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Morphological Analysis Collingwood, Melbourne

1858, 1890, 2015

Tahj Rosmarin Shaping of Urban Design University of Melbourne


Tahj Rosmarin. s731906.

The Shaping of Urban Design. ABPL 90316.


Morphological Analysis Collingwood, Melbourne

1858, 1890, 2015

Tahj Rosmarin

Regular Spread Publishers Š 2015, University of Melbourne


Table of Contents

Part One: Introduction 1 Introduction: The Site 2 Morphological Layers 3 Theoretical Framework 4 Urban Timeline

............................................... ............................................... ............................................... ...............................................

Part Two: Analysis 5 Street Structure ............................................... 6 Property Boundaries ............................................... 7 Built Form ............................................... 8 Building Heights ............................................... 9 1885 ............................................... 10 1890 ............................................... 11 2015 ...............................................

Part Three: Typologies 12 13 15 14

Typologies ............................................... City as Art ............................................... City as Machine ............................................... City as Text ...............................................

Johnston Street

Source: Tahj Rosmarin Tahj Rosmarin. s731906.

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Part Four: Case Study 15 Johnston Street ............................................... 16 1885 Section ............................................... 17 2015 Section ...............................................

Part Five: Conclusion 18 Conclusion ............................................... 19 Reference List ...............................................

00. Tahj Rosmarin. s731906.

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01.

Introduction Tahj Rosmarin. s731906.

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Sturt Street

Source: Tahj Rosmarin Tahj Rosmarin. s731906.

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Introduction The Site

“A city…is like the layers of a coral reef in which each generation constructs the characteristic stony skeleton as a contribution to the growing yet dying and wearying whole”

COLLINGWOOD

-Patrick Geddes

Cities are extremely complex and chaotic entities. As such, it is only through rigorous morphological analysis, that one is able to truly understand their significance. Through the process of separating a city into its morphological layers, periods of key theoretical influence are able to be identified and understood. The city of Melbourne is a city that has undergone immense morphological change since its formation. From its initial establishment that came with the Hoddle Grid, Melbourne has transformed into a hybrid-city: a morphed urban landscape whereby its original Victorian urban planning is placed into contrast with Modernist and contemporary planning principles.

Figure One: Location of Collingwood in comparison to the Hoddle Grid and Melbourne CBD Source: Tracing of Google Earth image

Specifically, the suburb of Collingwood is a precinct which typifies this amalgamated application of urban design theory, so commonly witnessed throughout Melbourne. Since the first subdivision of lots in 1838, Collingwood’s urban landscape has borne witness to rapid morphological change: from its days as an industrial powerhouse, to a poverty stricken slum, and eventually into a gentrified and sought after inner-city suburb. The following report will aim to unpack the morphological transformation of a large portion of Collingwood. The history of the chosen site (bordered by Hoddle Street to its east, Wellington Street to its west, Gipps Street to its south and Johnston Street to its north) reflects key periods of urban design theories that were put to practice in the typical Australian city.

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Figure Two: Site location. Bordered by Gipps, Johnston, Hoddle and Wellington Street Source: Google Earth image

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Morphological Layers 1853,1890,2015

Through analyzing the morphological layers of Collingwood’s urban fabric, one is able to distinguish the application of key urban design theorems. Even in its current state, one is able to trace historical methodologies that have been applied in the suburb (See Figure ?). As a way of understanding the theoretical urban design principles applied in Collingwood, the following report compares and contrasts three historical layers of information: 1853, 1890 and 2015. Figure Three: Victorian era Source: Google Earth

This report will aim to draw linkages between the urban landscape of each historical layer and the influential urban design theories that it correlates to. Specifically, three eras of urban design thought apply to Collingwood’s urban history. They will be referred to as:

1.

1888 1889 1909 Figure Four: Modernist era Source: Google Earth

Joseph Stubben, ‘ Stadtebau’ Camillo Sitte, ‘Der Stadtebau’ Raymond Unwin, ‘ Town Planning in Practice- The Art of Designing Cities’

2. 1920-1960: The City as Machine

1900 1918 1924 1935

1890-1920: The City as Art

Ebenezer Howard, ‘ Garden City’ Tony Garnier, ‘ Industrielle City’ Le Corbusier, ‘ Radiant City’ Frank Lloyd Wright, ‘ Agrarian City’

3. 1960-2000: The City as Text

1961 Jane Jacobs, ‘ The Life and Death of Great American Cities’ 1961 Gordon Cullen, ‘ Townscape’ 1977 Christopher Alexander, ‘ City is not a Tree’ Figure Five: Industrial era Source: Google Earth

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Figure Six: Context of site Source: Tahj Rosmarin

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Theoretical Framework Influential Thinkers

1890-1920: The City as Art The first period of urban theory applicable to Collingwood, is the City as Art period. The influence of the European city can be clearly read in this time-frame: it’s visually aesthetic and hierarchical design principles laid the original foundations of this suburb. The theories proposed in the writings of Camillo Sitte, specifically his book ‘ City Planning according to Artistic Principles ’ can be compared to this period of Collingwood’s history. The work of other theorists, such as Raymond Unwin and Hegemann and Peets, can also be linked to this period of Collingwood’s urban growth. Figure Seven: Camillo Sitte Source: Wikipedia

1920-1960: The City as Machine The second period of urban design theory that can be read in Collingwood’s history is the City as Machine period. This period’s influence upon Collingwood can be broken into two elements: the emergence of industrial building typologies and the application of Modernist planning principles.

Figure Eight: Le Corbusier Source: Wikipedia

With its working class social status, Collingwood proved to be perfectly suited to welcome the industrial revolution. The suburb began to abandon its picturesque qualities, and instead apply an industrial and commercial attitude to its urban fabric. A strong link can be made to the work of Ebenezer Howard, specifically his ‘ Garden City’ planning principles, which no doubt influenced this shift in attitude towards urban theory. This City as Machine period reached boiling point with the construction of the large social housing towers which currently dominate the suburb. These buildings are an obvious manifestation of the architectural concepts of key Modernist thinkers, most obviously Le Corbusier. Their free-standing and rational nature can be directly related to Le Corbusier’s ‘ Radiant City’ .

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1960-2000: The City as Text The final period of urban design theory, the City as Text, is a movement that gained prominence as a reaction to the harshness of Modernism. During this period, Collingwood’s urbanism saw a return to the walkable and picturesque qualities it first aspired towards. Specifically, the work of Jane Jacobs, and her book ‘ The Life and Death of Great American Cities ’ can be related to this period of Collingwood’s urban gentrification.

Figure Nine: Jane Jacobs Source: Wikipedia

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Urban Timeline 1858, 1890, 1920 1980, 2015

CITY AS ART

1885

Collingwood 1858, Clement Hodgkinson. Source: Collingwood Historical Society

Collingwood, compiled by C. Woodhouse. Source: Collingwood Historical Society

Looking down Smith Street, 1800’s Source: Victorian State Library

Looking down Johnston Street, 1850’s Source: Victorian State Library

1858: Origins

1885: Densification

Collingwood’s origins can be traced with Clement Hodginkson’s survey in 1858. Subdivision had already occurred, and key urban design theories were applied.

With the rise of the Gold Rush in Australia, Collingwood’s urban fabric densified. Churches and civic buildings began to be erected, while streets became retail boulevards influenced by the European city.

Raymond Unwin

Camillo Sitte

Urban Design Theories

History of the site

1858


CITY AS MACHINE

1921

Published by Anderson, Gowan Pty. Ltd. Source: Collingwood Historical Society

CITY AS TEXT

1980

City of Collingwood Map, 1980’s Source: Collingwood Historical Society

2015

Google Earth image 2015 Source: Google Earth image

1921: Industry

1980: Post-Modernism

2015: Walkability

Collingwood’s working class social ranking allowed for the industrial revolution to influence its urban fabric. Warehouses were built and industry became a vital element of the suburb’s character.

This period of history was still coming to terms with its Modernist past. The erection of the social housing towers in the 1960’s completely altered the urban fabric of the suburb until this day.

Collingwood is now a suburb that is a reminder of its turbulent urban history. It’s gentrification has encouraged new types of development which promote walkability and the human scale.

Jane Jacobs

Smith Street, 2015 Source: Tahj Rosmarin

Le Corbusier

Collingwood Housing Commission Source: Victorian State Library

Ebenezer Howard

Foy and Gibson Factories Source: Victorian State Library


02. Analysis


Street Structure

Hoddle Stre et

Wellington Street

1.

1858: The European City

Johnston St reet

Gipps Street

The original hierarchy of Collingwood’s street structure consisted of three street types: main streets, typical suburban streets and service laneways. Main streets, such as Wellington and Johnston Street, acted as civic spaces. These axial boulevards consisted of retail and commercial functions and were no doubt influenced by the boulevards of the European city. This aesthetic approach to the ‘street’ is typical of this time period- whereby main streets created spaces for public gatherings and high street-edge pedestrian activity, often providing visual connectivity to civic monuments. The zoning of this street network is reminiscent of Ebenezer Howard’s ‘Garden City’ proposal- whereby streets are arranged from boulevards to residential streets.

Figure Ten: Ebenezer Howard’s Garden City Source: (Howard and Osborn, 1965)

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Hoddle Stre et

Wellington Street

2.

1885: Subdivision of blocks

Johnston St reet

Gipps Street

Since its densification, the introduction of laneways in 1885, was a direct result of the subdivision of the building allotments. The lack of proper public transport infrastructure encouraged pedestrian activity within suburb, resulting in smaller building blocks and a more permeable street network. Jane Jacobs favored this approach to planning in her book ‘The Death and Life of Great American Cities’ , whereby pedestrian permeability was essential to the construction of a successful urban fabric. The subdivision of blocks in Collingwood manifested this concept: whereby blocks became short and therefore increased pedestrian activity.

Figure Eleven: Jane Jacobs illustrating short blocks Source: (Jacobs, n.d.)

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Street Structure

Since the industrial revolution in the 1900’s, the street network of Collingwood changed to accommodate an industrial urban fabric. The following quote from Andrew C Ward and Associates clearly explains this shift in attitude: Hoddle Stre et

Wellington Street

3.

1921: The Industrial City

Johnston St reet

Gipps Street

“By 1924, lanes which had once hidden a ‘criminal class’ were lined by factories rather than cottages. Shopkeepers who had once been outraged by Collingwood larrikins…had fled to new suburbs across the river. Fewer hotels stood at street corners. Melburnians moved about by tram or train or by car rather than on foot” 1 This altered street hierarchy was a direct result of the Industrial Revolution and reflects ideologies proposed in Tony Garnier’s ‘Cite Industrielle’ . Similar to Ebenezer Howard, Garnier’s proposal aimed at zoning the city into constituent elements, combining industry and public space. The re-introduction of large blocks to accomodate the social housing projects of the 1960’s also reflects the Modernist planning principles of Le Corbusier’s ‘ Radiant City ’, whereby buildings were surrounded by open space.

Figure Twelve: Tony Garnier’s ‘Cite Industrielle’ Source: (Garnier and Siderakis, 1989)

1

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(Andrew C Ward and Associates)

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Hoddle Stre et

Wellington Street

4.

2015: Walkable Neighbourhood

Johnston St reet

Gipps Street

Since the implementation of Modernist plannnig, Collingwood’s street network has seen a return to its original walkable qualities. Laneways have been re-introduced, and pedestrian activity is generally encouraged. The following quote from heritage architect Andrew C Ward summarizes this approach:

“With places of employment and business enterprises close at hand, and the city proper within reasonable walking distance, Collingwood residents did not require extensive public transport services…In this respect, Collingwood still exhibits ‘walking city’ characteristics” 1 The writings of Kevin Lynch in his book ‘The Image of the City’ reflect this aproach- whereby neighbourhoods are devised according to distinguishable elements such as paths, edges, districts, nodes and landmarks.

Figure Thirteen: Kevin Lynch’s ‘Image of the City’ Source: (Lynch, 1960)

1

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(Andrew C Ward and Associates)

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Property Boundaries

1858: Large Plot Sizes In 1938, Collingwood was originally subdivided into 12 ha allotments. Purchasers of these lots, subdivided these lots further for resale so that my 1858, most lots had been subdivided already. This subdivision encouraged the construction of small buildings and a dense urban fabric.

Figure Fourteen: Property Outlines Source: Collingwood 1858, Clement Hodgkinson.

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2015: Subdivided Plot Sizes The gentrification of Collingwood has called for the subdivision of different lots depending on their functional use. Johnston Street has become a competitive commercial hub- calling for the subdivision of property for maximum street frontage. The Collingwood Housing Estate dominates a large property outline- a remnant of the Modernist period.

Figure Fifteen: Property Outlines Source: Victoria Planning. http://www.dtpli.vic.gov.au/planning

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Property Boundaries

Figure Sixteen: Colloquially referred to as the ‘Doll’s House’, this house was located within Collingwood during the 1800’s. As a result of subdivision of plot sizes, it is now known as the smallest house in Australia. Source: Collingwood Historical Society

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Dight Street 33 feet wide

Rokeby Street 33 feet wide

Campbell Street 33 feet wide

Rupert Street 33 feet wide

Sturt Street

Cromwell Street

Figure Seventeen: This diagram demonstrates the extent of subdivision that occured in the area. This urban fabric is still able to be noticed in Campbell Street to this day. Source: City of Collingwood, lith no 00158, 1873

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Built Form

1858: Scattered Urban Fabric Subdivision encouraged the building of small residential components. However, the small grain size suggests that a high urban density was a rational and planned objective, encouraged by governmental authorities.

Figure Eighteen: Built Fabric Source: Collingwood 1858, Clement Hodgkinson.

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1890: Densification The Yarra River, alongside the Gold Rush encouraged densification to occur throught the Collingwood Flat. The built form from this era can be linked towards the urban planning principles of Camillo Sitte and Raymond Unwin. Informal built form encourages a village-like atmosphere, whereby pedestrian access is a major component.

Figure Nineteen: Built Fabric Source: 1890 MBW Plan

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2.

2015: Mix-Function Urban Fabric Since the 1980’s, Collingwood has undergone immense gentrification. It’s current built form is representative of many eras of urban design thought. Building typologies range from Victorian, to Industrial, to Modernist and contemporary.

Figure Twenty: Built Fabric Source: Victoria Planning. http://www.dtpli.vic.gov.au/planning

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Built Form

Village-like: Dight and Campbell Streets The built fabric of the 1800’s can be clearly related to the concepts proposed by such theorists as Raymond Unwin, Camillo Sitte and Gordon Cullen. Specifically, the built form of Campbell and Dight Street contain a unique urban character that is similar to a Medieval village. Buildings are quaint and are variations of a similar typology. Despite its repetitive nature, the street appears as a walkable and picturesque sequence.

Figure Twenty One: A picturesque sequence from Raymond Unwin Source: (Unwin, 1971)

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Figure Twenty Two: 1890 Figure ground Map Source: Collingwood Historical Society

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Civic Buildings: Location of churches The key presence of civic buildings in the 1800’s, such as schools and churches, can be clearly related to the City as Art period. Churches acted as picturesque public gathering spaces. They introduced a sense of monumentality within the built fabric and introduced a hierarchy of building typologies.

1890

Figure Twenty Three: 1890 Figure ground Map showing locations of churches Churches/Key Public Buildings Source: Collingwood Historical Society

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Figure Twenty Four: A church located on Wellington Street Source: Tahj Rosmarin

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Building Heights

1858: Super Low Rise Originally, Collingwood’s building heights did not exceed two storeys. Construction was dominated by Victorian and Edwardian terrace houses that rarely exceeded two storeys.

5+ 2-5 0-2 Figure Twenty Five: Built Fabric Source: Collingwood 1858 Clement Hodgkinson.

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1890: Low Rise and High Rise

2015: Low Rise and High Rise

During the densification of Collingwood, building heights were still low rise. Most residential components never exceed two storeys, while civic buildings such as churches and community halls towered above the rest.

The urban fabric of the area is now dominated by large housing towers, medium sized industrial warehouses and small fine grain residential components.

Figure Twenty Six: Built Fabric Source: 1890 MBW Plan

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Figure Twnety Seven: Built Fabric Source: Victoria Planning.

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1858

1858: The City as Art In summary, the urban fabric of Collingwood in 1885 can be most correlated to the urban design theories of Camillo Sitte, Raymond Unwin and Ebenezer Howard. Low building heights, combined with a high density and conscious street hierarchy make reference to the ‘Garden City’ models proposed by Unwin and Ebenezer. The subdvision of lots encouraged a fine grain development which was planned.

Camillo Sitte

This scattered built form is reminiscent of the type of city Camillo Sitte’s foregrounded: whereby picturesque and village-like qualities were at the forefront.

Raymond Unwin

Ebenezer Howard

Figure Twenty Eight: A picturesque sequence Source: (Sitte, 1965)

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1890

1890: The City as Art The City as Text The morphological layer of Collingwood in 1890 further relates to the City as Art period. Densfication encouraged the further subdivision of lots and as a result morphed the street network. Alongside creating a more picturesque sequence, the introduction of laneways also resulted in a more permeable built fabric. This type of environment, whereby pedestrian walkability was a key aspect, is favoured in the works of authors as Jane Jacobs and Leon Krier. Camillo Sitte

The construction of key civic spaces acted as public meeting spaces, while the further subdivision of blocks represented private development.

Raymond Unwin

Jane Jacobs

Leon Krier

Figure Twenty Nine: City being made up of private and public parts Source: (Krier, Thadani and Hetzel, 2009)

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2015

2015: The City as Machine The City as Text The current urban fabric of Collingwood is representative of a ‘collage’ of urban design ideas. In it’s current state, one is most clearly able to read the urban design ideas of Modernism. The construction of large towers that stand freely in space can be most obviously linked to the ideas proposed by Le Corbusier. The following quote from Le Corbusier is highly relevant to this:

Le Corbusier

“A city should be treated by its planner as a blank piece of paper, a clean table-cloth, upon which a single, integrated composition is imposed”.1

Since the influence of Modernism, Collingwood has seen major gentrification and a return to the principles of postmodernist theorists as Jane Jacobs and Colin Rowe.

Jane Jacobs

The re-inhabitation of old buildings, alongside major streetfront activity, related to Jacobs’ belief in ‘eyes on the street’ and a healthy and mixed functional use. 1

Le Corbusier, The City of Tomorrow

Leon Krier

Colin Rowe

Figure Thirty: Collingwood’s urban fabric is now representative of a collage, Source: (Collage City, Rowe and Koetter, 1978)

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Strath Knits MANUFACTORERS OF FASHION KNITWEAR

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03.

Typologies


Typologies of Collingwood Source: Tahj Rosmarin


Typologies

1800’s-2000’s: Typological Variations

1.

Figure Thirty One: Victorian Residence/Commercial Source: Tahj Rosmarin

2.

Over time, many different building typologies were employed to construct Collingwood’s urban fabric. In fact, just through reading the different typologies which currently exist, one is able to gain an understandng of the morphological history of the suburb. In it current urban form, three major typologies make up Collingwood. They are buildings from the Victorian and Edwardian period (original developments), buildings from the age of industry, and buildings from the Modernist period. The following chapter aims to summarise a few key buildings that are typical of the majority of Collingwood’s building types.

Figure Thirty Two: Industrial Shed Source: Tahj Rosmarin

3.

Figure Thirty Three: Modernist Source: Tahj Rosmarin

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Figure Thirty Four: Building types of Collingwood Source: Tahj Rosmarin

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Typologies City as Art

1890-1920: Picturesque Building typologies from this period can be seperated into two broad categories: 1. Private (relating to residences and small commercial) 2. Civic (relating to key civic buildings such as churches) The buildings were generally very well constructed, employing clear architectural design motifs that were present at the time.

Figure Thirty Five: Typical typologies of Fitzroy Source: State Library of Victoria

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Figure Thirty Six: Collingwood Town Hall (left) and Sturt Street houses (right) Source: Tahj Rosmarin

Figure Thirty Seven: Context of site during 1800’s Source: State Library of Victoria

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Typologies City as Art

1885-1890: Collingwood Town Hall The Collingwood Town Hall is a magnificent civic space that dominated over the urban fabric of Collingwood. It was designed by architect George R. Johnson who designed many civic buildings in Melbourne.

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1870’s: Sturt Street Victorian Housing These worker’s cottages are typical of this period. They are a result of the subvision of Collingwood during the mid 1800’s whereby lots were made smaller and smaller. Althought the pattern is repeated down the street, individual character is found in each of the houses, reminiscent of a Medieval village.

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Typologies City as Machine

1920-1960: Efficiency Buildings from this time period are probably the most visible in Collingwood’s current urban fabric. Large industrial warehouses, such as the Foy and Gibson factories (opposite) were rampant during the early 1900’s. The rise of Modernism inspired an efficient and functional method of housing the masses. No doubt inspired by Le Corbusier’s Radiant City model, large social housing towers were constructed and still dominate the site to this day.

Figure Thirty Eight: The Radiant City Source: (Le Corbusier, 1925)

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Figure Thirty Nine: Foy and Gibson Factories at their peak Source: State Library of Victoria

Figure One: Context of site Source: Google Earth Tahj Rosmarin. s731906.

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Typologies City as Machine

1920: Strath Knits Factory Industrial building such as these were increasingly built during the Industrial Revolution. Varying trades existed in Collingwood during this period. Factories such as this one have now been re-purposed and are host to many new retail and residential purposes.

Strath Knits MANUFACTORERS OF FASHION KNITWEAR

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1960: Housing Commission Towers The erection of the social housing towers in the 1960’s by the Housing Commission, reflect the key concepts of Modernism. These towers obliterated the existing fabric of the site, and tower over the inner city suburbs of Melbourne.

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Typologies City as Text

1960-2000’s: Pedestrian focus Since the construction of the Modernist social housing towers, Collingwood has undergone a period of immense gentrification. The influx of migrants has resulted in the strengthening of key streets such as Smith Street. This has encouraged a walkable and permeable neighbourhood. During this period, old building typologies have been repurposed and used in inventive and creative ways.

Figure Forty: Smith Street, Collingwood Source: Tahj Rosmarin

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Figure Forty One: Gold Street, Collingwood Source: Tahj Rosmarin

Figure Forty Two: Campbell St, Collingwood Source: Wikipedia

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Typologies City as Text

1910: Johnston Street Retail Retail buildings such as these have been re-purposed and re-allocated. They now are host to functions ranging from residential to retail, encouraging Jane Jacob’s concept of having ‘eyes on the street’.

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1970: Social Housing, Campbell Street These sensitive social housing typologies aim to respect the neighbourhood scale of Campbell Street. They are sensitive in scale and help strengthen the character of the Victorian suburb.

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04.

Case Study: Johnston Street Tahj Rosmarin. s731906.

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Johnston Street 1907

Source: State Library of Victoria Tahj Rosmarin. s731906.

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Johnston Street

1900: Grand Boulevard During the 1900’s, Johnston Street acted as Collingwood’s civic centre: it was planned as a long axial road with retail alongside it. Pavement space was favoured, while a slow tram provided further accessibility to retail. Further, the street was wide and uncongested, encouraging a walkable, village type atmosphere.

Figure Forty Three: Johnston Street, 1900’s Source: State Library of Victoria

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2015: Congested Retail Over the years, Johnston Street’s fabric has changed drastically. The removal of the trams alongside the densification of surrounding suburbs has allowed for a congested street makeup. Despite this, there is still a strong retail component, paired with industrial building typologies.

Figure Forty Four: Johnston Street, today Source: Google Earth

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Johnston Street: 1900

1900: Boulevard During this period, single and double storey Victorian retail shops lined Johnston Street. Street-side canopies further enhanced the pedestrian scape and encouraged a strong retail boulevard.

Retail Tahj Rosmarin. s731906.

Sidewalk

Vehicular The Shaping of Urban Design. ABPL 90316.

Tra


am

Vehicular Tahj Rosmarin. s731906.

Sidewalk

Retail The Shaping of Urban Design. ABPL 90316.


Johnston Street: 2015

2015: Congested retail street The Victorian and Edwardian elements of Johnston Street are still heavily defined, however many industrial warehouses now share the streetscape. The widening of vehicular lanes and removal of the tram network has allowed for heavy traffic to flow along the road.

Light Industrial/ Commercial Tahj Rosmarin. s731906.

Sidewalk

Bus Lane/ Parking

Heavy v

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vehicular Tahj Rosmarin. s731906.

Bus Lane/ Parking

Sidewalk

Retail Residential

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05.

Conclusion Tahj Rosmarin. s731906.

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Collingwood Street Scene Source: Tahj Rosmarin Tahj Rosmarin. s731906.

The Shaping of Urban Design. ABPL 90316.


Conclusion

Throughout its years, Collingwood is a suburb that has undergone rapid morphological transformation. From its early days as a safe-haven for Melbourne’s poor, to its days as an industrial powerhouse, the suburb serves as a reminder of Melbourne’s recent history. It’s current urban fabric is reminiscent of a collage of sorts- a mix-mash of different historical periods in which different urban design theorems were tested. Early Victorian buildings and street defined a very European hierarchy- one that helped provide a framework in which future development could take place. Early Collingwood was envisaged as a dense village, with major streets acting as civic boulevards. This approach to planning was very much in line with European contemporaries as Camillo Sitte, Raymond Unwin and even Ebenezer Howard. The emergence of industry welcomed a new era of urban design thought- one that favoured the machine. Industrial warehouses were scattered around the suburb and helped provide the poor with opportunities to make a living. The influence of Modernism was also felt very strongly and seen as a way of dealing with the ‘so-called’ slum conditions Collingwood experienced post WWII. Large buildings, innapropriate and unaware of their immediate context, were erected as an attempt to solve Collingwood’s growing housing shortage. Since this period, gentrification has seen Collingwood return to it’s previous days as a walkable suburb with a strong character. The re-introduction of laneways suggest a focus upon the pedestrian, while re-purposed buildings have welcomed a healthy functional mix to the suburb.

Tahj Rosmarin. s731906.

The Shaping of Urban Design. ABPL 90316.


Social Housing Towers Source: Tahj Rosmarin Tahj Rosmarin. s731906.

The Shaping of Urban Design. ABPL 90316.


Reference List

Books: 1. Garnier, T. and Siderakis, K. (1989). Une citĂŠ industrielle. New York: Princeton Architectural Press. 2. Howard, E. and Osborn, F. (1965). Garden cities of to-morrow. Cambridge, Mass.: M.I.T. Press. 3. Jacobs, J. (n.d.). The Death and Life of Great American Cities. 4. Le Corbusier, (1967). The radiant city. New York: Orion Press. 5. Lynch, K. (1960). The image of the city. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. 6. Unwin, R. (1971). Town planning in practice. New York: B. Blom. 7. Rowe, C. and Koetter, F. (1978). Collage city. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. 8. Krier, L., Thadani, D. and Hetzel, P. (2009). The architecture of community. Washington, DC: Island Press. 9. Sitte, C. (1965). City planning according to artistic principles. New York: Random House.

Tahj Rosmarin. s731906.

The Shaping of Urban Design. ABPL 90316.


Vere Street, Collingwood Source: Tahj Rosmarin Tahj Rosmarin. s731906.

The Shaping of Urban Design. ABPL 90316.

Collingwood Morphology  
Collingwood Morphology  
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