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Portfolio

Soft Architecture / Taichi Kuma


Taichi Kuma CONTENTS 01 Weaving Carbon-fiber Architecture / July, 2015/-----p3-p11 02 Spacer Fabric Architecture /Oct,2014--------------p11-p19 03 ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2013-2014/-------------p20-p25 04 Circle Pack Pavilion /Sep, 2012/------------------p26-p32 05 Shrink Film Architecture /Jan, 20|2/--------------p33-p40 06 Ori -Folding Light- /Aug, 2011/-------------------p41-p43 07 Brakish Branch /Jul, 2011/-----------------------p44-p49 08 HaiChaoShi Temple in Hangzhou, China /Jan, 2011/-p49-p54 09 Digital Tea House /Aug,2010/ ---------------------p54-p59 10 Multinational Market /Jan, 2010 /-----------------p60-p65

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01 Weaving Carbon-fiber Pavilion

Exhibition: Real Size Design Thinking 2015

Period: Mar, 2015 - Sep, 2015 Prof : Yusuk Obuchi, Jun Sato Position : Project Leader, Member of Obuchi Lab / Digital Fabrication Lab Co-Member : Jun Shimada, Kantaro Makanae, Masayuki Takiguchi, Aisa Arikawa, Takanori Ishii, Liija Li, Tatsunori Shibuya and Masatoshi Nishizato.

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Context Grid shell structures are widely used in many types of buildings. In this paper the author proposes a new grid shell structure, which is pre-tensioned by stretchable membrane. Through iterative process between physical modelling and computational simulation, one pavilion is finally presented as a demonstration of the architectural performance of this structure. This idea is based on my previous research, �Shrink FIlm Architecture.�

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Computational Simulation For the computational simulation, The wire is composed of particles and springs in this simulation. It is converted into a polyline, which is the continuous line described by the connecting each of the particles. The membrane is composed of a network of simulated springs, in turn connected to the particles on the polyline. The images below show how the 2D grid pattern deforms by changing the shrinkage of the membrane. In the third picture, the shrinkage is 37.5%, which is as same as the setting of the physical modelling. The colour of the wire shows the minimum curvature of the carbon fibre strand rod.

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Structural Analysis The contribution of the membrane is not only for making a deformed grid, but also for reinforcing the global structure by adding pre-tension. In that sense, this structure has a new type of integration between tension and compression forces. In this project, the structural analysis is done by FEM analysis software developed by Prof. Jun Sato from University of Tokyo. It calculates stress and visualizes the safety factor distribution of the model generated from computational simulation mentioned in previous chapters. Colour variation represents the safety factor, which is defined as a ratio of calculated stress to allowable stress in each member.

Structural Analysis by Jun Sato 6


Fabrication First, the carbon fiber rods, cut in specific lengths, are laid down on the ground. Second, connecting the intersection points makes the grid structure. Third, the stretchable membrane is attached to the fiber grid from the center by zip-ties, while pulling the membrane taut. Fourth, after the attachment of the fiber and the membrane, the stainless pipe for the base is installed. Finally, by moving the fiber and the membrane, some of the fiber edges are fixed into the stainless pipe.

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02 Spacer Fabric Architecture

Exhibition: Japanese Junction 2014

Period: Dec, 2014 - Jan, 2015 Prof : Achim Menges, Jan Knippers Tutor: Moritz Dรถrstelmann, Marshall Prado Position : Master Thesis

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Spacer Fabric Spacer fabrics are 3D warp-knitted fabrics, which have a volumetric structure.Together with the capacity to differentially stretch and contract, these materialsallow three dimensional which is specific to spacer fabrics. Although the majority of spacer fabrics are made from polyester it is possible to manufacture glass fiber spacer fabric. These fabrication parameters allow the production of very thick glass fiber spacer textiles that would be suitable for large scale applications.

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Physical Experiment Material Analysis

Computational Simulation Fabrication

Global Manipulation

_Pinch Simulaion

L

Precedent Reserch

Regional Manipulation

_Design Integration

Matrix Application

M

Background

S

Robotic Fabrication

Local Manipulation

Structural Analysis

_Intercative Manipulation

_Integration with FEM

Introduction

Design Process

Fabrication

Prototype 13


Manipulation Through physical prototyping, a catalogue of formgeneration strategies for the fabric manipulationswas developed for local, regional, and global manipulations.These manipulations are achieved bypinching various points of the spacer fabric and connecting them with plastic cable ties which partially squeezes the textile. This contraction of either the top or bottom mesh results in a bending deformation of the three dimensional fabric structure.

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Computational Simulation Based on this physical prototyping, the 3D form is simulated using a live physics engine. In this approach, the entire knitted pattern is translated to a system of particles and springs, and the elasticity of the spacer fabric is controlled by variables such as the stiffness and rest length of these springs. By applying additional springs to this setup, the geometry is relaxed and the simulation provides the approximate geometry of the manipulation.

1) vertical connection

2) vertical + brace connection

3) vertical + double brace connection

[Rhinocerous, Grasshopper, Kangaroo]

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Combination of Manipulation There are three different steps of material manipulations for generating form. First, global system articulation the fabric can be approximately transformed to specific 3D geometry. Second, based on this geometry, the fabric is locally manipulated to further control the surface and increase structural depth. By accumulating locally differentiated manipulations, the spacer fabric can be transformed into complex geometries. The process of physical experimentation and computational simulation are conducted simultaneously as both processes inform each other.

Local Manipulation Regional Manipulation

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Design and Simulation First, the physical model shows how the local undulated pattern contributes to the global geometry by using load case tests. Subsequently, it is analysed by computational tools using a finite element method (FEM). Generally, based on principal moment lines and force flow lines, the fabric can be reinforced by differentiated pinching patterns.

high

low stress directionality 17


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ARCHITECTURAL APPLICATION Potentially the fabrics can be pre-impregnated with resin before applying the manipulations and stored at cold temperatures, slowing the catalyzation process. After the resin infusion, the fabric finds it form through several steps of manipulations. Subsequently the resin in the fabric can be cured by controlling the temperature or by treating with UV-light.Alternatively the soft and flexible haptic nature of the material can locally be maintained through selective resin infusion. This allows for the integration of interior design features and structural design.

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03 ICD / ITKE Research Pavilion 2013-2014

Period: APR, 2013 - APR, 2014 Prof : Achim Menges, Jan Knippers Scientific Development Moritz Dörstelmann, Vassilios Kirtzakis, Stefana Parascho, Marshall Prado, Tobias Schwinn Concept Development Leyla Yunis, Ondrej Kyjánek System Development, Fabrication & Construction Desislava Angelova, Hans-Christian Bäcker, Maximilian Fichter, Eugen Grass, Michael Herrick, Nam Hoang, Alejandro Jaramillo, Norbert Jundt, Taichi Kuma, Ondrej Kyjánek, Sophia Leistner, Luca Menghini, Claire Milnes, Martin Nautrup, Gergana Rusenova, Petar Trassiev , Sascha Vallon, Shiyu Wie and Leyla Yunis Hassan Abbasi, Yassmin Al-Khasawneh, Yuliya Baranovskaya, Marta Besalu, Giulio Brugnaro, Elena Chiridnik, Eva Espuny, Matthias Helmreich, Julian Höll, Shim Karmin, Georgi Kazlachev, Sebastian Kröner, Vangel Kukov, David Leon, Amanda Moore,Paul Poinet, Emily Scoones, Djordje Stanojevic, Andrei Stoiculescu, Kenryo Takahashi, Maria Yablonina and support of Michael Preisack and Michael Tondera 20


Context This pavilion project was designed and costructed by the team from ICD and ITKE, University of Stuttgart. Initial Idea comes from biomimicry structure. In this case we learned the fibrous structure from the shell of the specific type of beetle. We apply this sturcture to the winding structure of carbong fiber and glass fiber structure.

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Fabrication Fabrication is done by two industrial robotic arms. They are working together to wind each components by carbon fiber and glass fiber. They can create them precisely and rapidly. But, still there are constraints of fabrication which are listed in the below.

Angle

Max. diameter and thicknes

Neighbor sides length

Planarity

Number of verticies

Y-connection

Cantilever

Numbers of components

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Design and Simulation By satisfying all the fabrication constraints, the global geometry is defined. Actually, this is the part I mainly was in charge of. I used the geometry relaxation to achieve final geometry. So, it transformed from 2D to 3D. In the diagram below. the cell with color has some problem of the contains, but in the final form no cell has any of problem.

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04 Circle Pack Pavilion

Exhibition: “Arch-Neering Design Exhibiton”2012 / Tokyo Designers Week 2012

Period: JULY, 2012 - OCTOBER, 2012 Prof : Yusuk Obuchi, Jun Sato Teaching Assistant: Toshikatsu Kiuchi, So Sugita Position : Project Leader, Member of Obuchi Lab / Digital Fabrication Lab Co-Member : Xuhao Lin, Kyaw Htoo, Wang Chong, Guillaume Dumont, Wang Lin

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Context This is the project to construct the pavilion in real scale. In Obuchi Lab / Digital Fabrication Lab at the University of Tokyo, we are doing research on shrink film since 2011. For this example we used the shrink film and a bunch of bamboo rings. Shrink film, which is basically known as a package material, exists in a variety of sizes and thicknesses, and can be shrunk by applying heat. First, we attach the bamboo rings to this film, and heat it by heat gun. Then, it can be shrunk, solidified and become 3D form, thus shirking and solidifying the 3D form..

usage of shrink film_01 label for bottles

usage of shrink film_02 wrapping for bottles

usage of shrink film_03 wrapping for ships

shrink-film(before shrinking) and bamboo rings

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Material Since there are many types of shrink film, we researched several types of shrink film. They differ in their ingredients, thickness, way of shrinking, heating temperature, rigidity and so on. For this project we especially need rigidity of the film after shrinking. For this reason, we choose the material below, which was mainly used for the labels of plastic bottles.

manufacture/ trade name

Before heating

after heating

30

Sano Enterprise

dimensional changes

type/ layering

heating time & temperature

behavior

30 cm x 30 cm 20 cm x 24 cm

Pe white

2:54:41 heat level 5

soft before shrink & maintain elasticity

30 cm x 30 cm 25 cm x 13 cm

Pe white

2:38:31 heat level 5

soft before shrink & maintain elasticity

30 cm x 30 cm 10 cm x 25 cm

6:38:47 Pe transparent heat level 5

soft before shrink & maintain elasticity

30 cm x 30 cm 15 cm x 17 cm

Pe + pp + pe 0:52:64 transparent heat level 3

immediate shrink and hard

30 cm x 30 cm 17cm x 16 cm

transparent

soft before shrink & maintain elasticity

30 cm x 30 cm 23cm x 20 cm

transparent

20

24

30

30 25

Dr. Shrink 30

13

30 10

Oji Pack 30

25

30 15

Free Style

manufacture : GUNZE TYPE : PET THICKNESS : 30mm HEATING TME & LEVEL : 0:50:15, LEVEL 3 BEHAVIOR : immediate shrink and hard

30

17

30 17

sekisui

30

17

5:18:02 heat level 3

30 23

Okura industrial

30

23

4:15:01 heat level 3

soft before shrink & maintain elasticity

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Structural Experiment WEIGHT:

In addition to the basic material research, we tested the structural properties of films. We attached the same foam boards (differing only in color) into the 2 different types of films. And, we shrank both of them and made the arch shown on right side. We then loaded and tested which one can stand longer while the loads became heavier. Finally, it turned out that the “freestyle� film is 2.3 times stronger than oji packs. Furthermore, for finalizing the scale of the pavilion, we tested the structural limitations of the film with the bamboo rings.

0 g

500 g

1000 g

1500 g OJ PACK FAIL

2000 g

form board abd shrink film [Oji pack]

form board abd shrink film [freestyle] 2500 g

3000 g

4m 3500 g FREE STYLE FAIL structural test in large scale

form shallow curvature after shrink

strength test between Oji pack and freestyle

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Design Process c

d

In this project we were aiming to exhibit in “Tokyo Designer’s Week 2012� at the beginning of design. We tried to design a space which can encourage people to stay or talk inside. First we designed the form for fitting in the space, which was 5m*4m. This resulted in a a dome which had 5 legs. We then (digitally) unrolled this and packed the surface with circles by using Rhino / Grasshopper. For packing, the leg regions had smaller circles than the other part, because this part became more curvy in 3D. Correspondingly, the top part had bigger circle, because this part became relatively flat and should be lightweight in terms of structure.

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plan for final Shape

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30


Fabrication In the real scale, the rings need to be rigid , lightweight , and easily manufactured. For these reasons, we choose the laminated bamboo as a material for the rings. First, we printed the pattern in real scale and covered this paper by the shrink film. Next, we attached the rings from bottom and top based on the print-out paper. After fixing the rings, we made to shrink shallow curvature and started to apply the heat by dryer to shrink the film. While applying the heat, we kept moving the top part of the curvature higher, gradually into the ideal curvature which we desired to have at the end of construction. After completing the shrinking process, we connected five seats to the five legs of the pavilion and fixed the position. Although we still need a lot of human labor for now, the principle of the construction was simple. This architecture was sufficiently big and could create unique and dynamic spatial quality.

14

8

clipping mambrane with 2 rings

outer ring (bamboo) inner ring (bamboo)

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

9

10

11

12

13

a’ plan

a

shrink-film

section a-a’

after shrink

tension member

shrink-film

section a-a’ Clipping mambrane with 2 rings

flow of construction in Tokyo Designers Week2012

31


05 Shrink Film Architecture Type of project: Master Thesis Period: NOV 2011 - MARCH, 2012 Prof: Yusuk Obuchi, Kotaro Imai, Jun Sato Co-Member: Shuta Takagi, Brian Dale Presentation:

2012: The Annual Convention of Architectural Institute of Japan “SHRINK FILM ARCHITECTURE“ Prize: 2012 Master thesis, 1st place in department of architecture and rewarded as the prize of the school of engineering, the University of Tokyo

33


BACK GROUND / PURPOSE In the traditional building industry, constructing a 3-dimensionally curved form requires substantial time, and therefore it becomes costly to manufactures. In my master thesis, I designed a process to create a lightweight building envelope using a shrink-film. The advantage of using this material for architecture is that we can simply construct the complex geometry without requiring an expensive formwork. This means this method of construction is highly integrated with the design and the structure. In addittion to this, I researched a methodology to control the 3-dimensional form of the shrink-film by using simple 2-dimensional patterns. These 2-dimensional patterns enabled me to easily manipulate the form without tremendously difficult calculations for digital simulations.

Generate

3D

2D Analyze 2D pattern tooth pick

piano wire

Physical Model local

global

Digital Simulation Rhino /Grasshopper Maya FEM

Architecture shelter ceiling pavilion

34


lowest point

Form Changes in Local Conditions

highest point

Throughout the experimentation process, I realized that shrink film can create certain geometry with some constraints after shrinking. First, I tested with tooth picks. But, if the constraints were fragmented, the film might have several weak points in between constraints element. Then, I tested the piano wire as constraints. I simply attached the wire to the film with tape. While shrinking the film, the wire also could deform. As a result, the surface develoed a very organic form. But, the grid pattern of wire randomly deformed according to the order of heating. However, if attaching the wire in a woven pattern, it could regularly deform and create an organic surface.

75mm grid pattern by piano wire

50mm woven pattern by piano wire

35


Form Changes in Global Conditions For making architecture, we need to control the global geometry of this film. The last experiment shows I could create a flat surface with regular deformations by utilizing certain patterns of piano wire. This experiment was to change the density of this pattern. By doing this, the film created the global form. In pattern_A, the dense line worked as a ridge of the dome. In pattern_B, the dense point became the peak of the small dome. In pattern_C, it became the highest dome in this experiment.

A_density controll by line

difference of density in global conditions

heating process of pattern A

pattern A after shrinking

36


B_density controll by point

C_density controll in radial grid

pattern B after shrinking

pattern C after shrinking

37


Structural Simulation / Form Simulation For simulating the structural properties of basic forms, I used FEM(finite element method). First, we simplified the curve of piano wire and film into line segment and mesh. For using this model, I simulated the global change of form. I made the each crossing point of segment higher step by step, and then finally created dome shape with local regular deformation of surface. The color of segment shows the dangerous of extent. It shows this dome shape can become more stable rather than the flat surface. In addition to this, we simulated the behavior of shrinking in Maya by means of n-cloth and n-particle.

digital simulation in Maya

nParticle

plan

Vertex(transformed into constraint) Vertex(Free) Membrane Constraint(component to component)

_Shrink Film B

_Wire

D

B*D: 0.1m*0.0002=0.00002[m2] AREA:BD*10000=0.2[m2] Ixx:1/12*BD3*10000=0.67*10 Iyy:1/12*B3D*10000=0.17*10-3 VEN:1/12*BD3*10000=0.67*10-13

501

section D*D: 0.02*0.02m=0.004[m2]

D D

502,503

AREA:D2*100=0.4[m2] Ixx:1/12*D4*100=1.33*10-6 Iyy:1/12*D4*100=1.33*10-6

danger

nParticle

Vertex(transformed into constraint) Vertex(Free) Membrane Constraint(component to component)

1

safer

10

2

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5

6

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9

38


Prototype

This is a prototype for a shelter. The two curves can create the change of density in the pattern. These curves become the ridge after shrinking. Since the total weight is less than 10kg, this can be assemble by less than 10 people and easily moved. We donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t need a foothold or crane for construction. Therefore, it can be the shelter for evacuation or emergency situations.

10m

pattern_A

plan

39


pattern_B

5m

This is a prototype for a ceiling or interior material. Although membrane ceilings already exist, they basically have frames for fixing the membrane. What is new of this is the integration of frame and membrane. Since piano wire is embedded into the film directly. film completely, they behave as an integrated system in terms of design and structure. We can simply control the height of the ceiling according to the density of points, to easily create specific points in a space.

plan

This is a prototype of a pavilion. The pattern of radius grid creates the inside and outside, so that it can attract people into the pavilion. And, this complex geometry with transparency generates a particular visual effect. For fixing the edge into ground, the structure can be stable when the diameter is 12m. This scale of pavilion may work as the pavilion in an urban context or for some event.

12m

pattern_C

plan

section

40


06 Ori -Folding Light

Exhibition: Arch-Neering Design Exhibiton2012 / Tokyo Designers Week 2012 Position : Project Leader, Member of Obuchi Lab / Digital Fabrication Lab Co-Member : Anna Braverman, Haruka Tomoeda, Shohei Takei Awards : 2011 Gold Award in Koizumi International Lightning Design Competition 24th

41


Concept / Function This is the folding light. The light pattern can change according to how the user folds it. This light can behave interactively according to the user’s behavior. Sometime they might put it on a desk, or they might hang it from a wall. We find the concepet from Japanese paper art; origami, at the same time “Ori” means “my light“in Hebrew. This light can build various kinds of relationships with users. Throughout this experience, “Ori“ becomes their light. We also challenged the material for realizing these concepts. The flat sheet of light is called “inorganic EL light“. We wired the electricity on the edge of the light. In addition to this, in the folding line there are sensors to turn on and off the electricity. This is why we can smoothly fold and turn on the light without any switch.

inorganic EL light surfaces flexible plastic cover fixating joint / reed switch wiring for electricity

charger

origami -japanese paper art

thickness : 4mm size : 300 * 400mm

02_hanging position

03_flat position (off)

04_folding position A

05_folding position B

sheet of light -inorganic EL light

01_standing position

42


07 Brakish Branch /Jul, 2011/

Type of project: Design Studio Period: MARCH 2011 - JULY, 2011 Sutio Master: Yusuke Obuchi Co-Member : Akinori Hamada, Shuhei Tanaka

44


Concept / Material -ion exchange membrane RED (Reverse Electrodialysis) is a new type of producing energy. This method for generating electricity is ranging salt water and fresh one after the another. In between two types of water, we insert the ion exchange membrane. The plus and minus ions can pass through this membrane in each directions. As a result, the electricity can be generated in this process.

Water Analysis of Tama River

Cl

mg/L

-

Okutama Lake

③ ②

15000

0.086V

④ ⑤

⑥ ⑦

11250

Reverse Electrodialysis: River water

⑧ 7500

Brackish water

Na+

Na+

S/m Cl

Cl

Cu

-

40000

e-

eReduction

3+

B

Cu

3+

Cu Cl

-

Cl

Na+

C

-

Cl

Na+

A

C

-

Na+

A

C

Na+

A

B: electrode(copper) C: cation-exchange membrane

mg/L

T-P

0.900

0.675

30000

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mg/L 10.0

T-N

DO

14.0

⑯ ⑮

Site

0

mg/L 5.00

7.5

10.5

3.75

5.0

7.0

2.50

2.5

3.5

Tokyo Bay

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

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1.25

20000 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

0

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

10000

C

Brackish water

A: anion-exchange membrane

COND (Electric Conductivity)

Anode

precipitation

Cathode

Cl

-

⑭ ⑬

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

2+

-

Na+

2+

Cu

Schematic Map of Sampling Points

0 Na+

a membrane-based technique for direct production of 3750 electricity from mixing of river water and sea water

Sea water

mg/L

0

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

NH4-N

mg/L

NO2-N

mg/L

4

0.4

0.8

3

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2

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1

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PO4-P

Brackish Hamakuma 1.electric generation 2.floating & construction 3.architecture & city 4.environment

- Brakish Area is contaminated. - Water’s electro conductvity is very high because of Copper. - Sea water comes up until point16”.

Reverse Electrodialysis

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

pH

7.7

This data shows

Electrode rinse solution

mg/L 7.9

7.5

7.3

7.1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

45


Maximize Surface ; Distribution

Fabrication

a=30

a=30

a=30

a=45

a=45

a=45

a=60

a=60

a=60

l=0.8

l=0.9

l=0.7

l=0.8

l=0.9

l=0.7

l=0.8

l=0.9

l=0.7

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u=20

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u=20

u=20

b=100

b=100

b=100

b=100

b=100

b=100

b=100

b=100

b=100

The system of this architecture is divided into 5 scales, which are XS,S, M, L < XL. They has each objects and connection in a fractal way. XS is a pipe component which has ion exchange membrane inside of it. S is a ruled surface which is composed by pipes. It enables people to walk on it. M is a circular frame which is made of rigid metal. And, it is filled with ruled surface. L is a bigger circular frame than M and contains multiple M-scale frames inside of it. XL is a L-system bridge structure which can connect the two sides of the river.

bridge length=42.21-102.27

bridge length=42.21-102.27

minimal length=18.91-19.64

minimal length=18.91-19.64

u=10

u=10

b=50

b=50

Brackish Hamakuma

Bra

1.electric generation 2.floating & construction 3.architecture & city 4.environment

plan perspective

section

46


i

INFORMATION CENTER

RIVERSIDE CAFE WATER MARKET PARKING / ELECTIRICITY STAND ELECTRIC BATTERY SYSTEM

Proposal BRACKISH ECOLOGICAL MEUSEUM

Our project is making an electric plant. But, it is totally different from many centralized power plant in Japan. RED system enables to make a distributed power plant system. We can get electricity from sea water and fresh water. So, it can harvest the energy like a photosynthesis by trees. In japan, there are quite a few areas where salt water and fresh water meet. Therefore, this system have a potential to alternate some centralized power plant. Ans also, this power plant is establishing as a park, which can connects variable areas such as an industrial area, residential area, and an airport are.

CULTUARE

Brackish Branch

ELECTRIC BATTERY SYSTEM

SHOPPING / SIGHTSEEING

1.electric generation 2.ï¬&#x201A;oatation + maximize surface 3.architecture + urban network 4.environment

TECHNICAL

PARKING / ELECTIRICITY STAND

RESTAURANT

Program

47


48


08 HaiChaoShi Temple in Hangzhou, China /Jan, 2011/

Competition: HaiChaoShi Temple in Hangzhou, China Period: November, 2010 - Jan 2011 Position : Project Leader, Member of Kengo Kuma Lab Architect: Kengo Kuma Co-Member : Koike Mikako, Ko Nakamura

49


Concept This project is the competition for HaiChaoShi Temple in Hangzhou, China. The sites are facing each other over the river. And, there is the axis towards the big statue which is the symbol for this city. We prposed two buildings for the temple for emphasizing this axis. That is why we make the voids to these two bilidings in different ways. North building has void on top and South building has void on the bottom. In addition to that, we were inpired to make the form of building by the mountains around the site. Both of the buildings have the bridge to reach the river, so that people can access easily from one to another by the ship.

north building elevation

south building elevation

50


Concept / Function

north building plan GF

south building plan GF

north building plan 2F, 3F

south building plan 2F, 3F

51


52


53


54


07 Digital Tea House

Type of project: International workshop Period: 3 weeks in August, 2010 Prof: Yusuke Obuchi, Keisuke Toyoda, Toru Hasegawa,Tomohiro Tachi Co-Member: Shuhei Tanaka, Haruka Tomoeda, Reiko Nishiyama, Xuan Cui, David Jenny, Toon Cheng (University of Tokyo) Exhibition: “Digital Tea House exhbition” in LIVING DESIGN CENTER OZONE, 21th Oct - 26th Oct 2010 Publication: 2010 : GSAPP+UTDA Summer Workshop Digital Teahouse Ocotber issue of SHINKENCHIKU 2011 : “Digital Tea House” January issue of Domus

55


DESIGN CONCEPT The workshop is an attempt to bridge technology and culture not only through design but also fabrication. We focused on patterns and transparency. Designed for the precise moment at 13:00 on Aug.25, 2010, when the tea ceremony took place, the interior space has specific lighting condition where fragmented shadows align with the cutout straw mats indicating where host and guests may sit as determined by the software. At that time, the sunlight filtering through the roof, which consisted of a bold but gentle triangular composition, would fall on a similar pattern on the floor. The overlapping of the light and floor pattern lasts only briefly.The angles and depth of the triangular patterned sunshading device, supported by a semi-conical arch structure leaning forward at 35.5 degrees -the latitude of Tokyo- has been designed with considerations for the passage of time and changes in sunlight.

N

N

N

Nijiriguchi -Small entrance

E

E

W

W

W

E

Host

Guest

E

Guest

straw mat Entrance

S N

Shadow pattern

2010 8.25 13:00 S

floor pattern reflects the shadow

zoning of sitting position

S

S

N

W

N

35.5°

set cone shape according to sunâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s position

E

S

S

N

W fig.11 section W-E

latitude of Tokyo, Japan

cut this corn and make base surface

section N-S

section W-E

56


Form Generation / Assembling We used the Rhinocerous/Grasshopper software for form generating. First, we triangulated and extruded the surface from these triangles. To do this we (01) checked the shadow which the surface creates,(02) used grasshopper for part of fabrication, and (03) made the triangular units from sheets of plywood. Finally, we put the less than 10 sheets of fins in each unit.

Grasshopper definition_01: All triangles can be extruded towards the point on floor. But, each unit has a different height.

plywood after CNC cutting Grasshopper definition_02: We can simulate the patterns of shadow according to the time.

Grasshopper definition_03: This shows how we connect each unit together. This can provide the infomation of bolt holes in the unit.

plywood after CNC cutting

57


DESIGN CONCEPT

“Fins” for controlling sunlight

Interior/Exterior, Regular/Irregular The external surface of the pavilion forms a smooth continuous curvature while the internal surface is irregular , with differing depths of the triangular units. These 192 units composing the entire structure posed a challenge for the strength of the connections due to their wide range of angles.In the everchanging interior conditions, the plan is also transfigured over time.

a b c

“Units“ for generating shadow pattern

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58


08 Multinational Market

Type of project: Graduation project in undergraduate school Prof: Motomu Uno Award: 2nd prize in departmnt of architecture, Tokyo University of Science Exhibition: Selected, The 33rd Architectural Students excellent design exhibition/JAPAN

60


SITE The site is in Shin-Okubo, Toyko, JAPAN. Shin-Okubo is known as the one of the biggest Korean towns in Japan. In fact, here live a lot of immigrants from not only Korea but also China, India, Nepal and so on. And, their numbers are becoming even more widespread. However, they tend to have their territory according to their nationalities. As a result, it is difficult for them to communicate across nationalities. In this project, I proposed the multinational market which can mix the people. This space is one continuous space without any division. However, the mixture of different types of columns can attract people and make them communicate in the space.

01_site city

as

void

of

02_composition by grid of wall

03_composition by grid of column

04_continuous interior space

05_mixture of different grids


PROGRAM The site is the elongated blank space alongside the railway. The length of the site is around 200m. The city of Shin-Okubo still remains the city block which is divided into the very small scale of the â&#x20AC;&#x153;Edoâ&#x20AC;? era. This is why there is no square or open space for communication. And, the shops of various countries are scattered in the city. The site is next to the station and center to this area. For these reasons, by changing the open space into the market it can collect various kinds of markets in here.

market, view from south

Shin-Okubo, Tokyo, JAPAN

01_yamanote line and chuo line

02_arterial road and small paths

03_narrow and small city block

04_dense and various types of building

05_the point where immigrants locate

06_site for multinational market 0 50 100

shin-okubo station 250

500

market, view from north-east

62


PROCESS (COLUMN) In markets, columns and wall can define selling spaces. And, Columns can have more flexibility for user compared to walls. In the research of traditional markets, I realized that the column can cause different activities according to their size and their span. Sometimes, the column can collect the user and furniture as point of origin. Or, it can change the customerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s movement in the market. I apply four different types of the grid of column into the site according to the activity or the types of shop.

1

division for zone

zone type 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 1213 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 of column

2

1

3 4

A B

5 8

7

6

D

9

research of markets in the world 10

12 13

11

2000

size of column 200*200mm

A_basic grid

1

17

19

2

C_flat bar 20

22

23 25

4000

3000

B_corner column of the zone

21

5

6

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13

21

25

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10

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3000

300*300mm

14

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18 100*500mm

3000

path creation of cnter conflict of grid

16

2500

2000

2000

C

26 50*1600mm

D_partition column

3

11 7

27 28 4

8

12

15

16

19

20

application of different to 28 zones / removal of the column for making paths

23

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27

28

63


SPACE COMPOSITION As the market is covered by the ceiling, the spatial experience can be continuously connected. However, the grid of column and the inclination of ceiling can define the character of each space. Since the market needs circulation for cars and people, some of the columns are removed. And, according to the relationship between path and surrounding environment, the functions of zones can be decided. The functions of market include the specific selling space, food court, outdoor space and so on.

ceiling

column ceiling

plan 1/200

outdoor meat/fish zone

prepared food vegetable food court spice market neigbor building

section 1/200

64


PUBLICATION

EXHIBITION / PRESENTATION

01_GSAPP+UTDA Summer Workshop Digital Teahouse Ocotber issue of SHINKENCHIKU, 2011

01_Digital Tea House exhbition in LIVING DESIGN CENTER OZONE, 21th Oct - 26th Oct 2010

02_“Digital Tea House” January issue of Domus,2011

02_ Arch-Neering Design Exhibiton2012,17th Nov-25th Nov, 2012

03_ http://www.domusweb.it/en/design/hello-design-/

04_ http://www.domusweb.it/en/architecture/digitaltea-houses/

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01

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03_ALGODE International Symposium on Algorithmic Design for Architecture and Urban Design “nihonbashi_0”, 14th Mar -16th Mar 2011

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Profile for Taichi Kuma

Soft Architecture / Taichi Kuma  

Material experience for spatial application.

Soft Architecture / Taichi Kuma  

Material experience for spatial application.

Profile for taikuma
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