not yet been developed enough to express these enthusiasms. After the mid-semester presentation, we had much valuable feedback the next steps we can consider taking. In our current model, there is too little geometry variety hence lacking in the explorations of possible outcomes. Although we have experinmented lightly with triangles however this area can be invested more because we believe it will give us the opportunity to produce more exciting matrix models, enhancing our final model in return. Also in the critique session, suggestions were made to inspire more precedent research other than just

artwork and or real built works. The level of compexity would increase if we can morph a pattern onto the interior or exterior of our Mesh Boolean Models. Since our conceptual idea is inspired by outerspace movements, lunar maps and asteroids can be used to generate further patterning opportunities. The scale and location of our design needs to be considered and mapped out more thoroughly, to increase the the idea of random distribution and that various size and force is used to generate the dints on the mesh boolean. This can be achieved by doing experinments with dough and plaster, in which handfuls of objects are randomly thrown to encourage the harmony between random distrubution from a central point.




Komatina,Clumsy with words,, 21-04 Recity, The Archipelago Pavilion,,26-04 Grozdanic, Archipelago Parametrically Designed Pavilion, archipelago-parametrically-designed-pavilion/, 02-05 Bodas, ZA11 Pavilion, Admin, Wooden Pavilion, Admin, ZA11,\06-05 Co-de-iT, Loop_3 GROZDANIC, Loop_3 Installation Investigates Mathematical Trigonometric Functions, http:// Grasshopper3D, Installation Loop3, Università di Bologna, Loop_3 – Università di Bologna loop_3-universita-di-bologna/11-05 Design Playgrounds, Canopy by United Visual Artists, Artists, Uited Visual Artists Saieh, canopy toronto, ESCOBEDO, Double Agent White in Series of Prototypical Architectures / Theverymany Page101

c1: Gateway Project: Design concept


Our project have been altered in many ways since mid-semester. Previously, our concept evolved around outerspace, and its mysterious energy that identifies the random location and geometry of our design. During mid-semester crit however, we realised that no matter how we challenged the basic geometry as squares, triangles or spheres, there is still a lack of geometric exploration preventing us from futher design opportunities. Speaking to my group members as well as our studio leaders, we came to a conclusion of using something that is well-known, familiar to the public and has strong relation to Wyndham City as our basic figure. In creating a design for Wyndham interchange which stirs thought and conversation, we maintained the concept of designing a complex geometry driven by mysterious forces. We rely on the

turbulence forces that shape our form of design, whilst distorting it further using algorithmic tools. Previously it was based on meteors and asteroids, however, now that we are interpreting Wyndham as a place, its characteristics and history comes to light. Wyndham was like any other outer suburbs in Victoria, where it was symbolised as farms and out stretch of grass and paddocks. However Melbourne city is encroaching these rural suburbs, thus Wyndham is now sitting on the edge of Melbourne Urban Growth Boundary. Entire communities and housing estates push right up to the freeway and these houses are often standardised is of a repeated design. Housing and construction is and will be one of the most influential features of Wyndham, therefore we chose our basic structure to be one of the most standardised houses of all time- pitched roof, two window and door.

The demand of housing had been seen increasing in Wyndham since 2006-07 indicating the increased popularity of Wyndham City. Page103

Our project have been by in large been influence by a combination of parametric modelling and computative techniques. The final form could now be generated if it was not done with aid from Grasshopper plugin and 3D Coat design software. Having said so however, the ideas behind it was influenced by ready built and art works. Similar to Jason Payne’s disco balls, he have too taken something familiar and common, but altered and distorted it to the point in which it has a new identity. The changes that he made are subtle, but the results can be almost uncomfortable. fThere is a strong idea of taking a recognisable object and giving them a new identiy of their own; derived but different.

Furthermore, Anish Kappor’s artworks represent forms and distortion of forms; the action of force that pushes each object together as well as considering how pople and the surrounding react to the unusualness of the work. The “House in the Sky” project in Melbourne is an artwork that makes a comment on suburban Melbourne and the typical Australian home. Positioned on a busy site right up against the freeway, it provides illusive views at different vantage points. Likewise, in our project we attempted to create a scultpure in which viewers can have a trail of thought of their own, gradually seeing the truth of our objects, intriguing and encourage discourse.


The prime message that we intend to indicate through our peice of work is to signify a sense of “crossing over” and “passing into” a new land. To create an inspiring and interesting entry, our housing symbolisation was stimulated by the well-known classic “Wizard of Oz”. Our intention is to create a theme just like Dorothy opening the door into the world of technicolour, yet in reality, drivers are entering the world of Wyndham. By creating such a fairytale scenario, the design provokes questioning and curiousity of what is further ahead of them in this “new land of Wyndham”. There are space for

many avenues of imaginatio to explore. Given only snap shots of what would create their knowlege- the amalgamation of these houses, visitors are set up for their own interpretations, hence keeping the discussion open even after they have passed the physical object.


Learning from these past projects, our creation is a bizzare scultpure for the gateway of Wyndham by aiming to prompt questions from passer-bys throguh its complex, ambiguous geometry. Beginning from small houses embedded into the ground all toppled over in different angles and gradually increasing its size and dramatic theme, viewers will finally see clearly that this “mess� is a combination of toppled over houses; scaled, rotated, repeated and distorted. The largest of the houses reach up to 10 metres high, thus even the driver who is concentrating on the road will notice this detail in our design. Taking notice to the small details, viewers can see that houses are grown out of houses as well as

units purposefully extracted from another unit. These peculiar gestures provoke questioning and excitement. It encourages viewers’ inquisitiveness of wanting to explore beyond the city of Melbourne. The most critical characteristic of our project is the idea of objects meeting and being pushed into each other. This creates complexity and facilitates confusion through the crazy mass of transformed and fusion of a regular object that has been distorted and altered so that the viewers are kept on edge. Detailed explaination and process of our form development is demonstrated in the next section.


These diagrams on the left only show the general form and first indications of our “free-form” and “un-restricted” philosophy as well as serving as a simplified model of our sophisticated final model design. Although our final design was not generated through such simple steps, however these are similiar and can be used to represent our design concepts. Our initial concept of height variation to generate a scenario of a “gateway”, where something new is and pragmatic is ahead of their journey. Random scatter of blocks to see the effect of the various heights. We started with blocks because it’s simple for interpretation, but also shows the increasing sophistication of the general form. Next, we began to overlap these blocks to add in more confusion to prompt interest and curiousity to the public. In addition to its confusion and emotions, rotating and scaling these blocks opens up new possibilites of interpretation and discourse, which is desired throghout our project.

















Our project was equally important in taking the essence of precedents as well as utilising prametric tools. Our ideas were developed from precedent projects, however these ideas need to be communicated and be made into a physical model. Since the form is highly complex, only parametric tools were able to transfer our concepts into a constuctable diagram. By utilising computative techniques, it also facilitated the manipulation and warping of geometries, helping us to achieve a refined model in relation to our ideas. Using the plug-ins of Firefly and Grasshopper for Rhino, the distribution patterning of our design placement was inspired. We aligned the geometry with images of turbulence as well as the direction of wind and velocity. We chose to use a turbulence diagram as the basis of design because it gave interesting patterns of distribution outcomes, scattered in a professional fashion yet seemingly random at the same time. Below, we have provided a detailed diagram of the design process of our final model as well as the scattered

site plan and its variation of sizes in place. It was a difficult decision in choosing the model locations of the site because we had to ensure that the general form looks randomly scattered yet maintaining the force generated pattern. We are attempting to demostrate the idea of mysterious force affecting the area by accurate presentation and documentation. We have used a similar definition as to site distribution to determine the random heights of our designs. The height of scattered structures strictly follow the image geometry of the turbulence image that we have inserted. Although we have used the image as a guide to create the height variations of our project, however we have altered the heighest point to be closest to our destinated Wyndham rather than having the heighest point in the centre, which was originally presented in the force image. It is the gradual enlargement of our forms that create a sense of suspense which provokes curiousity.













An elevation of our selected heights and site positioning; model generated using parametric tolerances. Page111

Site plan here shows the possible model locations on site generated by parametric tools, setting different tolerence parameters into the system. As a group, we choose to use the second image of the smoke tolerence diagrams because it’s outcome (left image) gives a even spread across our three sites, yet maintaining its free-form structure in its patterning. In the top diagram, the size variation is also generated from the tolerance diagram, shifting its density, reaching to the outcome that is demonstrated. The red bordered squares are the locations that we have selected becuase they naturally sit on site as well as showing a random distribution that signifies the tolerance parameter. The largest of all is where our main model is situated, whilst the smaller and “scattered� squares show the locations of our parted models. Page112

c2: tectonic systems and elements


Not only did parametric tools helped us translate our ideas and draw complex geometries, we have also adopted digital fabrication for our 3D printed model to anticitpate the effect of our design. A possible avenue of construction of this design would involve the creation of steel frames of the basic house shapes with aluminium sheets then clipped onto these frames. To do this, we need to seperate these houses in blocks and unroll its computational model into strips to fabricate the facade of the houses. Since

the topography of our land is relatively flat and accessible by large vehicles, our design is most likely to be prefabricated in a factory before actual installation on site. By dividing the computative model into large blocks, it assists the ease of transportation as well as construction process and machine restrictions. While we are considereing aluminium as a good material because it is lightweight, we also have considered the idea of other possible materials.















We chose to use 3D printing for our final model because 3D printing has the ability to construct any types of geometry, regardless to its level of complexity. Since our final model consists of such sophsticated jumble of houses, it is not possible to be erected with another methods which allows for the level of detail that is present in our design. It is cucial to emphasise the details of our design, because discourse is facilitated in these minorities rather than looking at the general form at full scale.

Speaking of physical erection with onsite materials, as a group, we had made prototypes demonstrating the process that needs to be done in a factory. Although everything in factories are machine cut and bent, yet in the images on the right, we have provided evidence in which this method is acceptable in erecting this structure physically. In our prototype experienments we have demonstrated houses erected each individually and cladding installed specifically onto each one of the house frames. In experimentation however, we have also However, in terms of physical construction, mapped out the construction of a whole single we have discussed a few possibilities which frame and install sections of cladding onto it. would be possible to undertake. As mentioned Although this methods is more economical before, we are interested in prefabricating our and time efficiency, however there would be design so that it can be installed into place transportation issues and machine restrictions on site. This involves less time, less traffic which may prevent it from happening. Refer to blockage and overall, a more economical the images provided. choice. A simplified diagram of the process of onsite installation is provided in the next few pages.














c.3:model photograghy










c.4: algorithmic sketches







































c.5: learning objectives and outcomes


The form of our design had undergone significant changes since our mid-semester presentations. From a simple spherical form, we have chosen to invest in a more symbolic representation of a suburban house in Victoria. The installation has been designed to invite many potential readings. It raises the banal and ordinary to the level of extraordinary and recognises the suburbs as a source of fun and as a source of aspects such as artistic and cultural inspiration. We intend to posit more questions than it can answer and we believe it will be an ongoing source of conversation, discourse and encouragement of interest in the area of Wyndham. Before its physical erection however, as a group, we would like to invest deeply with various material possibilities. Although metal cladding gives interesting effects during day and night due to its ability to reflect light and offset temperature. Having said so, the metal cladding covers the whole structure, which may be too dense in view in terms of our initial intention of its fun and light experience. By investigating so transparent or thinner material such as specific plastic panels or glass panels will allow the view of its supporting structure under it as well. If our structure is transparent, it would introduce a new level of complexity, however it may also lose

the form of our structure. Passer-bys might become more inspired in the happenings in the opposite road omitting our purpose for them to ask questions and erect their curiousity. Throughout this semester’s work in Studio Air, I had the opportunity to fully understand how algorithmic architecture can influence our designs and makings of structures which are not possible by any other methods. By investigating others’ work and precedents, I gathered disign possibilities and realised the opportunities that we now have due to the use of computer programming. Algorithmic architecture is no more just straight lines and curves, it is about possibilities, accuracy and discourse. Although we were faced with countless problems and meeting many dead ends during our own designs, what we have learnt from it is extremely valuable. It is not until we used these parametric tools that we began to understand its parameters and what each component’s meaning. Throughout this semester I have had the valuable opportunity to become familiar with Rhino’s plugins: Grasshopper, Firefly, Kangaroo, as well as 3D coat. These experiences I hope will assist in my future developement in architecture.




Definition of “algorithm” in Wilson, Robert A. and Frank C. Keil eds(1999) in The Mit Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science (London: The MIT Press) pp.11-12 Richard Williams, ‘Architecture and Visual Culture’, in Exploring Visual Culture : Definitions, Concepts, Contexts, ed. by Matthew Rampley (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2005), pp. 102 - 116 Yehuda E. Kalay, Architecture’s New Media : Principles, Theories, and Methods of ComputerAided Design (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2004), pp. 5 - 25 Woodbury, Robert F. and Andrew L. Burrow (2006). ‘Whither design space?’, Artificial Intelligence for Engineering Design, Analysis and Manufacturing, 20 , 2, pp. 63-82 Archi20,Pop Music Center,, viewed 09-06-2-13 archello, pop music centre,, 07-06 INA, Emergent architecture,, viewed 08-06 Biopower, BIOWAVE,, viewed 07-06 Lyon Corbett, services,, viewed 06-06 Harding Laura, John Curtin School of Medical research,, viewed 07-06 Hart, Sara, Graffiti cafe,, viewed 04-06 DAVE, Graffiti cafe by studio mode, viewed 30-05 Graffiti Cafe, Varna, 2001, viewed 01-06 http://www.residenz- .ch/index.cfm/1A9A23BF-B061-1644-462526F824D67201/, viewed 01-06 SUDPARK,, viewed 06-06 ARCHIlovers, parametric modelling, 05-06 basic parametric modelling,, viewed 07-06 serpentine gallery pavilion,, viewed 08-06, viewed 09-06 voronoi skyscraper, viewed 09-06 serpentine by ito,, viewed 09-06 serpentine gallery pavilion 2002,, viewwed 08-06

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