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AkzidenzGrotesk 1

Akzidenz-Grotesk a type specimen


Akzidenz-Grotesk a type specimen

AkzidenzGrotesk Akzidenz-Grotesk a type specimen


meet the typeface


meet the cousins


Akzidenz in Swiss Design Swiss Typographic Style Turns New Wave


Weingart, Odermatt & Tissi 39 Redefine Swiss Style A Swiss Font Face-Off: Akzidenz-Grotesk versus Helvetica


Akzidenz in Use




Image & Caption Index




meet the typeface

meet the typeface

Akzidenz-Grotesk Light

A mad boxer shot a quick, gloved jab to the jaw of his dizzy opponent. Akzidenz-Grotesk Light Italic

A mad boxer shot a quick, gloved jab to the jaw of his dizzy opponent. Akzidenz-Grotesk Regular

A mad boxer shot a quick, gloved jab to the jaw of his dizzy opponent.


12 meet the typeface Akzidenz-Grotesk Medium

A mad boxer shot a quick, gloved jab to the jaw of his dizzy opponent. Akzidenz-Grotesk Medium Italic

A mad boxer shot a quick, gloved jab to the jaw of his dizzy opponent. Akzidenz-Grotesk Bold

A mad boxer shot a quick, gloved jab to the jaw of his dizzy opponent.

meet the typeface Akzidenz-Grotesk Bold Italic

A mad boxer shot a quick, gloved jab to the jaw of his dizzy opponent. Akzidenz-Grotesk Super

A mad boxer shot a quick, gloved jab to the jaw of his dizzy opponent. Akzidenz-Grotesk Super Italic

A mad boxer shot a quick, gloved jab to the jaw of his dizzy opponent.


14 meet the typeface Akzidenz-Grotesk Light Condensed

A mad boxer shot a quick, gloved jab to the jaw of his dizzy opponent. Akzidenz-Grotesk Light Condensed Italic

A mad boxer shot a quick, gloved jab to the jaw of his dizzy opponent. Akzidenz-Grotesk Condensed

A mad boxer shot a quick, gloved jab to the jaw of his dizzy opponent. Akzidenz-Grotesk Condensed Italic

A mad boxer shot a quick, gloved jab to the jaw of his dizzy opponent.

meet the typeface Akzidenz-Grotesk Medium Condensed

A mad boxer shot a quick, gloved jab to the jaw of his dizzy opponent. Akzidenz-Grotesk Medium Condensed Italic

A mad boxer shot a quick, gloved jab to the jaw of his dizzy opponent. Akzidenz-Grotesk Bold Condensed

A mad boxer shot a quick, gloved jab to the jaw of his dizzy opponent. Akzidenz-Grotesk Bold Condensed Italic

A mad boxer shot a quick, gloved jab to the jaw of his dizzy opponent.


16 meet the typeface Akzidenz-Grotesk Light Extended

A mad boxer shot a quick, gloved jab to the jaw of his dizzy opponent. Akzidenz-Grotesk Light Extended Italic

A mad boxer shot a quick, gloved jab to the jaw of his dizzy opponent. Akzidenz-Grotesk Extended

A mad boxer shot a quick, gloved jab to the jaw of his dizzy opponent.

meet the typeface Akzidenz-Grotesk Extended Italic

A mad boxer shot a quick, gloved jab to the jaw of his dizzy opponent. Akzidenz-Grotesk Medium Extended

A mad boxer shot a quick, gloved jab to the jaw of his dizzy opponent.


18 meet the typeface Akzidenz-Grotesk Medium Extended Italic

A mad boxer shot a quick, gloved jab to the jaw of his dizzy opponent. Akzidenz-Grotesk Bold E

A mad boxer shot a quick, gloved jab to the jaw of his dizzy opponent.

meet the typeface Akzidenz-Grotesk Bold Extended Italic

A mad boxer shot a quick, gloved jab to the jaw of his dizzy opponent. Akzidenz-Grotesk's metal type family shows considerable inconsistencies, and has been reported to include fonts made by a range of foundries. The use of Akzidenz-Grotesk and similar “grotesque” typefaces dipped slightly from the late 1920s due to the arrival of fashionable new “geometric” sans-serifs such as Erbar, Futura and Kabel. In the post-war period and particularly in Switzerland a revival began of use of the genre, which was considered to be particularly “neutral” and even; Akzidenz-Grotesk was particularly popular although other typefaces such as Monotype Grotesque were used also. This style often contrasted Akzidenz-Grotesk with photographic art, and did not use all caps as much as many older posters. Graphic designers of the period found “industrial” sans-serifs like Akzidenz-Grotesk appealingly neutral in contrast to the more eccentric, purely geometric sans-serifs of the inter-war period. By the 1960s, Berthold could claim in its type specimens that the design was: a type series which has proved itself in practice for more than 70 years and has held its ground to the present day against all comers— wherever one sees graphics and advertising of an international standard— starting a revival in Switzerland in recent years, Akzidenz-Grotesk has progressed all over the world and impressed its image in the typography of our time. With the end of mass use of metal type, Akzidenz-Grotesk has been rereleased and adapted in versions for phototypesetting and digital technologies. Contemporary versions of AkzidenzGrotesk descend from a late-1950s project, directed by Jimmy Lazar at Berthold, to enlarge the typeface family, adding a larger character set, but retaining all of the idiosyncrasies of the 1898 face. Under the direction of Günter Gerhard Lange, he had designed 33 font styles to the Akzidenz-Grotesk family, including AG Extra (1958), AG Extra Bold (1966) and AG Super (1968), AG Super Italic (2001) and Extra Bold italic (2001).


meet the cousins

meet the cousins



Originally designed in 1896, and forerunner to Helvetica, Akzidenz was part of a family of early sans-serifs called ‘grotesques’, designed in the 19th century and the first decade or two of the 20th. Many of these typefaces had only capitals or existed only in centuriesold specimen books, but a number of them are still quite commonly used. These typefaces tend to be very idiosyncratic, with awkward weight distribution around bowls of characters and irregular curves. The style became more sophisticated over the course of the 19th century. Perhaps the finest sample of this category appeared in the Berthold Type Foundry’s 1896 release of Akzidenz-Grotesk, which, along with Schelter Grotesk (1886), served as an archetype for many NeoGrotesques, most notably Neue Haas Grotesk and Univers. Examples of typefaces within the Grotesque category include Franklin Gothic, and Monotype Grotesque. The capital G in a Grotesque is usually spurred, and the British Standards specifies a curled leg on the capital R, although that is not apparent in many typefaces of the period. They tend to display some variation in the thickness of strokes, but the contrast does not show calligraphic influence or a logical pattern. The style became more sophisticated over the course of the 19th century. Perhaps the finest sample of this category appeared in the Berthold Type Foundry’s 1896 release of Akzidenz-Grotesk, which, along with Schelter Grotesk (1886), served as an archetype for many Neo-Grotesques, most notably Neue Haas Grotesk and Univers. From top to bottom: the letterform ‘G’ in - Akzidenz-Grotesk - Neue Haas Grotesk - Univers - Franklin Gothic - Monotype Grotesque

24 meet the cousins Interestingly enough, it has been postulated that Akzidenz-Grotesk may be based on Walbaum or Didot. Despite looking extremely different at first glance, a simple comparison of the basic forms shows that the metrics are very similar1. Akzidenz-Grotesk is usually at first glance mistaken for the Helvetica or Univers typefaces. The similarities of Helvetica and Akzidenz-Grotesk are apparent, but the subtle differences include the uppercase and lowercase C, uppercase G, R, and Q2. Aside from the subtle differences in these individual letters, Miedinger’s primary change to Akzidenz-Grotesk is Helvetica’s higher x-height, the distance from the baseline to the height of the lowercase letter x, and the consistently horizontal terminals3. The general effect is that Helvetica appears more oblong while AkzidenzGrotesk maintains circular counters and bowls. Both Helvetica and Univers are more regular and have a greater consistency of stroke weight and details. The Swiss digital type foundry Optimo has released an alternative digitisation of Akzidenz-Grotesk named “Theinhardt”. Erik Spiekermann has praised this as the best AkzidenzGrotesk digitisation. Spiekermann has also released with Ralph du Carrois a very loose digitsation of Akzidenz Grotesk, FF Real, in two optical sizes, with variant features like a two-storey ‘g’ and ligatures. Linotype sells a version of AkzidenzGrotesk under the name Basic Commercial. This is based on Linotype’s digitization of the typeface;

1. A comparison between Akzidenz-Grotesk and Didot. Although the two look vastly different (Akzidenz-Grotesk being sans-serif and Didot being serif), the basic letterforms share similar shapes.

meet the cousins


Linotype uses a different name to avoid trademark infringement. However, as of 2008, Linotype’s online store also sells AkzidenzGrotesk and other Berthold variants under the original names.

Above 2. A comparison between Akzidenz-Grotesk and its successor, Helvetica. Akzidenz-Grotesk is usually at first glance mistaken for the Helvetica typefaces. The similarities of Helvetica and Akzidenz-Grotesk are apparent, but the subtle differences include the uppercase and lowercase C, uppercase G, R, and Q. On Right 3. Transport is a sans serif typeface first designed for road signs in the United Kingdom. It was created between 1957 and 1963 by Jock Kinneir and Margaret Calvert as part of their work as designers for the Department of Transport’s Anderson and Worboys committees. Two forms of the typeface exist; Transport Medium and Transport Heavy. Both have the same basic form, but Transport Heavy is boldface, to allow easier readability of black letters on white backgrounds, such as those used on non-primary roads, while Transport Medium is lighter, and is used for white letters on dark backgrounds, such as the green primary route signs. On the right is an example of the latter. The Transport typefaces are the only ones allowed on UK road signs (except for motorway signs, where route numbers appear in their own separate typeface known as Motorway). Only a limited number of symbols are available in Transport, mainly those commonly used in road signs, such as apostrophes, the pound sign and certain vulgar fractions. Various diacritics are also available, for use in languages other than English, such as Welsh and Irish.


Much more loosely, Transport, the typeface used on British road signs, was designed by Jock Kinneir and Margaret Calvert influenced by Akzidenz-Grotesk. However, many adaptations and letters influenced by other typefaces were incorporated to increase legibility and make characters more distinct3.

26 meet the cousins From Akzidenz to Transport Britain, by and large, is a place that likes to “make do and mend” and “compromise” with a ruthless application of logic— it’s as apparent in its approach to design as it is to its politics. It is our instinctual national resistance to tackle things head-on that makes Jock Kinneir and Margaret Calvert’s greatest achievement, the signage system they developed for Britain’s roads (first for the country’s new motorways in 1957, and then for its entire network), all the more impressive. By the end of the 1950s, when the first of the British motorways, the M1, was reaching its completion, the country’s road signs were a cluttered, incoherent mess. Kinneir’s starting point for finding a way to guide motorists was not aesthetic, but a search for clarity rooted in basic principles. “What do I want to know when I am trying to read a road sign at speed?” he asked himself. It wasn’t just what the signs looked like, but rather what was on them and where they were positioned. What Kinneir and Calvert eventually came up with was a system of colors, symbols and sizes to guide traffic around even the most complex of road junctions. They used these to create sequences of maps for drivers to orientate themselves effortlessly. Today, their basic conception remains intact, still as modern and as relevant as it was half a century ago. The pair believed a mix of upper and lower case letters offered the most legible combination and created a

Dunstable Luton A505 Abbey Wood Reception Dunstable Luton A505 Abbey Wood Reception Above A back and forth comparison of Akzidenz-Grotesk and Transport, featuring text found on UK roadsigns.

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new typeface for them, a refinement of the more angular Akzidenz-Grotesk they named Transport. At the same time, they worked on a remarkable set of signs to signal hazards, such as level crossings and road works, and to caution drivers as they approached zebra crossings and schools. They were pictograms that come close to works of art rather than technical diagrams used on mainland Europe, or the florid British signs they replaced. The results are masterpieces of clarity and elegance: now so ubiquitous they are almost invisible, yet an essential part of Britain’s identity— a tribute to good manners and an enlightened state patronage. These are qualities that make an example of Kinneir and Calvert’s work a crucial part of the Design Museum’s permanent collection. Their signage has a lot to say about so many aspects of design: from the basic concept of legibility to the emotional qualities that type can convey.

Akzidenz in Swiss Design Swiss Typographic Style Turns New Wave

Swiss Typographic Style Turns New Wave


The Swiss Typography movement, also known as the International Style, surfaced after World War II and was founded on the teachings of the Bauhaus. The movement gained popularity in the 1950’s where its home base was the Basel School of Design in Zurich, Switzerland. Swiss Typography was essentially the end of modernism. At the beginning of the 1960’s, its design aesthetic had been adopted by commercial design worldwide. Because of this, and other reasons, designers starting looking for a more expressive outlet. Swiss Typography Swiss Typography was a sect of the modernist movement. In most all modernist movements, they believed that form follows function. Their approach to design problems was very formal and rational, which made it applicable to wide range of uses. Swiss typographers relied on the use of grid systems to logically, and usually asymmetrically, arrange type and images on the page. Sans serif fonts, especially Akzidenz-Grotesk, were used to clearly communicate with the viewer. They believed these fonts expressed the new progressive era. In general, they believed that type should first and foremost serve its purpose as a conveyer of information. It was rarely used any reason other than function. The main characters of the Swiss era, like Armin Hofmann and Emil Ruder, believed that they, as designers, were an important aspect of the social

32 Swiss Typographic Style Turns New Wave order. They took a universal approach to design, personal expression and creative design solutions were not appreciated. They did not consider themselves artists, but as the links that spread information throughout the society. Several individual designers are considered the forerunners of the development of the Swiss design movement. Ernst Keller, a professor at the Zurich School of Applied Art, was interested in geometric forms, bold color choices, and symbolic images. Theo Ballmer, most aligned with the De Stijl movement, relied on a mathematical grid and geometric typefaces to create formal, harmonized posters. Max Bill, a Bauhaus educated designer, was the author of the Art Concret Manifesto that demanded “universal art of absolute clarity based on arithmetical construction.” As the Swiss style developed, it found its home in two major northern Swiss cities, Zurich and Basel. A major player in the style was Emil Ruder, who joined the faculty of the Basel School of Design in 1947. Ruder was a strict typography professor. He encouraged students to find a balance between form and function, emphasizing legibility and clarity. Ruder was the author of the influential book, Typography: A Manual of Design published in1967. Another key figure was Armin Hoffman, who also joined the Basel School of Design faculty in 1947. Hoffman, a graphic design professor, had similar views as Ruder. His teaching and creative work was characterized by sophisticated aesthetic values and an understanding of form.

On the right Giselle, a poster designed for the Basel theater production. Armin Hoffman, 1959. The contrast between elements is astounding. An organic, kinetic, and soft photographic image contrasts intensely with geometric, static, and hard-edged typographic shapes. The verticality of the poster is emphasized by, first of all, the format, the vertical nature of the photograph and the vertical type. Notice the tight kerning of the letters (the spaces between the letterforms) which, reestablishes the word “Giselle” as one tight, solid entity to be juxtaposed against the almost blurred, soft image of the ballerina.

Swiss Typographic Style Turns New Wave



Swiss Typographic Style Turns New Wave On the left der Film poster alongside grid concept. Josef Müller-Brockmann, 1960. Müller-Brockmann’s design sense of the 1950s and 60s aimed to create posters that communicated with the masses. This was no small feat as the pieces had to communicate across a language barrier, with English, French, German and Italian speaking populations in Switzerland alone. It was the harmony and simplicity of these pieces that influenced a post-war world that had lost the sense of central nationalism and gained a lesson in the need for globalization. Müller-Brockmann was soon established as the leading practitioner and theorist of the Swiss Style, which sought a universal graphic expression through a grid-based design, purged of extraneous illustration and subjective feeling. The grid was the prioritization and arrangement of typographic and pictorial elements with the meaningful use of color, set into a semblance of order, based on left-to-right, top-to-bottom. According to Wikipedia, the grid system is, “a two-dimensional structure made up of a series of intersecting vertical and horizontal axes used to structure content. The grid serves as an armature on which a designer can organize text and images in a rational, easy to absorb manner.” Despite that dry description, the page does go on to add, “After World War II, a number of graphic designers, including Max Bill, Emil Ruder, and Josef Müller-Brockmann, influenced by the modernist ideas of Jan Tschichold’s Die neue Typographie (The New Typography), began to question the relevance of the conventional page layout of the time. They began to devise a flexible system able to help designers achieve coherency in organizing the page. The result was the modern typographic grid that became associated with the International Typographic Style. The seminal work on the subject, Grid systems in graphic design by Müller-Brockmann, helped propagate the use of the grid, first in Europe, and later in North America.” In an interview with Eye Magazine in the winter of 1995 (a year before his death), Müller-Brockmann spoke about what order meant to him: “Order was always wishful thinking for me. For 60 years I have produced disorder in files, correspondence and books. In my work, however, I have always aspired to a distinct arrangement of typographic and pictorial elements, the clear identification of priorities. The formal organization of the surface by means of the grid, a knowledge of the rules that govern legibility (line length, word and letter spacing and so on) and the meaningful use of color are among the tools a designer must master in order to complete his or her task in a rational and economic manner.”


The rules of Swiss typography had become too restraining for his creative spirit. Weingart’s teachings inspired a new generation of graphic designers in Europe and in the United States. Three major disciples of Weingart began practicing New Wave ideas in America: Dan Friedman, April Greiman, and Willi Kunz. These designers rejected the idea of one style of typography. They aspired for artistic creativity and individualistic expression in their design. Ironically, their work was so admired and imitated that it was the basis of the “New Wave” typography in the 1970’s and 1980’s. The characteristics of this anti-movement were letterspaced sans serif type, stair-step rules, diagonal type, dynamic use of space, the use of weight changes or italics within words, and reversed type. Dan Friedman studied at the Basel School from 1968–1970 and was an advocate for a more accepting form of typography. A teacher at Yale University and the Philadelphia College of Art, he taught his students to create unconventional designs that were still functional. April Greiman also studied at Basel, but took her education in a new direction in the United States. She is known for using color and photography in her work. Willi Kunz, a Swiss designer who taught at Basel for a year, rejected the idea of the grid and preferred his designs to grow organically from the design process. His work was typified by diagonal type, mixed weight of letters, and contrasting sizes of photographs. In 1959, Carlo Vivarelli, Richard Paul

36 Swiss Typographic Style Turns New Wave Lohse, Josef Müller-Brockmann and Hans Nueberg founded the journal, New Graphic Design. The publication of this journal spread the Swiss style across continents. It flaunted the ideas and accomplishments of the movement while using the tenets to create a visual specimen of the movement. Eventually the Swiss movement spread to the United States and reached its height there in the 1960’s and 70’s. Rudolph DeHarak was an American designer who embraced the qualities of Swiss style. His work relied on the mathematical grid and asymmetrical compositions. DeHarak was the first American designer to use Akzidenz-Grotesk, acquiring before it was available in the United States. In the 1960’s, Swiss design turned commercial and was adopted by many large corporations and institutions for their graphics. Major companies and governmental institutions were using the sans serif typefaces and graphic elements of the Swiss design to characterize their brands. It is thought by some that the over commercialization of the style led to its downfall. New Wave Typography In 1968, Wolfgang Weingart joined the faculty of the Basel School of Design. Although he was educated in the Swiss style, his teaching and practice began to divert from the school’s teachings. He envisioned a more experimental and expressive style of typography.

Above Radikale Liste 1 poster. Emil Ruder, 1960.

Swiss Typographic Style Turns New Wave

Below A spread taken from Typography Today a book by Helmut Schmid, 1980. Born in Austria as a German citizen, Schmid attended AGS Basel—Allgemeine Gewerbeschule (School of Design) studying under Emil Ruder, Kurt Hauert, and Robert Büchler back in the 1960s. Having completed his studies, he worked in West Berlin and Stockholm, then moved to Montreal to work at Ernst Roch Design. A nomad of the creative world Schmid worked in Dusseldorf designing publicity material for the German government and the chancellors Willy Brandt and Helmut Schmidt from 1973 to 1976. Having moved to Osaka, Japan, since 1977 Schmid opened his own studio in 1981. He designed an outstanding packaging identity for OPC (Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co.), that is still in use today and he has been a lecturer at KDU (Kobe Design University) from 2000 to 2012. Member of AGI (Alliance Graphique Internationale) and ATypI (Association Typographique Internationale) since 1988 Helmut Schmid is sharing his knowledge through numerous articles and essays on typography for international design magazines such as Baseline, Grafisk Revy, Graphic Design, and Idea. In 1980 he edited and designed the successful Typography Today (Seibundo Shinkosha, 1980), republished in 2003 and 2015 with extended pages and material and since 1989 he publishes a series of “Typographic Reflections”—now at vol.11.


New Wave typography soon grew into Post-modernism. Graphic designers were employing all sorts of methods in the creation of their work. Dada photomontage and Swiss grid style were incorporated into the same design. In essence the style became a compilation of all its predecessors. However, these typographers believed in the artistic spontaneity of the creative process. The Swiss days of careful mathematical planning and strict guidelines were long gone and anything was fair game. The transition between the Swiss Typographic Style and Postmodernism is a great example of the old saying that “rules are meant to be broken.” Swiss Typography created a good set of basic rules for designers to follow when creating formal, clear design. But it also provided a great jumping off point for designers to expand upon.

Akzidenz in Swiss Design

Weingart, Odermatt & Tissi Redefine Swiss Style

Weingart, Odermatt & Tissi Redefine Swiss Style

Above Thinking a type exploration, Wolfgang Weingart, February 6, 1980. The fundamental elements of International Style are: (1) typography—predominately sans serif, (2) images/photography, (3) colour and (4) graphic elements. Weingart sought to challenge these ideals, and thus was born the “Weingart Style”. Weingart exhaustively churned out iterations, cut things up, replaced elements, changed the grid, changed the colours, changed the typeface weight, style, and point size, etc. He would develop a wealth of design options for one single brief, then cross analyse those options and pick the best solution.


The early 1960’s saw designers growing sick of the strict rules of the Swiss Typography school of design. Many factors contributed to this rise of dissent, but some things played larger parts than others. The increase in technology, the shift towards new global and political thinking, and the overuse of the Swiss style in commercial ad campaigns all contributed to the demise. Wolfgang Weingart was an influential teacher and typographer who inspired his students to create more expressive type. He and his followers founded was became know as the New Wave movement. Another team of designers, Siegfried Odermatt and Rosemarie Tissi, expanded on the knowledge they gained from observing the Swiss style. The proved that Modernist ideas can be applied to Postmodernism without sacrificing creativity.

42 Weingart, Odermatt & Tissi Redefine Swiss Style Wolfgang Weingart Wolfgang Weingart was born in Germany, where, at an early age, he discovered his fascination with design. At the age of seventeen, he made his foray into the field of applied art and design. An apprenticeship at Ruwe print several years later introduced him to the ideas of Swiss Typography and his mentor, Karl-August Handke. Handke and others encouraged him to attend the Basel School of Design, the center of the Swiss Typographic movement. After spending several years at the school as a “visiting student,” leaders of the Swiss Typography movement, Armin Hoffman and Emil Ruder, invited him to join the faculty of the school’s graphic design graduate program. As a student, Weingart was interested in experimental typography. While the other students in his class preferred the font Univers, Weingart’s favorite was Akzidenz-Grotesk. Several experimental series, including the Round Compositions and the ‘M’ series were based on his deep understanding of the rules and the technical process of typography. With the development of photo mechanical reproduction, Weingart began experimenting with layers. His work is characterized by expressive, painterly organization of graphics and type. By the end of his long career, Weingart’s work had spanned three eras of typography technology: the letterpress, photo-typesetting, and of course, the computer. Weingart’s faculty position at the Basel School was jeopardized when

Below Round Compositions In 1962, while on a three-year typesetting apprenticeship mentored by Karl-Auguste Hanke, Weingart dropped a type case full of 6-point semi-bold Berthold’s Akzidenz-Grotesk on the floor of Ruwe Printers in Stuttgart. The incident spurred him to consider letterforms as surfaces to be printed, rather than symbols to be configured into legible business cards, letterhead and books. He encircled hundreds of pieces of the fallen lead type with a strip of cardboard and printed the first of many ’round compositions’, a technique he would revisit numerous times, lastly in 1990.

Weingart, Odermatt & Tissi Redefine Swiss Style

he began questioning the rules of the Swiss Typography movement. A letter from Jan Tschiold emphasized that his curiosity was not accepted in the movement. Tschiold wrote “the essence of letterform is not modernity but readability.� Although Weingart felt stifled by the movements strict conventions, he recognized enough good qualities not to abandon it all together. He passed this curiosity on to his students, encouraging them to use the positive components of the


Above February, Wolfgang Weingart, date unknown Since the first day when he arrived at Basel as a student, it was clear that Weingart was a rebel. In a class he had with Armin Hoffmann, the students were asked to work on a line composition using ruling pens. Instead of drawing the lines as he was told, he went over to the type shop and made a contraption that he could use to print lines. Weingart continued to be fascinated by machinery. He produced series of line drawings, such as this one, experimenting with line weight, form, and counterform.

44 Weingart, Odermatt & Tissi Redefine Swiss Style movement as a jumping off point to later exploration. He believed he and his students could start a new era of typography out of creative expression, not formalism. Because of his views, Weingart is considered the father of the “New Wave” movement, and perhaps Post-modern design in general. His typographic experiments served as a model for typography in the 1980’s. In addition to his own work, he left lasting impressions on his students, who carried the “New Wave” idea from Switzerland to the rest of Europe and the United States. The new wave movement strived to bend the rules and find the artistic expression in typography. Weingart says about his teaching approach, “For a design student interested in ideas, the mechanics of typography may be considered boring. I wanted to empart an understanding of typography by teaching traditional skills and revive the spirit of experimentation by divesting typography of its rules.” Odermatt & Tissi Siegfried Odermatt was a self-taught designer, discovered and mentored by Hans Falke before opening his own studio in 1950. His future partner, Rosemarie Tissi had a brief stint at the University of Art and Design Zurich and an apprenticeship, but learned the most about the trade after becoming Odermatt’s partner in 1968. Although predominantly informally educated, the designers were aware of the work being done around them and were thus influenced by the Bauhaus, Swiss Typography,

From top to bottom

J. Burkhardt Backerei Wrapping paper, Rosemarie Tissi, 1973 Designed for a bakery and cake shop.

Prospekteversicherung Siegfried Odermatt, 1960 Odermatt has received numerous international distinctions and awards. His books have several times been among the Best Swiss Books (1986, 1987, 2000). In 1987 his work was among the World’s Most Beautiful Books (Leipzig).

Weingart, Odermatt & Tissi Redefine Swiss Style the Ulm School, and Modernism. Neither Odermatt nor Tissi relied on theories to create their work, but they also did not rely on artistic spontaneity. Although outsiders to the design movements, they absorbed the tenets of the Modernism and took their views into account. Their artwork is concerned with readability and organization, but it stems from an instinctive understanding of design. Type is viewed as a part of the overall composition, and is sometimes used as a focal point, but is never denied its role of conveying information. They incorporate bold color choices and stark contrast in their work, but it never looks haphazardly contrived. These components of their work combine to great an aesthetic that crosses the bounds of movements and generations. Weingart has said of the design duo: “Odermatt and Tissi are doing everything completely different. They see old typefaces anew, find brainwaves in waste scraps and they match unmatchable forms to make powerful designs. The impression, however, is deceptive. For both of them consciously look for the risk to continually challenge themselves, the design medium and their clients. They challenge viewers without overtaxing them, but by no means underestimate them. They treat their audience and their clients with the same respect they show the environment—both literally and visually.”


A Designculture interview with Rosemarie Tissi Recorded November 27, 2014 What is your definition of design? Design is a combination of functionality and aesthetics. What is the purpose of design? The purpose of graphic design is to deliver an information or a message in a package as original and interesting as possible. What are the qualities of good design? It may well carry the designers personal, distinctive mark. This however should never be an end in itself. What are the key features of your design? I have always reduced my design to the essential, employed only few elements and played with the proportions and the empty spaces. I believe that this helped to develop a timeless design aesthetics, owned also to the fact that I hardly ever followed any popular trend. What is the necessary condition to practice design? In the past, you had to be a good draughtsman in order to become a designer. This skill helps to get a better feeling for forms and proportions, but this ability does not seem to matter anymore, as it became obvious in some short graphic design workshops I gave: The students were not able to draw characters. They rely too much on the computer and this tool induces them to employ a maximum of elements and typefaces. What are the differences between art and design? Could design be art? Design has to serve a purpose and therefore it is not art. There are exceptions, for example in case of illustrations or when given free hand in order to convey an atmosphere. To whom is design addressed? Is it for the masses? Everybody should be able to afford good design. Should the products of design be cheap or expensive? It depends on the material they are made of and the production costs. I don’t think it is right that products could be expensive just to emphasize their exclusivity. What job did you want to do in the future as a child? When I was little, I wanted to become a gardener, mainly because I loved to be outdoors. Later on I was fascinated by chemistry as I believed that in this profession I would be able to make inventions. Now I make inventions on paper. Thank you very much. Thank you.

Akzidenz in Swiss Design

A Swiss Font Face-Off: Akzidenz-Grotesk versus Helvetica

A Swiss Font Face-Off: Akzidenz-Grotesk versus Helvetica


The development of sans serif typefaces and their increasing popularity originated in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Emphasizing simplicity and clarity, they were favored among typographers with a Modernist point of view. Akzidenz-Grotesk was one of the first sans serif fonts to gain notoriety and was favored during the Swiss Typography movement of the 1950's. Its versatility and ambiguity lent itself well to the functionalist designs of the period and thus inspired many other similar fonts, like the popular Helvetica. Akzidenz-Grotesk, Helvetica and their cousins are still favored by designers today.

Akzidenz-Grotesk (a quick review) Akzidenz-Grotesk is the descendant of a font called Royal Grotesk Light. Around 1880, Royal Grotesk Light was designed by Ferdinand Theinhardt for the scientific publications of the Royal Prussian Academy of Sciences. He also designed regular, medium and bold weights of the font. It is speculated that Royal Grotesk Light and AkzidenzGrotesk take inspiration from the fonts Walbaum and Didot because they have similar characteristics when their serifs are removed. At the beginning of the 20th century, the Berthold Type Foundry was absorbing smaller type foundries as it grew. Because sans-serif fonts were in demand, as they acquired new foundries, they would add their sans serif fonts to the classic Akzidenz-Grotesk family. As a result, this original family, developed between 1898 and 1906, is less unified than modern versions with differences in shape and weights of the characters. In the late 1950's, Berthold typographer,

50 A Swiss Font Face-Off: Akzidenz-Grotesk versus Helvetica Gunther Gerhard Lange set out to enlarge the Akzidenz-Grotesk family and designed thirty-three new font styles: AG Extra, AG Extra Bold, AG Super, AG Super Italic, and Extra Bold Italic. Lange's additions are the descendants of the modern versions of Akzidenz-Grotesk, like Berthold’s Akzidenz-Grotesk Next. The redesign, Akzidenz-Grotesk Pro, was created by Bernd Moellenstaedt and Dieter Hofricher. The family has the basic shape of the original Akzidenz-Grotesk and the shape remains consistent throughout all weights. The x-height was also adjusted to achieve consistency. It was released in PostScript and TrueType and incorporates over 500 glyphs. The new family supports the Central European, Baltic, Turkish, Welsh, archaic Danish, and Esperanto languages. In March 2007, Berthold announced the release of Akzidenz-Grotesk Pro+. Available in PostScript and OpenType, this version also has Cyrillic and Greek support for all of the fonts and language support for Central European, Baltic, and Turkish. A leading figure in the Swiss Typography movement, Wolfgang Weingart asserted that four typefaces are sufficient for any typographer, Akzidenz-Grotesk being one of them. The popularity of this font during that movement suggests that many of Weingart's colleagues and students felt the same way. It was so common in this movement that Megg's History of Graphic design names it as one of the movement's defining characteristics: "Mathematical proportions, geometric spatial divisions, and the use of Akzidenz-Grotesk are features of the work of this [Swiss Typography] period." Akzidenz-Grotesk inspired the creation of many other sans serif typefaces of the

AG Extra AG Extra Super Akzidenz-Grotesk Extra and Super A redesign from the 1950’s in an effort to extend the Akzidenz-Grotesk family.

A Swiss Font Face-Off: Akzidenz-Grotesk versus post World War II era. Most notably, it was the forefather of Helvetica, a standard typeface that has been used widely and consistently throughout the Post-modern movement. Akzidenz-Grotesk was also the inspiration for two other popular Swiss Typography fonts: Adrian Frutiger's Univers and Bauer and Baum's Folio.

Helvetica In 1949, the head of the Haas type Foundry in Munchenstein, Switzerland, Edward Hoffman, was looking to release a new Grotesque font to compete with Akzidenz-Grotesk. He hired Max Miedinger to take on the project. Based on Schelter-Grotesk, the official Bauhaus face, the goal was to create a neutral font that would be ideal for many different uses. In 1957, they released Neue Haas Grotesk. Never really catching on, they re-released it as Helvetica in 1960. The new name was derived for the Latin name for Switzerland, Confoederatio Helvetia. It was the hope that this name would be more pronounceable and memorable for English speaking graphic designers. There were a few structural changes made to distinguish the new Helvetica from Akzidenz-Grotesk and other sans serif typefaces. Helvetica is more oblong than Akzidenz-Grotesk because it has a higher x-height. Akzidenz-Grotesk appears more circular when compared to it. A modern version of Helvetica, Neue Helvetica was released by D. Stempel AG in 1983. The new version created a family of fifty-one fonts with more consistent heights and widths. As a result, the font is more legible than the original Helvetica.

52 In 2004, Linotype, the parent company of Stempel released Neue Helvetica Pro, containing all fifty-one fonts for both Macintosh and PC platforms. Helvetica surpassed Akzidenz-Grotesk as the most used sans serif and eventually came to be considered the official typeface of the 20th century. Versions of the typeface were created for Latin, Cyrillic, Hebrew and Greek languages. Helvetica also has character sets for Hindi, Urdu, Khmer, Vietnamese, Chinese, Japanese, and Korean languages. In addition to its international availability, the typeface is used in many major company logos, including American Airlines, Panasonic, Target Corporation, 3M, and BBC News, among many others. The United States and Canadian governments use it frequently for a variety of bureaucratic reasons, including the United States income tax return forms. The influence of this type was solidified when MoMA celebrated its 50th anniversary, with the exhibit “50 Years of Helvetica” in 2007. The spotlight was also turned on Helvetica when Lars Muller published the book Helvetica: Homage to a Typeface in 2005, and when featurelength documentary, Helvetica was shown worldwide at film festivals in 2007. From top to bottom

Just as Akzidenz-Grotesk inspired Helvetica, Helvetica in turn has its own offspring. Arial, first introduced in 1990, was created as an alternative to Helvetica. Arial, however, seems only popular with the untrained graphic design eye. It fell short as a substitute for Helvetica. Danny van den Dungen of the Dutch graphic design team, Experimental Jetset says of Helvetica, “When something is constructed as well as Helvetica, it should last for a couple of hundred

American Airlines logo The American Airlines logo that we’ve known for decades. This iteration was designed by Massimo Vignelli and has been the core of the company’s image from 1968 til its redesign in 2013. Target Corporation logo Designed in 1975, the Target logo utilizes the Helvetica Neue Bold typeface. It has been heralded as one of the most iconic brand logos of all time. Panasonic logo The Panasonic logo is one of the most easily recognizable logos in the electronics industry. The simple yet effective logotype (originally introduced in 1971) is based on Helvetica typeface while using “ideas for life” as its slogan.

53 years, just like great architecture.”

Below Helvetica documentary poster Helvetica is an independent feature-length documentary film about typography and graphic design, centered on the typeface of the same name. Directed by Gary Hustwit, it was released in 2007 to coincide with the 50th anniversary of the typeface’s introduction in 1957 and is considered the first of the Design Trilogy by the director. Its content consists of a history of the typeface interspersed with candid interviews with leading graphic and type designers. The film aims to show Helvetica’s beauty and ubiquity, and illuminate the personalities that are behind typefaces. It also explores the rift between modernists and postmodernists, with the latter expressing and explaining their criticisms of the famous typeface.

Although Akzidenz-Grotesk lost its popularity at the end of the Swiss Typography movement, its legacy lived through the early Post-modern era in Helvetica. Though inherently different, both fonts stand for the same principles of graphic design. They offer neutrality, simplicity, and functionality. Although some may consider the fonts boring, it is a fact that they deliver on these promises. Because of their reliable form, today’s graphic designers turn to either font when they have a need for a legible font with contemporary undertones.

Akzidenz in Use

Akzidenz in Use

Voorspoedig Nieuwjaar (New Year card) Typefaces used: Akzidenz-Grotesk A new year greeting card from Wim Crouwel, archived in the Memory of the Netherlands database.


58 Akzidenz in Use

Church: techno label posters Typefaces used: Akzidenz-Grotesk, Aperçu Mono, Futura This poster series was developed by WinterHebert as part of the visual identity for the London-based techno label Church. Modernism has been derided as, “an inhuman submission to the dictates of machines.â€? In this ongoing poster series, Church celebrates monotonous simplification of form by adopting an underlying grid derived from the square shape of its logo,

and utilizes a visual language that explores the mundane vernacular of London city life in a stark, black and white palette. For each poster, little vignettes of brick row houses and brutalist architecture are arranged within the rhythmic constraints of the Church grid. The typography used, references the staid legibility of Modernism in order to contrast against the Photoshop effect-laden designs so common in the electronic music genre.

Akzidenz in Use

Die Schweiz ist das Paradies des Wintersports travel poster Typefaces used: Akzidenz-Grotesk A winter Swiss travel poster designed by Helfiker and Atelier Fretz.


60 Akzidenz in Use

Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden identity Typefaces used: Akzidenz-Grotesk The Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden is a modern and contemporary art museum located within the National Mall in Washington DC, US. The museum exists under the Smithsonian Institution, exhibiting a vast collection of post World War II art as well as rotating contemporary exhibitions. The new identity evokes a graphic language that

combines a practical logotype and a flexible logomark. The ‘H’ logomark can shift to form containers for information, large scale typography as well as organic, playful and generative form.

Akzidenz in Use

RISD Architecture Series 2012 Typefaces used: Akzidenz-Grotesk A series of mailers, calendars, and stationary highlighting events hosted by RISD’s architeture department. Designed by Jesen Tanadi.


62 Akzidenz in Use

Neue Grafik Typefaces used: Akzidenz-Grotesk Neue Grafik was founded in Zurich by graphic designers Josef Mßller-Brockmann, Carlo Vivarelli, Hans Neuburg and Richard Paul Lohse. It ran for 18 issues (actually 17, the last one being a double), from 1958 to 1965. The stark alltype cover template, designed by Vivarelli, uses Akzidenz-Grotesk’s popular Medium weight for the trilingual masthead and the issue number. Since Akzidenz-Grotesk was unavailable for

typesetting on Monotype machines, all text-size typography, on the cover as well as the inside pages, makes do with Monotype Grotesque Regular (215) and Bold (216). In 1994, British designer and author Richard Hollis paid a vibrant homage to Neue Grafik, borrowing a piece of its iconic masthead and making it the title on the cover for the first edition of his classic book Graphic Design. A Concise History, published by Thames & Hudson.

Akzidenz in Use

House of Cards: Frank Underwood presidential campaign, 2016


South Carolina and a painting of Frank Underwood unveiled at The Smithsonian near real presidential portraits.

Typefaces used: Akzidenz-Grotesk, DIN Next The fourth season of the political drama television series House of Cards falls into an American election year and leverages the unfolding polictical reality to its advantage by transforming its promotional campaign into a faux presidential campaign. To hype up the supporters, a fake campaign office has been opened in Underwood’s home state of

The virtual counterpart of the campaign is a Frank Underwood 2016 website, which includes a media kit consisting of social media headers, posters, pins and stickers for download or order.

64 Akzidenz in Use

is rethought to make us think. Working as an instruction manual, the World Within Words publication is a compendium where Typefaces used: Akzidenz-Grotesk all the thoughts, methods and planning World Within Words is a language manipulation are deconstructed and explained. For the exhibhition itself as well as for the publicadesign exhibtion developed by the designers tion, Akzidenz-Grotesk had the main role SĂŠrgio Alves and Henrique Nascimento develin both stages, but was used in distinctive oped for Sunway Nexis, funded by Life Equip Sdn Bhd in Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia). The exhi- ways. The range of weights was the base of the construction. The typeface was bition is a place where words merge to create used in various ways, from uppercase to new words, where objects of the everyday life are placed to have new functions and meanings, lowercase, from regular to bold. and the sequence of how we create a sentence World Within Words

Akzidenz in Use

Swissted series


blogs and there are a lot of collectors with an impressive amount of old school work displayed,” he says. “There’s also a brilTypefaces used: Akzidenz-Grotesk liant book, F***ed Up + Photocopied, that Swissted features 200 redesigned posters from served as a great source of inspiration.” To design the posters, Joyce looked at the shows that actually happened, featuring bands like the Ramones, the Dead Kennedys, Weezer, work of Swiss poster designers like Armin Black Flag, and more—all ready to be ripped out Hofmann, Emil Ruder, and Josef MüllerBrockmann. and hung on the wall. The mastermind behind all this, Mike Joyce, turned to the internet to find his source material: the original gig posters. “Some of the original poster and flyer artists have posted their work on various sites and

66 Akzidenz in Use

Brank Kincl monograph

Along with highly contrasting treatment of typography, in opening parts of each Typefaces used: Akzidenz-Grotesk, Vista Sans section we applied optical illusion details, as a nod to his practice of using graphical elements in design of industrial facades Branko Kincl is an architect, urbanist and educator — one of the greatest contemporary Croa- and surfaces, inspired by the visual art tian authors in this field, with a career spanning influences of modernist movement. over five decades. The monograph gives an extensive overview of his most notable projects, The book was published by Kabinet grafike HAZU. ranging from urbanistic systems, residental building complexes and sport architecture to large-scale industrial architecture and monumental airport projects.

Akzidenz in Use

Kunsthaus Dresden: Social Motions / Demotape / German Angst Typefaces used: Akzidenz-Grotesk, Druk Condensed, Druk Wide, Times New Roman Exhibiton design for the solo shows of Katarina Ĺ evi, Markus Draper and Annette Weisser at Kunsthaus Dresden, including invitation flyers, poster steles, ads, and signage. In the form of paintings, photographs and choreographies, the three artists deal with the


social, political and aesthetical aspects of mass movements and protest cultures.


Snowpiercer opening title sequence

lowercase, accented characters, and even punctuation, but many of the existing caps Typefaces used: Akzidenz-Grotesk, Telegrafico are in need of a skilled designer’s touch. The geometry is not optically corrected, for instance, and the diagonal stroke weights Inspired by Italian Rationalist architectural lettering, Salvo Nicolosi’s Telegrafico is a typeface are inconsistent. Those seeking Telegrafico’s characteristics are better off springthat ticks many of the aesthetic boxes that appeal to designers: uniform stroke weight and ing for pro options like VF Sans, Telefon, letter widths, sharp apexes (AMNVW), and cir- DTL Nobel, Neutraface, Mostra, Verlag, Relay, or the newly released Apres. cular rounds (CGO). Unfortunately, those who eagerly snag the free font soon discover that Telegrafico is a hobbyist effort, not really suited Still, Telegrafico is undeniably attractive to lovers of Art Deco and Geometric sans for professional design. Not only does it lack a


serifs, who flood Nicolosi’s deviantART page with requests to use it commercially. One of those designers who recently employed Telegrafico for professional work was Korean motion graphics specialist, Sangdon Lee, who picked it for the moody opening title sequence of the 2013–14 sci-fi flick Snowpiercer. To make Telegrafico function in these titles, Lee had to invent his own hyphens, quotes, and diacritical marks (or borrow them from another font), and he replaced the very mechanically constructed Telegrafico ‘S’ with one from an-

other typeface, possibly Akzidenz-Grotesk. Despite these compromises, it’s easy to overlook the type’s faults at this small size, and it does its job remarkably well, serving as a sort of post-apocolyptic industrial techno-glitch. The subtle shadow overlays, referencing the view from a moving train, are a nice touch.


# 3M 48


Basic Commercial 20 Bauer 47 Bauer Folio 47 Bauhaus 27—28, 47

AGI (Alliance Graphique Internationale) 33

Basel School of Design 27—28, 31, 38

AGS (Amtliche Gemeindeschlüssel) 33

BBC News 48

Akzidenz-Grotesk 15, 19, 38, 45—49

Berthold 15, 19, 21, 45—46

American 32—33

Berthold Type Foundry

American Airlines 48 Art Concrete Manifesto 28 Arial 48 ATypI (Association Typographique Internationale) 33


Ballmer, Theo 28 Baltic 46


Calvert, Margaret 21—22 Canadian 48 Carrois, Ralph du 20 Central European 46 Chinese 48 Confoederatio Helvetica 47 Cyrillic 46, 48



De Stijl 28

Friedman, Dan 31

DeHarak, Rudolph 32

Frutiger, Adrian 47

Design Museum 23

Futura 15

Design Trilogy 48

FF Real 20

Dada 33

Didot 19—20, 45 Dungen, Danny van den 48 Dutch 46, 48


English 47 Erbar 15 Esperato 46 Experimental Jetset 48

Franklin Gothic 19


Germany 38 Greek 46, 48 Greiman, April 31 Grotesk/Grotesque  Monotype   15, 19  Neo  19   Neue Haas   19, 47  Schelter  15



Handke, Karl August 38

Keller, Ernst 28

Hebrew 48

KDU (Kobe Design University 33

Helvetica 19—20, 45, 47, 48, 49

Khmer 48

Helvetica (film) 48

Kinneir, Jock 21—22

Helvetica: Homage to a Typeface 48

Korean 48

Hindi 48

Kuntz, Willi 31

Hoffman, Armin 27—28, 38


Hustwit, Gary 48


International Typographic Style 27, 33, 37, 39

Lange, Günter Gerhard 15, 46 Lazar, Jimmy 15 Linotype 20—21, 48 Lohse, Richard Paul 31


Japanese 48


‘M’ Series 38 Macintosh 48

Miedinger, Max 47

Optimo 20

Modernism 27, 37, 41, 45


MoMA (Museum of Modern Art) 48 Müller, Lars 48 Moellenstaedt, Bernd 46


Panasonic 48 PC (Personal Computer) 48 Philadelphia College of Art 31 Post Modernism 33, 37, 40, 47, 49 Post Script 46

Neue Helvetica Pro 47 New Graphic Design 32 New Wave 31—33, 40 Nueberg, Hans 32


Odermatt, Siegfried 37, 41 OPC (Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co.) 33 Open Type 46


Royal Grotesk Light 45 Royal Prussian Academy of Sciences 45 Ruder, Emil 27—28, 38 Ruwe 38


Sans Serif 19 Schmid, Helmut 33 Stempel 48 Spiekermann, Erik 20 Swiss Design 28 Swiss Typography 27, 38, 45—46, 49 Switzerland 15, 27, 40, 47


Target Corporation 48 Theinhardt, Ferdinand 20, 45 Tissi, Rosemarie 37, 41 Transport 21—22 True Type 46 Tschiold, Jan 39

Turkish 46 Typeface 15, 19 Typographic Reflections 33 Typography: A Manual of Design 28 Typography Today 33


Ulm School 41 Urdu 48 United States 40, 48 Univers 19, 20, 38, 47


Vietnamese 48 Vivarelli, Carlo 31

W Walbaum 19, 45 Welsh 46 Weingart, Wolfgang 31, 37—38, 40—41, 46 World War II 27, 47


x height 20, 47


Yale University 31

Z Zurich 27

Zurich School of Applied Art 28

Image & Caption Index



Dead Kennedys 61


der Film 30

American Airlines logo 48

Die Schwiez ist das Paradis des Wintersports travel poster 55

Akzidenz-Grotesk 66—67

Draper, Markus 63

Alves, Sérgio 60

DTL Nobel 66

Apres 66 Art Deco 66


Black Flag 61 Brank Kincl monograph 62 Brockmann, Josef Müller 50, 61


Church: techno label posters 54 Crowwel, Wim 53

e f

F***ed up + Photoshopped 61 February 39 Fretz, Atelier 55

g Giselle 29




Helvetica 41

Lohse, Richard Paul 58

Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden Identity 56

London 54

Hoffman, Armin 61


Helfiker 55

House of Cards: Frank Underwood presidential campaign 59

i j

Joyce, Mike 61


Kabinet grafik HAZU 62 Kunsthaus Dresden: Social Motion/ Demotype/ German Angst 63

Lee, Sangdon 67

Malaysia 60

Memory of the Netherlands 53 Modernism 54 Mostra 66


Nascimento, Henrique 60 National Mall 56 Neuberg, Hans 58 Neue Grafik 58

Neutraface 58

o p Panasonic logo 48 Prospektevesicherung 40


Salvo, Nicolosi 66 Ĺ evi, Katarine 63 Snowpiercer 66 Smithsonian Institution 56 Sunway Nexus 60 Swissted series 61 Swiss 55



Target Corporation logo 48


Thinking 37

RISD Architecture Series 2012 57


Radikale List 32

Round Composition 38 Ruder, Emil 61

Typography Today spread 33




Vivarelli, Carlo 58


Voorspoedig Nieuwjaar (New Year card) 53


Washington, D.C. 56 Weezer 61 Weissner, Annette 63 World War II 56 Wrapping Paper 40 Winter-Hebert 54 World Within Words 60



87 This book was inspired by the Swiss typographic layout and is heavily dependent on its set grid. The body text is composed of Akzidenz-Grotesk Regular, while all headings are Akzidenz-Grotesk Medium. This book is printed via Blurb, a book printing service, featuring white uncoated, 105 GSM paper, and measures 6 by 9 inches. Printed during the latter half of 2017. Designed by Sukanya Ray.

Akzidenz-Grotesk- a type specimen  
Akzidenz-Grotesk- a type specimen  

A book I designed, using text from various sources such as Wikipedia and Smashing Magazine. Includes works popular during the height of Swis...