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"YOU NEVER CHANGE THINGS BY FIGHTING THE EXISTING REALITY. TO CHANGE SOMETHING, BUILD A NEW MODEL THAT MAKES THE EXISTING MODEL OBSOLETE." BUCKMINSTER FULLER


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A L L A B O U T B I O M I M I C R Y Sourcing from nature in design is something that has been utilised over many years - dating back to times where technologies were yet to be discovered. Looking at nomads and pre-historic hunters, there was a need for refuge and security. This is the key role nature plays in creating temporary huts made from their surrounds. There is something very mellow and pleasant about a form derived in some way from nature – something that captivated and inspires us. However Biomimicry is something slightly more advanced a concept that takes nature and manipulates not simple copies it. With today’s advancements in such a technological world, we are often too literally presenting nature within our designs. I will explore the beauties of designing with Biomimicry and the processes in which architects take to create such forms.

1 Pawlyn Biomimicry in architecture 2011

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“FASCINATED WITH FRACTAL GEOMETRY, SMALLER PARTS THAT COME TOGETHER TO FORM LARGER WHOLES, THIS DUO OF BENJAMIN ARANDA AND CHRIS LASCH INVESTIGATES THE REALM OF STRUCTURE AND SPACE, FORMING CRYSTALLINE DESIGNS FOR BUILDINGS, INSTALLATIONS AND OBJECTS 1 THROUGH COMPUTATION”

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‘The Morning Line’ is an example of Biomimicry using generative parametric design. The design explores the interdisciplinary interplays between art, architecture, mathematics, cosmology, music, and science. Aranda and Lasch have opted to use a basic geometry and multiply this geometry in order to create an intricate and styled form. They are Architects who love to use parametric design and are indeed “particularly fascinated with modular s y s t e m s ” 1. The form itself is an interactive one that encompasses a story of the universe with no beginning or end. It is an example of a true parametric form whereby there is no limit in size, movement and geometry. The options are limitless.

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The designers have really pushed the boundaries and this is an admirable quality. On top of that, The Morning Line also has a unique “interactive multi-spatial system”2 designed by Matthew Ritchie and the Music Research Centre at York University which creates an instrument again pushing the boundaries. Being a parametric based design, any altercations in venue use or cultral changes over time allow the form to have a sence of flexibility and can “can adapt to a changing program of c o n t e m p o r a r y m u s i c ” 2. T h e forms interactive system detects movement within and outside the form. This movement and data is collated and generates unique forms of music creating “new stories c r e a t e d b y e v e r y v i s i t o r ” 2.

1 MAD MAD Professional Development for Teachers 2014 2 Thyssen-Bornemisza Art Contemporary 2014 3 Hurnaus The Morning Line Vienna 2014

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V O L T A D O M The VoltaDom project by Skylar Tibbits was constructed for MIT’s 150th Anniversary Celebration & F A S T A r t s F e s t i v a l 1. T h e form aims to emulate the idea of the traditional Gothic cathedral’s vaulted ceilings. Furthermore, the designers aimed to emulate the process by which cellular systems grow and multiply within their design of the VoltaDom. The form plays with the idea of views and light with its randomly positioned openings throughout the form as well as creating a unique experience for the

The fabrication and assembly of the project would be relatively easy and indeed cost efficient. The ideas and process behind the computational side of the project assist in a wider understanding of the grasshopper tools. A platform of knowledge was gained through the research of the project as it allowed again for a altered perspective on the idea of Biomimicry and computational design

1. SJET VoltaDom 2014 2 SJET VoltaDom 2014

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The criteria by which I choose my species was based on the idea of a flowing and repetitive nature which mapped out the idea of growth. The four selected offspring of the species are both innovative and unique in design. Not only do they emulate the idea of a repetitive growing form, they are captivating designs that intrigue the users of the site. The reason we saw the following species as successful was due to the fact that they represented a vibrational form that seemed to capture the essence of Biomimicry and tessellation. First and foremost, by creating vibrational geometry, the aim was to test and experiment with various species in order to create a successful dominant offspring. In looking at the four final species, there is a clear succession of our dominant choice however overall, the four represent the features of what we would like to achieve within our design thus merging the three designs could be a possibility.

The overall outcome was something that is beautifully complex. It allows for a base for further analysis in the coming weeks. I hope to use these elements as possibly a patterning technique or as inspiration to my project. The effect created by such a form would be intriguing and would stand as a unique form. I believe it would also sit in context with a landscape and could become a point of great attraction to the users. However in saying this, the form would have to be simplified in some way for fabrication purposes. However in creating a form that can be fabricated, the design and aesthetics should be as equally strong.


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Week 4 Iterations W e e k 4Lasch I t e r- aThe t i o Morni ns Aranda W e e k 4 I t e r a t i o n s Tet with Aranda Experimenting Lasch - The Morni W e e k 4 I t e r a t i o n s Tet Aranda Experimenting Lasch - The Morni with Aranda Experimenting Lasch - The Morni with Tet

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e kr a4t iIotn e sr a t i o n s ehda k- The 4Lasch I tMorning e r- aThe t i o Morning nLine s Line ekr 4 a t i o n s with Tetrohedrons ementing I t e r a t i o n s with Tetrohedrons da Experimenting Lasch - The Morning Line ech t i o Morning n sLine The ekr-4 a tIitoeMorning nr-saThe da Lasch Line Experimenting with Tetrohedrons rimenting with Tetrohedrons da Lasch The Morning Line Experimenting with Tetrohedrons ch The Morning Line erations

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“We extended the design concepts of the garden by looking closely at the cellular structure of plants and their processes of growth to inform the design’s development. The final structure was designed using computer algorithms that mimic natural growth and is intended to allow visitors to experience the patterns of biological structure at an unfamiliar scale. The primary structure is timber sourced from sustainable spruce forests with a glass panelled roof.”1 - NEX Principal Alan Dempsey The eureka pavilion is a design that has been created to demonstrate a commitment to science and reflecting the focus of The Times monthly science magazine, Eureka. The design of the pavilion and the surrounding garden work together to attract visitors and to assist in creating a context or a setting to their design. The project represents literal

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cell growth in leaves which is more of a representation rather than a mimic of a process in nature. Although this may be a downfall of the project, the overall rigidity and structure is commendable and I believe that these elements can be taken into account when creating our project. The plant species – site specific – were carefully selected and distributed around the pavilion. This idea forces people to reflect on the function and importance of plants in our society, furthermore assisting in the realization of the design. The designers in this case have created a beautiful computational design that suits very well in its context and that can be seen as a successful small scale project.

1 Barnett TIMES EUREKA PAVILION 2014


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1 A basic voronoi pattern was understaken in order to create a basis for manipulation and reverse engeneering. this unfortunately was a failure due to the overlapping intersections 2 The grasshopper algorythem was altered in order to create a perfectly offset and intersecting form. 3 Each geometry was listed as an idem and thus a individual surface was assigned to each section. next, a grid of points was set up within each geometry howver this was not sufficient for voronoi patterning. 4 The populate 2D component did not work as it was creting a grid of points for a rectangular geometry.

5 The populate 3D component did not work as it was creting a grid of points for a rectangular geometry. 6 Then a wall was hit untill the populate geometry component was discovered and sucsessfully sat within the boundry of each surface 7 Then the points were evenly distributed in each geometry to even out the appearance 8 The voronoi component was then added to the populated geometries 9 The offset was adjusted to create a more suitable design that now can be used to fabricate and test


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Taking a look at the original project, the outcome was quite similar to that of the original project and I believe that the process by which it was to create such a form took time and effort. The process of trial and error was very obvious within the project as elements were always coming to a dead end. In terms of differences, the project in our grasshopper file is much more linear however the idea of the form is indeed translated. This project is a voronoi derived form however we want to manipulate and morph the idea above and

beyond. We plan to test and fabricate to understand light patterns, the angle in which optimal sunlight is captured and even analyse the ways in which solar elements can be used to create a form that is both aesthetically pleasing and energy producing.


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Through analyzing a broad amount of iterations, we were able to gain a better understanding of where to take the project. Although many of our iterations were complex and unable to be fabricated, we really pushed the limits of each iteration, we tried many grasshopper definitions and we also used various plugins such as lunchbox tools to attain a surface that we could alter and play around with. The processes which were undertaken in the Grasshopper program can be found in week six of the Algorithmic Sketchbook. Our aim was to bridge the gap between computational design and cell growth and I believe that our final iterations encapsulate the idea of the growth and division. In saying this, there is also room for change and alterations to make the design stronger and more suited to the beautiful landscape of Copenhagen.

Many of our iterations could be seen as a success however the ones with tubes, holes and extrusions seemed to catch our attention due to their potential as energy generating forms. These forms have flat surfaces that can catch wind thus allowing for a form that can collect energy through the use of wind and rain on site.


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Our models as an overall process developed consecutively from idea to concept. We were able to analyse the performance of our models by testing one main element in each prototype. Creating a pavilion calls for structure and the element that all our models had in common was the ability to stand freely but also to be a structural system. Although only sketch models, our intention was to think structurally not only creatively. Our material choices were experimental and dependant upon the element being tested. Our models cosidered the ways in which we could intergrate piezo and solar into our design. our progression to a tubular form with flat panels was found to be the best option to generate the highest amount of energy as a system.

Growing: Our first prototype was based on our vector line work produced within the grasshopper program for our reverse engineering of The Eureka Pavilion. This was achieved by laser cutting each panel and gluing them together. This was only a starting point but gave us the inspiration to look at light patterns produced through shadows and the way that a shadow changes through time and seasons. Stretching: through considering our next prototype, we wanted to test the boundaries and possibilities on a curved surface. We took three main pieces of wire, tied them together then applied string on the surface through weaving and knotting it to each of the wire ribs. This technique was a more developed phase of the ‘growing’ prototype.


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Structure: next we wanted to test the stability and strength of a formation that interlock within itself. This was achieved through the use of paper through its bendable properties. Stuck together seamlessly, this form took on a very pure and beautiful form that inspired us to move further forward Bending: Taking a step into a new direction, we began testing more rigid forms for fabrication purposes. In taking this step, we found that we lost the organic nature of the form but replaced it with something that could be used as a skeletal structure. In testing this form, bending was prevented and this element is something that could be considered in the construction of our final model in coming weeks.

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Texture: after assessing the base requirements, we began to look at the idea of a surface and how we could represent this. By using a material that is grid like but has some sort of depth to it, we could represent the idea of growth and space. This prototype provided a quality that was captivating. It really did help inform our designs and was a success in mapping out shadows and light manipulation. Perspective: our final prototype was a representation of many elements; light, shadows, structure and importantly perspective. This prototype was an amalgamation of the design concept and the experience of the user. By taking the photo within the form, the experience of the users was captured.


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a growing cell muliplying and creating one entity

growing knowlage of a carbon neutral area

C O P E N H A G E N l o o k i n g t o w a r d s a c a r b o n n e u t r a l f u t u r e In order to satisfy the LAGI brief, as a group we seeked to create an installation that was relevant to the site. In order to create something that was relevant we conducted extensive research on Copenhagen’s people, climate, current environmental issues as well as some design and energy precedents for inspiration.

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Piezoelectricity is the collection of energy though the compression of a material. The material from which it is made from is not only cheap but very strong and durable. The use of this type of energy collection has been chosen due to the conditions on site. With strong winds and heavy rains in winter, the piezoelectric systems will collect optimum amounts of energy at those times. In order to catch optimum wind for energy generation, the piezoelectric material will be installed vertically. Our final design will strive to adapt to these conditions to collect the most amount of energy dependent upon the season.

In coherence with our adaptive design concept, we are aiming to allow the proposed design to collect just as much energy in summer as it does in winter. The solar energy system will utilize flexible strips which will be laid out along the sun path of Copenghagen in order to allow all elements of the form capture the sums rays. A possible design element to consider is panels that follow the sun throughout the day. Creating a self maintaining form that adapts to its surrounds is our desired outcome.

“8.4 WATTS OF USEABLE POWER CAN BE ACHIEVED FROM A PZT MOUNTED IN A SHOE�2


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Austrian architects Coop Himmelb(l)au have designed an energy-generating canopy for a passageway in Perugia, Italy. Called Energy Roof, the structure will consist of three layers: photovoltaic cells at the top, structure and wind turbines in the middle, and a g l a z e d u n d e r s i d e 1. T h e design is suited to the city and the varied layers will be able to capture the optimum amount of energy due to their research on materiality, sun paths and wind direction.

1 Etherington Energy Roof Perugia 2010 2 Sodano Estimation Of Electric Charge Output For Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting 2004

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Throughout the subject thus far, I can confidently say that I am consistently learning new and interesting things. My knowledge of grasshopper has indeed progressed and I am now able to better understand the concepts of the program much more fluently. The course content has allowed me to explore new realms and areas of Architecture in a new and exciting light. Overall I believe that the LAGI project has also enriched my knowledge of new and emerging technologies and how I will be integrating these technologies into my design. Researching built computational forms using Biomimicry was indeed the most valuable task I accomplished within the past four weeks. These precedents provided scope and a reference point to creating our own form both computationally and in our design concept. I believe that researching designs that have been successfully placed on site and that generate energy or emulating a biomimic process assisted us in better understanding how to tackle our task at hand.

Looking back at the past few weeks, I can see that the quality of the form had slightly faded in terms of its unique qualities. In accordance with the feedback that we received, our form will need to be further assessed and altered by considering the energy generating techniques more closely. Moreover, we will need to consider the site and the form on an equal scale. As an overall analysis, our design can be pushed in a positive direction by looking at adaption over a seasonal period rather than a 100 year span. I believe the steps prior to proposing a design were innovative concepts that we will have to reference back to in order to reconsider our final design. Although it seemed that our changes would have to be drastic, we quickly realized that this was not the case due to our strong understanding of where we will need to concentrate our focus in order for success. As a group we will also aim to calculate the given amount of energy produced within our form to adhere to the LAGI brief requirements of a design that generates energy to be sent to the grid.


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In conclusion, I hope to progress smoothly into the final few weeks of the semester to create a coherent and suited form for this project. The position which we are in currently will be used as a platform for further prodotyping, time-lapse photography (to depict how our energy is generated), testing, researching and further computational generation. Overall, the boundless nature of computational design has been a rich addition to my scope of understanding within this project. The need for architects to become more aware of such programs is the key to future design in my opinion. We are rapidly moving into a digital age and it is only a matter of time to see majority of structures parametrically designe. The last few pages of my Algorythmic Skectchbook provided a deeper understanding of the direction that i would like to push our model to step away from a basic form in order to showcase our skills and understanding of the computational world.

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B I B L I O G R A P H Y Arch2o. “Kunsthaus Graz | Peter Cook and Colin Fournier - Arch2O.com.” Arch2o. com, 2014. Web. 23 Mar 2014. <http://www.arch2o.com/kunsthaus-graz-petercook-and-colin-fournier/>. Barnett, Marcus. “TIMES EUREKA PAVILION | Kew Gardens, UK | by Marcus Barnett - Blog - Architecture + Design.” Solidform.co.uk, 2014. Web. 9 Apr 2014. <http://www.solidform.co.uk/blog/2012/4/10/times-eureka-pavilion-kewgardens-uk-by-marcus- barnett.html>. Bartlett, Joe, James Fiske and Tom Mason. “Gravity Power.” Gravitypower.net, 2014. Web. 22 Mar 2014. <http://www.gravitypower.net/>. Brown, wayne. (2006) ‘Introduction to Algorithmic Thinking’ Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2006 pp. 159–168, 2006. Etherington, Rose, ‘Energy Roof Perugia By Coop Himmelb(L)Au - Dezeen’, Dezeen, 2010 <http://www.dezeen.com/2010/01/21/energy-roof-perugia-bycoop-himmelblau/> [accessed 27 April 2014] Forcey, Tim. “Pumped hydro energy storage – making better use of wind.” The Conversation, 2013. Web. 20 Mar 2014. <http://theconversation.com/pumpedhydro-energy-storage-making-better-use-of-wind-18565>. Fry, Tony (2008). Design Futuring: Sustainability, Ethics and New Practice (Oxford: Berg), pp. 1–16 Graz, Kunsthaus Graz. “BIX Media Facade.” Concept - Kunsthaus Graz, 2014. Web. 23 Mar 2014. <http://www.museum-joanneum.at/en/kunsthaus/bix-mediafacade/concept>. Hansmeyer, Michael. “Michael Hansmeyer | Speaker | TED.” Ted.com, 2014. Web. 19 Mar 2014. <http://www.ted.com/speakers/michael_hansmeyer>. Hurnaus, Hertha. “The Morning Line Vienna.” Flickr, 2014. Web. 1 Apr 2014. <https://www.flickr.com/photos/arandalasch/5881978737/>.


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Jordana, Sebastian. “BOXEL / Students of Detmolder Schule” 15 Aug 2010. ArchDaily. Accessed 27 Mar 2014. <http://www.archdaily.com/?p=73173> Kalay, Yehuda E. (2004). Architecture’s New Media: Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press), pp. 5-25 Kudless, Andrew, “Shellstar Pavilion” 2012, MATSYS, Accessed 14 Mar 2014 < http://matsysdesign.com/2013/02/27/shellstar-pavilion/> Macapia, Peter. “ARCH’IT files / Turbulent Grid. Dirty Geometry.” Architettura.it, 2014. Web. 24 Mar 2014. <http://architettura.it/files/20070206/>. MAD. “MAD Professional Development for Teachers.” Madmuseum.org, 2014. Web. 1 Apr 2014. <http://madmuseum.org/events/mad-professionaldevelopment-teachers-5>. Mok, Kimberley. “Sun-Collecting, Parametric “Skin” Surrounds Student-Designed House.” TreeHugger, 2014. Web. 19 Mar 2014. <http://www.treehugger.com/ green-architecture/para-eco-house-tongji-university-students.html>. Murray, James and Shota Vashakmadze. “Land Art Generator Initiative.” Landartgenerator.org, 2014. Web. 7 Mar 2014. <http://landartgenerator.org/ winners2012.html>. Oh, Young-Tack, Sungwoo Choi, Taylor Tso, Jin Hwan Choi, Joshua Choi, Betty Liu and Bomin Kim. “Inefficiency can be Beautiful | LAGI-2012.” LAGI, 2014. Web. 7 Mar 2014. <http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI-2012/TBMYJI85/>. Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, eds (2014). Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge), pp. 1–10 Peters, Brady. (2013) ‘Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought’, Architectural Design, 83, 2, pp. 08-15

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B I B L I O G R A P H Y sjet, ‘SJET’, Sjet.us, 2014 <http://www.sjet.us/MIT_VOLTADOM.html> [accessed 23 April 2014] Sodano, Henry A, G Park, and DJ Inman, ‘Estimation Of Electric Charge Output For Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting’, Strain, 40 (2004), 49--58 Stefanov, Nik. “Experimental Computational Design.” Behance, 2014. Web. 25 Mar 2014. <http://www.behance.net/gallery/Experimental-ComputationalDesign/6801887>. Tenu, Vlad. “MINIMAL COMPLEXITY LONDON 2012 – VLAD TENU.” Vladtenu.com, 2014. Web. 24 Mar 2014. <http://www.vladtenu.com/2013/minimal-complexitylondon-2012/>. Unknown. “IADS: Minimal Complexity | Blog | ADF | British Council.” British Council, 2014. Web. 27 Mar 2014. <http://design.britishcouncil.org/blog/2012/ jun/10/iads-material-complexity/>. Unknown. “Thyssen-Bornemisza Art Contemporary.” Tba21.org, 2014. Web. 1 Apr 2014. <http://www.tba21.org/pavilions/49/page_2?category=pavilions>.


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JOURNAL  

PART B