Page 1

STUDIO AIR FOLDFINDING LIANG HU (DEREK) 2016 SEMESTER 1 TUTOR: CAITLYN PARRY


a

conceptualization

2

3


Image Source: http://mir.no/work/#flyingdutchman

A.0 INTRODUCTION A.1 DESIGN FUTURING 1.1 CASE STUDY 1 1.2 CASE STUDY 2

A.2 DESIGN COMPUTATION 2.1 CASE STUDY 1 2.2 CASE STUDY 2

A.3 COMPOSITION/GENERATION 3.1 CASE STUDY 1 3.2 CASE STUDY 2

A.4 CONCLUSION A.5 LEARNING OUTCOMES A.6 APPENDIX

4

5


0.0 INTRODUCTION

Studio earth: Presence out of absence

Studio water: Studley Park Boathouse

I am Derek, a third year architecture student in the

be defined differently by each individual. Architecture

University of Melbourne. I choose architecture because it

provides

holds the ability to give form to an idea that otherwise

of

would

distinctive

just

remain

intangible

in

the

minds.

However,

a

people,

medium which

to

map

allows

perceptions

and each

to

the

project

the

individual space.

movement to

The

obtain program

after two years of study, I find that architecture not

is therefore extremely important. It is a method of

only represents ideas, it also generates ideas through

reinterpreting the sequenced spaces and of projecting

visualization and diagramatic methods.

the unique experience. Hence, I perceive architecture more as an ongoing process rather than a purpose or a

To me, architecture is about spatial arrangement and

final outcome.

organization. ‘Space’ is an ambiguous term that could

6

7


A.1 DESIGN FUTURING

“In today’s ultranetworked world, it makes more sense to think of design as a process that continuously defines a system’s rules rather than its outcomes1” --- John Thackara

1. Thackara, John (2005). In the Bubble: Designing in a Complex World (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press), p. 224 8

Architecture, which defines people’s behaviours and ways

According to Fry, in order to achieve sustainability,

of living, is no longer about appearance nor style. We

not only the design process and techniques should be

see the growing importance of design as it shapes the

changed,

perception of material world1. However, as one of the

Evolutionary design intelligence should be introduced.

influential factor, design itself is outdated towards

The focus should be on the redirection of design process,

the sustainable future, which has become one of the

which is usually behind the scene but always decisive on

most

Ideally,

the final outcomes1. The advanced design process would

architecture should become a cooperation of both nature

allow more possibilities and potentials on the design,

and human ecology with its ability to influence the

which not only influences the form and appearance, but

existing site and also user’s way of thinking. As what

also how we perceive and what we experience.

critical

concerns

since

last

decade.

but

also

the

ideology

and

entire

mindset1.

Brad mentioned in the lecture, ‘architects should become the facilitators of flow’2.

1. Tony Fry, Design Futuring: Sustainability, Ethics and New Practice (Oxford: Berg,2008), p. 1–16. 2. Wood, John (2007). Design for Micro-Utopias: Making the Unthinkable Possible (Aldershot: Gower)

9


Image Source: http://jamesewingphotography.tumblr.com/

CASE STUDY 1

post/112792069345/arkitekcher-centre-pompidou-metz-shigeru-ban

PROJECT: CENTRE POMPIDOU-METZ ARCHITECT: SHIGERU BAN ARCHITECTS DATE: 2010

Conventionally, the solid walls define the interior and

possibilities and design potentials that initially could

exterior spaces and therefore all the sequenced spaces

not be visualized.

and programs after that. However, the undulating roof of Pompidou Centre forms a continuous structure, being

Using the timber as the only material, the architecture

perceived as roof, walls and even columns at same time.

demonstrates great cooperation between natural elements

It creates spaces that are organic, flexible and with

and man-made structure. The structure is also highly

optimal volumes. The structure is complex and simple

dependent

at same time, with a repeated pattern of hexagons and

Therefore, the building and prototyping process require

equilateral triangles.

integration

on

the

of

material

performance

multi-disciplinary

of

knowledge

timber.

about

materials, fabrication and construction . The parametric 1

Through parametric design, the form finding process of

modelling makes all these possible.

Pompidou Centre is shifted from conventional drawing techniques to programming. Although it is still complex,

Image Source: http://balmondstudio.

the

tumblr.com/post/104833243773

more

abstracted

design

process

triggers

more

1. Scheurer, F. (2010), Materialising Complexity. Archit Design, 80: 86–93. doi: 10.1002/ad.1111 10

11


Image Source: http://www.domusweb.it/en/

CASE STUDY 2

news/2015/07/14/icd_itke_research_pavilion.html

PROJECT: RESEARCH PAVILION ARCHITECT: ICD/ITKE DATE: 2014

The pavilion demonstrates the architectural potential

the architecture field. The integration with natural

of

elements

an

innovative

building

approach

inspired

by

the

design

process

allows

designers

underwater nest construction of the water spider. Being

to

one of the strongest load bearing materials in the nature,

construction

the fibre structure would help to eliminate complex

also obtain unique spatial qualities which is almost

formworks and structural support during construction .

impossible to achieve by using traditional structure

The resulted shell structure is therefore lightweighted

elements

and

to

pavilion is produced entirely through a robotic coreless

different demands of individual construction. In the

filament winding process1. With further development on

ever changing urban society, the fibre structure would

the fabrication end, future architecture would be no

be easier for demolish, recycle and reproduction.

longer a highly labour-intensive field, but rather a

1

material

efficient

and

also

highly

adaptable

generate

clean, In

12

during

this

case,

the

biology

can

be

perceived

as

a

and

future methods.

potentials The

conventional

automatic

and

in

resulted

design

materiality structure

and would

methodologies.

material-effective

process

The

that

require minimal level of human supervision.

comprehensive repertoire of fibre arrangements which

Image Source: http://inhabitat.com/icd-and-itkes-lightweight-

would creates more opportunities and possibilities in

pavilion-mimics-the-structure-of-water-spiders-underwater-nests/

1. Menges, A. and Knippers, J. (2015), ‘Fibrous Tectonics’, Architecture Design, 85: 40–47. doi: 10.1002/ad.1952

13


A.2 DESIGN COMPUTING

As a new design typology, computational design had always

“Only parametricism can adequately organise and articulate contemporary social assemblages at the level of complexity called for today.” --- Patrik Schumacher

form of logic which is independent from formal models.

been compared with design computerization. The latter allows architects to represent the drawings in more

Computational

efficient and precise way. The advanced documentation

platform for collaborative design among architects and

method also allows more complicated projects to become

engineers 4. This allows the performance simulation to

possible. However, the CAD programs simply just represent

become more effective and accurate. The contemporary

and visualize ideas that are already conceptualized in

architecture design is therefore experiencing a shift

architect’s mind1. Computerization helps to formalize

towards performative design and material design. The

the final outcome of design. On the other hand, design

resulted outcome contains higher level of complexity

computation

and

and variability, and at the same time, is still able

traditional

to be fabricated. For instance, in Guggenheim Museum,

introduces

methodology.

It

shifts

a

novel

the

design

design

process

from

design

also

provides

an

advanced

drawing methods to logical thinking, with the help of

Frank

algorithms

parametrically

monolithic objects to infinitesimal components. Design

allows designers to generate forms and spaces that could

computation creates a more fluid logic of connectivity.

and

parameters.

Designing

Gehry

demonstrates

the

possibility

to

scale

never be conceptualized through contemporary drawings .

The architecture design becomes more research based

Some people argue that computation sets up a boundary

and experimental. It shows the ability to demonstrate

and a formal standard for the design industry. Digital

the porosity of material qualities and the potentials

softwares restricts designers and eliminates creativity.

to

Nonetheless,

penetration through algorithmic calculation.

2

according

to

Wayne

Brown,

“Algorithmic

control

certain

spatial

qualities

such

as

light

thinking is the ability to understand, execute, evaluate and create algorithms” 3. Parametric design creates a new

1. Terzidis, Kostas (2006). Algorithmic Architecture (Boston, MA: Elsevier), p. xi 2. Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, eds (2014). Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge), pp. 1–10 14

3. Kalay, Yehuda E. (2004). Architecture’s New Media: Principles, Theories, and Method sf Computer-Aided Design (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press), pp. 5-25

15


CASE STUDY 1 PROJECT: AU OFFICE SILK WALL ARCHITECT: ARCHI UNION ARCHITECTS DATE: 2010

The

wall

is

constructed

with

traditional

chinese

could

differentiate

architectures

around

the

world.

bricks. The bricks layed out in 21 different angles to

Although algorithms are used in most of the cases, the

create the undulation of the wall. It gives the wall

parametric controls of regional values would impart rich

a very soft and organic approach as if the wall is

local

made of some soft fabric which also generates lightness

“enables the versatile and customized development of

and

globalization”, according to Yuan2.

unpredictability.

With

bricks

facing

different

characteristics

into

each

architecture,

which

directions, the silk wall also starts to have various level of transparencies to reveal the interior in some

Other than material tectonic systems, the parametric

place and allow more light penetration.

approach could also integrates performative simulations with local fabrication logics. Yuan points out that without in

the algorithmic instructions and visual simulation, it

parametricism, which emphasizes on the adaptive nature

would be impossible for the builders to put each brick

of parametricism by collaborating parametric designs with

in right location with accurate rotation angles2. The

local cultures. Schumacher argues that it is necessary

parametric approach guarantees the structural integrity

to transform parametricism into a global style and a

for original design intension. The algorithms generate a

universal formula1, but I believe that the regionalist

medium for information communication between designers

parametricism could become a more appropriate approach.

and builders.

The distinctive local material performances, traditional

Image Source: https://3dearthworkshopiscteiul.

construction tectonics and regional cultural backgrounds

wordpress.com/2013/01/26/247/

The

silk

wall

examines

Silk Texture

16

regionalist

approach

Coursing

Parametric Guide

Parametric Wall

1. Schumacher, P. (2016), Parametricism 2.0: Gearing Up to Impact the Global Built Environment. Archit Design, 86: 8–17. doi: 10.1002/ad.2018

Image Source: http://www.archi-union.com/

2. Yuan, P. (2016), Parametric Regionalism. Archit Design, 86: 92–99. doi: 10.1002/ad.2029

upload/20140729104019112.jpg

17


CASE STUDY 2 PROJECT: WALT DISNEY CONCERT HALL ARCHITECT: FRANK GEHRY DATE: 2003

The

undulating

facades

and

the

resulted

organic

the full potential of complex surfaces to be realized,

volumes are far beyond the capability of conventional

which ultimately differentiates the algorithmic design

computerization in the industry. The design computation

from purely image-driven architecture1.

creates spaces with higher level of variabilities and more unique spatial qualities. Through computational

Referring

back

simulation on the acoustic performance, the concert hall

development in week one, design computation should be

is also highly performative and functional.

more

strategic

to

and

the

discussion

performance

about

oriented.

sustainable

The

focus

should shift towards functional principles and societal On the other hand, the construction process was not

values such as material efficiency and sustainability 2.

as

Otherwise,

successful

as

the

architecture

itself.

Due

to

the

computational

designs

would

be

less

insufficient collaboration with engineering teams and

appreciated in this profit-driven society. However, it

lack of structural simulation, the structure design was

is the also ability of computational design to allow

almost a unidirectional process. This resulted in many

expressive structure to become structurally efficient.

problems such as

heavy structures, wasted materials

All this could be achieved through the multidisciplinary

and failures in some details. However, as suggested

communications over the advanced algorithmic platform

by Schumacher, one of the advantages of computational

created by design computation 3.

design

lies

in

the

integration

of

the

innovative

engineering methods and material tectonics with concept

Image Source: https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/736x/49/

designs. The digital linkage to other disciplines allows

d6/d9/49d6d9191892b325b8902334d966ab16.jpg

1. Schumacher, P. (2016), Parametricism 2.0: Gearing Up to Impact the Global Built Environment. Archit Design, 86: 8–17. doi: 10.1002/ad.2018

18

2. Block, P. (2016), Parametricism’s Structural Congeniality. Archit Design, 86: 68–75. doi: 10.1002/ad.2026

Image Source: http://media.architecturaldigest.

3. Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, eds (2014). Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge), pp. 1–10

com/hotos/56a026f0f62777972f2fdf6c/master/

19


A.3 GENERATION / COMPOSTITION

Computational design is currently experiencing a shift of

To

focus from the foregrounding formal principles towards

computation provides an advanced platform which allows

functional principles to adjust societal values such

effective operations of multidisciplinary investigations

as material efficiency and sustainability . Therefore,

and simulations which would expand our understanding of

the design process also changed from form-driven top

materiality and compositional tectonics. For instance,

down style to generative bottom up design. Sketching

the Bird-oid Objects shown in lecture 3 described a

and designing through algorithms enable comprehensive

generative

explorations and analysis on the design options and

response of birds. Iterations are made out of categorized

performative decisions. The access to the algorithmic

behaviours such as separation, alignment and cohesion.

database allows multiple iterations on the design by

Similarly, most biological material systems has self-

adjusting the interrelation information .

healing

1

2

achieve

or

those

design

biological

process

based

self-organisation

advantages,

on

the

properties

design

behavioural

which

help

them adapt to the changing environments . The emerging 3

The current trend towards morphology and biological

information and research through computation enables a

designs are good demonstrations of how computational

high level of generative variabilities.

designs

can

elements

become

and

entirely

creatures

generative.

usually

have

The

the

natural

efficient

Therefore,

I

believe

that

computational

design

is

forms, materials and behaviours after millions years of

generative not only because of the capacity to analyze

evolution.

The analysis of biological behaviours and

the material system and building environments during

logics would provide a solid starting point for further

the design process, but also make effective response to

approaches .

them. As a result, the resulted design outcome would

development Bringing

on

those

architectural

the

integrative

natural scale

material

would

design

3

formations

enhance

the

into

the

achieve

material

and

efficiency within the given local environment.

optimal

spatial

and

material

qualities

and

spatial qualities of architecture.

1. Block, P. (2016), Parametricism’s Structural Congeniality. Archit Design, 86: 68–75. doi: 10.1002/ad.2026 2. Peters, Brady. (2013) ‘Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought’, Architectural Design, 83, 2, pp. 08-15 20

3. Menges, A. (2015), Fusing the Computational and the Physical: Towards a Novel Material Culture. Archit Design, 85: 8–15. doi: 10.1002/ad.1947

21


CASE STUDY 1 PROJECT: TAICHUNG METROPOLITAN OPERA HOUSE ARCHITECT: TOYO ITO DATE: 2015

Architectural spaces are often defined by the structural

of one continuous surface which expands, undulates and

partitions such as walls, ceilings and columns. Building

twists three dimensionally to create spaces that are

structures are always independent from the space and

fluid and organic which promote movement and dynamism 1.

form of the architecture. There is always separation of spaces and terminated circulation patterns in the

However, although the form-finding process is highly

conventional architecture.

computation based, it is not entirely generative with

natural

caves

and

the

However, inspired by the

flow

of

water,

Ito

suggests

algorithms. Compositional planning is still necessary

a

in the design process with such large scale and complex

routes.

programming. In this case, the design is an integrated

by

the

process of both composition and generation. The opera

natural formation of caves which are interconnected

house could be seen as the result of an intertwined

individually. The morphological logic became a guidance

dialogue between two distinctive architectural languages.

an

unconventional

structural

continuous

space

The

concept

and

design

a

template

with is

that

form

numerous generated

algorithmic

which

encloses

circulation and

driven

investigations

and

iterations followed during the design process. Using

Imaage Source: http://payload338.cargocollective.

the idea of minimal surface, the structure only consists

com/1/8/264523/9068117/17-Toyo-Ito-Diagram-copy_670.jpg

1. Aziz, Moheb Sabry. “Biomimicry as an approach for bio-inspired structure with the aid of computation.� Alexandria Engineering Journal (2015). 22

Image Source: http://balmondstudio.s3.amazonaws.com/wpcontent/uploads/2006/07/Taichung-Opera-7-1024x769.jpg 23


CASE STUDY 2 PROJECT: RESEARCH PAVILION 2010 ARCHITECT: ICD & ITKE DATE: 2010

According to Oxman, “design computation had redefined

and algorithmic analysis.

architecture as a material practice which explores the potential of materiality”1.

The comprehensive investigation of elastic behaviour of timber enables the simulation of material response

For conventional architectural design, the meaning of

in the real world under gravity and frictional force.

materiality lies in the richness of natural texture

The

and colour, and sometimes the atmosphere it creates.

which integrates designers, engineers and fabrication

However, in computational design, materiality becomes

teams. The collaboration is established based on the

the basic logic and the generative driver for the entire

information sharing through the platform of algorithms.

design process. In design computation, material elements

The resulted structure is extremely efficient in terms

are defined and categorized by their behaviours instead

of material use. The timber sheets which function as

of texture profiles. The ITKE pavilion is built with

load-bearing structure and weather protecting envelope,

simple rules of elastic bending of timber strips. The

are only 6.5 millimetre thick. The spatial quality is

unpredictable behaviour of material becomes the main

not compromised as most people would expect, but rather

factor to generate and organize the design process.

unique and complex.

design

generation

is

an

investigative

process

However, the entire design process can be summarized as a gradual shift from the unpredictable behaviour of

Image Source: http://network.normallab.com/wp-content/

materials towards predictability through data collection

uploads/2013/01/10_ResearchPavilion2010_001.jpg

1. Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, eds (2014). Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge), pp. 1–10 24

2. Fleischmann, M., Knippers, J., Lienhard, J., Menges, A. and Schleicher, S. (2012), Material Behaviour: Embedding Physical Properties in Computational Design Processes. Archit Design, 82: 44–51. doi: 10.1002/ad.1378

Image Source: www.fupress.net 25


A.4 CONCLUSION

The capacity of architecture to influence the existing

However,

environments and the user’s way of thinking empower the

argument that the parametricism would become a global

architects to become one of the influential factor for this

style and a universal language of future architecture,

ever-changing society.

due to its efficiency, feasibility and sustainability. I

and

methods

are

Conventional design ideologies

outdated

in

this

I

could

not

agree

with

schumacher

on

his

computationally

believe that the move towards parametricism is not an

empowered world and towards the sustainable future.

elimination of other styles and characters. Nonetheless,

At this point, I believe what Schumacher had suggested

the core of parametricism lies in the adaptability to all

that “parametricism is architecture’s answer to this

different situations and criteria. Therefore, instead of

contemporary civilisation that is driven by computational

fusing all vernacular styles to a universal language, I

revolution in many domains”1.

feel that we should use the advantage of parametricism to

In

computational

technological

design,

innovation

the

enables

integration further

with

exploration

provoke

regional

cultures

and

characters.

Given

that as the circumstantial ground, I believe that the regionalist

ideologies

should

become

an

inseparable

of complex geometry which also reveals full potential

part of parametricism. The incorporation with regional

of materiality. Morphological investigation and natural

information and local behaviours would have distinctive

material

influences

the

behaviour

parametric

becomes

process

on

each

designs.

Computational

design

had shifted the contemporary architecture towards a performative practice and a material practice. And the

qualities which could be impossible to achieve by using

local materials would bring rich regional characteristics

traditional design methods. Computational design is an

into architecture which also allows higher variability

advanced

that

generate

for

material

intelligience

to

factors

efficient structures with unique and optimal spatial

design

design

generative

versatile

of design generation based on material behaviours and

formal and spatio-organizational repertoire which allows

obtains

fabrication logics. The resulted outcome would be more

designers to innovatively response the challenges and

specific on addressing local issues and benefit local

opportunities in the built environment [schuma].

community.

1. Schumacher, P. (2016), Parametricism 2.0: Gearing Up to Impact the Global Built Environment. Archit Design, 86: 8–17. doi: 10.1002/ad.2018

26

27


A.5 LEARNING OUTCOMES

Two of the studios I did before involves large

“... has redefined architecture as a material practice and provided the media to modulate digital materiality in design�

--- Rivka Oxman

in a higher level of variability for the final outcome.

amount of prototyping on the material behaviours and structure integrity. I always made prototypes

During these two studios, the design process

and models to represent and match my ideas. Lack

always involved complex geometries and structural

of investigations on the materiality often lead to

compositions that were impossible to conceptualize

the failures of unexpected material limitations.

and visualize through CAD drawings and sketches.

The Part A researches expanded my understanding of

However, computational design enables more deliberate

materialisation in the architecture field. Looking

articulation over the geometries which could redefine

back to those projects, the unknown behaviour

the entire design process by using the language

of material element involves not only limitation,

of algorithms. Meanwhile, the digital simulation

but more importantly the opportunities.

and the physical prototyping process should become

The ability to modulate and response to material

an intertwined dialogue which would alternatively

behaviours could become the generative driver for the

lead each other during the design process.

entire design. The richness of material would result

28

29


A.6 APPENDIX

30

31


Box morph Random

Box morph Random Random Reduce

TRANSPARENCY INTERACTIVE SUBTLETY

TRANSPARENCY INTERACTIVE SUBTLETY

Compare to the previous iteration, this one with

seems

to

hexagonal

be

more

shapes

unpredictable extruding

both

The wall is made of boxes with different sizes.

The

boxes

are

shifting

both

directions with different length. The

inwards and outwards. Some boxes is

shape is also more dynamic and organic.

removed from the grid to achieve some

Transparency in this case is also variable

permeability.

with

have the potential to display or store

different

positions

and

heights.

The extruded volumes allows some part

The

zigzagging

boxes

something, even grow plants.

of the wall to be transparent while the other parts are completely opaque.

32

33


Box morph Cull Pattern Attractor Point

TRANSPARENCY INTERACTIVE SUBTLETY

Smooth mesh Voronoi Box Morph

The of

iteration unfolding

geometries, ‘iteration

process complex

structure

following indeces’

demonstrates

simple

smoothen

from

rules. distort

the

process

uncomplicated The

changing

the

orignial

geometry. The final outcome is unpredictable during the

iteration.

The

design

process

is

compeletly

generative.

Box Morphed onto a voronoi There are two sets of boxes in the structure. One set stay in position, and the other set rotate along the centroid of each box. The rotation angles are set according to an attractor point. When the attractor point move from left of the wall to the right, it creates a weave of boxes on the wall. The structure has the potential to become highly communicative and responsive to the surroundings and the users. The transparency it creates is also different from previous iterations.

The

transparency

here

is

not

generated through the shape of each small

34

35


bibliography 1. Tony Fry, Design Futuring: Sustainability, Ethics and New Practice (Oxford: Berg,2008), p. 1–16.

2. Wood, John (2007). Design for Micro-Utopias: Making the Unthinkable Possible (Aldershot: Gower)

3. Scheurer, F. (2010), Materialising Complexity. Archit Design, 80: 86–93. doi: 10.1002/ad.1111

4. Menges, A. and Knippers, J. (2015), ‘Fibrous Tectonics’, Architecture Design, 85: 40–47. doi: 10.1002/ad.1952

5. Terzidis, Kostas (2006). Algorithmic Architecture (Boston, MA: Elsevier), p. xi

6. Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, eds (2014). Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge), pp. 1–10

7. Kalay, Yehuda E. (2004). Architecture’s New Media: Principles, Theories, and Method sf Computer-Aided Design (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press), pp. 5-25

8. Schumacher, P. (2016), Parametricism 2.0: Gearing Up to Impact the Global Built Environment. Archit Design, 86: 8–17. doi: 10.1002/ad.2018

9. Yuan, P. (2016), Parametric Regionalism. Archit Design, 86: 92–99. doi: 10.1002/ad.2029

10. Block, P. (2016), Parametricism’s Structural Congeniality. Archit Design, 86: 68–75. doi: 10.1002/ad.2026

11. Peters, Brady. (2013) ‘Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought’, Architectural Design, 83, 2, pp. 08-15

12. Aziz, Moheb Sabry. “Biomimicry as an approach for bio-inspired structure with the aid of computation.” Alexandria Engineering Journal (2015).

13. Fleischmann, M., Knippers, J., Lienhard, J., Menges, A. and Schleicher, S. (2012), Material Behaviour: Embedding Physical Properties in Computational Design Processes. Archit Design, 82: 44–51. doi: 10.1002/ad.1378

14. Menges, A. (2012), Material Computation: Higher Integration in Morphogenetic Design. Archit Design, 82: 14–21. doi: 10.1002/ad.1374

15. Thackara, John (2005). In the Bubble: Designing in a Complex World (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press), p. 224

36

37


b

criteria design

38

39


B.1 Research Field PATTERNING

B.2 Case Study 1.0 2.1 ITERATION PART 1 / PERFORATION 2.2 ITERATION PART 2 / EXTRUSION 2.3 BEST ITERATIONS

B.3 Case Study 2.0 3.1 REVERSE ENGINEERING 3.2 LOGIC / PROCESS

B.4 Technique: development 4.1 ITERATION PART 1 / ORIGAMI TESSALLATION 4.2 ITERATION PART 2 / VALLEY FOLD PATTERN 4.3 ITERATION PART 3 / MOUNTAIN FOLD PATTERN 4.4 BEST ITERATIONS

content

B.5 Prototyping 5.1 ORIGAMI MECHANISM

3D PRINT TEST

BOLTS TEST

CONNECTION TEST

FOLDING / PROBLEMS

5.2 MOUNTAIN FOLDS / METABALL SURFACE

FABRICATION PROCESS

FORMWORK TEST

MATERIAL TEST

SUCCESSFUL PROTOTYPE

5.3 VALLEY FOLDS

B.6 Proposal 6.1 SITE ANALYSIS / CERES COMMUNITY 6.2 DESIGN PROPOSAL

B.7 Learning Outcome 7.1 DESIGN INTEREST 7.2 PARAMETRIC DESIGN 7.3 DESIGN THROUGH MAKING

B.8 Appendix 8.1 ALGORITHMIC SKETCHBOOK 8.2 BIBLIOGRAPHY 40

41


B1. Resarch Field / Patterning

Patterning in the traditional architectures are often

the architecture), such as Vienna Bridge Club (1913),

represented

as

representation.

a

source

Those

of

symbolism

patterns

were

or

cultural

the natural patterns of marble express the inner rhythm

always

embedded

of material. Patterns are not just part of ornament,

with spiritual or religious information. For example,

but are also formed subtly through other architectural

the geometric patterns and motifs on the mosaics of

components. In the Prada Store Tokyo by Herzog & de

churches and mosques created atmospheric effect for

Meuron (2003), the diamond grid patterns created by

the space. The ornamentation on the capitals on the

the steel framed structure are the main feature that

Roman columns were celebrated the adoration of nature

generates the unique spatial qualities of the building.

and technology.

The pattern here is subtle and communicative with its own functionality.

Nature is another major source of patterning. Ornament emerges from the material substrate, and the material

patterning in the contemporary architecture has the

therefore inseparable from the true materiality, and on

ability to integrate material, form and performance 3.

the other hand, material only transmits effects through

For instance, in the ITKE Pavilion 2012, the patterning

ornamentation. In the Barcelona Pavilion by Mies van

was

der Rohe (1929), the natural patterns on the materiality

materiality. The patterning was embedded into the simple

embodies

of

structure and became an inseparable part of design. It

pavilion . And even in Adolf Loos’s work, (who once claimed

demonstrates a new role of patterning in the new age, as

that ornamentation was an unnecessary embellishment on

integral to experiential quality if architecture.

is

the

embedded

ethereal

with

and

ornament .

experiential

Ornament

Through logics of generative algorithmic modelling, the

is

expression

1

qualities

2

ITKE pavilion 2012

transmitted

through

the

flow

of

structure

Image source: http://www.archdaily.com/109135/

and

Hagia Sophia

Image source: http://icd.uni-stuttgart.de/wp-content/

Image source: http://img4.hostingpics.

gallery/fp12_09_icd-itke/icd-itke_rp2012_07.jpg

net/pics/116583IMG1347.jpg

1. Moussavi, Farshid, and Daniel Lopez (2009). The Function of Form (Barcelona: Actar; New York), p. 8 2. Archdaily, “AD Classics: Barcelona Pavilion / Mies van der Rohe”, 2011 <http://www.archdaily.com/109135/ad-classics-barcelona-pavilion-mies-van-der-rohe> 42

3. Menges, Achim (2012). “Material Computation: Higher Integration in Morphophonemic Design”, Architectural Design, 82, 2, pp. 14-21, p. 20

Image source: http://www.prada.com/content/dam/prada/SPECIAL%20PROJECTS/EPICENTERS/ 43


B2. Case Study 1.0 PROJECT: M.H. DE YOUNG MUSEUM ARCHITECT: HERZOG & DE MEURON DATE: 2005

Herzog and de Meuron were praised for their integration of

The

tradition and vernacular forms with modern innovations .

perforation and pebble extrusions. The integration of the

In this case, the facade patterns were designed with

two adds another level of variation and unpredictability

digital design tools through image sampling which allows

onto the building facade. In the following sections,

the

my iterations on the definition would focus on both

1

patterning

to

become

more

organic

and

flexible

patterns

on

the

facade

consists

of

two

parts,

compare to traditional ways of design. On the other

perforation

hand, the choice of natural materials such as copper,

the potential and the key features of each of them

allows the design to become part of the landscape. The

separately, and then integrate the two into a combined

effect would be exaggerated with the fading colour of

system.

and

extrusion.

Firstly,

I

would

explore

copper through oxidation . Therefore, the corrosion of 2

copper itself would become part of the patterns which would gradually change along the years.

Perforation

Image source: http://41.media.tumblr.com/09157f959734f 3078b50bca5425da08f/tumblr_mmf82pZdAl1rra9h0o1_500.jpg

Extrusion

Image source: http://designbythebay.com/wp-content/ uploads/2008/06/img_1044.jpg

1. Archdaily, “Spotlight: Herzog & de Meuron”, 2014 <http://www.archdaily.com/370152/happy-birthday-pierre-de-meuron> 44

2. Archdaily, “M.H. de Young Museum / Herzog & de Meuron”, 2010 <http://www.archdaily.com/66619/m-h-de-young-museum-herzog-de-meuron>

Image source: www.flickr.com 45


ITERATION PART 1.0 PERFORATION

Specie 1.1 / RESOLUTION OF IMAGE SAMPLING Specie 1.2 / COLOUR CHANNELS Specie 1.3 / SMAPLING PATTERNS 1.2

1.3

1.1

Original script for perforation

ITERATION PART 2.0 EXTRUSION

Specie 2.1 / EXTRUSION LENGTH Specie 2.2 / EXTRUSION SHAPE 1.0 Specie 2.3 / EXTRUSION DIRECTION Specie 2.4 / EXTRUSION SHAPE 2.0 (WEAVERBIRD) Specie 2.5 / MEMBRANE TEST THROUGH KANGAROO

2.2

2.4/2.5

2.3

2.1 46

Original script for extrusion

Image source: http://www.arch2o.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/ 47


ITERATION PART 1.0 PERFORATION

SPECIE 1.1 UV POINTS

Sampling Domain=0.01-0.05

Sampling Domain=0.01-0.05

Sampling Domain=0.01-0.05

u=40 / v=30

u=80 / v=60

u=120 / v=90

Blue channel

Red channel

Hue channel

Interpolate

Interpolate (double sided)

Interpolate (double sided vertical)

Strips and circles

Amplitude=0.07

Amplitude=+0.07 / -0.07

Amplitude=+0.07 / -0.07

SPECIE 1.2 COLOUR CHANNELS

RGB channel

Saturation channel

Black & white channel

SPECIE 1.3 STRIPS

48

49


ITERATION PART 2.0 EXTRUSION

SPECIE 2.1 EXTRUSION LENGTH Extrusion factor Z:

Random pattern:

Random pattern:

Range:

Attractor point

Attractor point

Z=2

Seed=1 / Domain=0-3

Seed=2 / Domain=(-5)-3

Domain=0-4

1 pt

2 pt

Base circle radius change

Random top radius

Base shape change

Twisted column / bottom radius change

Top=0.30 / Bottom=0.10

Domain=0.05-0.65

Pentagon

Top edge shift list=2 /Domain=0.05-0.65

2 Point vector (1)

2 Point vector (2)

Attractor point

Attractor Point

Attractor point

Attractor point

Amplitude=2.0

Amplitude=3.0

1 pt / Amplitude=2.0

2 pt / Amplitude 3.0

2 pt / Amplitude=1.5

3 pt / Amplitude=3.5

SPECIE 2.2 EXTRUSION SHAPE 1.0

SPECIE 2.3 EXTRUSION DIRECTION

50

51


SPECIE 2.4 EXTRUSION SHAPE 2.0 (WEAVERBIRD)

Scale factor of top base=4

Scale factor of top base=1

Scale factor of top base=5

WB split triangulate division=1

WB split triangulate division=1

WB mesh window top edge offset=25

WB mesh window top edge offset=30

WB mesh window top edge offset=25

Catmul-Clark division level=2

Scale factor of top base=5 WB mesh window top edge offset=8

WB bevel edges

WB Catmul-Clark division level=4

Distance=0.1

SPECIE 2.5 MEMBRANE TEST THROUGH KANGAROO

52

Stiffness=1500

Stiffness=1000

Stiffness=500

Z direction unaryforce=-5

Z direction unaryforce=-10

Z direction unaryforce=20 53


BEST ITERATIONS

The

EXTRUSION PATTERNS

triangulation

extrusions

and change. The gaps between the triangulation in were

through Weaverbird added another level of complexity

more visible the smaller extrusions which had potential

and

to generate spatial qualities and other functions.

potential

of

onto

the

original

geometry

hexagon

and

it

was

still

controllable with the size, length and direction.

With this iteration, the scale factor of the top triangle was very small, to create the sharp edge at the end of extrusion. The image of this iteration is very strong and dominant. The aggressiveness of this iteration was quite different from the other iterations within that specie. The top view at the right showed a radiating effect of the extrusions which also embed notions of motion, speed

ITERATION 2.4.2 SPATIALITY INTERACTIVE SHADOWS AESTHETIC FABRICATION COMPLEXITY

54

55


BEST ITERATIONS

EXTRUSION PATTERNS

The Catmul-clark component in Weaverbird allowed me to

original geometry which made the fabrication of this

smooth the extrusions to create something organic and

shape become possible with those 2 dimensional strips.

fluid. The outcome was very unpredictable which always

The resulted geometry also had certain sense of subtlety

surprised me with its irregular profile. By using the

and permeability.

thickening edge and triangulation simultaneously, I was able to create very different looking iterations with just slider changes.

However, the organic profile would be quite difficult to fabricate. In this iteration, the ‘Weaverbird Bevel edge’ component allowed me to extract the edges of the

ITERATION 2.4.5 SPATIALITY INTERACTIVE SHADOWS AESTHETIC FABRICATION COMPLEXITY

56

57


BEST ITERATIONS

COMBINED PATTERNS

At this stage, I started to integrate the two patterning

dialogue was what I looked for. Therefore, I reduced

systems, perforation and extrusion, into a combined

the size of extrusion and exaggerated the effect of

system.

perforation,

Therefore,

the

exploration

not

only

just

involves the patterning techniques but more importantly includes

the

dynamic

relationship

between

in

order

to

reduce

the

aesthetic

and

spatial dominance of extrusions.

multiple

patterning systems. I combined the best iterations from

The outcome was very successful, the cooperation between

two categories and explore further potentials of the

different patterns had pushed the unpredictability and

existing patterns.

its organic nature to a higher level.

My idea is to create a system that is non-hierarchical between

different

patterning

systems.

A

balanced

DERIVED FROM ITERATION 2.4.4

ITERATION 1.3.2

ITERATION 1.3.3

58

59


Image source: http://www.archdaily.com/227233/resonant-chamber-rvtr/rc_08

B3. Case Study 2.0 / Reverse Engineering PROJECT: RESONANT CHAMBER CEILING ARCHITECT: RVTR DATE: 2011

Resonant

chamber

accommodating

the

ceiling

is

a

modifiable: the overall pattern would be ever-changing with the origami folds and opens. At specific folding positions, the language between two patterning systems

become

would be very unique and responsive.

response

to

changing

of

by

rigid

in

attribute

system

origami. It allows the dynamic surface geometries to adjustable

flat-folding

responsive

acoustic

conditions, to achieve better performative qualities. During the reverse engineering process, I used kangaroo After case study 1.0, my interest of patterning lies

physics to simulate the physical relationship between

in how different patterns could be integrated as a

vertices, folding lines and applied forces. The kangaroo

single system, and what kind of response between them

physics allows me to change the folding percentage of

would occur. And I found that the fundamental principle

the system parametrically. It helps me to visualise the

of ‘mountain folds’ and ‘valley folds’ in the origami

changing relationship between mountain and valley folds.

system would allow me to achieve what I want. Different patterning languages could be applied on the mountain and valley folds respectively. The aesthetic form becomes

Individual component

Image source: http://www.designboom.com/weblog/images/images_2/2011/jenny/resonantchamber/resonantchamber03.jpg

60

61


Logic / process

Origami folding: Mountain & Valley

Mountain lines

62

Diamond grid

Valley lines

Cull for center point

Cull out mountain valleys

Patterning: attractor point

Create triangles

Patterning: attractor point

63


B4

Iterations

Technique: Development The iterations were divided into three parts: origami tessallation,

valley

fold

patterns

and

mountain

fold

4.1 ORIGAMI TESSALLATION

patterns. Compare to case study 1.0 where I explored

4.2 VALLEY FOLDS

the grasshopper techniques for more possibilities, this

4.3 MOUNTAIN FOLDS

part of iteration is more like a form finding and idea generation process for my future design. The modelling process

would

be

focused

on

the

integration

between

different patterning systems.

64

65


ITERATION PART 1

ORIGAMI TESSALLATION

SPECIE 1.1 SIZE OF ORIGAMI orignial surface size u=8

u=16

u=24

u=32

u=48

0%

20%

40%

60%

80%

Attractor point=centre

Attractor point=centre

Image sampling 1

Remapped domain=0-2

Remapped domain=2-0

Remapped domain=2-0

Image sampling 2

Image sampling 3

u=15 / v=20

u=15 / v=20

u=15 / v=20

Contour distance=0.1

Vector=Perpendicular to longest edge

Random offset

Domain=0.001-0.01

Pipe

Interpolate vertical

Offset curve loft / distance=0.05

(contours moving towards centre)

Domain=0.019-0.116

Frame added (scale 0.93)

Radius=0.003

Random domain=(-0.1)-0.2

SPECIE 1.2 FOLDING PERCENTAGE

ITERATION PART 2

100%

VALLEY FOLDS PATTERNING

SPECIE 2.1 PERFORATION PATTERN

SPECIE 2.2 STRIP PATTERN 1

66

67


SPECIE 2.3 STRIP PATTERN 2 (UNDULATION)

Divide curve count=7

Divide curve count=10

Divide curve count=10

Divide curve count=10

Divide curve count=6

Contour distance=0.03

Random on move: Domain=0.019-0.116

Domain=0.019-0.116

Random on move: Domain=(-0.10)-0.20

Random domain=(-0.30)-0.30

Random domain=(-0.30)-0.30

Strip size (loft)=0.01

Strip size (loft)=0.04

Strip size (loft)=0.025

Strip size (loft)=0.025

SPECIE 2.4 STRIP PATTERN 3 (DOUBLE UNDULATION)

Random Domain:

2 Random Domain:

(-0.3)-0.3

(-0.3)-0.3 / (-0.1)-0.1

2 Random Domain:

2 Random Domain:

Shifted list loft

Shifted list loft

Seed=0,1 / 3,4

Seed=0,1 / 5,6

(-0.3)-0.3 / (-0.5)-0.5

(-0.2)-0.2 / (-0.4)-0.4

Seed=7,8

Seed 3,4

Seed=5,6 / 7,8

Seed=7,8

SPECIE 2.5 SUPPORTING STRIPS

Divide length distance=0.2

Divide length distance=0.07

Divide length distance=0.03

Divide length distance=0.1

Loft size=0.01

Loft size=0.01

Loft size=0.01

Loft size=0.03

Original strip deleted

Original strip size=0.005

SPECIE 2.6 VORONOI SURFACES

68

Domain=(-0.2)-0.2

Random domain=(-0.2)-0.2

Voronoi / Populate 3D: Count=100

Populate 3D: 300

Populate 3D: 300

WB Catmul-Clark division:

WB Mesh thickening:

Loft

Edge size: 0.9 scale

Edge size: 0.9 scale

Edge size: 0.5 scale

level=3

distance=0.03

69


ITERATION PART 3

MOUNTAIN PATTERN

SPECIE 3.1 HEXAGONAL EXTRUSION

Hexagon

Attractor pt change position

Attractor pt change position

3 attractor point

SPECIE 3.2 WEAVERBIRD SMOOTHING

WB Catmul-Clark division level=3

WB edge thickening=0.03

WB edge thickening=0.08

WB edge thickening=0.2

SPECIE 3.3 METABALL

70

Extrusion height=0.52

Extrusion height=0.45

Extrusion height=2.43

Extrusion height=4.12

Extrusion height=6.04

Extrusion height=6.04

Threshold=20.8

Threshold=23

Threshold=4.08

Threshold=8.57

Threshold=5.12

Threshold=5.12

Domain=2.04

Domain=2.04

Populate 3D seed change

Populate 3D seed change

Populate 3D seed change

Planar surface

71


BEST ITERATIONS

VALLEY FOLD PATTERNS

The undulation occurs in both ways. The undulation on

three dimensionally, which also creates more spatial

the adjacent triangle panels had inverted directions.

interactions with potential users. I can also imagine

It allows the two panels still be able to share a single

that the system would cast beautiful and everchanging

edge and be able to connect to each other. This feature

shadows with the folding and unfolding moment of origami.

also enabled the origami system to work properly with unplanar surfaces on the valley panels.

The

undulation

the

system.

imparted

When

the

some

spatial

origami

is

qualities

fully

opened,

into the

overall profile is no longer a planar surface which was

demonstrated

in

the

case

study.

The

undulating

strips going up and down to make the folding moment

ITERATION 2.3.5 SPATIALITY INTERACTIVE SHADOWS AESTHETIC FABRICATION COMPLEXITY

72

73


BEST ITERATIONS

VALLEY FOLD PATTERNS

Based on previous species, specie 2.5 added vertical

were rotating on its own axis according to the different

components in between the undulating strips to create

undulation angles of original strips. Meanwhile, when

new

DNA

the size of original strips set very small (like in this

component wherethe strips in between will connect and

patterns.

The

shape

was

inspired

by

the

iteration), the vertical component started to have this

support the spiral strip. In this case, the vertical

anti-gravitational floating effect.

components allows the strips to maintain their positions . Therefore, the iteration became more predictable in terms of physical prototyping, which also allows more controllable fabrication processes.

On the other hand, the supporting strips also added notion of dynamic into the structure because each of them

ITERATION 2.5.4 SPATIALITY INTERACTIVE SHADOWS AESTHETIC FABRICATION COMPLEXITY

74

75


BEST ITERATIONS

COMBINED PATTERNS

Two patterns have different spatial qualities due to

the spatial language of metaball is more subtle and

their different structural performance in the origami

elegant. During the selection process, I always tried

system. The strip patterns on the valley folds would

to reduce the dominance of the mountain folds, and

be considering the spaces required for folding, while

to

the

mountain

and valley patterns. At this stage, I imagine that the

and

could

folds

have

would

extrusions

have

smaller

coming

out.

restrictions During

the

iteration process, I tried to find a balance between two

create

the

spatial

relationship

between

mountain

strips would light up and metaball surface would be made of reflection materials.

patterning systems. The metaball surface was chosen for the mountain folds. The metaball creates a smooth and fluid 3 dimensional pattern, which adds more flexibility and spatiality to the system. Compare to the other extrusion iterations in the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;mountain foldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; section,

ITERATION 3.3.1

ITERATION 2.5.4

76

77


B5 Prototyping 5.1 ORIGAMI MECHANISM 5.2 MOUNTAIN FOLDS / METABALL SURFACE 5.3 VALLEY FOLDS / UNDULATING STRIPS

78

79


5.1 Origami mechanism

80

81


3d print test

bolts test

Although small size door hinges can be bought from

strength was much weaker, lots of them broke during the

4

the

the panels and put washers to both ends of the

the market, I decided to 3D print the hinge joint for

fabrication.

fabrication. The M4 bolts were to loose for the

bolts to allow rotation. It also failed with the

4mm hole of the joints, and the two panels were

crack of joints. Then I switched to M5 bolts, and

more control and more potential. By fabricating the

types

of

bolts

were

tested

during

joints and testing them, I got better understanding

The size of the holes was 4mm diameter, which I thought

shaky. I tried different methods to counter

I have to drill bigger holes on the joint. Few

on

works.

would be perfect for M4 bolts, but during the prototyping

this problem, one of them was to screw the M4

drill bits with different sizes were tested. The

Two types of 3D printing layouts were tried out

process, I realized there were a lot problems with the

bolts very tight to maintain the position of

successful one was 4.67 mm.

(top row), the one on the right was better for

hole sizes, and I have to drill the holes bigger in the

mass production, and it was easier to take out the

later stage.

the

sizes

and

also

how

the

mechanism

scaffoldings. However, compare to the left one, the

82

83


connection test

84

1

2

3

4

After the getting the right size for bolts and joints, I

slide

up

and

down

and

were

still

not

very

stable.

started to test different positions and combinations of

Therefore, in prototype 4, I put two joints to the

joints to achieve optimal effect. Single connection was

other side of the panel, to switch the position of the

tested first (prototype 2), but the connection was not

joints from different panels. As a result, two joints

stable and there was a lot of load on that connection

from left panel are located on the top and bottom,

during folding. Next, I put double joints on each side

while the two joints from the right are in the middle.

(protype 3) to share the load and also to prevent two

The joints interlocked each other, and finally stabilize

panels from shaking. But with step 3, the panels would

the system.

85


folding / problems

Because the positions of joints and hinge techniques had changed along the prototyping process, but the joints were reused during the process, the joints I got were not ideal for the current connection. Two joints would crash each other and stop the further folding. Adjustment of joint sizes and joint positions could be made for next prototype.

86

87


5.2 Mountain folds / metaball surface

This group of prototypes was to create the metaball profile

of

the

mountain

folds.

The

prototypes

were

made by using the vacuum machine. The machine heated up the material and inflated air into it under the prefabricated formworks.

88

89


fabrication process

CNC formwork

90

Heat up

Inflate

Failed :(

91


formwork test

Two

sets

of

formworks,

one

metaball

and

one

meterial test

prototyping process.

voronoi, are used to test different possibilities.

92

Three sheets of plastic with different materials and

was required to soften the material. The magnitude of

thickness were used for the performance test.

inflation was much smaller than the first one. I heated and inflated three times to achieve this shape.

They are made of 12mm MDF through CNC router.

Through the prototyping process, I realized that

The thickness gives the formwork extra strength

the profile of the metaball surface is not highly

The

to resist the inflating force from the vacuum

dependent on the shape of the formwork. Different

easiest to inflate and only 75 seconds of heating was

The one on the top right corner was also 1.5mm thick,

machine.

formwork would produce similar shapes which were

required. But the material was not strong enough for

but with matte finish, instead of glossy. However, the

all quite different from the metaball generated in

the inflation, I failed twice with this material

material was not ideal for the inflation. The matte

thinnest

one

was

only

0.9mm

thick.

It

was

the

finish starts to melt before the entire sheet reaches

I cut off some parts of the voronoi to make

grasshopper.

larger holes because I realized that the inflation

is also part of the design generation which offers

The red one was 1.5mm thick. Compare to the first one,

the optimal temperature for inflation. Some kinks can

works

different possibilities compare to digital modelling.

the inflation was much harder. 90 seconds of heating

be seen from the finished prototype.

better

with

larger

openings

during

the

Therefore,

the

prototyping

process

93


Successful prototype

This

prototype

and

the page, but it also looks like they are

reflections

extruding into the page. The reflection

make the surface become more organic and

adds another level of unpredictability

fluid. In the image on the right, the

and

metaballs are actually extruding out of

creates unique visual qualities.

glossy

94

surface

has

a

finish.

very The

smooth

irrationality

onto

the

surface,

95


5.3 Valley folds undulating strips

Polypropylene was used for the curving strips

Pin

connection

was

in vally folds. The strips were unrolled from

polypropylene

grasshopper to get the correct dimension.

prototype was not as successful as the

were

previous two. Although certain extent

Optical fibres may be used for the

of curvature was achieved, it was quite

final prototype, the material would

difficult to overcome the tension and

be much harder to work with.

and

used

MDF

to

frames.

joint

The connection which were made by

This

screws took a lot time to made and not

aesthetically

satisfied.

maintain the strips in right position.

96

97


B6 Proposal 6.1 SITE ANALYSIS / MERRI CREEK 6.2 DESIGN PROPOSAL

98

99


6.1 Site analysis / Ceres community Ceres community, stands for â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Centre for Education and Research in Environmental Strategiesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;, is a local community which locates close to Melbourne city and next to merri creek. The main purpose of

the

community

is

to

initiate

and

support

environmental sustainability.

Ceres Community

100

Cafe

Community Garden

Educational

Natural Forest

101


Sustainability

Ceres

The pollution and damages made to the environment

the site, has been suffered from pollution and

systems educational programs, etc. These features

hosts

community

are

sustainable

degradation issues for decades. I believe that as

demonstrate

towards

development. During the site visit, I felt that

a community which promotes sustainability, there

sustainability. The community is nice, green and

the goodness of the community was almost detached

should

friendly as if it is a dreamland. However, all of

from the society and the environment around it.

water qualities in the local region. There should

the

ideal

farms,

way

of

green

living

energy

the

driving

reasons

for

these were not the reasons why we created this community in the first place.

102

be The

merri

creek,

which

locates

just

next

to

a

be

more

raise

of

responses

awareness

to

of

the

the

deteriorating

unsustainable

behaviours done to the local environment.

103


MOUNTAIN FOLDS

VALLEY FOLDS

Metaball surface

Optical fibre

Reflective material

Undulation

6.2 Design Proposal Controls electricity

Although we claim that being sustainable as one of the most important mission in this new age, there is a huge disjunction between what we propose and what we do.

My

design

will

be

criticizing

this

disjunction

through

Daily water quality of

Data from Yarra-watch

Merri creek

(updated twice a day)

the

representation of a wall, which has an astonishing looking and is fuelled by one of the misbehaviours that we do to the environment.

The wall will have an origami structure which only â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;openâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; and light up at night.

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105


Closed at daytimes

The

mountain

folds

have

metaball

shapes and are made of reflective materials.

The

image

shows

the

folded position of origami during day times.

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107


Opened at night

The strips at valley folds are ideally made of optical fibres. The origami opens and lights up at night. The lighting

and

reflection

create

beautiful

effects.

However, the amount of electricity given to the light is determined by the daily water quality of Merri creek (accessible from Yarra-watch, updated twice a day). The worse the air quality is, the lighter and prettier it is. Therefore, the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;fuelâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; of this astonishing feature is the deteriorating air pollution. When people come to this place and celebrate this thing, they are actually celebrating their evil behaviour to the environments.

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109


Reflection of light

The curvy strips undulates up and down, creating three dimensional

undulations.

The

light

reflects

on

the

metaball surface of mountain folds creates beautiful and mystical effects. It exaggerates the dissociation between its beautiful surface and its evil nature. The dissociation also forms a critique on the disjunction between the statement of being sustainable and our actual misbehaviour to the environment.

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111


Design interest

B7. Learning Outcome

The lectures and the research studies in B1 helped me to develop a better understanding of what patterning and ornamentation really are. The case study 1.0 was a really good start for my technique

7.1 DESIGN INTEREST

development and my design direction. By pushing the potential of the

7.2 PARAMETRIC MODELLING

grasshopper definition of â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;de Young Museumâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;, I realized that I was

7.3 DESIGN THROUGH MAKING

really interested in how two patterns could be combined into one system and how they could response and cooperate with each other to create a new pattern which is more dynamic and organic. This also influenced my choice for case study 2. The origami system was ideal for my area of interest where the integration of multiple patterning systems offers more potentials and variations to the system. And the relationship or the dialogue between those patterns are interchangeable with the movement of origami.

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113


Parametric design

Design through making

parametric

Throughout part B, I believe that the most crucial part will be

modelling at later part of part B. It not only offered me

the cooperation between digital modelling and physical prototyping.

a opportunity to explore grasshopper components, but also

During the prototyping process, I realized that a lot of issues could

made me to think in different ways as traditional design

only be solved through making. Prototyping process is a process

methods. For instance, during the iteration and prototyping

of interpreting materiality and physical forces. It has its own

process for origami system, the kangaroo component allowed

limitations and opportunities. Digital renders were really effective

me to have real time physics simulation which helped me to

in transmitting effects and atmosphere, but prototypes optimised

visualise the movement and distortion of the structure.

my structure and made it more workable and realistic. Prototype

The

iterations

were

really

good

start

for

also have its own ability to generate form and ideas. For example, during the fabrication process of prototype 2 (metaball surface), the inflation itself was also a form finding process which dealt with, gravity, materiality and machine limitations.

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115


B8. Appendix 8.1 ALGORITHMIC SKETCHBOOK 8.2 BIBLIOGRAPHY

116

117


fractal scale / mirror loft

118

119


120

121


field positive & negative field spin feld field lines

122

field positive & negative field spin feld (larger radius) field lines

123


field positive & negative field spin feld (larger radius) field lines

124

field positive & negative field spin feld field lines

125


field graph mapper (parabola inverted) interpolate / pipe

126

127


field graph mapper (conic) interpolate / pipe

128

129


Bibliography

1. Moussavi, Farshid, and Daniel Lopez (2009). The Function of Form (Barcelona: Actar; New York), p. 8

2. Archdaily, “AD Classics: Barcelona Pavilion / Mies van der Rohe”, 2011 <http://www.archdaily. com/109135/ad-classics-barcelona-pavilion-mies-van-der-rohe>

3. Menges, Achim (2012). “Material Computation: Higher Integration in Morphophonemic Design”, Architectural Design, 82, 2, pp. 14-21, p. 20

4. Archdaily, “Spotlight: Herzog & de Meuron”, 2014 <http://www.archdaily.com/370152/happy-birthday-pierre-de-meuron>

5. Archdaily, “M.H. de Young Museum / Herzog & de Meuron”, 2010 <http://www.archdaily.com/66619/m-h-de-young-museum-herzog-de-meuron>

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131


c

critical design

132

133


C.1 Design concept 1.0 PART B FEEDBACK 1.1 PRECEDENT STUDY 1.2 SCRIPT DEVELOPMENT 1.3 SITE ANALYSIS 1.4 FORM FINDING 1.5 ITERATIONS 1.6 BEST ITERATION SELECTION

C.2 Prototypes 2.1 FORM GENERATION

POLYPROPYLENE 0.6MM

2.2 FRAME & PANEL SYSTEM

POLYPROPYLENE FRAME 0.6MM / PERSPEX 2MM

2.3 FLEXIBLE JOINT

POLYPROPYLENE 0.6MM

2.4 PATTERN TESTING - PERFORATION

content

POLYPROPYLENE 0.3MM

2.5 RIGID FORM MATERIAL TESTING

ALUMINIUM 1.2MM / CNC ROUTING

2.6 PATTERN TESTING - METABALL

PLASTIC SHEET 1MM / VAC FORM

C.3 Final detail model 3.1 PROTOTYPE 7

MILD STEEL 1.2MM / FIBRE LASER CUTTING

3.2 FINAL PRESENTATION MODEL

MILD STEEL 1.2MM / FIBRE LASER CUTTING

3.3 SITE MODEL 1:10

POLYPROPYLENE 0.6MM

C.4 Learning objective and outcomes 4.1 LERNING OBJECTIVE

PARAMETRIC MODELLING

DESIGN THROUGH ITERATIONS

PHYSICAL PROTOTYPING

4.2 OVERVIEW TIME LINE 4.3 FUTURE DEVELOPMENT

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135


C1.

From Part B

Design Concept The feedback from part B are as follows:

136

1.0 PART B FEEDBACK

1. Improve the script to make varying foldings on the origami

1.1 PRECEDENT STUDY

system, to make the system more flexible and more original

1.2 SCRIPT DEVELOPMENT

2. Make prototypes to test the system, to help digital modelling

1.3 SITE ANALYSIS

3. To integrate vac formed metaball with origami tessellation

1.4 FORM FINDING

4. To narrow down the direction of project,

1.5 ITERATIONS

be more focus on certain aspects

1.6 BEST ITERATION SELECTION

5. More prototypes in part C, focus more on the fabrication

137


Precedent study PROJECT: BLOOMBERG PAVILION ARCHITECT: AKIHISA HIRATA DATE: 2011

The project was inspired by the growing nature of the tree branches. The design process was an integration of natural pattern studies and algorithmic scripting. The resulted form was a combination of organically undulated surface and straight sharp triangular pieces. The structure parasited onto the existing building, and fused into it not just as a roof, but also as a wall, a door and a window. The sculptural shape which according to Toyo Ito, represented â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;the intimate relationship between art & cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;.

However, we were more interested in the design logic and the techniques Hirata used in the project.The structure consisted of only isosceles triangles. They tessellated through simple logics which allowed them to expand constantly. Therefore, with the same logic, it is possible to incorporate any situation with any possible forms. It can be a facade, a curtain, a table and even clothes. It can be anything.

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139


Script development

Uniform folding & pattern

Deformed pattern with attractor pt

140

Deformed pattern with graph mapper

Deformed folding with attractor pt

Valley lines

Deformed folding with image sampling

Mountain lines

Diamond grid used previously

Panels colliding

Hexagonal grid

Surface colliding component

141


The site The site was at the entrance of the Ceres market. There was a walk way in front of Van Ray Centre (staff office), which connected the cafe, visitor centre and the market. There was quite a flow of people at the path. The facade of the office was also aging and dirty, we realized that there would be an opportunity to have a parasitic installation on the existing facade which would also have influence on the walking experience on the paths.

Office

Ceres market

Merri Table Cafe

Bike park area Main access

Visitor centre

Van Raay Centre

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143


Site & Design

The project would adopt the material system of origami which was previously explored in part B. The installation we proposed would address following features and issues:

1. A parasitic installation which would become part of the existing building 2. Create connection between interior and exterior 3. Have influence on the walking path, creates interaction 4. Not just a wall, but also transit to other functions like canopy, providing shading.

We realized that the folding nature of origami would provide a dynamic and organic structure which could grow into different directions. As a parasitic installation, the structure would contrast the existing building in terms of both material finishing and the organic form. The folded origami would also revealed the aging facade in some parts along the flow of structure, which indicates the revealing of the nature under the manufactured structure. This would subtly demonstrate the key purpose of Ceres community, which was to unveil the destructed nature under human society, so as to promote sustainability.

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145


Form finding

The design process of this project was a form finding process through algorithmic iterations and physical prototypes. Two of them were closely related to each other during the entire design.

Few sets of iterations were made for the form realization process, which

also

concerning

specific

responses

to

both

issues

and

opportunities at site. The iterations could be categorized into 4 species listed below. Our digital script were kept developing during part C, which gave us a better form generation capacity throughout different stages.

146

SPECIE 1

SPECIE 2

SPECIE 3

SPECIE 4 (CRITERIA DESIGN)

(CONTINUE OF SPECIE 4)

SPECIE 5

DEFROMING FOLDING

DEFORMING PATTERN

DEFORMED FOLDING

SPATIALITY

‘EAT’ INTO EXISTING FACADE

DEFORMED FOLDING

UNARY FORCE

ATTRACTOR POINT

UNARY FORCE

MAIN ACCESS

CUT OUT WINDOWS

UNARY FORCE

ANCHOR POINT

GRAPH MAPPER

ANCHOR POINT

WALL & CANOPY

ANCHOR POINT

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SPECIE 1 DEFORMED FOLDING (UNARY FORCE) (ANCHOR PT)

SPECIE 2.1 DEFORMED PATTERN (ATTRACTOR POINT) (IMAGE SAMPLING)

SPECIE 2.2 DEFORMED PATTERN (GRAPH MAPPER)

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149


SPECIE 3 DEFORMED FOLDING (UNARY FORCE) (ANCHOR POINT)

SPECIE 4.1 CRITERIA DESIGN (CREATING MORE SPATIALITY)

SPECIE 4.2 CRITERIA DESIGN (MAIN ACCESS PATH)

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151


SPECIE 4.3 CRITERIA DESIGN (WALL & CANOPY)

SPECIE 4.4 CRITERIA DESIGN (‘EAT’ INTO EXISTING FACADE) (CUT OUT WINDOW)

SPECIE 5 INDIVIDUAL CANOPY (EASIER FABRICATION)

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153


best iteration 1

FORM EVALUATION SPATIALITY AESTHETIC FABRICATION COMPLEXITY DYNAMISM

SITE RESPONSE MAIN ACCESS INTERACTIVE SHADING WINDOW ACCESS

Axonometric view The structure sit across the entire existing facade, created a dynamic and continuous looking from the front elevation. It was tilted with an angle which allowed it to have some shading ability to the main paths and the windows. The transition from wall installation to a canopy demonstrated the growing nature of parasitic architecture.

However, the folding percentage was not enough to create an undulated form. There was not much variation of folding along the structure which resulted in a relatively flat and simple form. But due to its simplicity, it had less problems in digital scripting compare to others and was easier to fabricate.

Front elevation

154

Side elevation

155


best iteration 2 / future development

FORM EVALUATION SPATIALITY AESTHETIC FABRICATION COMPLEXITY DYNAMISM

SITE RESPONSE MAIN ACCESS INTERACTIVE SHADING WINDOW ACCESS

Axonometric view The most significant feature of this iteration was the transition from a wall cladding to a shading canopy, with a moderate rotation of form. Its presence was subtle and ambiguous. It had a really dynamic form and a sense of flow, which created great contrast to the existing building.

However, the twisted form was more complicated than how it looked like. The twisting resulted in the collisions of panels, and also some quad meshes at where it twisted. Nonetheless, the script was further developed at later stage with triangulation of quad meshes and also the sphere collide component to avoid collision. We would be able to solve these problems if more time were given and this could become one of our future developments.

Front elevation

156

Side elevation

157


best iteration 3 / final form

FORM EVALUATION SPATIALITY AESTHETIC FABRICATION COMPLEXITY DYNAMISM

SITE RESPONSE MAIN ACCESS INTERACTIVE SHADING WINDOW ACCESS

Axonometric view The final form was a combination of last two best iterations. It was a balance between complexity and fabrication. It was a combination of two pieces of origami structures. One as facade and canopy, and the other one hovering on top of existing structures to create north side shading. There were spaces ‘inside’ the origami, accessible for users and created more interaction.

However, the final form was also just a selection from the existing iterations that we had at that design stage. It could be further developed with more appropriate evaluations and techniques (last iteration was an example). We stopped at this point because we thought this was relatively successful and already addressed the specificity of the site. Nonetheless, it was an ongoing process.

Front elevation

158

Side elevation

159


160

Wall / Canopy

Part of building

Installation / Shading

The undulation of the wall creates new spatial experiences within the rigid rectilinear space

161


‘FOLDFINDING’

162

163


C2. Prototypes

6 prototypes were made in this stage before the presentation model. During the prototyping process, The real physical world was very different from what we saw on the screen, especially for things like materiality, fabrication defects and tolerance. Those things could only be realized during prototyping.

Meanwhile, the prototypes were not only for testing and representation. Sometimes they were part of idea generation as well, like the form generation in prototype 1 and pattern visualization in prototype 4.

1. Form generation

164

2. Frame & panel system

3. Flexible joint

4. Pattern testing

5. Material testing - aluminium

6. Pattern testing - metaball

165


Prototype 1

The first prototype after part B was made of 0.6mm thick polypropylene sheet. At the time we were still unable to generate forms with varied foldings through grasshopper. Therefore, this prototype was more of a form finding process which helped us to test and visualize the origami mechanism in reality.

The mountain lines were etched because it would be folded outwards while the valley lines were cut with dash lines.

166

167


folding cpacity It was much harder to fold than what we expected. The folding moment of each triangle occurred in different directions, and it became more difficult when we got into the centre of the sheet. However, the result was very successful in terms of its flexibility and structural integrity. It allowed us to understand the real potential of the system which also became a starting point of our digital script development in part C.

168

169


Prototype 2

Developed from prototype 1, prototype 2 consisted of two materials, black perspex (0.2mm)

and

transparent

polypropylene

(0.6mm). We were quite satisfied with the materiality

of

polypropylene

which

were

used previously. In this case, only frames were

fabricated

with

polypropylene.

It

would allow the installation of triangular panels on the top.

170

171


polypropylene frame

The problem with this frame was that it lost structural integrity when we fold it because of the subtraction of centre piece. The frame started to twist under the force of folding.

Meanwhile, most triangle frames shared same vertices and edges, made the folding almost impossible.

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173


bolt connection

Mechanical were

easy

Joints to

with

control

bolts

and

(M3/15mm)

were

able

elegant jointing methods.

to

design

Also, the bolts and nuts would collide on

language of bolts did not fit with the

each other because of their giant sizes.

perspex

It stopped origami panels to fold entirely

disassemble

easily.

panels

and

However,

the

translucent

frames

as one design. We were looking for more

174

175


rivet connection

The installation of bolts was very time consuming

before the panels got collided.

and expensive. Therefore, we tested rivet as

176

glue connection

We then tried glue, which might be the most

Ideally, the without the mechanical fixing,

efficient and clean way of joining the frame

the

system

could

fold

to

largest

extent

an alternative. The installation was very fast

However, the perspex panels had very fragile

and panels. There would be no mechanical

without any collision of joints. However, the

which would be better for mass production.

material qualities, and they tended to crack

fixings,

of

bending and twisting force during the folding

The size of it was significantly smaller than

under the strong force applied during rivet

floating for the black perspex panels, with

was very strong and the glue was not able to

the bolt which increased the amount of folding

installation.

the translucent frame fading away.

hold the structure.

which

would

create

a

sense

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Prototype 3

The polypropylene was still used as the connection joint

material

in

this

prototype.

The

size

of

the

joint was reduced to minimum to have a cleaner finish on the model. Rivet was used rather than bolts. The smaller

size

of

rivet

would

reduce

the

problem

of

panels colliding on each other. The new joint sit on the different sides of panels to allow maximum folding.

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179


considering material thickness

When the joint is at the back, the panels would stop folding when it folded flat. The thickness of the panels would stop further rotation.

Therefore,

joints

were

placed

at

different

sides

of

the

panels,

depending on the folding direction:

Mountain folds had joint at the back (pink) Valley folds had joint at front (blue)

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181


problems

The polypropylene sheet was very stretchy, and the dashed lines we used made it even worse. The joint was stretched and deformed during the fabrication process. Therefore, the model lost its

Polypropylene stretching

structural integrity.

Meanwhile, the joint was only placed at the centre of the edge, the form was not stable. The panels kept twisting, and it was very hard to fold. Multiple joints would be used in both end of the edge in future prototypes.

Panels twisting

182

183


Prototype 4

Another sheet of polypropylene was made to test the visual effect of patterning. It helped us to visualize the effect that the light passing through the perforation. The

polypropylene

was

0.3mm

thich

which

would be easier to fold and to maintain the folding position.

184

185


Undulation of form with deformed folding

186

Rivets at valley folds to hold position

187


188

Gradient of metaball and perforation

Gradient of metaball and perforation

Perforations at less folding

Metaball at folded place

189


Prototype 5

At this stage, the development of digital script with

allowed varied

testing

us

to

patterns.

through

generate After

polypropylene,

foldings the

form

we

were

looking for other materials which were self supporting anc could hold up the form by itself. Aluminium was the first material we tried. The reflectivity of alumunium gave each individual panel a different finishing quality under light.

190

191


mechanic joints & tabs

The aluminium panels were jointed through tabs, with mechanical connections. Learning from the twisting failure

in

prototype

3,

the

bolt

connection

were

applied at both ends of the tab to provide structural stability. We used bolts instead of rivet (which were faster) because it allowed more tolerance during assembly and could also be disassembled easily.

192

193


Front view

194

Back view

195


Defects & problems

DEFECTS AND FINISHING QUALITIES

FABRICATION TOLERANCE AT PANEL JUNCTION

However, there was some problems during the fabrication process due

The folding of tabs was not as precise as what we modelled digitally,

to the special materiality of aluminium. The aluminium sheet started

the fabrication tolerance resulted in some problems in model assembly.

to bend during the CNC cutting, which caused unexpected defects such

The 3 corners of triangular pieces were not precise enough to allow

as uncut and the cut at engraving lines.

multiple panels to connected at one point. This resulted in the shifting of position of adjacent panels and affected the entire form.

Meanwhile, there was no lubricant applied on the router bit. The

196

aluminium stuck on the router bit and made it blunter through the

The prototype we made was only part of the structure, but the amount

cutting process. This resulted in the furry finishings at the engraving

of tolerance were not allowed if the entire piece of origami were

lines. However, the bending of tabs would be not so sharp if there was

being made. At the later stage, we drill holes at the corner to leave

no engraving at all (the one on left).

out some space for panel connection and allow tolerance.

197


Prototpye 6

After the material testing in part B, we understand that the height of inflation was mainly depend on the size of the cut outs and also the material thickness. Due to the size limit of the origami panels, the metaball cut outs would be much smaller than part B prototypes. As a result, the 1mm plastic sheet (thinnest available in Fabrication workshop) was used. We chose plastic with glossy finish, due to its higher melting point.

198

199


200

reference sheet

failures

In order to understand the relationship between cut out sizes and the

We tried to inflate as much as possible during fabrication. We

inflation height, we made a reference sheet with varying sizes of cut outs.

heated few times, each time 75 seconds. The more we heated up, the

The sizes covered the range of sizes we needed for the final model, which

softer the material was, and the higher it inflated. The one on the

we intended to make a size gradient of metaball. Bigger size of inflation

right, which were heated 4 times before inflation, had the biggest

would be possible if the model was made in larger scales, and the effect

effect. However, the bigger cut outs started to explode because of

would be more dramatic.

the tension applied on the plastic sheet during inflation.

201


Prototype 7

This was the last prototype before the presentation model. After the material testing of aluminium and CNC router, we decided to laser cut mild steel at this stage. There were few reasons:

1. steel was harder and stiffener than aluminium, less problems would occur during fabrication 2. The finishing quality of laser cutter would be much cleaner than CNC router 3. The dashed lines at the folding had been tested in earlier polypropylene prototypes 4. The duration of laser cutting was much shorter than CNC

202

203


outcome & problems

adjustment for presentation model

The laser cut model took less time and had a sharper finish than cnc

We used longer but less dashed lines at the folding place, to make

router. However, fibre laser cutting machines worked quite differently

them continuous lines and therefore reduce the possibility of

as CO2 machine which we used previously. The cutter had to recharge

getting a burn mark. We also reduced the number of perforations

for each cut. It took lots of time and also created more burn marks

for the final model, because it took too long to cut. The size

than usual. The folding was fine with the dashed lines, but was not

of the prototype that we got was only 10 percent of the entire

as sharp as cnc engraving. Holes were drilled at the corner to allow

structure, and it already took 30 minutes.

fabrication tolerance and to avoid the collision of panels.

204

205


PRESENTATION MODEL

The presentation model was made of mild steel sheets (1.2mm). It was only part of the origami facade in 1:2 scale.

206

207


folding

Mild steel was much harder and less malleable than

Folding formwork

Folding with cut outs

aluminium. Form works were made for the folding, in order to achieve a sharp finish. We realized that the tabs and folded panels would collide on each other and affect further folding. Therefore, different form works were used under different situations.

Folding

208

209


metaball installation

We thought about using bolts to attach metaball which would be similar to panel connections. However, We felt that the finishing quality of bolt connection was aesthetically not so good, and would affect the smooth finish of steel panels. Therefore, the metaball was installed by using cohesive tapes which were mainly used at construction site. Therefore, the installation was fast and clean and strong enough to hold the metaball.

Metal tabs Bolts

Cut outs

Tape

Metaball inflation

210

211


Site model A final site model were made with 0.6mm polypropylene at 1:10 scale.

212

213


Perforations with gradient

214

Undulation of form

215


making strips for fabrication 2 RULES OF MAKING STRIPS

To avoid panels with small angle of gaps

Because of tabs, if the gap between two panels were too small or with a small angle, the tabs would collide .

We believed that instead of making individual panels and connect them (like aluminium prototype), the final model should be folded from flat surfaces, which could demonstrate the folding nature of origami. However, while we were making polypropylene prototypes, we also realized that the folding was quite difficult especially when the material was hard. Therefore, we made a balance

To avoid one full piece of origami.

between the two. We divided the final form into few strips to maintain the folding capability and also easier to fold.

The resistance of folding one full piece of origami is big. In this strip, the triangulation was divided into different strips. Therefore, the strips we made were all long and slim.

216

217


tabs and rivets

Rivets were used for the connection. due to its smaller sizes and easy fabrication. We planned to put 3 rivets at each tab for stability. But when we were making it, we realized that would take a lot of time and money. We reduced the number of rivets. At the edge panels, we used 2 rivets on the sides of the rivets, while only one rivet was used in other tabs. The effect was almost similar as initial plan.

As planned

218

Edge panels

Panels in middle

219


paracite on a paracite

220

221


222

223


C4.

Parametric modelling

Learning Outcome The most significant improvement of our project since part B would probably be the digital script development in grasshopper. With

4.1 LEARNING OBJECTIVE

deformed triangulation patterns and deformed folding percentage, we were able to produce any form with same technique and principle.

PARAMETRIC MODELLING

It helped us to generate forms which would be most suitable and

DESIGN THROUGH ITERATIONS

appropriate for the site in terms of both aesthetics and site

PHYSICAL PROTOTYPING

response. At the later stage of the project, the prototyping became much easier because of the sophistication of script. In our case,

4.2 OVERVIEW TIME LINE

some foldings with complicated shapes were not achievable only by

4.3 FUTURE DEVELOPMENT

physical modelling and testing. The power of algorithmic modelling allowed us to envision forms which were more complex in a larger scale with lots of variations.

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225


Design through iteration

Physical prototyping

Algorithmic design enabled us to come out with iterations of forms

About 7 prototypes were made in part C which not only played a role

to address the issues and opportunities. The collaboration with

in representation of digital models but also helped to generate ideas

other disciplines through the platform of algorithms helped the

and forms, such as the polypropylene prototype. Some situations like

design to become more sophisticated and more responsible for the

fabrication defects and tolerance in aluminium prototype could never

requirements and the site. Since the early design stage in part

be realized only with digital modelling. The better understanding

B, I had grown strong interest in this particular design method:

of material system helped us to set restrictions while we were

design through iteration. In part C, the iteration process for form

designing. Fabrication also became one of the selection criteria in

finding

form finding process.

was more developed and resolved. The final form could

also be further pushed with more variation and more comprehensive selection criteria.

226

227


Overview timeline

SCRIPT DEVELOPMENT

Uniform folding & pattern

Deformed folding with attractor pt & image sampling

PROTOTYPING

Prototype 1

228

Prototype 2

Prototype 3

Prototype 4

229


SCRIPT DEVELOPMENT

Pattern deformation: Diamond grid to hexagonal grid

Deformed grid through Att pt & graph mapper

Indicate mountain & valley folds

Folding with deformed triangulation

PROTOTYPING

Prototype 5

SCRIPT DEVELOPMENT

Panels colliding

Surface colliding component

Final digital model

PROTOTYPING

Prototype 6

230

Prototype 7

Presentation model

Site model

231


Future development

Selection criteria

Script development

The project could be developed in many ways. The project

As indicated in the journal, the best selection did not become

was designed through form finding iterations and criteria

our final model because of scripting limitations at that

selections.

was

stage. However, at final stage, with the developed script

still a bit too generic. More data analysis could be made for

(especially with sphere collide component in kangaroo), that

selection through few plug ins. For example, we could import

best selection became possible, and we could push that further

sun shade analysis through ladybug and structural analysis

in future. And we also believed that the form could be kept

through Karamba. This would make our final selection become

improving with the continuous development on the script.

However,

the

selection

criteria

we

chose

more specific to the site issues.

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233


Prototyping

Larger scale model

In terms of prototyping, the folding finishing of mild steel was not as

If we planned to build larger scale models, some problems

good as aluminium. We would probably go back to cnc routing aluminium

needed to be solved, such as the connection to the

in the further development. Few adjustments could be made for CNC: use

existing

new router bit and apply lubricant; use thicker material and router with

canopy. The weight of the structure would be really big

vacuum to prevent bending.

if it was all made out of steel. And due to its large

wall,

and

the

connection

with

the

existing

span, connections needed to be strong enough to resist Meanwhile, it was quite hard to fold into the correct angle accurately.

huge wind load.

It worked for presentation model because it was only a portion of it. However, there would be too much tolerance for making the entire model. As a solution, small pieces of mdf with correct angles could be fabricated just to provide the correct angle of folding during fabrication.

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â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Foldfindingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; as a methodology

This is probably the most significant among all future developments. Our script was able to apply origami folding on any surfaces with any patterns. The fold would be determined differently through techniques such as attractor point, anchor point and unary forces. Due to the folding nature of origami, the form would be very flexible and could be digitally shaped into any form that the designer want. The scale could vary from facade installation to a table cover. Through iteration process, designer could find the most appropriate form for their design and to address their brief.

In terms of fabrication, we provided few appropriate materials in this project, such as aluminium. polypropylene, perspex and mild steel. They could work for a whole range of scales.

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DEREK HU 2016

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Profile for Studio Air

2016 S1 Derek Liang Hu  

2016 S1 Derek Liang Hu  

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