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Panteion University of Social and Political Sciences Department of Communication, Media and Culture Orientation of Advertising and Public Relations

Advertising on Traditional Media versus Advertising on New Media. The Millennial generation decoding the Effectiveness of Advertising based on Media Placement.

Bachelor Thesis STAVROULA-CHARALAMPIA POLLATOU

Supervisor: George-Michael Klimis Associate Professor at Panteion University of Social and Political Studies

Athens, November 11, 2019


«I asked an indifferent copywriter what books he had read about advertising. » He told me that he had not read any; he preferred to rely on his own intuition. “Suppose”, I asked, “your gallbladder has to be removed this evening. Will you choose a surgeon who has read some books on anatomy and knows where to find your gallbladder, or a surgeon who relies on his intuition? Why should our clients be expected to bet millions of dollars on your intuition? ”

~ David Ogilvy, Founder of Ogilvy & Mather ~


Panteion University of Social and Political Sciences Department of Communication, Media and Culture Orientation of Advertising and Public Relations

Advertising on Traditional Media versus Advertising on New Media. The Millennial generation decoding the Effectiveness of Advertising based on Media Placement.

Bachelor Thesis STAVROULA-CHARALAMPIA POLLATOU

Supervisor: George-Michael Klimis Associate Professor at Panteion University of Social and Political Studies

Approved by ... November 11, 2019. (Signature) ................................................................................. George-Michael Klimis Associate Professor at Panteion University of Social and Political Studies

Athens, November 11, 2019


Panteion University of Social and Political Sciences Department of Communication, Media and Culture Orientation of Advertising and Public Relations

c – All rights reserved. Stavroula-Charalampia Pollatou, Copyright ˆ 2019. It is forbidden to copy, store and distribute this work, in whole or in part, for commercial purposes. Reproduction, storage and distribution are permitted for non-profit, educational or research purposes, provided the source of the source is indicated and the message is retained. Questions concerning the use of work for profit should be addressed to the writer.

Disclaimer The views and conclusions contained in this document express the author and should not be interpreted as representing the official positions of Panteion University of Social and Political Studies.

(Signature)

............................. Stavroula-Charalampia Pollatou


Abstract Abstract In this thesis, we want to understand the nature of both traditional and new media in relation to advertising in general and advertising effectiveness more specifically. Understanding how advertising works in each medium, we can decode its evolution and understand its actual effectiveness. Does the medium itself affect the form and effectiveness of an advertisement? We will analyze some very important media in a historical manner, how they started out initially and how they evolved as a medium and how that affected advertising placed in them. All media have a very strong bond built between them and advertising as almost all of them until now have depended largely on advertisements in order to sustain themselves economically. In this thesis we have added some valuable supplementary material that will help us comprehend advertising placement and advertising’s effectiveness according to the nature of the media that it is placed depending on the medium’s nature. We will touch upon integrated communication campaigns, advertising budgeting and the importance of advertising content that comes to complete the media placement factor of advertising effectiveness. Our main research methodology will be based upon what does Generation Y – The Millennial Generation think about all that? Which media does this demographic segment prefer and use the most? Where do they feel more exposed to advertisements? How do they feel about various forms of commercial expressions in various media? This Generation is a very important target group for companies and sociologically they distribute very interesting traits that are worth examining. This would be our demographic group that we chose to answer a questionnaire in which we ask them various questions about advertising and media. Supplementary, we interviewed four experts from the field of communication, one Creative Director, one Account Director, one Venture Capitalist and one Marketing Manager. We wanted to see the expert’s point of view and how it is in touch with our demographic representatives’ views and needs. We will reach some conclusions and we will discuss them. We will see what we can gather from the information of our research and make some predictions for the future of advertising. As with every research there are some limitations were future research can come and complete our incompetencies

Keywords Advertising, Advertising Content, Advertising Effectiveness, Advertising Message, Integrated Communication Campaigns, Media, Media Planning, Millennial Generation, New Media, Traditional Media

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Thesis: Every medium’s nature, whether it is passive or interactive, affects its popularity according to the generation we are examining. Representatives from the Millennial Generation lean toward interactive media, social media platforms but do not seem to be ready to leave traditional platforms like television, the radio even newspapers and other prints. This is something companies and advertising agencies should take under consideration when planning out their advertising’s media placement, in order for their campaigns to be effective.


Acknowledgements Acknowledgements For the accomplishment of my bachelor thesis there are a lot of people that I would like to thank. I wish I could write everybody’s name down but so many people did help in so many ways that it would take literally pages to fulfill this cause. More concentrated, I would like to thank my grandmother, my grandfather and my parents whose support got me into this department in which I learned so many new things in the fields of communication, media and culture and mostly about myself. I was very lucky to get the support I needed in every way possible in order to continue focusing my mind and my energy on my studies and my dreams. I want to thank my friends, the ones that stuck by me until today and made me believe in myself and remind me which were the reasons for which I started all this and instead of just getting my Bachelor’s Degree "on time" I chose to get the most out of my bachelor’s even if that meant taking my time. There were many people that gave me their valuable insights and advised me during various stages of this research. Their words helped me more than they will ever realize. Specifically I would like to thank my dear friend and brilliant academic Manolis Vlatakis Gkaragkounis whose valuable guidance and advisory upon the prosecution of this paper helped me perfect this research, to the point it was possible to be perfected based on my background and academic level. I would also like to thank, dearly, my companion Orestis who also supported me in many ways in order to conclude this thesis. This research would be incomplete without his precious input. Last but not least, I would like to thank from the bottom of my heart my supervising professor Mr. George Michael Klimis for his patience, guidance, his time and all the times he took the time to explain to me in-depth things and technicalities of the communication field I might had not taken under consideration. He was also the one to believe and supervise the thesis topic I had chosen and that enabled me to really evolve as a student. Finally, I want to thank all the people that answered my research questionnaire and all the experts that devoted their valuable time in order to provide me with an interview. I am very thankful for I would not have been able to get this research done the way I did without the support of all these people. I do owe my success to the people around me that empowered me and made me believe in myself.

Athens, November 11, 2019 Stavroula-Charalampia Pollatou

5


Contents Contents

Abstract

1

Acknowledgements

5

I 1

Part A

11

Media and Advertising A love and hate relationship since their existence

13

1.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

14

1.2 Traditional Media Theories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

17

1.2.1 Introduction to Traditional Media Theories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

17

1.2.2 Print Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

18

1.2.3

23

Introduction about Media and Advertising

Out of Home (OOH) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.2.4 Radio

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.2.5 Television (TV)

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

28

1.3 New Media Theories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

31

1.3.1 Introduction to New Media Theories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

31

1.3.2 The Internet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

31

1.3.3 Online Advertising . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

32

1.3.4 Performance marketing - Digital Marketing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

34

1.3.5

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

36

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

39

Google AdWords and more

1.3.6 Social Media

1.3.7 Internet privacy and security issues

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2 Supplementary Material

II

26

41 43

2.1 Integrated Communication Campaigns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

43

2.2

Advertising Budgeting

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

46

2.3

Advertising Content . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

50

Part B

53

3 Methodology

55

3.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

55

3.2 First Part - Quantitative Research Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

56

3.2.1 Quantitative Research Method - Introduction

. . . . . . . . . . . . .

56

3.2.2 Quantitative Research Method - Describing our Demographic - Millennials - Generation Y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

56

Quantitative Research Method - Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

62

3.2.4 Quantitative Research Method - Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

93

3.3 Second Part - Qualitative Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

99

3.2.3

7


CONTENTS

3.3.1 Qualitative Research - Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

99

3.3.2 Qualitative Research - Describing our Demographic - Experts . . . . 100 3.3.3 Qualitative Research - Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 3.3.4 Qualitative Research Method - Analysis

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111

3.3.5 Limitations of our Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113

III

Part C

115

4 Our Epilogue

117

4.1 Discussion and Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 4.2 Potential for Future Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 4.3 The Future of Advertising . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119

Appendices

121

Bibliography

129

8


List of Figures List of Figures

2.1

Budgets and revisions by promotional activities from companies-advertisers [FORECOMM_s, 2018] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.2

Budgets and revisions by promotional activities from advertising agencies in contrast to companies-advertisers [FORECOMM_s, 2018]. . . . . . . . .

2.3

48

49

Budgets and revisions by promotional activities from companies for the years 2016-2018 [FORECOMM_s, 2018]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

49

3.1

Gender statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

59

3.2

Age statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

60

3.3

Occupational statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

60

3.4

Education level statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

61

3.1

Do you normally read print newspapers?

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

62

3.2

How often do you read magazines?

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

63

3.3

How often do you read books?

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

64

3.4

How often do you listen to the radio? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

65

3.5

Do you prefer podcasts over classic radio? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

66

3.6

How often do you go the cinema? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

67

3.7

How often do you visit blogs?

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

68

3.8

Why do you visit blogs? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

69

3.9

How often do you watch television? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

70

3.10

How often do you visit YouTube?

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

71

3.11

Why do you visit YouTube? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

72

3.12

Do you prefer YouTube over television? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

73

3.13

Explain why do you prefer YouTube over television? . . . . . . . . . . . . .

73

3.14

Out of the following social media, which ones do you use the most? . . . .

74

3.15

How often do you visit Facebook? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

75

3.16

How often do you visit Instagram? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

76

3.17

Which one do you prefer the most? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

76

3.18

In case you use Twitter, who do you tend to follow on Twitter the most?

77

3.19

Do you feel it is easy for you to express yourself and your opinions through

.

Social Media? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

78

3.20

How often do you send a link to a video or website from someone you know? 79

3.21

How often do you receive a link to a video or website from someone you know? 80

3.22

Of the times you receive such a link and visit the link, who usually sent it?

81

3.23

For the most part, do you find it irritating, to receive such links? . . . . . .

81

3.24

Do you use an ad blocker browser on the devices you own? . . . . . . . . .

82

3.25

Which of the following Media have let you down in terms of entertainment and getting informed?

3.26

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

83

Do you feel that videos, movies or television shows you watch are often produced by brands and/or companies to promote their products or services? 84 9


LIST OF FIGURES

3.27

Out of the following traditional media that do not meet your needs for entertainment and which ones you think can adjust to your needs for the years to come? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.28

85

How much overwhelmed you feel in general about the following different types of advertisements

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

86

3.29

Where do you feel most exposed to advertisments? . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

88

3.30

Would you prefer more ads on unexpected or scheduled moments?

. . . .

88

3.31

How do you feel about handed flyers in public?

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

89

3.32

Do you pick up flyers yourself at a shop, bar, club or other location? . . . .

89

3.33

Out of the online advertisement methods, which ones you think will dissolve in the years to come? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.34

3.35

10

90

Through which would you prefer the most to be informed for product discount? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

91

Questionnaire Participants’ comments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

92


I

Part A


Chapter 1: Media and Advertising Media and Advertising A love and hate relationship since their existence A love and hate relationship since their existence

“It is our contention that technology has always been the skeleton around which advertising was formed�. (Rust & Oliver, 1994) Performance Google

marketing

AdWords

- Digital

and more

Marketing

Online Advertising

Social Media The

New Media

Internet

Theories Internet Introduction privacy to New and Media security Theories issues

Introduction

Media and

about

Advertising

Media and

A love and hate

Advertising

relationship since their existence Television (TV)

Traditional Print Newspapers

Media

Radio

Media

Theories Magazines

Introduction Out of

to Tra-

Home

ditional

(OOH)

Posters

Media Theories

13


Chapter 1. Media and Advertising A love and hate relationship since their existence

1.1

C

Introduction about Media and Advertising ontemporary marketing involves something more than the development of a good product, its extravagant pricing, and the fact that it is accessible to customers.

Companies must also communicate with existing and potential interested parties as well as with the public in general [Kottler and Keller, 2006]. The ultimate goal for every company, socially responsible or not, NGO or not, multinational or local, is to sell its products or services. It all comes down to money and actual impact. Marketing and, subsequently, advertising are not flute practices. They provide actual strategies and solutions in order to create awareness of a product or service and eventually increase sales. In order for that to happen, the product or service, that will potentially change the quality of life of people, has to be communicated to them. Keller and Kotler have worded it in the best way: “For most companies the question is not whether they should communicate, but what they will say, to whom, and how often» [Kottler and Keller, 2006]. This communication process is possible through the different media that humanity has created through the years. Advertising needs the media to work as their vehicle but the Media need advertising to in order to sustain themselves and continue to sustainably exist. There is no other core sustainable model for media to fund themselves and continue to exist. Maybe, this is why many Media and Journalism today are going through such a crisis. In their discussion paper titled: “The media and advertising: a tale of two sided”, S.P. Anderson and J.J. Gabszewich discuss this exact interdependence. They support that: “Media firms need advertisers to make the production of media content worthwhile, while advertisers need media firms to make their products known to potential consumers” [Anderson and Gabszewicz, 2005]. According to adbusiness

1

magazine, issue 975, besides, the “war” among different

media is no longer one-dimensional when it comes to the time the reader, listener, viewer and internet visitor consumes in advertising. The problems are more complex, the whole media and advertising relationship is sophisticated and complex. New models of advertising and promotion are imposed for modes of transmission. European legislation is hindering obstacles with E- privacy and its implementing rules of GDPR, while platforms are out there, without advertising, with the sole requirement of paying a small subscription fee in order to gain unlimited access [adb, 2018a]. Once upon a time, the only media in the hands of advertisers were roughly a newspaper, a magazine or an out of home placement. To be exact, according to Ad Age’s

2

tribute to the history of Advertisement Ad Age, (1999), the very first newspaper advertisement was an announcement seeking a buyer for an Oyster Bay, Long Island, estate and it was published in the Boston Newsletter on 1704. We could say that: “Viewing 1 adbusiness is a 15-day, marketing and communications magazine that has been on the Greek market since 1995. It focuses on current events, analyzes trends, and presents important case studies and company profiles, creative and original concepts, views, publications and useful research data upon the advertising and communication world in Greece and abroad. 2 Ad age is a global media brand that publishes news and data on marketing specifically and media more generally. It started out as a broadsheet newspaper in Chicago in 1930. Today it is a bimonthly magazine but its content can be found in various formats including its website Ad age.com, its corresponding email newsletter, social channels and events.

14


1.1 Introduction about Media and Advertising

branding as a primitive form, advertising can be traced back to three ancient Egyptian’s bricklayers who branded their bricks” [Farquhar, 1989]. Going even more backwards historically, 5000 years ago, Ancient Greeks used outdoor advertisement placement [Belch and Belch, 2009] and branded their ceramics by carving the names of their creators on them. This is not, however, the type of advertising we want to focus on. The advertising that interests us is the one that is the closest to the one as we know it today. In their very valuable but very definitive paper “The Death of Advertising”, Roland T. Rust and Richard W. Oliver give us a little background story upon this type of advertising we are interested in our research. In the middle of the 19th century, we have the birth of advertising; the type of advertising that is dependent on media technologies. “The rise of advertising was made possible by the advent of new printing technologies, the rise of literacy rates and consumer affluence, and other factors, which made possible mass circulation newspapers and magazines and mass audience radio programs” [Rust and Oliver, 1994]. There are many arguable reasons of why we have to study advertising in terms of the media they are placed and media in terms of advertising. Whatever can be used to transmit a sales message to prospective buyers can be considered as an advertising medium [Jefkins, 2016]. Choosing the right medium or media to place your advertisements ensures you that the right people will see them. According to Andrew Griffiths, ensuring that your advertisement is seen is one of the five parameters that will lead to successful advertising. The exact list of the things that an advertiser should take under consideration, in order to have a successful advertising campaign [Griffiths, 2004], would be: 1. Establishing the exact message you are trying to put forward 2. Being clear about your target audience 3. Making your advertisement stand out from millions of others 4. Ensuring people see your advertisement often. 5. Giving your advertisement time to work. Number 2 and number 4 can be accomplished by correct media placement. By choosing the right media you ensure that the advertisement will be seen by the demographic that has been chosen and targeted to pass their time on them. If research is done correctly, the advertiser already knows who watches which medium so targeting is successful and, more or less, you know which part of the demographic is reached. As for number 1 and number 3, these are the factors linked to the content crafting, which we will also discuss on this thesis but more briefly, later on. As for number five, it is an entailment. But the importance of adverting’s relationship with the media does not end there. Each medium provides a new world, a new habitat, we could say, for information. According to Werner Kroeber-Riel, information that “wants” to be effective must respond to the according forms of communication. The information provided must be pre-packaged and ’packaged’ accordingly, short-sighted: ’directed’ [Kroeber-Riel, 2015]. To put it more 15


Chapter 1. Media and Advertising A love and hate relationship since their existence

simply, the information in order to be transmitted successfully to the receiver has to be crafted in a way that matches the whole culture of the medium itself. Each medium highlights "new forms of truth and the expression of truth" [Postman, 2006]. Effective directing of information is possible only when it is adapted to the advertising medium. This framing of information has to be done according to the communication medium chosen. It is different for newspapers than it is for magazines and different for a brochure than it is for television advertising. This is why the way the information is presented cannot be transferred without modification from one communication medium to another [Kroeber-Riel, 2015]. Almost everything can and has already been used as an advertising medium: the sky, bus tickets, matchboxes, street bindings, taxis, parking meters, bags and ballpoint pens. There are people who try to exploit anything as an advertising medium, so it is necessary to appreciate the advertising value of each medium with great care. It is very easy to waste a lot of money on "weak" media, of no advertising value. Consequently, the media purchase is a job that requires great experience and aims at more effective advertising at the lowest possible cost [Jefkins, 2016].

16


1.2 Traditional Media Theories

1.2 1.2.1

C

Traditional Media Theories Introduction to Traditional Media Theories ompetition keeps arising between all media for advertising dollars and that has increased the complexity of media planning and media buying. As far as the ad-

vertisers’ options go [Jugenheimer et al., 1992], the choices they have in terms of mass media are: television, newspapers, posters, radio, magazines and outdoor advertising anywhere in a mobile or immobile standing point. Creativity in any case knows no limits. What distinguishes mass media is that they create a mass communications system which makes possible “the approximately simultaneous delivery of identical messages through mechanisms of high speed reproduction and distribution to relatively large and undifferentiated numbers of people” [Vianello, 1985]. There used to be a time that only traditional media where known as mass media. But, in the 21st century, they are not the only media anymore that can reach a wide audience with a single message. It is important to make this clear. But why are traditional media still here and why is it so hard for advertisers to leave them completely behind? They certainly have offered a lot. Herbert E. Krugman [Krugman, 1965] sums it up the best: “among the wonders of the twentieth century has been the ability of the mass media repeatedly to expose audiences numbered in millions to campaigns of coordinated messages. In the post- World War I years it was assumed that exposure equaled persuasion and that media therefore was all-important object of study or censure. Now we believe that the powers of the mass media are limited.” But when Krugman [Krugman, 1965] refers to mass media, he refers to what we call today as traditional media. The Web is also a mass medium and the division between mass media and the web cannot be supported as they both reach a mass audience as of today. But, traditional media still remain mass media as they are still utilized by a huge audience and this is part of why advertisers have not given up on them, yet. After clearing up the terminology, let us focus on traditional media first, starting off by only analyzing the nature of each of the traditional media we now have in our disposal. What each medium can offer has changed from time to time and as more media were invented and substituting specific operations of others we have today a lot of options to choose from which are more diverse than they once were. Before asking Millennials which media they use the most, and they prefer over others, we have to understand their nature today and how they used to be since they started to exist. In this section of our research we will be focusing on the nature of traditional media based on the literature read upon this topic. Academics and researchers, that have previously studied and written about traditional media, have a lot to offer us upon this topic and we certainly have more and definitive information than the new media. Traditional media have been around for a lot longer and their transition has not been as expeditious as the new media one. Therefore, traditional media can be mapped more effortlessly. The goal is not so much to do an ultimate theoretical analysis on each of the media chosen. It is desirable to establish a sufficiently 17


Chapter 1. Media and Advertising A love and hate relationship since their existence

theoretical background in order for the comparison of the media we will examine in our own research to be understood. Otherwise the content of our questionnaire and our findings will not be feasible and comprehensible. We want to understand if advertising in traditional media works and later on we will examine why the new media has caused such a stir.

1.2.2

Print Media

Newspapers

T

he press is mainly dealt with as a source of evidence of currents and conflicts in critical periods of political history. A typical example, the political hypertrophy

in the Greek newspapers. It is, of course, a very narrow “banalité”. No one denies that politics is the editorial of the newspapers of many countries, Greek and French newspapers prove that statement. But this point of view refuses to face newspapers as narrative mechanisms, as technology spaces, as the prospect and most important products of mass dissemination and mass consumption and, above all, as the medium that influences and changes in a degree of individual and collective activities and representations (how can we ignore reading behavior), even the language, and is the basis - with the periodicity of the 24-hour round of news - for the organization of collective and individual life in a state of constant change [Mpakounakis, 2014]. Becoming more specific, when it comes to newspapers, as an advertising vehicle, they are the second main form of printed media and it is the largest of all advertising media based on sales [Belch and Belch, 2009]. It should be emphasized that the newspapers vary in terms of their characteristics and role as an advertising medium. The value of newspaper advertising as a source of information has been proven by several studies. Specifically, a study, used in George E. Belch’s and Michael A. Belch’s research for their book “Advertising and Promotion”, found that consumers are eager to see advertisements in newspapers much more than those in other media. In another study, 80% of consumers said that newspaper advertisements helped them more to make their weekly shopping. Advertising in newspapers has also been ranked as the most believable form of advertising from numerous studies [Belch and Belch, 2009]. Robert H. Ducoffe3 [Ducoffe, 1996] mentions in his paper titled: “Advertising Value and Advertising on the Web”, that in previews studies of Bauer and Greyser, Becker, Martino, and Towners, Grotta, Larkin, 1979 newspapers have been proven to “carry the most informative, reliable, and believable advertising”. In 2003 newspapers were the most important advertising medium in the United Kingdom, Germany and Canada [Macleod, 2004]. Newspapers are also a very valuable tool for advertising to local retailers [Van der Wurff et al., 2008], and today it is much harder to advertise to a local market than in an international one. Taking only under consideration the use of newspapers to define and shape political and social phenomena we cannot doubt their importance especially for an older demographic speaking in terms of the 21st century. Today, it is not 3

Famous for the Ducoffe model.

18


1.2 Traditional Media Theories

common sense for the younger generations that newspapers were “the most widely used advertising medium” [Krugman, 1965]. However, print media had and still have so much to offer. The role of magazines and newspapers, in terms of advertising, differs from that of electronic media, as they allow the presentation of detailed information which can be processed at the pace that the reader prefers [Belch and Belch, 2009]. Herbert E. Krugman [Krugman, 1965] has also argued that print media stimulates greater involvement than broadcast media do. All in all, newspapers have a number of advantages that make them popular among both local and national-level advertisers. Such advantages are: extensive penetration, flexibility in terms of advertising production and entry requirements, geographical submissiveness to advertisers more than any other means (apart from direct mail), involvement and readability of readers [Belch and Belch, 2009]. On the other hand, for better or for worse, there are some unfavorable qualities in newspapers that prevent them from being the prestigious medium they once were. Their existence is going through a crisis and we cannot ignore that fact. Andrew Griffiths [Griffiths, 2004] states some of these unfavorable qualities. To begin with, “a proportion of readers will never read the material inserted into newspapers and for some businesses, this makes them less effective as advertising tools. The reality is that all advertising has a miss ratio, which is, those people that won’t see the advertisement or acknowledge it. Newspaper inserts are really no higher or lower on the miss ratio and it is difficult to find statistics to provide a clear cut overview on whether they are more or less effective” [Griffiths, 2004]. Also, “newspaper advertising expenditures depend more strongly on economic development than advertising spent in other media” [Van der Wurff et al., 2008]. But there is still hope for newspapers as they can be combined in a communication campaign along with other media. “When doing an insert it is worth advertising in other areas (such as television and radio) to tell people to look for the insert in the forecoming newspaper. This will increase the results and get people who are interested in your products or service to keep an eye out for your catalogues or brochure in the coming paper” [Griffiths, 2004]. But magazines seem to be more favorable to the younger audiences as the paper and color quality is much more senior and impressive. In the 19th century, newspaper advertisements of the era were discreet compared to today’s newspapers and were limited to specific segments of the print, some merchants still considered them indecent [Dyer, 2008]. This has changed because inserts used to be done by hand and now done mechanically as part of the printing process [Griffiths, 2004], making them look like they are native content.

Magazines

A

lthough both magazines and newspapers are print media, their pros and cons are very different. Magazines make targeting so much easier than any other medium

does. There is one magazine designed to attract almost every type of consumer based on demographic characteristics, lifestyle, activities or interests. This exact variety makes magazines very appealing to a large number of advertisers. And targeting is truly a big deal considering that the thousands of magazines that have been issued globally reach 19


Chapter 1. Media and Advertising A love and hate relationship since their existence

out to all types of consumers and businesses and allow advertisers to reach out to the people that know, will most possibly buy their products. Apart from targeting which offers to advertisers a high demographic and geographic selectivity, there are a lot more benefits. Such benefits, which advertisers can take advantage of, are: the quality of reproduction, the longevity, the receptiveness and commitment of the reader, the variety of services and plans. [Belch and Belch, 2009][Belch and Belch, 2009]. Magazines also offer a greater length of creative versatility than newspapers do. First of all, such demonstration of creativity can be done through foldable pages (gatefolds), full page prints (bleed pages), insert types such as fragrant ads, pop ups, advertisements that sing, cards, stickers, digital CD-ROMs [Belch and Belch, 2009] or product samples as extra gifts. In addition, previous findings suggest that high-involvement nature of a medium plays a larger role in defining ad effectiveness [Briggs and Hollis, 1997]. In this respect, print advertising appears to work very similar to web advertising, which we will discuss more thoroughly later on. The active consumer involvement that the magazine content reinforces, influences attitudes toward the brand and the ad itself [Tipps et al., 2006]. As Claude C. Hopkins [Hopkins, 1968] says in his famous book: “Scientific Advertising”, “People will not be bored in print. They may listen politely at a dinner table to boasts and personalities, life history, etc. But in print they choose their own companions, their own subjects. They want to be amused or benefited. They want economy, beauty, labor savings, good things to eat and wear. There may be products which interest them more than anything else in the magazine” [Hopkins, 1968]. Of course, “they will never know it unless the headline or picture tells them” [Hopkins, 1968]. Also, in terms of budgeting and actual results, James N. Dertouzos and Steven Garber “found that advertising in magazines increased enlistments with the least amount spent”. From the other hand, in television there is needed “a significantly greater investment to boost enlistments” [Dertouzos and Garber, 2006] At the same time there are some withdrawals as with every other medium. Magazine advertising is way more expensive than a newspaper [Kokemuller, 2018]. Of course, the quality of a magazine is way more elevated as well in terms of colors, page material and content setup. As for the actual content there are differences because newspapers are more informational than magazines, which are more for entertainment purposes. In contrast to the arguments of George E. Belch and Michael A. Belch [Belch and Belch, 2009], a more recent researcher upon the topic and article writer in Houston Chronicle

4

, Neil

Kokemuller argues that targeting is not at all as easy when it comes to magazine advertisement. According to him, magazine issues are way too many and the whole situation has gotten out of hand making the reach minimal “because there are so many publications”. Additionally, Kokemuller says that “If your goal is to reach a large audience, magazines aren’t your best option” [Kokemuller, 2018]. Long lead times are a challenge, as well. You normally have to submit your ad four to six weeks before publication”. This argument is supported by Ducoffe [Ducoffe, 1996] as well, print advertising is “often subject to dead4

The Houston Chronicle is the largest daily newspaper in Houston, Texas, United States. As of April 2016, it is the third largest newspaper by Sunday circulation in the United States, behind the New York Times and Los Angeles Times.

20


1.2 Traditional Media Theories

lines well in advance of the appearance of advertisements making it difficult to revise ads quickly in response to changing markets conditions. Posters

W

hen it comes to posters, having analyzed the theories upon magazines and their advertisement entries, there is not excessive additional information to be noted

down. The colors, the typography rules, the style of a print ad are all similar to an ad that will be placed in a magazine but not so much with an ad that would be placed in a newspaper. But advertising posters are a league of their own and when we are talking about advertising a product or a service companies should “Consider everything. Overlook nothing,” in their “quest to spread the word about your business in an economical manner” [Wroblewski, 2018]. Posters date way back in time. During the nineteenth century the use of flyers and posters had increased dramatically [Dyer, 2008]. Postering, in fact, was organized as a large-scale trade [Dyer, 2008]. Many people and vehicles were needed to put on display dashboards and posters [Dyer, 2008]. Posters, which is one of the most common types of print advertising, “offer the receiver an opportunity to select information to attend to” [Nysveen and Breivik, 2005]. This adds to the arguments made above about print media possessing “higher potential for changing product attitudes” [Nysveen and Breivik, 2005]. Posters usually come in 14x36 inches dimensions. But these dimensions can be, often times, too limiting for advertising purposes. Anyone can now have posters made in custom sizes ranging from 8 inches to 58x100 inches. Some other very popular poster dimensions are [Wroblewski, 2018]: • 16- by 20 inch poster • 18- by 24-inch poster • 20-by 30-inch poster • 22-by 28 inch poster • 27-by 40 inch poster • 36-by 48-inch poster “Size and quantity offer flexibility, which are two advantages of using posters as an advertising medium for a small business”. They can be printed in so many variations of colors and type of paper to create the right feel for the person that is going to hold it. If we want an outline of the perks that a poster offers us, Mary T. Wroblewski [Wroblewski, 2018] sums them up in her article: “The Advantages of Posters” very effectively: • Posters provoke “immediate visual impressions on potential customers”. • They are “larger than brochures and flyers and smaller than billboards”. • They “offer continuous exposure” 21


Chapter 1. Media and Advertising A love and hate relationship since their existence

• They “are capable of reaching a wide audience” • They “are more affordable than some other advertising methods” • Posters “create symmetry with other marketing initiatives to reinforce your corporate identity” • Posters “provide another opportunity to capitalize on a popular marketing campaign you’ll be looking for ways to keep the advertising momentum going, and posters could provide part of the answer.” • Posters can now be interactive as well. “A poster can be customized so that it contains a coupon or a quick-response (QR) code.” In their research titled: “The influence of media on advertising effectiveness - A comparison of internet, posters and radio”, Einar Breivik and Herbjorn Nysveen proved that there were “no differences between the persuasive effect of the advertisements presented for internet and posters” [Nysveen and Breivik, 2005]. Taking under consideration Internet’s advertising effectiveness today this comes to add to one of the predictions that the legendary David Ogilvy had stated in his book: “Ogilvy on Advertising”. He states that there will be a print renaissance in the future [Ogilvy, 2013]. This prediction can be proven true by the fact that high involvement of the customer is linked in many researches to advertising effectiveness as we can observe ourselves. Poster advertisements can also be placed in the outdoors, handed out as flyers, postcards and many other ways. They are so customizable and can adapt quickly making them qualified to be integrated to the according needs of each era as well. We could point out as a drawback of print in general, “that print media in a limited number of countries (In Europe and the United States [Van der Wurff et al., 2008] and in Asia [Shaver and Lacy, 1999] suffer more during economic recessions than electronic media” [Van der Wurff et al., 2008]. Posters are so much more than just a piece of paper of information and in their quest to integrate them and evolve them, advertisers make them progressively more creative and artistic. “Respect the importance of Posters” [Wroblewski, 2018]. James Thompson does in 2016 a book review on Ruth E. Iskins: “The poster. Art, Advertising, Design and Collecting 1860s-1900s” in which we understand that Ruth Iskin believed that advertising posters could be integrated into pieces of art. She considered it an interesting challenge to make adverts so aesthetically pleasing that they could be considered art. Of course, like every medium, advertising posters are not perfect. Let’s list some of its drawbacks according to Mary T. Wroblewski [Wroblewski, 2018]: • You cannot fix a mistake done on a poster like you can do on a digital ad which can be replaced more easily and faster. • Posters that are hung outdoors are “exposed to weather conditions and could be subjected to pranks or vandalism” 22


1.2 Traditional Media Theories

• Posters usually cannot target a specific audience segment. This is something important to take under consideration for your business and your marketing strategy. Communicating a message to “everyone but no one in particular” sometimes does not lead to the desirable results. • “Even interactive posters offer little opportunity to engage with customers. Some believe that QR codes have changed this. “But for now there is little way for a business owner to know if a poster is a “hit” with customers unless he actively seeks this feedback from another method of communication.” All in all, posters are a convenient advertising tool because they are stationary as well as portable. They can be placed in so many places that are mediums cannot reach the potential customer. Mary T. Wroblewski [Wroblewski, 2018] has summed up some of these places in her own research about posters: • Posters can be placed “at your place of business, to welcome customers and create that all-important symmetry”. • They can be placed “in public places that draw regular, steady crowds, such as stores, shopping malls, elevators, coffee shops, train stations, community centers and bus stops. Keep in mind that you probably will have to seek permission, or pay a fee, to hang a poster at these places. • Posters can be placed “at trade shows and conventions, where some large and unconventionally sized posters could be exactly what you need to stand out in a crowd.” • They can, also, be placed “at other businesses with whom you have created strategic alliances.” • They can be given “as perks to vendors and suppliers”

1.2.3

O

Out of Home (OOH) ne more of the radically established advertising media is the out of home (OOH) advertisements. “Outdoor advertising, as the name clearly implies, covers just

about any advertising done out of doors” [Griffiths, 2004]. It can include: 1. Roadside billboards 2. Advertising on buses, trains or trucks 3. Fixed signs on walls outside of shopping centers and other buildings 4. In bus shelters 5. On train stations 6. On street signs 23


Chapter 1. Media and Advertising A love and hate relationship since their existence

7. At sporting venues 8. On uniforms 9. On bridges and overpasses 10. The signs outside your business Pretty much they can be placed “just about anywhere else where there is a big blank space that lots of people can see” [Griffiths, 2004]. Advertisers even used hot air balloons to advertise their products as early on as the 19th century [Dyer, 2008]. They are often “used to reinforce branding. Large images of well-known products, such as scents and fashion labels, typically spring to mind in this instance. In and around airports you see signs for credit card companies, technology based businesses, hotel chains and of course airline companies. These are all well-known brands and their outdoor messages remind the customers they exist and this reinforces the reasons to use them” [Griffiths, 2004]. The advantages of outdoor advertising are very different from the advantages of the other media which advertisers have at their disposal [Jefkins, 2016]. Like all other advertising vehicles, this type of advertising has changed over time, especially with regard to its users. Outdoor advertising is mainly used as a reminder. It is preferred by high-end consumer goods brands, or as a secondary means of supporting print or television advertising campaigns on roadways leading to the point of sale, thus repeating and supporting the campaign as the main vehicle. Outdoor advertisements used to stay in the same place for many weeks, months, or even years. In general, outdoor posters are displayed for 13 weeks, while painted or bright inscriptions are pretty much permanently placed in one place. The longer lifetimes of these advertisements in prominent places give them repeatable value. In addition, outdoor advertising can be an important tool for pan-European advertising, using the services of a pan-European poster company, since it is less complex and much more effective than advertising in many newspapers in different countries. [Jefkins, 2016]. There are many outdoor poster sizes ranging from "double crowns" to large boards also called billboards. The features are described best by Frank Jefkin [Jefkins, 2016] on his book Advertising and can be summarized as follows [Jefkins, 2016]: 1. Size and sovereignty. Due to their size, posters dominate the space. 2. Color. Most posters are colored with realistic scenes and product pictures. 3. Short ad text. After appealing to people who move and view the posters from a distance, the ad text is usually limited to a slogan and a big-name name. 4. Separation into zones. Campaigns can be organized in selected regions or cities. National publicity campaigns can be designed to use the minimum number of posters per city to ensure maximum audience opportunities. Placing posters in strategic locations can lead to a very affordable advertising campaign. To coincide with multi-media programming, specific TV regions are used to design regional or national advertising campaigns. 24


1.2 Traditional Media Theories

5. The most important feature of posters is their ability to make the brand known through their daring color, size, and repetition. Apart from these characteristics of outdoor advertising, we can find some very interesting facts about them in Brian D. Till’s and Rick T. Wilson’s paper called: “Effects of Outdoor Advertising: Does Location Matter”. In this research paper they focus solely on outdoor advertising and they point out some timeless values of this type of advertising. Till and Wilson believe that “the growth and success of outdoor advertising is in large part due to the medium’s ability to reach an increasingly elusive and mobile consumer” [Baack et al., 2008]. This is an element that truly distinguishes outdoor advertising from other types of advertising and this same element is the one that makes outdoor advertising so hard to leave behind from advertisers. It cannot be simply dismissed or left behind. It is by no means old fashioned and it really has no creativity boundaries. “In today’s world of fragmented media and advertising-avoidance technology, outdoor advertising plays an important role in allowing advertisers to reach the increasingly elusive and mobile consumer” [Baack et al., 2008]. In fact, according to the Outdoor Advertising Association of America, Inc. (OAAA), outdoor advertising is growing faster than any of the rest traditional media . Outdoor advertising is not only used to empower a product’s image but it could also be seen as a “beacon of hope for crumbling city centers” [Baack et al., 2008]. Some outdoor advertisements are so creatively crafted, especially the ones that are Interactive. Advertising research has proved that high levels of consumer involvement increases the processing of advertising messages therefore stronger product beliefs can be reinforced as well as brand attitudes [Kim et al., 2009]. Other studies also prove that the lack of consumer processing in this specific type of advertising lead to it ineffectiveness [Baack et al., 2008]. It matters that the outdoor advertisement is interactive. If the consumer has no motivation to view an advertisement he is unlikely to be influenced by it . Outdoor advertisements can even give a fresh look to a public area that was completely indifferent before. Having said that, some advertisers do want to link their outdoor advertisements to specific locations. This is not always achievable. There we have a limitation that advertisers have to face when it comes to this type of advertising. The medium is pressured by regulators as well as the public to limit or stop completely to advertise in specific urban centers and around scenic vistas [McBride, 2007]. Advertisers have even feared if these regulations will leave them any notable space at all to advertise effectively. They are wondering whether the remaining outdoor advertising spaces are as effective as the ones that are now forbidden to place advertisements [Hendery, 2007]. Outdoor advertising is by no means perfect and we have to list some of its main drawbacks. Outdoor advertising has been accused to be “aesthetically displeasing”, an “unsafe distraction for motorists” and that it “displays objectionable products” [Baack et al., 2008]. From the other hand, there has not been any credible research to prove that outdoor advertising causes traffic accidents [Taylor and Lee, 2008]. Till and Wilson also come to support in the outcome of their research that: “Results suggest that the background environment in which outdoor advertising appears does not influence the attitudes, beliefs, 25


Chapter 1. Media and Advertising A love and hate relationship since their existence

and purchase intent even with multiple pairings of the outdoor advertisement with its associated background” [Baack et al., 2008].

1.2.4

O

Radio n 1928 the radio “had solved enough of its problems of equipment, audiences, sponsorships, and programming to enable a historian of broadcasting to iden-

tify that year as the one which radio assumed the characteristics of the communications and advertising medium that it was to be until television became fully established” [Spalding, 1963]. In order for the radio to be a suitable mass advertising medium and in any case a mass medium in general, it had to be able to facilitate “simultaneous broadcasting” in the countries and places wished to be broadcasted. Only then the radio, and any media in fact, would have “achieved the status of a communications system worthy of consideration for the mass distribution of advertising messages” [Spalding, 1963]. Before that, there are some more interesting historic facts about the radio’s process to becoming a mass advertising medium. The following historical facts about the radio’s establishment as an actual mass medium were derived by John. W. Spalding’s fascinating paper titled: “1928, Radio becomes a mass advertising media”. In this paper he goes more in depth about the first, vital steps of the radio.

↓ “In February, 1922, AT. &T. announced that radio, like the telephone, should be available to anyone willing to pay the cost of transmitting a message.

↓ “At the end of February, 1923, WEAF had fourteen sponsors of talk or music programs. The station severely limited them to “indirect” advertising; they could not offer samples, quote prices, or even describe the color and shape of their products”

↓ “By the end of 1924, enough stations had followed WEAF’s lead” ↓ “It was concluded that the public has no strong obligations to this practice;. . . the excellent quality of entertainment actually neutralized opposition from listeners” [Young, 1924]

↓ 1924 was not, yet, the year that the sponsorship issue had resolved. This year over 400 out of the 561 stations on the air refused to accept sponsors.

↓ In terms of structure, “the concept of the radio program as an identifiable entity with a title, musical theme, personality, and regular broadcast period of its own had begun to take permanent shape as early as the season of 1923-1924.

↓ Finally, in 1928 the possibilities of radio advertising were clearly established. What is truly fascinating when it comes to this medium, the public got the entertainment it was seeking of. The public was actually so satisfied that it was willing to accept the advertisements and the advertisers that were willing to pay to provide entertainment and captivate the public’s attention. “The simple fact is that never before in the history of the world have five or ten or fifty million people listened to the same sound at the same 26


1.2 Traditional Media Theories

time. Never has there been a means of communication so widespread and so vital. As a force to reach and influence vast numbers of people, it is so overwhelmingly effective than to do more than speculate about radio’s future tentatively and with humility is like trying to measure the planets with a pair of field glasses” [Durstine, 1935] People and academics like Roy S. Durstine [Durstine, 1935], were, to say the least, raptured by the new possibilities and offers by this new medium. It had made newspapers, magazines and posters look so “poor”. One more sense was to be taken in use, the sense of hearing. The sense of touch and sight were inferior compared to the intimacy created by the company of this new piece of technology. This enthusiasm that took over the listeners made them sustainable to the advertisements placed in-between the programs. After all, “the commercially sponsored program spell, in a large measure, the future of radio.” In addition, a clever move, the radio program planners made from early on, was that they made sure their sponsors identified with their program’s content. This meant that advertisements where not mismatched or seemingly out of place, making them integrated into the actual program. "The power of the radio comes from the easy access that exists to it. Everyone can listen to the radio from anywhere - at home, in the car or at work - while still being available for free to all listeners" says David Beasty, marketing director at News Generation, a public relations company specializing in radio programming. Finding more recent data about how the radio is perceived in the modern era, according to Nielsen Media Research, at the end of 2009, the average American spent about 11 hours a week listening to the radio. Let’s take also under consideration that a company can make a very integrated campaign in the radio with a very small budget compared to its rival medium, the television. Dennis L. Wilcox and Glen T. Cameron [Wilcox et al., 2006] state that the radio is still going strong during the digital revolution of the 21st century. According to them, the sovereignty of the radio continues during this Internet era for a few but important reasons: 1. Apart from the creation of the most discussed Podcasts, the content of the radio itself has been channeled through other digital platforms. “Thus, for example, more than 40 million people listen to each week of radio via Internet, satellite radio, iPod / Mp3 players” [Wilcox et al., 2006] and their Mobile phones. 2. Secondly, radio channels and stations have one of the greatest audience bases until today than any other program and any other communication and information platform has [Wilcox et al., 2006]. 3. “The third reason is that listening to a radio is a passive activity that does not require a particular effort on the part of the viewer or the listener. There is a radio in the house, in the office, or in the car and all you have to do is press a button” [Wilcox et al., 2006]. 4. “The radio has also the ability to target specialized audiences, whether they are housewives, the elderly, or the Spanish” players [Wilcox et al., 2006]. So, it helps in terms of targeting as well. 27


Chapter 1. Media and Advertising A love and hate relationship since their existence

But, like all media, radio has its incompetencies. Andrew Griffiths lists them in his book: “101 Ways to advertise your business” very briefly but inclusively and that is where we are going to draw inspiration from and analyze from. Therefore, advertising on the radio can also lead to these “pitfalls” [Griffiths, 2004]: 1. Advertising on the radio can mean advertising to the wrong market. The product or service can be promoted on a station that is not right for their target market but it is just convenient budget wise. 2. “Airing commercials at off peak times only” is also a very big obstacle to the effectiveness of an ad. . Airing your advertisement at off-peak times only can be cheaper but less effective “because fewer people will hear it”. 3. The advertising content has to be very straight forward and simple in order to be comprehended but is something that it is not being done and many people never pay attention at the advertisement. 4. Finally, there is no immediate call to action. A huge percentage of people listen to the radio while they are on their car, at their house or even at their job. In no case they cannot proceed to a purchase right away. This will come at a great contrast when we talk about web advertising.

1.2.5

T

Television (TV)

he opinions about television have been very polarizing in the academic community and in general. In the very beginning of the existence of this medium everyone’s

reactions would be all about admiration and excitement of what this medium could potentially bring. However, later on, this medium disappointed everyone in many ways. Dennis L. Wilcox and Glen T. Cameron give us an initial definition: «television is a powerful information and influence tool that uses both the sound and the image element. It holds a dominant position in the American society and occupies most of the time of the American media by any other means of communication and information, even from the Internet. As a result, public relations specialists make every possible effort to exploit this medium in their campaigns» [Wilcox et al., 2006]. Then we have Andrew Griffiths providing an optimistic point of view for the medium while remaining skeptical: “television advertising is the most accessible and the most influential form of advertising. There are not too many consumers who don’t spend some time watching television during their day. To say that a lot of businesses advertise on television is an understatement as this media really is the number one in term of usage. To create a television commercial that is effective is not necessarily a hard thing to do, however, like all advertising there is a right way and a wrong way to go about it”. The theories about the evolution and impact of this medium are the grimmer ones and it comes to prove that many went the wrong way when it came to utilizing television, dimming its evolution as a result. 28


1.2 Traditional Media Theories

There are many academics who support that apart from the perks that traditional media have to offer they often possess “rather little value to consumers”. Television is one of those mediums that gives a bad name to traditional media. Having being the strongest out of all mass media, for a long time, there is no surprise that its practices affect drastically people’s opinions. “The big boom of commercial television took place in the 1990s” [Kloss, 2001]. Since then, television has been accused of advertisement clutter. There is indeed an overwhelming number of advertisements that individuals are exposed to everyday. This tactic makes the consumer’s life hard because they are not able to remember any of the advertisements and their attention to them becomes fragmented or it is either lost completely [Bogart, 1985]. Most surely, television is one of the media that reaches individuals “when they are not shopping for the product or service being advertised so most messages are simply not relevant to consumer concerns at the time of exposure” [Ducoffe, 1996]. These could be just a few of the reasons that surveys taken in the United States, before the web was established, show that “public attitudes toward advertising continue to be negative” [Alwitt and Prabhaker, 1994]. This is the basic difference between a television screen and a book page. Television entertains without a break. Once you get out of the cinema or the theater, you get to think and process what you just witnessed. You can keep processing your emotions for hours. That cannot be provoked by television. This medium does not give you time to assimilate what you saw. It bombardes its viewer immediately with another program. Because it does not give the viewer a break, television stops once you close it, if you do. Stopping is a loss of money. And on TV time means money . In addition, not only the television clutter is overwhelming, “television ads often base their effectiveness on repetition. Thus many ads that are not entertaining and might even be annoying are often successful thanks to continuous exposure”. But this success is not guaranteed to be long term and in no way it builds brand affiliation, positive brand awareness and a real true relationship between the potential customer and the product which will lead to long-term sales. «The end of World War II also brought mass television an increased barrage of advertising messages. How much could the public take? Not only were TV commercials often irritating, but one wondered whether all the competition would not end in a great big buzzing confusion” [Krugman, 1965]. Herbert E. Krugman sums up all these things that make us question television advertisements. But he comes to claim something much unexpected. It seems that things are not that disappointing for television advertising. In fact, “trend studies of advertising penetration have shown that the public is able to “hold in memory”, as we would say of a computer, a very large number of TV campaign themes correctly related brands” [Krugman, 1965]. Herbert E. Krugman goes on to support that the economic impact of television is undeniable, it is “substantial and documented”. The only thing that really hold us back from concluding definitely on the successful use of the medium is the “lack of specific case histories relating advertising to attitudes sales” [Krugman, 1965]. Also, television in its nature is a passive medium and that can be comprised in the positive arguments in television’s favor. Because, after the toil and the troubles of the day, everyone returns 29


Chapter 1. Media and Advertising A love and hate relationship since their existence

home or at least to his hotel room to relax. There, no one wants information nor interaction, but fun, a joyful distraction, a sleeping state of consciousness. One only wants to open the television to break out of himself and to observe without anyone observing him [Bolz, 2008]. But the situation seems increasingly grimmer for the medium. It is not only hard to map the consumers’ journey after having watched the commercial there is a lot more. According to adbusiness magazine, issue 973, on September 2018, 1,914 million viewers were recorded in Greek television compared to 2,7 million in the same month last year. Things are simple, the numbers and math are cold, but the truth is tough and it is this: viewers turned their back on TV briefing. Who is to blame now for this? Is it advertisers? Not definitevely. Media are used by people to entertain themselves and get informed reliably by them. Several surveys mention a serious lack of credibility among media and journalists, presenters, and reporters, while the amplification of fake news has been, probably, bringing journalism down [adb, 2018b]. In another issue of adbusiness magazine, issue 975, the author of adbusiness points out the very interesting part of pay television. In Greece, but globally as well, pay television is well-known, despite the prophecies and the “Cassandres”, who wanted to make it latecoming due to the crisis. On the contrary, pay television has absorbed a significant part of the viewer’s time, displaying series, films, sports program, and short and domestic series with no advertisements in-between [adb, 2018a]. Journalism has failed to inform and shows have failed to entertain. The people are immigrating to “new media” grounds and television as we knew it is fading. What is worse when it comes to advertising in general? The viewer prefers media consumption without advertising of products and services. He doesn’t mind paying, so much, in order to enjoy expensive but quality content and on demand. What the viewer does not like paying with, this is his time. With Greece holding the pan-European record of 37% in Internet ad-blocking this way of thinking seems to affect the online advertising world as well. People want quality information, but they do not care how and who will pay for that. To them, it is enough not to pay. And this is a great mistake. Only advertising can keep the media independent [adb, 2018a]. Later on, when advertising budgeting is explained, we will furthermore see some graphs that prove the decline of importance of traditional media in general and television more specifically. This argument can be supported by the research carried by Abacus Research called Forecomm_s on behalf of the Union of Greek Advertising and Communication Companies. The conclusion of this survey was that advertising agencies appreciate the potential of individual marketing activities in a similar way to the companies being advertised: they emphasize on both online media and platforms, while their immediate and future actions will involve the disinvestment or the stagnation of their actions on traditional media. These results (October 2018) can be viewed on the 8th wave of the Forecomm_s’ research.

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1.3 New Media Theories

1.3

New Media Theories

1.3.1

I

Introduction to New Media Theories

n the 20th century, advertisers have used a variety of media for their ads-such as TV, radio, prints, and other services [Google, 2007]. As time progressed possibil-

ities broadened we gained new tools to work with in order to spread information and communicate with each other for various causes. Today, in the 21st century, we live in an exciting era of change, collaboration and networking. We live in an era of customary capabilities offered by our own technologies of association and co-creation, the open and big data, our diverse experiments and applications that often have businessto-startup entrepreneurs (disruptors), intelligent adaptive movements of large business groups, organizations, mayors and citizens, new ventures in the media, social networking and communication” [Tsakarestou, 2016]. Interactive media, or what some people call: the “new media” have offered us all these. «Interactive media offer the consumer a wider range of choices and, simultaneously, greater individualization” [Rust and Oliver, 1994]. Joe Cappo made a prediction way back in 1992 that proved to be true. He said that “by the year 2000, the advertising business we know so well will have transformed into something new” [Cappo, 1992]. Indeed, ever since 2000, rampant developments are observed every day since today. No one in the market can be complacent and support that they “know it all”. The field of communication, marketing, advertising and public relations have been changed forever and are on a road of ultimate transformation. The Internet as an interactive medium and all it has to offer, has initiated an era of unlimited opportunities and possibilities for our field.

1.3.2

I

The Internet

t is no surprise that "as people started spending more time online, this became another channel through which advertisers can promote their products” [Google, 2007].

“Advertising on the World Wide Web began in 1994” [Briggs and Hollis, 1997]. Before we move on let us do a brief historical throwback in order to understand that what we know today as the “web” is not exactly what we always thought of it to be. How did the Internet came to be? Many are the ones that do not distinguish the Internet from the World Wide Web and vice versa. It is important to distinguish the difference between the Internet and the World Wide Web as they are very often perceived as the same thing when they are not. The visionary of the Internet is considered to be Vannevar Bush as we can see from his paper “As We May Think” published in Atlantic Monthly in 1945 [Bush et al., 1945]. In this paper, Bush envisioned a global network of interconnected computers in order to answer the problem of the ever-increasing available knowledge. This information material would, according to Bush, be incorporated into microfilm-based devices that could easily store and retrieve any information [Tselios, 2007]. These devices where called Memex [Zachary, 1997]. This top copy idea, of interconnecting a large number of remote computers, dates back to 1969. The name of that protocol, that very first network version was 31


Chapter 1. Media and Advertising A love and hate relationship since their existence

ARPANET and it was implemented in the United States as a result of advanced defense research by U.S.A’s Ministry of National Defense [Tselios, 2007]. The ultimate goal was to support the American army in case of a nuclear war and the consequent destruction of its telecommunications hubs. ARPANET’s technology was based on the proposal of Paul Baran, who designed a new computer communication network. [Tselios, 2007]. Totally different purpose, than the one it got to serve throughout the years. This is the case for almost all media traditional and new. Their usage was initially intended to serve military needs. After this first connection attempt failed, a connection was made, which was the starting point of what later changed the whole world forever. From this initial connection, which was observed by about 15 people, the Internet has expanded to reach 1 billion users worldwide. In 2005, the total number of websites exceeded 600 billion, a figure corresponding to 100 sites per person [Belch and Belch, 2009]. The biggest change arose with the development of the World Wide Web, which is the Internet’s business component. Whilst it was actually unknown until 1993. No other medium has managed to be adopted by consumers as fast as the Internet. By 2001, more than 50% of US households were tuned to an Internet connection. This compares to the nine years it took the same household to buy a radio, ten years for VCR, 17 years for computers, 39 for cable TV and 70 years for the telephone [Belch and Belch, 2009]. Supporters of strong democracy expect a lot from the World Wide Web. They argue that its technical capabilities can contribute to the revival of a form of direct democracy as applied to the ancient Athenian city (polis) but in a virtual version. Its technological infrastructure and the software required to use it seems capable of transforming the old, hierarchical structure of communication from one to many into a new format from many to many [Meyer, 2002]. “The Internet is seen as one of the most important mediums and a threat to traditional media” [Ayyad, 2011]. “The Internet has become a vital communication tool that satisfies various needs of the audience. People can now access television channels and radio stations through the Internet and watch and listen to live programmes and news. They can also navigate and read different newspapers and magazines” [Ayyad, 2011].

The

Internet in the 21st century is now an integral part of the daily life of children and adolescents, competing with traditional forms of media, while at the same time it allows different forms of media to converge even in the case of video games, making everything interactive [Papathanassopoulos, 2007].

1.3.3

Online Advertising

“E

ssentially the World Wide Web is part of the Internet. The World Wide Web is the host of all the websites we have access to and the Internet is the facilitator

for the actual connection, the bigger picture. The World Wide Web is what interests us in our case and where the advertising “magic” happens but without the Internet no one would be able to see them, because the actual connection is established by the Internet. To avoid any confusion, we will refer to the advertising on sites of the World Wide Web as online advertising. 32


1.3 New Media Theories

In the 20th century, advertisers would use a variety of media, such as TV, radio and prints, in order to advertise their products and services. As people began spending more time online, this became another channel through which advertisers and companies would promote their goods. Apart from that, there were changes observed in consumer habits and the majority of their needs. This is why companies began to invest a portion of their advertising budget in online advertising. It is important to note that online advertising did actually evolve into the fastest growing advertising category. It was indeed ready to adapt to these changes and bring the desirable results [Google, 2007]. More specific, according to Google [Google, 2007], online advertising campaigns offer advertisers: • Access to specific markets with specific interests. • Approach broad audience with a single message. • Access to larger or smaller geographic segments than it was possible before the Internet. • Approach people who speak different languages with a single message at once. In addition, Google emphasizes that successful online advertising campaigns have to have three principles to be fulfilled known as the three R’s of the ad [Google, 2007].: • REACH (User Approach) • RELEVANCE • RETURN ON INVESTMENT-ROI (Return on Equity) According to Peter J.Danaher and Guy W. Mullarkey (2003), “the effectiveness of online advertising generally is reassured” by: 1. Impressions generated 2. Number of percentage of click-throughs, or 3. Induced sales or conversion rates. Of course, as [Danaher and Mullarkey, 2003] mentioned, “validity of these metrics is a matter of ongoing debate”. Of course, we can conclude that online advertising does offer to advertisers new possibilities and new accommodations. “The Internet has become a vital communication tool that satisfies various needs of the audience. People can now access television channels and radio stations through the Internet and watch and listen to live programmes and news. They can also navigate and read different newspapers and magazines”. But, was online advertising always as a successful and easy tool for advertisers to use? Advertising and marketing on the Internet have not been around for very long. This period of time that online advertising has been around is in fact extremely rich in events, which have largely shaped not only developments in the industry but also important economic, political and social trends and situations. However, everyone’s high hopes for this new 33


Chapter 1. Media and Advertising A love and hate relationship since their existence

way of communicating was not ready to give in so easily. Mistakes in planning, strategy, and lack of credible business planning were on the daily agenda, and in a short period of time a number of companies were led to bankruptcy. More specifically, many were the experienced small businessmen or just people who wanted to pretend that they had something to sell, as George Frigkas puts it to words, that sought out the prospects of online advertising and tried to become active in the field through companies and creative agencies that are engaged in the development of e-shops or multimedia applications. Of course, the overwhelming majority failed with very few brilliant exceptions [Frigkas, 2005]. The presence of all of these has made it difficult for large advertising groups to develop effective and comprehensive proposals and solutions. Fragmentation of the industry has prevented Internet advertising from becoming the first step, although we must emphasize the hesitation and slowness of the efforts of renowned advertising companies, again with a few exceptions. Regardless of these errors, the online component, and in particular online advertising, is moving dynamically in line with the global trends and it is an integral part of any integrated communication activity [Frigkas, 2005] Online advertising has to face three main challenges in order to maintain its power and be actually effective. First of all, it has to retain the text of the ad in a contemporary and challenging style. Secondly, tracking of the page traffic has to be performed and that is something that performance marketing tactics are here to fulfil. Finally, tracking the click-through rate and conversions. Essentially, as a business you have to follow closely the consumer’s journey and see what really works best. Online advertising has witnessed tremendous growth thanks to advances in technology and changes in social conditions. The three R’s are important elements for online advertising [Google, 2007]. Advertisers can make an ad with just a few keywords or hundreds of ads with thousands of keywords and that can be done a lot cheaper than it can be done through traditional channels.

1.3.4

Performance marketing - Digital Marketing

W

e know from Herbert E. Krugman’s paper: “The Impact of Television Advertising: Learning Without Involvement” that television advertising is actually effective

even though irritating. Television advertisements in order to be recalled by the viewer or listener have been proven to be remembered the same way as the “non-sensical and the unimportant” are withdrawn from the memory. And, “what is common to the learning of the nonsensical and the unimportant is lack of involvement” [Krugman, 1965]. We have no actual involvement of the potential consumer. Summed up? “It may be difficult to see how the viewer of television can go from perceptual impact directly to behavioral impact” [Krugman, 1965]. We do not know if the viewer or listener even went to buy the advertised product or service and we have no actual individual consumer journey to map and follow. This is changing with online advertisement therefore making it more preferable to advertisers. This is performance marketing. Performance marketing is the epitome of Digital Marketing. A very interesting interview was given by the Digital team of the Hellenic Advertisers Association (HAA), for the upcoming 5th Digital Session they were organizing at OTE Academy, at adbusiness mag34


1.3 New Media Theories

azine [adb, 2018c]. They gave some really useful insights of what performance marketing is and why it is used by businesses so much. Why is performance marketing such an important part of our theory about advertising on the Internet? Demy Kozasi, team member of the Digital Team of HAA, tells us that performance marketing is not just useful for ecommerce managers or anyone with an occupation within the digital communication industry. It is an obligatory tool for all marketers who are trying to promote their products or services today. She then goes on to boldly state: “Why target impressions if we really want to increase the number of newsletter recipients? Why should we hope that someone will see our ad and then participate in the "contest we are running instead of trying to maximize the number of participants with a click. And why spend so much money without getting in return exactly what we need. Perfomance Marketing comes with some measurable results and helps advertisers achieve exactly what they want.” [adb, 2018c]. It is deliberate to quote modern marketers upon these topics because there has not been extensive academic research upon this topic yet. Marketers are still struggling to grasp the term “Performance Marketing” and the rules that govern its effectiveness are not wholly distinct yet. But one is for sure, performance marketing is establishing of new era of communication with the potential consumer, a new era of ads and tracking down the consumer until his final purchase. Always in a way that does not make him feel uncomfortable or watched. Advertisers need to know where their money go and the Internet has opened the door for this. Panos Mpasios states : “with performance marketing, a company can fully control the performance of its advertising on the Internet and manage it for the benefit of its growth and the simultaneous reduction and overall optimization of advertising costs. In a nutshell it can boost performance and save budget”[adb, 2018c]. Vaso Margelou sums up the main reasons marketers and advertisers will find the future of their money’s worth there: “the digital component is one of the most important means in our lives.

Year by year, the budget that we invest in the digital media is

growing, whether our goal is to be recognized (as a brand) or to achieve any other action. The reason is that this medium gives a lot more options than traditional media have done in the past. It is not only about media planning now, it is about measurable and greater efficiency” [adb, 2018c]. The optimistic conclusion she makes is that: With technology as an ally, digital buying becomes more targeted and efficient, "serving" the right message, to the right person, the right moment, the result is an improved consumer experience [adb, 2018c]. Performance Marketing is not an easy task whatsoever. There are hardships and it is not easy for any company to make it come through. Panos Milias sums up these hardships: “the major difficulties you will encounter starting, have to do with the complexity of the process. It needs to be the most basic but pre-eminent in Performance Marketing is to have the right strategy and set the right goals to achieve [adb, 2018c]. Performance Marketing cannot be done by everyone. We need continuous monitoring of the target and of all the measurements, analysis of the funnel is also needed and of all the steps taken in order to have an accurate outcome. It is a process that acquires persistence, subtleness and attention to the detail. However, if one decides to take care of all these, it is 35


Chapter 1. Media and Advertising A love and hate relationship since their existence

certain that he will succeed. Almost everything is measurable, even the slightest changes [adb, 2018c]. These statements by the experts prove the great shift that advertising is going through. The era of “trial and error” might soon be over, once everything becomes measurable and controllable. Finally it is very important not to confuse Performance Marketing with Growth Hacking. Growth Hacking is a term used by marketers very often but not to describe what it actually is. It has been very misunderstood and the term has been harassed by many. Growth Hacking according to Nolan Clemmons is “a process of rapid experimentation across marketing channels and product development to identify the most effective, efficient ways to grow a business” [cle, 2018]. This method is widely used by startups that do not have the time and money to create brand awareness at its best unlike big companies do. Advertising is aiming at brand awareness and brand affiliation for the most part that will lead to long term consumer relations. In the startup culture, the founders need measurable results right away in order to evolve into an actual concept and move on from the startup ecosystem to a sustainable company structure. We cannot say that Growth Hacking will take over advertising as we know it because it serves a different purpose which is useful but it cannot overrule the power of advertising. Growth Hacking still needs advertising methods in order to actually have something to measure and experiment with. Growth Hacking, Performance Marketing and Advertising as we know it are all linked to each other and are interconnected. They serve as tools for each other in order to finally lead to actual sales and solid costumer relationships. The Digital era has made all these tactics possible and what they give all in all is measurable outcomes and faster results. You can now choose how to target your audience, follow an actual consumer journey, create funnels, improve your tactics and in terms of advertising create better ones or keep the ones that work and produce sales. According to Marianna Kordopati data and predictive analytics play a catalytic role. They are used to get consumer insights, to do consumer segmentation, analyze historical data of transactions and create predictive scores for more potential buyers. She also states that as a result of these measurements done, we learn that many times we are irritating our consumers by putting out advertisements that they do not like at all or advertisements in too many places and too frequently. This has instigated many Internet users to activate ad blocking softwares. Performance Marketing is to ensure the high quality of the content in which the advertisements will appear [adb, 2018c].

1.3.5

Google AdWords and more

“O

nce upon a time, all the roads led to Rome. Today all routes start from Google” [Jarvis, 2011]. Jeff Jarvis seems to have identified this piece of treasure of

the online world called “Google” and has defined why it is so vital today in his book called: “What would Google do?”. There should be no question why Google is discussed in a research about advertising effectiveness. Today, Google determines what your online presence will be. Of course you need a website. Who does not need it? [Jarvis, 2011]. 36


1.3 New Media Theories

Remember, many or most people will come through Google after they have a question. The question is: Do you have the answer? [Jarvis, 2011]. Chan et al found that “consumers acquired through Google search advertising have a higher transaction rate and consumer lifetime value than those acquired from other channels. Based on the previous discussion and empirical findings, one might expect that SEA influences consumer metrics” [Chan and Fang, 2007]. “Compared with other types of advertising, SEA can be targeted very specifically through its alignment with certain keywords. Therefore, SEA may better Web users’ needs during input search queries and agree with user’s’ goal orientation”. [Zenetti et al., 2014] Google ads have been a great breakthrough in the world of online advertising and the fact that they are based on relevance and what the consumer is really looking for it is something to really celebrate for. Essentially, Google advertising works like in an auction market, which means that its economy is more fluid: It fills in the gaps [Jarvis, 2011]. There is an actual certification for the individuals that specialize in advertising in Google or more specifically in Google AdWords. The title of these certified individuals is called GAP which stands for: Google Advertising Professionals. Online advertising - and AdWords in particular - has offered advertisers new opportunities in these three areas [Google, 2007]. • REACH (User Approach) More than 170,000,000 people use the Internet in the United States.

Google’s

network reaches 80% of these potential customers. • RELEVANCE (Relevance) AdWords presents ads to potential customers who are actively looking for what businesses have to offer. • RETURN ON INVESTMENT-ROI (Return on Investment) Using analytics tools, advertisers can understand more about the effectiveness of their ads (like, for example, who clicks on them). There are many types of Google AdWords which a Google Advertising Professional can create. The most common type of Google AdWords is the text ads. These advertisements contain a 25-character header, a description of 2 lines of 70 characters, and one display URL bar. Text ads can appear on all Google Network sites. Then we have, mobile device advertising. Mobile device advertising is a short way to refer to text ads that appear when users search on Google on a mobile device. There are also image ads. These are graphical content ads, including drawings, photos, or cartoons, that appear in some places on the content network. Of course, video ads can be inserted as well. Video ads appear as a steady image when the page loads. As soon as the user clicks on the "Play" button, the video starts playing in the advertising space [Google, 2007]. All the features of traditional media advertisements are transubstantiating in Google AdWords. One can create fast and easily an ad of any kind, place it in relevant spots of the web and be able to count its effectiveness. The impact of Google is more direct and more prominent in the media than in other industries [Jarvis, 2011]. All that the advertiser 37


Chapter 1. Media and Advertising A love and hate relationship since their existence

has to do is provide relevant content, handle the users’ personal information responsibly, develop easy to navigate sites if that is their product or part of their promotion on Google and of course avoid annoying elements such as pop-up advertisements [Google, 2007]. Content providers do not need to negotiate with multiple advertisers for various advertising arrangements - the best ads appear automatically. Everything has to be relevant and fooling the audience is not an option anymore. There is an old joke about marketing that says, "I know half my ads do not work, I just do not know what half." Advertising is effective only if it gives measurable results for a business. In the past, determining whether an ad was a good investment required much speculation. Today, current technology enables us to calculate when an ad leads to conversion, "conversion" usually refers to the conversion of a non-client into a customer [Google, 2007]. There numerous ways to advertise on the internet that are most of the time, also, linked to Google. There are spaces offered by websites or other advertising services. A very common way many companies started out advertising themselves on the web, is through banners. According to the Interactive Advertising Bureau “the most widely used form of web advertising today is the web banner, which is a standard-sized graphic or advertising image that announces the name or identity of a site and invites users to click on it to reach the advertiser’s full website” [iab, 2018] However, studies have not been in favor of their efficiency. They have been proven to not be worth the money as they do not bring not outcomes. Since the launch of the Internet as an advertising medium, it has been commonplace that no one will click on an advertising banner - much more to participate in a relevant club or to write something about a post on a blog [Jarvis, 2011]. They are causing confusion, being described as useless by researchers using “click through” indices, which measure the number of times a visitor clicks on a web advertisement and goes to the advertiser’s website” [McDonald, 1997]. Even if there is a click through, “only a small fraction of click-throughs become purchases”. [Zenetti et al., 2014] There are studies, though, that support their efficiency in other ways. George E.Belch and Michael A.Belch support in their book: “Advertising and Promotion” that banners can be used to create awareness, invite contestants to engage in an action, or achieve direct marketing goals. A study conducted by the Journal of Consumer Research has shown that even with low response click- rates banner ads can lead to positive behavior through repetitive views. [Belch and Belch, 2009]. According to Rex Briggs’ and Nigel Hollis’ research titled “Advertising on the web: Is there a response before click through?” their findings “suggest that exposure to an ad banner (. . . ) can have an immediate impact on consumer perceptions of the advertising brand.” So, “web banners, even without benefit of click through, stimulate brand awareness, brand affinity, and purchase interest” [Briggs and Hollis, 1997] The same can be said about pop-up advertisements. The click-through rate is low and only a small percentage of these click-throughs become purchases. Most of the times they are perceived as irritating and they lead the website visitor to even exit the website itself. This is why native advertisements have become a popular alternative solution for advertisers and websites that host the advertisements. This type of advertising’s broad 38


1.3 New Media Theories

format is based on content paid for by sponsors, designed for audiences and it is either delivered by a video, an article, a piece of audio, other types of graphics or animation. Native advertising can be found also in print. These types of advertisements are blended with the website’s content, there is usually some more effort put into their content because storytelling is key when it comes to native content. They have to grasp the attention of the viewer and explain adequately why someone should buy the product that is advertised. Native advertisements are also more likely to trigger word of mouth(WOM) promotion. Through paid sponsored articles an advertisement can get the right boost it needs and possibly become what we call in the advertising world: viral. Of course someone can get these ads sent to them personally by subscribing to an email newsletter. However, the future of Email Newsletters - Email Advertising is not bright. Many people seem to “throw out direct mail messages because it is irrelevant to them”, they consider them as spam, “spam is the plethora of email you would never want to read”. This type of advertising is based on traditional direct mail that would be sent to people’s houses. Nowadays this is also done in the form of advertising flyers. These methods of advertising are, however very questioned for their effectiveness nowadays.

1.3.6

Social Media

W

eb 2.0 is the second generation of internet-based applications. This functionality, puts consumers in control of how content is generated, created, organized, and

shared [Bell and Loane, 2010] . Social media represent all the possibilities of Web 2.0. This is the era of social networking among users [Uitz, 2012]. A user can create and maintain a social network like never before. Let’s not forget that human beings always had within them the need to communicate and socialize, it is in their nature. Social networking is not something new. And to take this thought even further, they always wanted to inform or warn their closed ones about something that happened to them or in general or even about an interesting product they discovered and worked for them [Uitz, 2012]. Social media did not generate new needs, it only serves already existing needs, and at times it intensifies them. But that depends on the users because they are in control. Maybe this is why social media is becoming more popular than any other form of traditional communications. Traditional media does not have such an influential role on young consumers anymore [Duffett, 2017]. Companies seem to have realized that for good and instead of a threat they see opportunities [Uitz, 2012],[Nhlapo, 2015]. There is no coming back from the dependence of social media and ICT channels for companies’ promotions now [Duffett, 2017]. There is no question that the traditional marketing model is being challenged. The way marketers create ways in order to generate leads, increase awareness, and ways of communicating are continually evolving [Hensel and Deis, 2010]. We have shifted from the Information Age to the Attention Age. It is interesting to point out that Google and Bing played a more important role in the Information Age. The Attention Age is more user-friendly and focused that the information Age. Users now have the ability to consume information and share it on the web right away. There is no 39


Chapter 1. Media and Advertising A love and hate relationship since their existence

limitation anymore and this is why social media are so important [Hensel and Deis, 2010]. Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, YouTube, WhatsApp, Instagram, Tumblr, Pinterest, WeChat and Google+ are all social media. With the rise of these social media we have the rise of blogging as well and this is because blogging encourages open conversations as well. Social media offer the unique possibility to their users to create their own personalized pages, with their own personalized content in order to communicate their thoughts and externalize their feelings. They can exchange content, talk in groups, communicate with people from all over the world with no limitations or fees. [Matthee, 2011] They can built their own brand and even create a business for themselves out of their social media pages, these people are called influencers and today they play an extremely vital role in the field of communication and advertising. Their content that they put out on social media is both interactive, it encourages conversation, it is current and it is entertaining. This content is a form of advertising and promotion that triggers word-of-mouth (WOM) that is considered the future of social media marketing communications [Yaakop et al., 2013]. As we spend more and more time on social media like Facebook or Instagram, these platforms offer advertisers various solutions to minimize the time and effort a consumer has to make in order to buy a product. Defining what social media are, briefly and inclusively: social media are “a series of technological innovations in terms of both hardware and software that facilitate inexpensive content creation, interaction, and interoperability by onby online users” [Berthon et al., 2012]. Susan Ward defines social media as “a type of online media that expedites conversation as opposed to traditional media, which delivers content but doesn’t allow readers/viewers/listeners to participate in the creation or development of the content” [Ward, 2018] Social media enable Marketers to bring a direct-response faster and more frequently as time goes by. Marketers are looking for more meaningful advertising methods, key metrics that are important and ultimately related to business results says Demy Kozasi in her interview to adbusiness magazine [adb, 2018c]. The use of social media among the Fortune 500 companies peaked markedly in 2012. The University of Massachussetts Darthmouth conducted a research which results showed that as many as 73% of these companies now have an official corporate account in Twitter, while 66 percent have a corporate Facebook page. In 2011, 28 percent of the companies had blogs at the corporate level, representing the largest increase since 2008 [of Massachusetts Dartmouth, ]. These statistics have only been increasing every year, even every month. Let’s not forget that there are currently 4,346,561,853 Internet users [int, 2019]. Social media have undoubtedly become a norm for companies and a tool they have to utilize if they want to have an integrated image for their product’s or service’s brand. It is important to note that social media is not yet an extremely researched topic. Things change constantly and there is very much to be said about their value and the possibilities they can offer. Researchers in [Okazaki and Taylor, 2013] have only recently perceived “the internationalization of social media as a significant advertising vehicle” . They conclude, however, that it is important to note that “after the appearance of the Internet, more and more firms have attempted to employ online advertising across borders”. 40


1.3 New Media Theories

Social media have offered everybody so much and they are the driving force of so many changes in every aspect of our lives. Advertising wise, “social media differ from traditional computer-mediated communications in three primary ways” [Berthon et al., 2012]: • We have a relocation of activity from the desktop to the web. This means, greater accessibility. • We have another shift, now the consumer is above everything and his needs must be fulfilled at any cost. Before that, companies had the upper hand and if they made a mistake they could not be as easily exposed like they can be today. The power is in the hands of the consumer. • Finally, we have a relocation of value production from the companies to the consumer. This is due to increased interactivity. A very general classification of social media includes collaborative projects, blogs, user-generated content communities (e.g. Wikipedia), social networking sites, and virtual social worlds [Kaplan and Haenlein, 2010]. “Social media has global reach because of the existence of de facto standard applications. At the same time it represents a powerful personalization tool as it enables individuals to both produce and distribute content by their own participation.” [Okazaki and Taylor, 2013]. “Furthermore”, Shintaro Okazaki and Charles R. Taylor add that “social media goes to mobile, breaking ground in traditional time-location restrictions” [Okazaki and Taylor, 2013]. YouTube is a great example of what social media can achieve. Yes, YouTube has established itself as one of the biggest social media platforms. It is one more of these sites, enriched by the users themselves with content created by the users themselves. The users themselves have managed to entertain the attention of all ages and of course the marketing executives. The fact that YouTube is user-oriented and user-dependent makes it unknown to what anyone can expect. This means that there is always something interesting. In fact, “The definition of entertainment and media has changed so drastically that we do see a lot of growth in that category as companies like Netflix and YouTube come into the space” as Katy Loria mentioned in an interview in 2015. YouTube is a threat to television and it is one of the most interesting cases studies in terms of social media. We definitely see television struggling due to media fragmentation and Katy Loria, currently Chief Revenue Officer at Screenvision believes that media fragmentation certainly plays a role in its decline.

1.3.7

I

Internet privacy and security issues

nteractivity has its limitations. As the years go by, the concern of privacy and how much a company can actually learn about an Internet user without that being un-

ethical, is something that has caused a lot of discussions and questioning. Advertisers are increasingly using very narrow behavioral targeting tactics that identify targeted consumers based on their browsing behavior on the Internet” [Yaveroglu and Donthu, 2008]. 41


Chapter 1. Media and Advertising A love and hate relationship since their existence

“The Internet allows advertisers to track customers using cookie technologies; it also allows them to show relevant ads at the right time when the consumer is actually shopping for the product or service” [Yaveroglu and Donthu, 2008]. Some would think of security concerns, “applicable to Internet privacy and security issues” [Hensel and Deis, 2010] as a disadvantage of the Internet as a medium. Marketers do have to spend some significant amount of their budget in order to assure that trust is built between their company and the media users in order to assure them that “any information obtained from them will not be misused”. There are people who maliciously use the Internet as an example of a tool for trespassing privacy. Is everything really wrong with the Internet? Jarvis says, where there is a challenge, find an opportunity [Jarvis, 2011]. Cooperation is key for both companies and consumers. Google’s practices should be a great example for both parties [Jarvis, 2011]. Marianna Kordopati stresses the fact that “it is necessary to have transparency contracts with all our partners. We have to protect the privacy of the data and General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) helps us all become better”. [adb, 2018c]. Not only now that everything becomes more regulated and monitored marketers’ job becomes more effective but everything is done in an ethical and organized way. Instead of focusing on budget and time we should all focus on the actual outcome. The outcome is more trust built between companies and media users which intensifies brand affiliation and long-term consumer relationships with the brand. If there was a question of the safety that new media provide, this issue seems to be regulated more and more throughout the years and it increasingly becomes easier for all parties: companies, advertising agencies and users.

42


Chapter 2: Supplementary Material Supplementary Material

Advertising Budgeting

Advertising

Supplementary

Content

Material

Integrated Communication Campaigns

2.1

Integrated Communication Campaigns

A

campaign, in general, is an attempt to reach a targeted audience using various advertising media [Google, 2007]. More analytically, marketing communications

are the means by which businesses attempt to inform, persuade, and remind consumers - directly or indirectly - about the products and brands they are selling. In a sense, marketing communications represent the brand’s "voice" and is the means by which it can reestablish dialogue and develop relationships with consumers [Kottler and Keller, 2006]. We have talked about each medium separately but what if advertisers do not even have to choose in which medium they have to advertise. What if each medium has to offer something different and this integration is what a successful communication plan is lacking of. Let us see why other theoreticians, specialists and academics believe or do not believe in the power of integrated communication campaigns. Kevin Lane Keller and Philip Kotler offer us some really good theoretical foundation upon this topic. When we refer to integrated communication campaigns it is not just about advertising on multiple media. Advertising is a very important part of an integrated communication campaign, however it is not the only one and sometimes it is not even the most vital one [Kottler and Keller, 2006]! Marketing communications allow companies to 43


Chapter 2. Supplementary Material

link their brands to other people, places, events, brands, experiences, feelings, and things. Marketing communications have the potential to contribute to the value of the brand, by establishing the brand in the memory of people and creating an actual image for the brand [Kottler and Keller, 2006]. According to Kevin Lane Keller and Philip Kotler , integrated communication campaigns consist five main tactics in order to be truly integrated, and those are [Kottler and Keller, 2006]: 1. Advertising 2. Sales Promotion 3. Events and Experiences 4. Public Relations and Publicity 5. Direct Marketing 6. Door-to-door sales or personal sales Our primary focus is on advertising effectiveness according to media exposure and secondary upon the actual advertising content. It was important, however, to make this remark and understand that for an actual integrated experience even all media together are not enough. There is a lot to be said about an integrated media communication campaign. First of all, it is very important to note that it has been observed that the younger generations want the information to find them instead of them finding the information [Kolodzy, 2012]. “Different media may appeal in different ways to consumers” [Sæmundsson et al., 2012]. This is where integrated communication campaigns come to the table, communicating from everywhere, not in the form of spam, but with a plan, strategy, thought and right set-up [Kolodzy, 2012]. “A large fraction of leisure time is devoted to radio, magazines, newspapers, the Internet, and television” [Anderson and Gabszewicz, 2005]. According to a survey conducted by the Kaiser Foundation in 2010, nearly one-third of children and adolescents from 8 to 18 are multi-media users and devote an average of 10 hours and 45 minutes a day to consuming multimedia content [Rideout et al., 2010] . Media multitasking becomes increasingly more of a common practice among those under the age of 39, a demographic category that has been nicknamed as the Millennial or, alternatively, the digital natives [Kolodzy, 2012]. Let’s not forget that media do not only serve as an entertainment outlet. “Media are also the source of news of current affairs and political actions” [Sæmundsson et al., 2012]. While we are talking about media use, scientists studying the brain argue that our habit of sending messages while listening to music or playing an electronic game or posting an image or video or looking to find out what time a movie is playing in is actually switching media. It does not necessarily mean that we are doing two things together. In fact, we deal with two or three or four activities (for example, we read a message, listen to music, walk). People have the ability to carry out these rotation years ago, but the advent of digital technology and mobile phones provide us with the ability to do this quickly and easily. 44


2.1 Integrated Communication Campaigns

There are also indications that the brain can be trained to process information faster [Kolodzy, 2012]. Taking advantage of integrated communication campaigns is a tactic that harmonizes with the human nature. Multimedia usage is very common because there is a medium for every use nowadays and for different hours of the day. Advertisers can invest in that and achieve successful results. A subversive modern campaign by JWT Athens for Vodafone TV is a very real example that puts in use this very practice of an integrated communication campaign. This campaign is integrated in terms of the audience it chooses to address. In fact it does it so effortlessly by taking advantage of the series of media they want to include without degenerating any of them. Lazaros Evmorfias Executive - Creative Officer, Leonidas Spanos Client Service Director and Haido Iliopoulou - Head of Brand, Marketing communications, Media & Insights describe their strategy in an interview with adbusiness magazine. They strategically chose, at the beginning of the campaign, to have a presence in high-coverage media for direct impact. Then they advanced to YouTube projection with masthead, instream ads and sites takeovers, in Facebook with respective video posts and display ads. Moving forward, aiming to inform the public about the advantages of Vodafone TV and engagement, the campaign would evolve through mobile optimized formats, like bumper ads, Instagram stories, Facebook canvas and native article advertisements [adb, 2018b]. This communication campaign does not involve traditional media such as television, radio or prints. It is considered integrated because it places its message in different places so they follow their customers in different places and hours of the day making sure they receive the message. In general, using multiple media in a strictly defined time-frame can increase the scope and impact of the message. The wide variety of communication tools, messages and audiences makes it imperative for companies to turn to integrated marketing communications. Companies must adopt an "overall view" of consumers to fully understand all the different ways in which communication tactics can influence consumer behavior in their everyday lives [Kottler and Keller, 2006]. An example of how media can empower one another, is airing of advertisements on the radio before the concurrent TV advertising. Imprints also promote the consumer’s drive to process more thoroughly an advertisement on television [Kottler and Keller, 2006]. Supporters of integrated marketing communications describe them as a method of viewing the entire marketing process, rather than focusing on individual parts of it [Kottler and Keller, 2006]. All in all, integrated marketing communications result in greater message consistency and more intense sales impact. They require managers and advertisers to think about all the ways in which the customer comes in contact with the product and the brand they represent, how this customer commits to his or her placement in the market, the relative importance of each medium, and time choices. Integrated communication campaigns create unified brand images and messages as they come from thousands of company activities. In addition, integrated marketing communications can improve the company’s ability to reach the right customers with the right messages at the right time and in the right place. They ensure clarity, consistency and maximum impact with the integration of individual messages [Kottler and Keller, 2006]. 45


Chapter 2. Supplementary Material

2.2

Advertising Budgeting

W

hen we talk about media placement we should always have in mind that the budget is a very important criterion of choice as well. We should discuss about

some established truths about it as well, if we want to really understand all the components which play a role in effective placement of advertisements in the media. As Piet Baker, Richard Van Der Wurff and as Robert G. Picard have stated in their own research about advertising expenditures, understanding advertising budgeting is important because it is “relevant to scholars and practitioners who predict and plan advertising in different media and for those who are interested in the impact of the economy on media conduct and performance” [Van der Wurff et al., 2008]. According to them “advertising is of interest to economists because it is a “prominent feature of economic life” [Goldfarb, 2014]. The intense competition among all media for advertising revenue has increased the complexity of local media planning and buying [Jugenheimer et al., 1992]. Also, “in recent years, virtually all local media, from broadcast to print, have redesigned rate packages, formed advertising networks” and have “created new audience delivery products” [Nowak et al., 1993]. Not all companies have the same budget and not all companies have the same needs. It was not always easy for all companies to advertise effectively. But as the time progresses and more media come to the foreground, other media get supplant and others evolve into something they were never before, the options definitely multiply and flabbergast. Depending on the country we are talking about the budgets change and we talk with different numbers because the circumstances according to the country we are interested in changes. However, there are some universal truths. San Augustine and Foley [SANAUGUSTINE and Foley, 1975] studied large advertisers and concluded that percentage of expected sales, percentage of past years sales, and “what we can afford” were the most mentioned criteria for setting the budget.

Hooley and Lynch

[Hooley and Lynch, 1985] likewise found that British advertisers base their spending mostly on microeconomic criteria “what we can afford” and percentage of “expected sales” [Van der Wurff et al., 2008]. When talking about the budget that should be invested in media, it is not something that it should be taken lightly but it is something to be done. There are some hardships when it comes to advertising budgeting. “Media fragmentation reduces the potential to reach large numbers of consumers” [Rust and Oliver, 1994]. Historically, advertising expenditures peaked in 1984 and have been trending down ever since, as McCann-Erickson mentionted in 1993 in Standard & Poor’s proceedings. But that media fragmentation is not necessarily that bad. After all, not every product in the market aims to serve everyone. Targeting now is easier and companies know where their money is invested in. As it was referred to before a few years ago “the media and the advertisements served only large companies, because only they could withstand advertising on large markets. Producers could only gain space in the shops if they operated below economies of scale. This was the big economy. After that, the Google market has introduced to advertisers 46


2.2 Advertising Budgeting

of all sizes the ecosystem "the small is the new big", the economy of the mass of niche markets [Jarvis, 2011]. The Internet in general and Google more specifically, has given the chance to smaller businesses to find their place in the advertisement world and communicate with their customers in the right price. In the economy of Google, Companies will no longer grow as the critical mass of borrowed bulky capital to make massive acquisitions - not at least in the foreseeable future. On the contrary, they have to learn from Google to grow building platforms. So, growth will be less than property ownership and accumulation of risk there, and more so than the inclusion of people in networks to produce their own values, reduce their cost and widen their risk. That’s how Google works [Jarvis, 2011]. Having said that, by no means does that mean that everybody should advertise on the web in order to save money because advertising on the web is not always so cheap and many other factors shape the final outcome of where an advertisement should be actually be placed. This budget for the advertisements distribution, and essentially media placement, should be invested carefully especially if we take under consideration that previously more money have been spend for the creative process and production of the advertisement whether it is a written advertorial or even a video clip. Apart from the nature of each medium and how expensive or cheap the placement, as Piet Baker, Richard Van Der Wurff and as Robert G. Picard have stated in their research upon “advertising expenditure in different media in different countries” there are a lot of other factors that determine advertising budgetting . From a macroeconomic point of view, “economic growth goes hand in hand with rising advertising expenditures. Advertising expenditures are a measure for aggregate advertising demand, and microeconomic theory predicts that demand in an economy increases when income increases” [Van der Wurff et al., 2008]. This is an extremely interesting fact to take under consideration when our main focus on this research is the Greek market, and as a result Greek consumers as we will see later in the research that we conducted. Greece in general, is a country in economic crisis at the moment. But it is interesting that the three scholars, [Van der Wurff et al., 2008], state that “the general conclusion that companies tend to reduce their advertising budgets in times of recession needs some qualification” . Consequently, it is not a universal truth that companies in a country that has an unstable economy must and will reduce the budget that it invests in advertising. Others believe that “during recessions are that advertising expenditures are deemed postponable” [Ostheimer, 1980]. But «some companies actually raise the amount of advertising in times of recession” [Consoli, 2002]. There is not a universal truth to all that whatsoever. In some countries “advertising budgets can be quicly amended, unlike costs for staff. Production, housing, or equipment” [Galea, 1994] and for others this is not true whatsoever. [Van der Wurff et al., 2008] mentioned that “Less is known about the impact of the economy on advertising in different media and countries” . But what really interests us is the results of advertising expenditures by Greek advertisers in the Greek media. In Forecomm_s eight research wave we can observe some very interesting results in terms of budgeting investment in different media. The aim of FORECOMM_s in general is to record and give the Greek business community an appre47


Chapter 2. Supplementary Material

ciation of the professionals involved in the communication field in Greece, either from the advertisers side or from the communication companies, about the evolution of their market sizes. More specifically, it focuses on marketing department budgets for the support of their products: The idea is that higher budgets reflect but also predict growth trends in the market. Respectively, reduced budgets reflect and predict recessive tendencies. From the whole wave, three graphs were chosen to be included in our analysis which show how companies on one hand and advertising agencies on the other tend to distribute their budget not only according to the medium but all above and bellow the line communication tactics. In the first graph 2.1 we see the statistics about the budget the companies make in Greece about their budget. In the second graph 2.2 we see where advertising agencies invest the given budget in comparison with the companies’ one. In the final graph 2.3, we see how much through they years companies have been progressingly giving more budget to online paid media and other online paid platforms.

Figure 2.1: Budgets and revisions by promotional activities from companies-advertisers [FORECOMM_s, 2018]

What we observe in the first graph 2.1 is that in the third quarter of 2018 on-line actions, either on-line paid media or as platforms and applications, continue to absorb the overwhelming majority of investment incentives on the part executives in the market (+31 and +28 respectively ). There is also a marginal interest in promotional activities (+7), while off-line media returns to negative territory (-8). Reduced interest in direct marketing (-5), while some other (PR and market research) remain (+3, -1). Moving on to the second graph 2.2 there is a comparison between the first finding from the companies part in contrast to the advertising agencies’ one. Advertising agencies appreciate the potential of individual marketing actions in a similar way that companies do: Emphasis on on-line media and platforms, disinvestment or stagnation in traditional actions. Finally on graph 2.3 on-line actions continue for the 8th consecutive 3 months to grow up either as a paid media (web, display ads, social media ads, banners, pop ups, Google: +31) or as an investment in other platforms (SEO, content marketing, apps, websites: +28): Large advertisers consistently estimate that more and more funds are channeled as a priority on on line actions in relation to other marketing actions. From Forecomm_s’ 48


2.2 Advertising Budgeting

Figure 2.2: Budgets and revisions by promotional activities from advertising agencies in contrast to companies-advertisers [FORECOMM_s, 2018].

Figure 2.3: Budgets and revisions by promotional activities from companies for the years 2016-2018 [FORECOMM_s, 2018].

result we can see a grim picture painted for offline media. We observe that marketing, communication and public relation departments from companies as well as advertising agencies that cooperate with companies invest their budgets in online paid media such as display ads, social media ads, banners, pop-ups, Google Ad Words, SEO, social media, content marketing, apps, websites, and have withdrawn their budget from off-line paid media, or what we have been calling on our research traditional media, such as television, 49


Chapter 2. Supplementary Material

radio, press, outdoor even cinema. For the last three years the budget investments in general have shrink, with online media investments always being dominant over the offline ones. Companies and agencies seem to be ready to experiment with alternative media outlets and meet their consumers with their message succssfully. There would be no other reason why companies and agencies would direct their budget steadily every year, increasingly on online paid media and would leave behind the beaten track of traditional media. In addition, it is extremely interesting to see that an online communicaton plan is favorable by both companies and agencies but in terms of email marketing and newsletters the investments are negative for both parties. Could this mean the end of email marketing in a few years?

2.3

T

Advertising Content he variables that determine advertising effectiveness are many, two of them are message content and message delivery. [Elder et al., 2004]. The main focus of this

research is to understand the relationship between media and advertising and as a result how advertising effectiveness depends on media placement and how it can evolve depending on the advantage of the medium. But we cannot discuss advertising effectiveness without taking under consideration the advertising content itself and the importance of the advertising message. The content crafting is depended nowadays on which medium it is going to be placed. A different advertisement will be crafted for television and a different one for an online campaign. The core message might stay the same but it will be different in many aspects. Each medium is the breeding ground for an advertisement and the two are closely connected. These components must be matched perfectly in order for the perfect outcome to be reached. It is deliberate to discuss the importance of content in this thesis as well and not just ignore it altogether. As David Ogilvy has wisely said: “The wrong advertising can actually reduce the sales of a product” [Ogilvy, 2013]. On the other hand, there are also the experts and scholars that believe so much in the power of good advertising content that they discard media placement. These people believe that good content can substitute a well-thought and strategic media plan. After all, word of mouth advertising is a thing. “For decades, communication scholars have researched what perhaps may be the oldest and most established advertising techniqueword of mouth advertising (WOM) [Golan and Zaidner, 2008]. WOM has been defined by Johan Arndt as the: “oral", which is a "person to person communication between receiver and a communicator whom the receiver perceives as noncommercial, concerning a brand, a product or a service” [Arndt, 1967]. Examples of online WOM communication include chat rooms, instant messaging, webpages and forums” [Golan and Zaidner, 2008]. John Caples states in his research paper “Tested Advertising Methods” that he has seen one advertisement actually sell not twice as much, not three times as much, but 191 /2 times as much as another. Both advertisements occupied the same space. Both were run in the same publication. Both had photographic illustrations. Both had carefully written copy. The difference was that one used the "right appeal" and the other used 50


2.3 Advertising Content

the "wrong appeal” [Caples, 1974]. Results in Kenneth C. Wilbur’s Research titled: “Advertising Content and Television Advertising Avoidance”, bring results which prove that ”advertising content does indeed influence advertising avoidance” [Wilbur, 2016]. Advertisers support that more creative advertising that breaks out from the advertising clutter is what is really needed today [Jack Rotfeld, 2006]. In another research by Herbjorn Nysveen and Einar Breivik by the Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration [Nysveen and Breivik, 2005] called: “The influence of media on advertising effectiveness - A comparison of Internet, posters and radio” , their “results confirm the importance of message appeal as factor influencing advertising effectiveness” so in fact “relative quality of advertisement was found, as expected, to significantly influence all dependent variables, pointing to the importance of the relative quality of the ad in studies of advertising effectiveness in general”. But their findings in terms of media are also extremely interesting. Research results prove that “media effects persist for attitude towards the advertisement and perceived decision support” Strategic media placement has been appreciated by both scholars and experts from the field as we have seen so far, in the theory we have stated above. It has been perceived as very important but we must have in our minds that without creativity, it is not possible to achieve the same result. The creative idea, or what we call in the advertising world the “big idea”, makes the difference. People that work in advertising and communication departments of companies and people that work in advertising and creative agencies in general, respectively, they must be in touch with what people really want and need. “Giving customers what they want is marketing’s oldest and most important idea” [Berry, 1986]. Brands “can use advertising campaigns to involve, teach, and inspire internal audiences as well as external ones” [Berry, 1986]. Creativity is nothing more than staying in touch with the customers’ real needs. David Ogilvy states very boldly but very wisely as well: “I don’t want you to tell me that you find it “creative” I want you to find it so interesting that you buy the product” [Ogilvy, 2013]. “Creativity in advertising has been linked to increased attention, motivation to process the advertisement, and depth of processing [Smith and Yang, 2004]. As we have more medium choices making their appearances and as the nature of each medium that we have at our disposal becomes more and more multifaceted making advertising that works will become increasingly more complicated. “The emphasis placed on creativity - surely the hardest part of making an ad - has steadily increased over the last few decades” [Anholt, 2000]. Things used to not be as hard because “once, consumers were prepared to put some effort into reading and understanding commercial messages, because it is a natural tendency to listen to what people are saying to you” [Anholt, 2000]. However, right now advertising is everywhere.

Yannis Efstathiadis, Chairman at

Ogilvy Greece in his speech in a Business Day organized for young potential talent in the industry in cooperation with Panorama of Entrepreneurship and Career Development put it very aptly. “Everything around us is a colorful set of promotional messages”. And if you think that this fact is in the favor of the advertiser’s part, well it could not be more far from the truth. “People have gradually built up resistance to it” [Anholt, 2000]. “Once they learned that there was seldom much value to be derived from these messages, 51


Chapter 2. Supplementary Material

consumers acquired the trick of shutting their minds to them”. William Berbach, one of the biggest Admen in history has touched upon this subject in an interview he gave to Dennis Higgins. As William Berbach says: “you can have all the right things in an ad, and if nobody is made to stop and listen to you, you’ve wasted it. And we in America are spending so darn much money for efficiency, to measure things, that we’re achieving boredom like we’ve never achieved before. We’re right about everything but nobody looks” [Higgins, 1965]. Woltman Elpers, Michel Wedel and Rick G.M. Pieters have found in their own research that viewers will stop watching an advertisement that lacks in entertainment content or is saturated with high information content [Elder et al., 2004]. Creativity is not everything, you need the facts and do your research. Another huge name in the advertising industry, Leo Burnett, has said in an interview with Dennis Higgins: “My technique, if I have one, is to saturate myself with knowledge of the product” [Higgins, 1965]. Rosser Reeves completes this statement with his statements: “The consumer need not to be shocked or entertained into giving his attention”. “You must make the product interesting, not just make the ad different. And that’s what too many of the copywriters in the U.S. today don’t yet understand” [Higgins, 1965]. And to sum it all up, what is really needed is a “strategic approach” and “some genuine creativity” [Berry, 1986]. If you separate one from the other you will not achieve or even verge on pure advertising effectiveness.

52


II

Part B


Chapter 3: Methodology Methodology

Analysis Results

Demographics

First Part Quantitative

Introduction

Research Method

Introduction

Methodology

Second Part Analysis

- Qualitative

Introduction

Research

Results

3.1

T

Demographics

Introduction here is no doubt that what previous academics, specialists in the communication field or researchers, who we have quoted on our theoretical analysis, have said

have been true for the time they have stated these theories. When it comes to media theories and advertising there is not a definitive and one only truth. There couldn’t possibly be. Media consumption and therefore advertising viewing changes throughout the years. Every time a new medium is invented the other one loses a little bit of its power until it catches up to the corresponding new needs only to lose track again. Advertisers 55


Chapter 3. Methodology

will invest where most people are. First it was print media, then the radio, then television and now we have a dynamic new player in the game and that is the web with all of its powerful and few components which seem to multiply and advance in force. We analyzed the most important media and gave an overview of media and advertising’s relationship. We understood what media have offered to the advertising world for the most part. It is very obvious that advertising effectiveness depends on media placement a great big deal. So, as for media usage where do we stand right now? Which theoretician has it right? Maybe we are going to unveil a small but new piece of truth about media’s and advertising’s relation. For an advertising agency, a company or anyone interested, in general, to promote his goods and work, it is essential to understand what the younger generations want from media and the advertisements they see on them.

3.2

First Part - Quantitative Research Method

3.2.1

I

Quantitative Research Method - Introduction

n order to carry out the first and greater part of our research, we will do it in a quantitative research method through a questionnaire with 35 question excluding the 4

questions about gender, age, education and occupation. The purpose of this questionnaire is to: • Find out what form of media people use. • How they use them. • What their behavior as a user and receiver is. • How people perceive traditional media as for today. • How people feel about various forms of commercial expression. Through these 35 questions we were hoping to establish the trends and tendencies in the behavior of the public (in Greece) in relation to traditional and new media. Filling out this questionnaire was not supposed to take, the sample, more than 5 minutes.

3.2.2

Quantitative Research Method - Describing our Demographic - Millennials - Generation Y

“Markets are made up of human beings and not demographics.” [Jarvis, 2011]

T

he main results of our research will be extracted by a questionnaire that was distributed through the Internet to Millennials or else, the Generation Y. The Millen-

nial generation was chosen to be the preferred demographic our research for a variety of reasons. First of all, they are a generation whose consuming habits concern companies extensively. “The global youth market is important to international marketers and advertisers because of its size and its homogeneity". [Chan and Fang, 2007]. For the most 56


3.2 First Part - Quantitative Research Method

part, they are university students and young adults. They shape all the important trends and create movements that actually have an impact. They are the generation that makes the most important decisions at the moment. They are also the generation that was first introduced to the Internet and grew up with it. Their habits are more pertinent to the ones that will be adopted by the future generations, thus this is what interests everyone to understand and decode. Baby Boomers and Generation X are trying to follow the habits of the Generation Y. The generations before Generation Y are called digital nomads, as they are trying to adapt to this era that is defined by Internet usage and artificial intelligence. Millennials are digital natives, because from an extremely young age the Internet was part of their lives and they had made it part of their lives. “A large portion of these people, usually called “Gen Y’ or “digital natives” have grown up with digital media like computers and mobile devices and differ from former generations in their way of perceiving and processing information” (Jensen, 2008). For all these reasons “companies should not ignore the specific needs and expectations of digital natives. It is important to think about ways of adapting internal communication and its channels to the digital age, since this group of employees is the future innovative potential of any company” [Verčič and Verčič, 2013] Some researchers, like Thomas Meyer and Lewis Hinchman are so bold to state that young people’s opinions matter because “young viewers have more gullible preferences, preferences that can be altered more easily”. They even proceed to, boldly state that “hypothetically the new set of beliefs that they gain from an early age can be kept intact, hypothetically, for the rest of their lives. As a result, they are more attractive to advertisers. Private media companies show an undeniable interest in maximizing the number of viewers, listeners or readers. Their very existence depends from this. This affects which topics or program categories advertisers will choose for each of their specific products” [Meyer, 2002]. Many researchers have stated different ages to be included to the Millennial Generation as we can see in Table 3.1. This should not be a problem as “Giges study found the life styles and consumption habits of people age 14-34 around the world to be similar” [Giges, 1991]. In our own research we decided to include people of ages in-between 18-39.

57


Chapter 3. Methodology

Generations and Birth Years

Alternate Birth Years and Authors

Baby Boomers 1946-1964 • 943-1960 [Howe and Strauss, 2007] • 1946-1964 [Cogin, 2012] • 1946-1964 [Dries et al., 2008] • 1946-1964 [Meriac et al., 2010] • 1946-1962 [Davis et al., 2006] • 1946-1961 [Cennamo and Gardner, 2008] Gen. X 1961-1981 • 1961-1981 [Howe and Strauss, 2007] • 1965-1980 [Cogin, 2012] • 1965-1980 [Dries et al., 2008] • 1965-1980 [Meriac et al., 2010] • 1963-1981 [Davis et al., 2006] • 1965-1983 [Sullivan et al., 2009] • 1962-1979 [Cennamo and Gardner, 2008] Gen. Y 1981-1995 • 1981-1995 [Cogin, 2012] • 1981-1999 [Meriac et al., 2010] • 1984-2002 [Sullivan et al., 2009] • 1981-2001 [Dries et al., 2008] • 1980-2000 [Cennamo and Gardner, 2008]

Table 3.1: Generations [Shrivastava et al., 2017]

58

&

Birth

Years

according

to

various

Authors


3.2 First Part - Quantitative Research Method

Identity of the questionnaire:The questionnaire of our research was answered by 226 people and 223 questionnaires could be actually used. It was distributed through the Internet and more specifically through Facebook, Instagram and Viber. The questionnaire was first distributed to a pilot sample of seven people. Out of these people, 3 of them were men, one was 22 years old and two of them 26 years old. The rest of them were women of the ages of 22. These people were asked to answer the questionnaire first in English and after two days they were given the same questionnaire in Greek. It was easier for them to answer it in Greek. After they answered both questionnaires they gave their feedback which was used for necessary corrections that were made. Through this process it was decided that the questionnaire would be distributed in Greek. What is your gender?

Women

42.6% Men

57.4%

Figure 3.1: Gender statistics The questionnaire was intended only for people that live in Greece and for people that are Greek natives. The questionnaire was also translated from English to Greek, therefore everyone was given a Greek questionnaire. For the purposes of this research the questions and answers were translated back to English. The questionnaire was distributed during the month of January on 2019. As we can see from the graphs, created from the data gathered from the answers of our questionnaire, 95 were men, meaning 42,6% of the total people that answered the questionnaire, and 128 of them were women, meaning 57,4% of the total sample. The goal was to have an equal amount of men and women.

59


Chapter 3. Methodology

What is your ages? 3.6% 18.8% 18-24

25-34

35-39

77.6%

Figure 3.2: Age statistics

More women answered that was expected, therefore we could not exclude the results as they provided us with very useful insights. More specifically, the vast majority, 77,6%, that answered our research’s questionnaire was between 18-24 years old. Then we have 18,8%, of our total sample, that were people between the ages of 25-34 old. The smallest percentage, 3,6%, was that of people between the ages of 35-39. What is your current occupational status? 8.1%

Student

33.6%

Working

Unemployed

58.3%

Figure 3.3: Occupational statistics As for their occupational status, 58,3% were students, and a satisfactory 33,6% was working. An 8,1% was unemployed.

60


3.2 First Part - Quantitative Research Method

What is the highest level of education you have completed? 4%

3.6%

High School

37.2% PhD

Master

44.8% Technical Education

Bachelor

9.4%

0.9% Vocational Education

Figure 3.4: Education level statistics

As for the sample’s educational level, they were asked which was the higher level of education they had already completed successfully and not the level of education they were currently going through. Most of them had already finished their Bachelor Degree and that would be 44, 8%. We had 38,2%, of our total sample, that had finished High School as their higher level of education. The third biggest segment of our sample belonged to the people that had concluded a Master’s Degree, that would be 9,4% of our total sample more specifically. A smaller percentage of our sample had completed a Technological Educational Institute, 4% and another small percentage, 3,6%, had completed a Public or Private Institute of Vocational Training. We had representatives that had completed a Doctor of Philosophy (PHD) degree as well, but that was the very small percentage of 0,9% of our total sample.

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3.2.3

Quantitative Research Method - Results

Question: Do you normally read print newspapers?

5.8%

2.2%

29.6%

Daily

More than once a week

Once a week

46.6% More than once a month

3.6% 6.7%

Once a month

5.4% Once every few months

Never

Figure 3.1: Do you normally read print newspapers? In the first question of our questionnaire, we asked our sample about the most classic and one of the most important traditional media: the newspaper. We started from the oldest medium and moved on to the most recent one like we did in our theory to in this thesis. It was not surprising that a very big percentage of the Millennials in Greece, that completed our questionnaire, never reads newspapers anymore. Specifically, 46,4% of them never read a newspaper. From our total sample, 29,6% supports that they read a newspaper once every few months, 6,7% reads a newspaper once a month and 5,4% reads a newspaper more than just once a month. More frequent users consist of 5,8%, from our sample, that read a newspaper once a week, 3,6% that read more than once a month and 2,2% that read newspapers daily.

62


3.2 First Part - Quantitative Research Method

Question: How often do you read magazines?

4%

4%

13% Daily

4.9%

32.7% More than once a week

Once a week

More than once a month

2.2% 39%

Once a month

Once every few months

Never

Figure 3.2: How often do you read magazines? Moving on to magazines, the statistics seem to be quite similar. A shocking percentage of 32,7% of Millennials in Greece, does not read magazines anymore at all. A 39% reads a magazine once every few months and 13% once every month. Smaller percentages consist of people that read magazines more frequently. More specifically, 4,9% of people, from our total sample, read magazines more than once a month. Then we have 4%, from our sample of Millennials that reads magazines once a week and another 4% that reads magazines more than once a week. Only a 2,2% reads magazines every day.

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Question: How often do you read books?

13.5%

7.2%

Daily

26.9% 19.3% More than once a week

Once a week

More than once a month

10.3%

12.6%

Once a month

10.3% Once every few months

Never

Figure 3.3: How often do you read books? Books are not a medium that we have discussed in this thesis in our theory and it is not something that it will concern us thoroughly. However, it was interesting to see how our sample is treating a printed book in contrast with printed media like newspapers and magazines. Things take a very interesting turn in this case. Only 7,2%, from our Millennial sample, never reads books from our sample. Then we have 26,9%, of our sample, that reads books once every few months and this is the biggest percentage of our sample regarding this question. Once a month, 12,6% of Greek Millennials, that consist our sample, reads books. Then we have 10,3% of them that reads books for more than once a month and 10,3% that reads books once a week. We observe higher percentages here than newspapers and magazines regarding frequency of usage because a 13,5% reads books more than once a week and finally, 7,2% reads books daily.

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3.2 First Part - Quantitative Research Method

Question: How often do you listen to the radio?

6.7% 7.6% 5.8%

Daily

42.2% More than once a week

10.3%

Once a week

More than once a month

6.7% Once a month

20.6% Once every few months

Never

Figure 3.4: How often do you listen to the radio? Moving on from print media, we asked our sample if they listen to the radio and, if so, how often. Things here changed drastically. Only a small percentage of 6,7% never listens to the radio anymore. From the other had the vast majority actually listens to the radio daily! A startling 42,2%, of our sample, listens to the radio every day. The second biggest segment of our sample listen to the radio more than once a week and that would be 20,6% of our sample. Finally we have smaller percentages of Millennials that belong somewhere in between. They are not fanatic users of the medium but they still use it. In addition, 6,7% listens to the radio once a week, 10,3% of Millennials from our total sample listen to the radio more than once a month, 6,7%, of them, listen to the radio once a month and finally 7,6% of them listen to the radio once every few months.

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Chapter 3. Methodology

Question: Do you prefer podcasts over classic radio?

22.9% 34.1%

Yes

No

I don’t know what a podcast is

43%

Figure 3.5: Do you prefer podcasts over classic radio? It was very interesting to see what is the audience of podcasts in Greece and how much do they prefer podcasts over traditional radio. Podcasts are a growing trend abroad but in Greece they are not as popular yet. That was proven by the fact that 34% of the people, that completed our research’s questionnaire, did not even know what a podcast is. Most of them did not even prefer podcasts over radio and that is 43% of Greek Millennials that completed the questionnaire. Finally, 22,9% of our sample prefers podcasts over traditional radio.

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3.2 First Part - Quantitative Research Method

Question: How often do you go the cinema?

0.4%

3.1%

23.3% Daily

More than once a week

44.4%

Once a week

More than once a month

22% Once a month

5.8%

0.9% Once every few months

Never

Figure 3.6: How often do you go the cinema? In our theory we are have not discussed about advertising on the cinema. We wanted to see, however, if they are exposed frequently to this type of advertising in order to ask them later on if they find it annoying. There was an unexpectedly big percentage of our sample that never goes to the cinema and that is the 22% of our total sample. The biggest percentage, 44,4%, goes to the cinema once every few months. The third biggest segment, 22,3%, goes to the cinema more than once a month. There were very small percentages, as it was expected, for the rest of the frequencies they could choose to answer. There was, actually, a 0,4% that goes every day to the cinema and a 0,9% that goes more than once a week. We have a 3,1% that goes to the cinema once a month and 5,8% that goes to the cinema once a week.

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Question: How often do you visit blogs?

7.2% 30.5%

14.3% Daily

5.8%

More than once a week

Once a week

More than once a month

10.8% Once a month

22.9%

8.5% Once every few months

Never

Figure 3.7: How often do you visit blogs? Moving on to the digital world, we asked our sample how often they visit blogs. The statistics present a more optimistic side for this type of alternative way of getting people informed. The vast majority actually visits blogs every day, that would be 30,5% of our sample. Our sample of Millennials in Greece seems to utilize blogs frequently because the next biggest percentage belongs to the segment of our sample that visits blogs more than once a week. Then we have 8,5% of them that visits blogs once a week, 10,8% of our sample that visit blogs more than once a month, 5,8% of them that visits blogs once a month, 14,3% that visits blogs once every few months and 7,2% that never visits them at all.

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3.2 First Part - Quantitative Research Method

Question: Why do you visit blogs?

I don’t visit blogs

Giving opinions on articles

I write for a blog

2

4

4.9

Entertainment value

49.8

News value

77.6

Figure 3.8: Why do you visit blogs? The nature of blogs is more complicated so we had to know why our sample wants to visit them. Because so many of our sample actually visits them, as proven by the results of the answers of the question above, that is one more reason that adds up to our curiosity. The vast majority, 77,6%, finds news value in blogs and another big percentage, 49,8%, finds entertainment value through them. This question was not compulsory this is why we see only a 2% answer that they do not visit blogs in contrast to the 7% on the previous question that answered that they never visit blogs. This was a question headed towards the people that answered that they used blogs. So, we have another 4,9% that actually writes for a blog or maintains their own blog and that is why they visit blogs. Finally, we have 4% of people that like to give their opinions on such articles.

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Question: How often do you watch television?

11.7% 32.3%

10.3% 4%

Daily

More than once a week

Once a week

8.1%

22.4%

11.2%

More than once a month

Once a month

Once every few months

Never

Figure 3.9: How often do you watch television? This was the most critical question of them all, the question that many do not want to face the answers of it but it is the most important one. Do Millennials in Greece watch television anymore and, if so, how frequently? Our sample expressed itself upon this topic. The vast majority of our sample does watch television and that is 32,3% of it. It is still not a huge percentage but it is calculable. Then we have 22,4% that watches television more than once a week. Adding those percentages up, more than half of our sample, 54,7% watched television very frequently. Then we have smaller percentages of people watching television once a week, 11,2%, people watching television more than once a month, 8,1%, those that watch television only once a month, 4%, and those that never actually watch television at all counting up to 11,7%.

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3.2 First Part - Quantitative Research Method

Question: How often do you visit YouTube?

0.4%

0.5% 15.2% 1.8%

Daily

More than once a week

Once a week

More than once a month

Once every few months

82.1%

Figure 3.10: How often do you visit YouTube? No other question could follow the question regarding the question about television and that is the question regarding YouTube usage. YouTube is a very calculable rival of television nowadays especially when it comes to Millennials. Millenials in Greece were not an exception to the rule and 82,1%, of our sample of Greek Millennials, answered that they visit YouTube every day! Then we have 15,2% of the whole sample that visits YouTube more than once a week. In total, 97,3% of our whole sample visits YouTube extremely frequently. Only 1,8% of them visit YouTube once a week and 0,4% visits YouTube more than once a month.

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Chapter 3. Methodology

Question: Why do you visit YouTube?

Music

86.1

New Programs

23.3

YouTube Creators

53.4

TV series

Commercials

Other

51.6

5.8

9.4

Figure 3.11: Why do you visit YouTube? It was reasonable to ask the reasons of why someone visits YouTube. The sample could pick more than one answer. Most of them, 86,1%, visit YouTube in order to listen to music or see music video clips. It is interesting to note that a very big percentage, 51,6%, visits the platform in order to consume television related content. Another big percentage, 53,4%, visits YouTube in order to see various kinds of videos from their favorite YouTube content creators. There were even Millennials in Greece that choose to get informed through the YouTube platform and that would be 23,3% of our total sample. A smaller percentage, 5,8%, visits YouTube to actually see commercials and get informed about new product deals and some others, 9,4%, visit YouTube for completely other reasons as well.

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3.2 First Part - Quantitative Research Method

Question: Do you prefer YouTube over television?

14.8%

Yes

No

85.2%

Figure 3.12: Do you prefer YouTube over television? But through this question everything was made clear for good. Do Millennials in Greece prefer YouTube over television or the opposite? Well, the majority of our sample of Millennials in Greece has decided that they prefer YouTube over television.

More

specifically, a sweeping 85,2% percentage prefers YouTube over television. Only a 14,8% would choose television over YouTube. Question: Explain your answer given to question 12.

Figure 3.13: Explain why do you prefer YouTube over television? 73


Chapter 3. Methodology

This question, request to be exact, was an open style question-request which was not answered by all the people that completed by our questionnaire because it was not obligatory. The answers and findings will be described and analyzed later on, on the analysis part of our thesis. Question: Out of the following social media, which ones do you use the most?

20.6

Linkedln

87

Facebook

Instagram

Snapchat

Twitter

67.3

3.1

7.6

Figure 3.14: Out of the following social media, which ones do you use the most? Moving on to social media, we ask our sample to choose which of the social media, we listed out, they use the most. They could chose at least one social medium and maximum three in total if they use more than one. The choices they had were: Facebook, Instagram, LinkedIn, Twitter and Snapchat. The vast majority uses Facebook more, 87%, 67,3%.of Greek Millennials that consist our sample, uses Instagram more and finally 20,6% of them use LinkedIn .Fewer people from our sample use Twitter, 7,6% and Snapchat, 3,1%.

74


3.2 First Part - Quantitative Research Method

Question: How often do you visit Facebook?

11.2% 3.1% 4%

Daily

4.2% More than once a week

Once a week

Other choices

77.6%

Never

Figure 3.15: How often do you visit Facebook? We proceeded to ask our sample of Greek Millennials to tell us how much they use each social medium separately. Most of them, 77,6%, use Facebook every day. Then we have 11,2% of them that visit Facebook more than once a week. These two segments of our sample make up a sweeping 88.8% of our total sample. There were some people from our sample that never use Facebook and that would be a 4% of the people that completed our questionnaire.

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Chapter 3. Methodology

Question: How often do you visit Instagram?

2.3%

3.1%

25.1% Daily

More than once a week

Other choices

4.5%

Once every few months

65% Never

Figure 3.16: How often do you visit Instagram? On a daily basis, 65% visit Instagram every day. A considerable portion of our sample never actually visits its Instagram account. Only 4,5% of our sample visits its Instagram account more than once a week, 1,3% of our sample visits its Instagram account once a week, 0,8% of our sample visit their account more than once or just once a month, finally, 3,1% of Greek Millennials, that consisted our sample, visit their account once every few months. Question: Facebook vs Instagram

4.5%

Instagram

48.4%

Facebook

None of them

47.1%

Figure 3.17: Which one do you prefer the most? Asking them which social medium they prefer the best between Instagram and Facebook things did not get any clearer. Slightly more of them, 48,4%, preferred Instagram 76


3.2 First Part - Quantitative Research Method

and 47,1% preferred Facebook over Instagram. A few Millennials of our sample do not prefer any of the two and that would be 4,5% of the total sample. Question: In case you use Twitter, who do you tend to follow on Twitter the most?

5.3%

11.1% 5.3% 5.3%

No Twitter

Hashtags

Celebrities

Companies

73%

Friends

Figure 3.18: In case you use Twitter, who do you tend to follow on Twitter the most? For the next social medium, we did not asked how much they use Twitter as it was foreseen that in Greece Twitter is not a popular social medium. We asked that if they have a Twitter account and what do they do with it. Things do not look good for the medium. The majority of our sample of Greek Millennials that consisted our sample, 73%, does not use the profile they might have on Twitter. The ones that use their account tend to follow their friends, 5,3%, celebrities and politicians for the most part, 11,1%, companies that interest them, 5,3% and specific hashtags and trends, 5,3%.

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Chapter 3. Methodology

Question: Do you feel it is easy for you to express yourself and your opinions through Social Media?

No

43.9% Yes

56.1%

Figure 3.19: Do you feel it is easy for you to express yourself and your opinions through Social Media? We definitely wanted to know how the Millennials, that consisted our sample, feel in the environment of social media. Is it true that the younger generations feel freer to express their opinion n social media? Well it seems that this is not quite true. The majority of our representative sample of Greek Millennials, 56% of them to be exact, does not feel comfortable to express their opinion through social media. Only 44%, of them, feel comfortable expressing themselves on social media.

78


3.2 First Part - Quantitative Research Method

Question: How often do you send a link to a video or website to someone you know? 9.9%

4% Daily

33.2% More than once a week

Once a week

39%

More than once a month

4.9% 9%

Once a month

Once every few months

Figure 3.20: How often do you send a link to a video or website from someone you know? Another way that information is spread through social media is through sending links of videos or other interesting findings in a message form. This is a type of Word-of-Mouth (WOM) advertising or promotion. We wanted to know how much our sample sends these types of links. We were not disappointed by their answers as 39% of them send them every day and 33,2% of them send them more than once a week. Then we have 9,9% of our total sample that send these types of links once week, 4,9% of our sample that sends them once a month, 9% that sends them more than once a month and 4% of them that send them once every few months. No one answered that they never send such links.

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Chapter 3. Methodology

Question: How often do you receive a link to a video or website from someone you know?

3.1%

2.7%

Daily

36.8% 40.4%

More than once a week

Once a week

More than once a month

Once a month

9.9%

7.2% Once every few months

Figure 3.21: How often do you receive a link to a video or website from someone you know? Then we ask how often they receive links that lead to videos or websites. Most of them, 40,4%, receive daily such links and the second biggest portion of them, 36,8% receives more than once a week such links. All in all a sweeping 77,2% receives links like these very frequently every week. Some of them, 7,2%, receive such links once a week and 9,9% of them receive them more than once a month. Others, 2,7%, receive them once a month and 3,1% receives such links once every few months. No one answered that they never receive links that lead to a video or a website.

80


3.2 First Part - Quantitative Research Method

Question: Of the times you receive such a link and visit the link, who did usually send it?

1.3%

10.8%

12.1%

Close friend

Family member

Acquaintance

Social media or Business connection

75.8%

Figure 3.22: Of the times you receive such a link and visit the link, who usually sent it? For the most part, the people that send them links that lead to videos and other websites are close friends and that would be the exceptional majority of 75,8% of people from our sample that receive such links from them. Some people from our sample, 20,8%, receive such links from a family member. Finally, very few of the Greek Millennials, that completed the questionnaire, receive such links from someone they met through the Internet, 0,9% of them more specifically, and from business connections, 0,4%. Question: For the most part, do you find it irritating, to receive such links?

4.9%

No

Yes

95.1%

Figure 3.23: For the most part, do you find it irritating, to receive such links? When asked if they find it irritating to receive such links the vast majority, and that would be 95,1% of our sample in total, is not bothered by this, Only a percentage of 4,9% of our total sample of 223 Millennials is actually irritated by receiving links that lead to a video or another website. 81


Chapter 3. Methodology

Question: Do you use an ad blocker browser on the devices you own?

60

50

40

30

20

Mobile Phone

Computer

Not at all

Figure 3.24: Do you use an ad blocker browser on the devices you own? Moving on to a different type of question, we asked our sample if they use ad blocker browsers on the technical devices they own. Their answers were very representative of what previous researches have supported about Greeks and ad blocker software. A stupendous 60,1% uses an ad blocker browser on their computer. Then we have 17,5% of our sample that use ad block on their phone. Finally, we have a percentage of 35,9% that does not use an ad blocking software at all.

82


3.2 First Part - Quantitative Research Method

Question: Which of the following Media have let you down in terms of entertainment and getting informed?

60 50 40 30 20

is io n

io Te

le v

ad R

er s sp ap

N

ew

in es

s

ag az

B

lo g M

So

Yo

uT ub e ci al M ed ia

10

Figure 3.25: Which of the following Media have let you down in terms of entertainment and getting informed? Media attract people for their entertainment value and information value as we have stated on our theory previously. Their nature also plays a very important role, whether the medium creating a passive culture like television does or an interactive culture like social media. We needed to know which media attracts people more in order to understand which media are more effective for advertising effectiveness thus making the advertisement placed, on the according medium, more effective. Through this question we wanted to know which media have let, our sample of Greek Millennials, down in terms of entertainment and information value. The sample could choose more than one question. Most people have been let down by magazines, 61%, by newspapers, 61,9%, and by television, 52%, respectively. Many people from our sample have been let down by the radio, 23%, and interestingly by blogs, 21,5%. Fewer of them have been let down by Social Media, 8,5%, and YouTube, 5,8%.

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Chapter 3. Methodology

Question: Do you feel that videos, movies or television shows you watch are often produced by brands and/or companies to promote their products or services?

7% 12% Yes

No

12%

I could not tell

Other

69%

Figure 3.26: Do you feel that videos, movies or television shows you watch are often produced by brands and/or companies to promote their products or services? Does Generation Y sense sponsored content? Amazingly, 69% answered that they feel that videos or television shows are often backed up or produced by brands that pay for the content in one or another way. Another portion, 12%, cannot distinguish what really happens. Another portion does not believe that brands are behind shows and video content. Finally, some people, 4%, do not believe any of these and potentially have a different explanation for the relationship between brands and content production.

84


3.2 First Part - Quantitative Research Method

Question: Out of the following traditional media that do not meet your needs for entertainment and which ones you think can adjust to your needs for the years to come?

45

40

35

30

25

io n ev is

ad io

Te l

R

sp a

pe r

s

in es N

ew

ds ar

ag az M

ilb o

B

Fl ye rs

Po s

te r

s

20

Figure 3.27: Out of the following traditional media that do not meet your needs for entertainment and which ones you think can adjust to your needs for the years to come? We asked our sample to tell us which media make them feel hopeful that they will get better even though right now they do not satisfy them. It was a mistake not to enable our sample to choose that they believe none of these media will make it for the next years to come. Many people that completed the questionnaire wrote in the final comments that in this question they wanted to answer that they do not believe that any of these media will recover from their current state. Disregarding that, most of our, Greek Millennial, representatives believe that television will recover. That would be 44,4% of our total sample that completed our questionnaire. Then we have 34,1% that believe that billboards will adjust to the needs of the years to come, 29,6% that believe that the radio is able to adjust and 24,7% believes that posters are able to adjust. Finally, 22,4% believe that newspapers can adjust, 22% believe that magazines can adjust and lesser people, 20,6%, that flyers are able to adjust to the future’ needs.

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Question: How overwhelmed you feel in general about the following different types of advertisements?

146

150 133

145

112 100

91 66 55

54

55 47

50

38

38 32

29

24

23

22

9

8

2

0

s

ard lbo l i B

s s ne rs Ad ter tte azi s a e g o l a P em M ws Ne Cin

160

154

140 120 100

92 84

80

73 62 65

60

74 68 67 5755 53 49

40 32

73

47 42

42

30 24

20

a edi

M al oci

S

eo vid l a Vir None

dio

Ra

Little

TV Moderately

e

lin On Very

Figure 3.28: How much overwhelmed you feel in general about the following different types of advertisements We proceed to construct and present a very interesting question were our sample has to check from 1 to 4 (1=not overwhelmed, 4= very overwhelmed) at which level different types of advertisement irritates or overwhelms them. For this type of graph we will not describe our findings in percentages. Instead we will refer to how many people feel for each medium.

86


3.2 First Part - Quantitative Research Method

Billboards Billboards, makes only 8 people from the 223 people of our sample feel very overwhelmed, 29 people feel moderately overwhelmed, 54 people feel little overwhelmed by them and 133 people do not feel overwhelmed by them. Posters Moving to posters, 22 people feel very overwhelmed by them, 38 people feel moderately overwhelmed by them, 55 people feel little overwhelmed by them and 112 people do not feel overwhelmed by them. Newsletters Regarding newsletters, only 2 people feel very overwhelmed by them, 23 people feel moderately overwhelmed, 55 people feel little overwhelmed and 146 do not feel overwhelmed by them. Magazines Moving on to magazines, 145 people do not feel overwhelmed by advertising in magazines, 47 people feel a little overwhelmed by magazine advertising, 24 people feel moderately overwhelmed by it and 9 people feel very overwhelmed by it. Radio As for the radio, 53 people are not overwhelmed by radio advertising, 68 people from our sample are little overwhelmed by radio advertising, 74 people are moderately overwhelmed and 30 people are very overwhelmed. Television Moving on to television, television advertising makes 54 people from our sample feel very overwhelmed, 84 feel moderately overwhelmed, 47 people feel little overwhelmed and 42 people do not feel overwhelmed at all. Online Ads Online advertising makes 92 people from our sample feel very overwhelmed, 72 people feel moderately overwhelmed by it, 42 people feel very little overwhelmed and 24 people do not feel overwhelmed. Social Media Ads Social Media advertising makes 65 people feel very overwhelmed, 73 people from our sample feel moderately overwhelmed, 62 people feel little overwhelmed and 32 people do not feel overwhelmed. Viral Videos Regarding viral videos, 49 people of our sample do not feel overwhelmed by them, 67 people feel little overwhelmed by them, 57 people feel moderately overwhelmed by them and 55 people feel very overwhelmed by them. Cinema Ads Finally we have added a very interesting category and that is cinema advertisements. Interestingly, 91 people do not feel overwhelmed by them, 66 people feel little overwhelmed by them, 38 people feel moderately overwhelmed by them and 32 people feel very overwhelmed by them.

87


Chapter 3. Methodology

Question: Where do you feel more exposed to advertisements?

4%

On the street

32.7% Television/Radio

On the Internet

63.2%

Figure 3.29: Where do you feel most exposed to advertisments? Where do really people feel exposed to advertisements? Most Millennials, 63,2%, answered that they feel more exposed to advertisements on the Internet. Another big percentage, 32,7%, feel more exposed to advertisements while watching television or listening on the radio. A smaller percentage, 4%, feels more exposed to advertisement on the street. Question: Expected vs Unexpected Exposition to advertisment?

9.9%

Expected

Unexpected

90.1%

Figure 3.30: Would you prefer more ads on unexpected or scheduled moments? It seems that people want to know exactly when they will see an advertisement and that would be a sweeping 90,1% of our total sample that completed our questionnaire. Only 9,9% would prefer to see advertisements unexpectedly. 88


3.2 First Part - Quantitative Research Method

Question: How do you feel about handed flyers in public?

10.8%

Neutral

22.4% Annoyed

Positive

66.8%

Figure 3.31: How do you feel about handed flyers in public? A popular way for companies to advertise their products is still through flyers. After questioned how they feel about this practice, our Millennial representatives are neutral for the most part, 66,8%. Some of them are even positive towards it, 10,8% to be exact. Some of them are annoyed, 22,4%. Question: Do you pick up flyers yourself at a shop, bar, club or other location?

8.5%

33.2%

Never

23.8% Often

Sometimes

Hardly Ever

34.5%

Figure 3.32: Do you pick up flyers yourself at a shop, bar, club or other location? Do Millennials pick up flyers on their own? Most of them, 34,5% of our total sample, sometimes pick up flyers form various locations they happen to be at. A lot of them, 33,2% of the total sample, hardly ever. But there are the ones that actually pick them up often and that would be 23,8% of our sample. Finally, 8,5% never picks them up from 89


Chapter 3. Methodology

anywhere. Question: Out of the online advertisement methods, which ones you think will dissolve in the years to come?

Instagram

Facebook

7.2

13.5

Google

YouTube

Newsletters

23.8

11.2

77.1

Figure 3.33: Out of the online advertisement methods, which ones you think will dissolve in the years to come? Out of some main advertising methods that we listed, we asked Millennials, which ones they think that would disappear in the years to come. They could choose more than one answer. Most of them, 77,1%, believe that newsletter advertisements will disappear. As for YouTube advertisements, 11,2% of them believes that they will not exist in the future. Others, 23,8%, believe that Google advertisements will disappear. As for Facebook advertisements, only 13,5%of our total sample believes that they will disappear and only 7,2% believes that Instagram advertisements will not exist in the near future.

90


3.2 First Part - Quantitative Research Method

Question: Newsletter vs Chat Bot?

28.3% Newsletter emails

Messenger chatbot

71.7%

Figure 3.34: Through which would you prefer the most to be informed for product discount? As a final question, we wanted to see if Millennials prefer classic newsletters from chatbots that are now being used by various online retailers. Most of them, 71,4% to be specific, would prefer newsletters over chatbots. Only 28,3% of our total sample would prefer chatbots over newsletters at the moment.

91


Chapter 3. Methodology

Question: Anything else you wish to add in regards to the subject of this questionnaire that might help us?

Figure 3.35: Questionnaire Participants’ comments This question, was an open style question which was not answered by all the people that completed by our questionnaire because it was not obligatory. The answers and findings will be summed up in the segment of our thesis, in which we talk about our researches limitations. Even though we had some very good comments for our questionnaire, we had some very useful feedback for things we could have done better.

92


3.2 First Part - Quantitative Research Method

3.2.4

I

Quantitative Research Method - Analysis

n our theory we have examined the nature of each medium and how it has evolved. How it started, what purposes it was supposed to serve and what it ended up be-

ing. Things are changing fast and the preferences of people towards media consumption change very quickly as well. With the Millennial Generation changing everything in the game and discovering ways to communicate like never before, many questions are being raised. Which media do people use and why? How can advertising be effective if it is not placed in the right medium? How can it be effective if it is never going to reach its potential target group? What if Millennials have given up on traditional media? What if they have even given up on social media? What does this generation has to tell us? Through our questionnaire we got some extremely interesting results. These results made us question our initial thoughts and predictions. Starting off about traditional media, a young demographic, like the one of Millennials, seems to not be completely ready to answer in a determined way as a whole. Almost half of our sample does not read newspapers anymore. But this was pretty much expected. In fact, it was surprising that the rest of the half reads newspapers even if it is not extremely frequently. Rarely companies and advertising agencies would choose as their advertising campaign’s vehicle a newspaper. It is considered wasted money when it comes to this generation. We expected a bigger percentage of people to never read newspapers anymore. But our sample did in fact choose newspapers as the most disappointing medium of them all. When asked which medium has let them down the most in terms of getting them informed and entertained, 138/223 people said that newspapers makes them feel that way making that the biggest percentage and the most disappointing medium among Millennials. But 50 people (22,4%), believe that newspapers can survive and fulfill their needs in the future. So, there is still a considerable percentage that has hope about this medium. In fact, when asked if they feel overwhelmed by newspaper advertising, 146/223 people said that they do not feel overwhelmed at all from advertisements placed in newspapers. That is not something to be hopeful or to count upon if you consider that most of them do not read newspapers. These advertisements are not irritating to Millennials because they do not see them anymore, they simply do not buy newspapers at all and this is why they cannot feel overwhelmed. You cannot be overwhelmed by something you cannot see or something that does not get in your way. In print you can also avoid seeing an advertisement if you want to. You can skip to the page or the passage you want to read. Therefore, most people (90,1%) answered that they prefer to know where and when they will see an advertisement. But people are not concerned only about where they are going to see an ad. Because advertisements on print are less irritating but the mediums themselves are not as popular as they were, and it seems that their content in general is the one that has let them down. Moving on to magazines, 146/223 people do not find magazine advertising overwhelming at all. This is very optimistic if we see that the percentage of Millennials that never 93


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reads them is smaller (32,7%) than the one of newspapers (46,6%). But this is still a very big percentage. Magazines are the second medium that has let people down in terms of entertainment and getting them informed. After newspapers it seems that magazines have disappointed this generation a lot, content wise. Like newspapers, there is a small but considerable percentage of people (22%) that believes that magazines can adjust to their needs in the future. It is odd to see that the statistics change dramatically when it comes to reading books. Millennials do not seem fond of newspapers and magazines but only 7,2% of our total sample never reads a book anymore. So we can safely conclude at this point that Millennials are not appalled by print media. They are appalled by disappointing, according to them, content. If it does not get them informed and entertained then it is not worth their time. Books seem to be worth their time. When it comes to variety, books and magazines offer a great deal of variety. But books are still surviving this “cruel” world of digitalization. Another “signature” traditional medium is the radio which seems to have been doing very well, taking under consideration the existence of web radio and podcasts. Both, web radio and podcasts, enable their users to consume their content anywhere they go and most importantly: on their mobile phone. But when questioned if they prefer podcasts over the traditional radio, 43% of our sample said that they do not prefer podcasts over traditional radio and 34,1% did not even know what a podcast is! This adds up to 77,1% of our total sample. Only 22,9% would choose podcasts over traditional radio and this comes to show that our research proved that podcasts still have a long way to go when it comes to inheriting the podcast culture in Greece. A big percentage of our sample (42,2%) listens, in fact to traditional radio every day! Only 22,3% have been let down by the radio in terms of information and entertainment. This is a big contrast when it comes to newspapers and magazines, which have let down a lot more people. There is a percentage (29,6%) that feels that the radio can adjust to the future even if it is not quite there yet, in the present. But when it comes to advertisements more people feel overwhelmed by them. In total, 68 people feel moderately overwhelmed and 74 people from our sample find them very overwhelming. We have no extremes when it comes to this medium, 53 people are not overwhelmed at all by radio advertising and 30 people are extremely overwhelmed by radio advertising. These are no extreme numbers, especially when we compare them with television. We were very eager to see what Millennials had to say about this very controversial, nowadays, medium. Only 32,4 % watch television every day. But also, only 11,7% of our total sample never watches television anymore. Many Millennials tend to say that they have completely given up on watching television. We can tell that people have not turned their back on television, 22,4% of people of our sample still watch television more than once a week. Actually, the majority of our sample has not given up completely watching television, yet. This medium still holds a certain type of power over Millennials. But let us not forget that a huge percentage of Millennials (52%) that apartized our sample, has been let down by television and 84 people find television advertisements very overwhelming. They have been let down both by the content of these media and of how advertisements 94


3.2 First Part - Quantitative Research Method

are promoted by them. At this point it is fitting to discuss about YouTube. We let our sample compare their preferences among these two in question 3.12. First, an astonishing 82,1% visits the YouTube platform every single day. Maybe the statistics of television viewing are not quite that disappointing when examined alone. However, when compared to the statistics of YouTube viewability, things tend to become worrisome for the once sovereign medium. Most of the people visit YouTube to listen to music (86,1%). But in general, our sample tends to visit YouTube for various kinds of things even to watch advertisements (5,8%). When asked to justify why they answered that they prefer more YouTube and television (3.13) when it comes to YouTube’s favor, people prefer it because : • It is very interesting, it gives them the chance to find more shows in different languages as well. • It has less advertisements. • You can see the content that you want. • You can see the content that you want when you want. • You can see the content that you want as many times as you wish. • They feel that YouTube is administrated and controlled more carefully than television. • They feel that they can connect to the content a lot more. • They feel that they can find more specific information and what they are specifically looking for, not generalities. • They can see the programs that they cannot see live on television due to having limited time. • They can relate to YouTube content creators. They cannot relate with the lifestyle of television personas. • Many think that television content is dull, irrelevant to them and indifferent. • YouTube content is automatically filtered and suggested to the users based on what each user wants to see. • Television makes them feel forced and obligated to see a program or an advertisement. All these makes the viewer uncomfortable, unlike YouTube. • You can have it on so many devices, like your phone, your tablet or you laptop even link it to your television device. • YouTube has better crafted content. • YouTube creators bring new ideas to the table constantly. 95


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• It is a very democratic medium in every aspect. • It is free. • YouTube content is not politically biased. • It has quality content 24 hours a day. But there was this small percentage that prefers television over YouTube and here is why: • Some believe that on-demand television subscription models offer a far more integrated experience than YouTube does. • There are more movies and well-crafted programs on television than YouTube. • They are just used to television more. • Some of them find YouTube confusing Some Millennials use both mediums for different reasons. They can see potential in both mediums and they see that each one of them can offer them something. This was an open question which was not obligatory. However many people from our sample gave us their take on it, thus we were able to list all the main points they made and understand why the majority of them would chose YouTube over television. Even the ones that answered that they would prefer television over YouTube, it is because they have not explored all of its possibilities. For example, they are not aware of YouTube Red or YouTube Premium which offers the chance to people to see movies and series as well with no classic advertisements in-between. They do not know yet that YouTube is not only about music or television content that is re-uploaded. But it is very justified for some to prefer programs like Amazon Prime, Netflix or Nova over YouTube. We will touch upon this subject on the second phase of research. YouTube is a very important social medium but what about other social media? We were surprised to see even though Instagram is considered more popular nowadays than Facebook that there were more Millennials that use Facebook daily (77,6%) than Instagram (65%). And when we asked them directly to tell us which one they prefer the most Instagram prevailed! This was a very odd twist. More Millennials (48,4%) prefer Instagram more than Facebook (47,1%) and some of them (4,5%) do not like none of the two. However, Facebook is used more than Instagram by Greek Millennials even if they state that they prefer Instagram more in theory. This is also confirmed by another question in which our sample was asked to choose what social media they use the most, having the permission to choose maximum three different social media, Facebook (87%), Instagram (67,3%) and LinkedIn (20,6%) seem to have won over Greek Millennials. Facebook was designated as the most utilized medium. From the other hand, Twitter (7,6%) and Snapchat (3,1%) seem to be supplant in the Greek Market of Social Media. People still do not feel free. Even though, in theory, social media are more of a democratic medium, because people can upload what they want, they can see the content that they want when they want and communicate their ideas with whoever they want, people 96


3.2 First Part - Quantitative Research Method

still do not feel free. More specifically, when asked if they feel comfortable to express their ideas freely through their social media, 56,1% do not feel comfortable to do so. The rest 43,9% feels comfortable to express themselves. But, 56,1% is still a very big percentage that feels oppressed in platforms that were, supposedly created to enable people to communicate with one another and express themselves. This is one of the basic assets that social media have in contrast to traditional media. Let’s see how they communicate these ideas when it comes to sharing an interesting video, website link, article or anything that can be shared as a link and transmitted through a direct social media message to another user. We asked them to tell us how often they send a link from a video or a website they find interesting to someone they know. A big percentage (39%) does in fact send such links every day and another big percentage (33,2%) sends such links, to people they know, more than once a week. Then we have 9,9% that sends such links once a week. Nobody said that they never send such links. So, it seems a common practice that Greek Millennials are embracing this tact of sharing things they like this way. It is convenient for them and something that has become a habit. This is an extension of the traditional word of mouth marketing. This is the digital world of mouth (e-WOM) in practice. People promote willingly what they really like to each other. They share products, services, spectacles, shows, articles, news and information effortlessly to each other. This is something all advertisers and marketers should take under consideration and invest in and use it wisely. We also asked them how often they receive such links.The clear majority (40,4%) receives links of videos and websites, which their closed ones find interesting every day! Many (36,8%) representative Greek Millennials receive such links more than once a week. Not only much of our sample sends out links of content in different digital forms that they find interesting, but they also receive a lot of those links. This comes to add to our argument that companies and agencies should find a way to take advantage of this practice wisely and create content that will be shared effortlessly and free by social media users and web users in general. Who are the people that send links like that to the people of our sample? The extremely leveling majority receives links from videos and websites, mostly, from close friends of theirs. They also receive them often from acquaintances (12,1%) that they are not in particular very close with and from family members (10,8%). Nobody answered that they receive such links from strangers. This is very good news considering that they, our sample at least, are not bombarded with links from strangers making them annoyed or irritated. This practice seems to have been cultivated among closed ones and people that Millennial Social Media users trust. It is not a practice adulterated and exploited for random promotional causes. Finally, we had to know if receiving links from content their closed ones find interesting makes them feel irritated. Almost everybody (95,1%) does not feel irritated, for the most part, when they receive links like that. Regardless of what our sample would have answered in the previous questions, we had to know what they feel of this practice. Either way, the results were regarding, and the majority of our sample tends to send links of videos and websites to their closed ones and in addition tend to receive such links from 97


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their close friends, it is very convenient that they are not irritated by all this practice. In conclusion, word of mouth is still going strong in the digital world as well. Some of these links that they share with content that they find interesting and the content that Millennials consume in general is under a lot of questioning as it seems from the answers so far. Do they feel that the various shows, videos from their favorite YouTube content creators, Instagram posts, Facebook Posts, articles they read are sponsored by various brands and supported for companies in various ways in order for their products to be promoted? It is no secret that native advertising is growing strong and we touched upon this subject in our theory we provided early on, in this thesis. A very big segment (69,1%) of our sample feels that the content they consume is sponsored or branded in a way. Only 12,1% do not feel that the content they see is not branded entertainment and 12,1% cannot really tell and are somewhere in-between. Which are those media media, all in all, that have let this generation down in terms of getting them informed and entertained? In this question, whoever completed the questionnaire was able to choose as many media as they wished. We mentioned some of these results sporadically in this analysis. Aggregated, newspapers (61,9%), magazines (61%) and television (52%) have let people down the most. The radio has let down another big percentage (23,3%) of Greek Millennials that completed our questionnaire. Blogs have also let down a big percentage of our sample and this raises a lot of questions because blogs are user generated and even these do not seem to satisfy a portion of this younger generation. But being disappointed by a medium or various media does not have to mean that they do not feel hopeful that something can be done and these media cannot adjust and evolve. This question was a little bit problematic. There were many people that believed that none of the listed media could adjust to their needs, not now or in the future. We did not list a choice for them to state that. Instead they had to choose at least one medium that they believed that could fulfill their needs, of getting them informed and entertained. The results were more optimistic for television because 44,4% of the Millennials of our sample believe that it can adjust to their needs. After television, Millennials seem very hopeful about billboards because 34,1% believe that there will be a renaissance for them. Radio also seems to make people feel some type of hope for its future. Some people root for print ads, newspapers,magazines and finally for posters as well. There is some hope for traditional media. But we can speculate that all this optimism for television can be attributed to the fact that on - demand television is growing extremely popular and Greek Millennials do not exactly see the television’s future being built upon the model of traditional television as we know it. In an effort to see how damning this relationship between media and advertising is and which media advertising is “sabotaging� the most we see that most Millennials (63,2%) feel exposed to advertisements the most when they are on the Internet and less (32,7%) when they watch television or listen to the radio. A very small percentage of them (4%) feels very exposed to advertisements when they are on the streets. These results should come as no surprise because more Millennials use YouTube daily, as well as their social media. At the same time they use less traditional media in order to get informed or entertained. This is why they feel 98


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more exposed to advertisements on the web, because they spend more time there. It is also very optimistic for outdoor advertisements (OOH), the fact that many people believe that billboards are a medium that people want to see adjusting to the future’s needs in combination with the fact that not many people feel overwhelmed by advertisements in the outdoors. To be exposed or not? A shocking 90,1% wants to know exactly when they are going to be exposed to an advertisement and only 9,9% of them want to be surprised. When it comes to flyers, being handed a flyer is mostly unexpected. You never really know when you are going to be handed a flyer and where. However, most people from our sample (66,8%) feel neutral towards flyers. They do not feel irritated or positive about them. Some Millennials from our sample (22,4%) do feel irritated and a few others (10,8%) are positive toward this way of advertising. After all, only 8,5% never pick flyers that they find in bars and shops that they visit. Millennials seem eager for the most part to pick up advertising flyers that come on their way. More specifically, 23,8% pick up flyers very often, 34,5% pick up flyers sometimes and 33,2% do pick up flyers but rarely. Back to the digital means of advertising: Apart for observing which traditional means of advertising Millennials think that will disappear, we wanted to see what digital means of advertising they believe that will disappear soon, as well. The clear majority (77,1%) believes that newsletters will seize to exist soon as they seem to find them the most useless form of advertising on the web right now. Many (23,8%) also believe that advertisements on Google will not be useful to companies and that soon they will disappear. That shows us that there is a big portion of Millennials that does not find Google Advertising appealing. Things were more optimistic for Instagram, Facebook and YouTube advertisements. Millennials, for the most part, do not find them useless and by no means do they believe that they will disappear. Heading towards the end, we wanted to know whether our sample would choose chatbot as a means of advertising over newsletters. Chatbots are still a very new and peculiar concept for the Greek consumer base. After observing that so many of our Millennials do not believe in the power of newsletters, because it is not effectively appealing to them, we thought that chatbots would prevail. However, Millennials are still skeptical. Very few (28,3%) would choose chatbots over newsletters. The rest would still prefer newsletters over chatbots. We leaved the final question open for comments and suggestions. These statements are summed up to the part where we talk about our research’s limitations.

3.3

Second Part - Qualitative Research

3.3.1

I

Qualitative Research - Introduction

t is important see what everyday people, that do not think marketing-wise or corporately, believe about media today. We wanted to know what they use the most, why

they use them and how they feel about advertisements on them. But it is, also, very intriguing to see what people behind media, companies and advertising agencies think. Getting the chance to interview a key expert from the field of communication is no easy 99


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task. We managed, however, to interview 4 very defining experts that would touch upon our research interests from different points of view. We wanted to see if experts are in touch with what people want, if what they will tell us will be close enough with people’s attitudes and if their answers are like the answers our sample provided us with. Do experts believe in a well-crafted media strategy? What do they believe about the importance of traditional media in the 21st century? Do they utilize them in their campaigns, and why? What if there should not be made a distinction between media utilization? Are all media needed? Are integrated media campaigns the key? How do they see and translate the market’s needs? It was also decided that it could be easier to talk with experts about advertising’s content importance.

We did not want them to tell us about what content they find

effective. We wanted to know how much they believe good content is important and the dynamic between good content and media placement. How does something really become popular, even viral? Media strategy versus content, the opposite or both? In order for our questions to be answered essentially, in an integrated manner we decided to create a questionnaire constituted by eight questions. We interviewed two experts through Skype and the other two of them through the phone. The conversations progressed with an open-interview manner. We tried to keep the conversations on track based, mostly, on the core questions we provided them for our research.

3.3.2

T

Qualitative Research - Describing our Demographic - Experts

here are no better people to answer all these questions we stated above than experts upon the field. These people are able to give us their insights upon the topic as they

have dealt with it and have seen the results from first hand. We managed to interview, first, one of the most famous and successful copywriters and now Head Creatives in Greece, one very talented Account Director who also just founded her own company called Dollphin, a Coca Cola Marketing Specialist - so we could also see the company’s perspective of things and not only the agency’s perspective - and finally we were lucky enough to interview a Venture Capitalist that supports Greek startups and has a very solid expertise in advertising, digital technologies and the communication field in general. Let us see their backgrounds more specifically. Thodoris Tsekouras Thodoris Tsekouras is one of the most creative minds of Greek advertising that has served in front and behind the camera. He possesses a creative mind, inexhaustible humor, intelligence and speech speed. He has worked as a creative director for some of the biggest names in the communication and advertising industry. Such companies are Leo Burnett Athens, Rascal, McCann Erickson and currently Ogilvy Greece. His ads have been adored by millions of people and have made serious impact on the brands created for. The reason he was chosen to be interviewed is because he is the ultimate expert in this country to talk about the craft of advertising content, leaving aside technicalities and 100


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procedures. Talking about advertising content is a very tricky situation and what is even trickier is creating it. Seeing it from the creator’s perspective and what he thinks from his experience that is effective, can give us a better understanding on advertising efficiency mostly from the perspective of content crafting than media placement.

Lina Kyriakou Lina Kyriakou is a “cross platform professional with vast experience in providing strategic solutions within various brand building disciplines and business verticals” and a “big fan and actor of the Human-Centered approach in Service Design with an aim to provide a consistently stellar Customer Experience”. As she states herself, she is also “proud Co- creator and Business Instructor of the Strategy and Social Media Lab at Panteion University of Athens”. She has been Project Coordinator for Connective Communications, Account Executive and Account Director for Leo Burnett Athens, Account Supervisor for TBWA/Worldwide, Account Director for Arc Worldwide, Senior Account Director for Rascal and later she became Head of Digital at LoveD, Digital Director at Wedia, Client Service Director at Publicis Hellas S.A. and finally Head of Agency Sales at Think Digital. She has also served a CEO at 2B3D and Whiise. Very recently she founded her own company called Dollphin. Obviously, she is a multidimensional personality, practical mind with excellent organizational skills. Her mindset is different from the one of a copywriter and that is what was very interesting, for us, in order to interview her. Her perspective is different and she takes under consideration different aspects of what makes an advertising campaign effective. She comes to complete the mindset of a traditional copywriter and talk more in depth about the media factor and how important it is when it comes to an effective communication campaign in general.

Diana Birba Diana Birba is a “marketing professional with 19 years of Marketing experience and Consumer Insights, with proven track record of successful NPDs, campaign launches and numerous marketing and commercial distinctions. She has been “teaching voluntarily "Marketing Theory in Practice", as a business instructor at Panteion AD & PR Lab (Dept. of Communication, Media and Culture), during winter semesters”. She has worked for various companies. She has been Brand manager for Sarantis Group, she has been Senior Product Manager and Marketing & Trade Manager for Cadbury, Marketing Manager and Marketing Manager G&C for Mondelez. As of today she is Marketing Manager for Coca Cola Greece, Cyprus and Malta. She is a true professional and very dedicated to her work. She is always to the point and is in touch with the market’s needs at all times. Her point of view was very precious for this research because she gave us the chance to understand the advertiser’s perspective, how a company sees advertisement placement. The company’s perspective always differs from the one of an advertising agency. So we got to get a glimpse of both sides. 101


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Eric Parks Finally, we were honored to interview Eric Parks. He is a Venture Capitalist or more specifically an investor and also a mentor in startups and an active communications strategist. He is looking to find and assist amazing founders in supercharging their companies. He is previous Director of Digital Strategy and Innovation at Tempo-OMD, head of digital at Leo Burnett Athens and The Newton’s Laboratory. He has been managing large teams and he is very active in startup advising and consulting. He has been also extensively involved at creating digital experiences, campaigns and games from social to mobile and from inception to administering as a property and throughout the whole product life cycle. He has experience at working remotely and internationally with clients ranging from local to multinational (P&G, Diageo, IKEA, Philip Morris, OTE). His perspective was also extremely useful and very different from all the rest of the experts interviewed. He sees things more differently. He has an entrepreneurial mind and he only dedicates his time and expertize when it comes to services and products really worth it. At the end of the day the right advertising and promotion of a product or service is something that concerns him deeply as well. He is also an Instructor of Ad & PR Lab teaching the subject “Creativity – The Art of Storytelling”.

3.3.3

I

Qualitative Research - Results

n this part we will describe what each expert answered to our eight questions of our core interviewing questionnaire and see individually what they believe about the

topics we were interested to research upon. Thodoris Tsekouras-Interview Question No 1: What are the criteria that an advertising campaign is created today? . For Mr. Tsekouras there are two criteria that people who craft advertisements take under consideration. First of all comes creativity. Working with instinct, creatively, intuitively, aesthetically. He believes that there are no few times that we see advertisements that are absolutely elitist and are approved only by the people that craft them themselves and advertisers in general. But the ultimate goal is for advertisers to touch the potential buyers, consumers or users of the product or service. Apart from creativity, in order for an advertisement campaign to be made today, agencies lie on researches that have been done and the data these researches bring to the table. There is a very intensive effort that is made in order for everything to be measurable. According to Mr. Tsekouras this method very much often fails because things, situations and human feelings are not always calculable. We are talking about social sciences and in social sciences we can never have undiminished facts. Social sciences are not hard sciences. Someone working in the advertising field cannot have, and should not have the illusion, that the future can be predicted. The future is still unpredictable and chaotic. Clients desire that everything can be measurable. Companies do not take risks easily when it comes to their advertising campaigns. He 102


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also states that if an advertising campaign is not provoking enough it is like it was never made and aired. The scariest thing when it comes to an advertising campaign is to go unnoticed not to start a conversation. So these criteria are both taken under consideration when creating an advertising campaign. Both creativity and data from various researches are both important. But always a creative will tend to think that creativity is more important and there is something that can be crafted in order to “touch� everybody in a way, like the painting of Mona Lisa, by Leonardo Da Vinci, did. Trial and error is still a thing when it comes to advertising and it is an illusion that there are no risks taken every time an advertising campaign is created. Question No 2: What is it that a user requires from a medium, in order to be completely satisfied from it? . Mr. Tsekouras answered in a very brief and concentrated way this questions. He understands that this question is something that interests both agencies and companies but he cannot imagine anyone being completely satisfied with anything ever. Question No 3: What opinion do you believe that people have for traditional media? .

He personally never watches television himself. He has realized, from his own experience that people want to have everything under control. Media users do not want to be interrupted by interventive advertisements. Television advertisement not only are irritating, according to Mr. Tsekouras, but they hold the viewer captive in a way and according to him this is the ideal way for someone to hate you. He is very surprised that there are still people watching television. He states that he personally has no reason to watch television ever since the Internet came to be as we, pretty much, know it today. He says that he used to read magazines ten years ago but ever since he bought a tablet and this habit stopped. He believes that Greece is a peculiar country with peculiar people in particular. Every new trend is adopted in an extreme way. Some years ago everybody would read a magazine and there was a magazine for everyone. When Facebook came to exist everybody made an account very quickly. Even though he has answered in one of the previews questions that nothing can be completely measurable, he believes that the Internet has helped to change that in a very essential way. He describes that airing an advertisement used to be like leaving a balloon to fly away into the sky never to be seen again, never knowing who saw it and what really happened to it. The Internet has made advertising more measurable and he does not doubt that.

Question No 4: What opinion do you think that people have for new media? . Discussing more about YouTube’s platform, he believes that YouTube offers a great and balanced percentage of content and advertisements. On YouTube there is a brief advertisement in the beginning, which you can also skip, and then you can enjoy your content. Nowadays advertisements are even placed at the very end of a YouTube video as well. Television, from the other hand, a medium which he has experienced a lot for a big part of his life in the early 90s, had 20 solid minutes 103


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of advertisements in-between the actual content. The same thing happened with the radio. He does find this scary and he believes that these media were abused in this way. New media have offered both agencies and clients the opportunity to create actual content themselves, this is called branded entertainment content. Such examples are the Lacta movies, the Robo Girl movie by Cosmote and the Lego movie. And if people today find the advertisements on the Internet, today, the most irritating from all media, this is because this is the medium they use the most and this is where they see all the advertisements. There is no controversy. Everybody has to take under consideration. According to Mr. Tsekouras, those advertisements are not solely made for people’s entertainment. There are so many factors that need to be taken under consideration. Creative tend to forget that advertising is not only about creativity but the truth is that advertising is not all about creativity. But he also reminds us that entertaining people does not take the audience’s mind off the product. That is a wrong perception and things should not get mixed up. He believes that there is a huge clutter of advertisements out there. The real hardship is to make something that stands out of all this clutter. Question No 5: What opinion do you have upon integrated communication campaigns? Mr. Tsekouras states that the Ermis Awards have a dedicated category named “Integrated Communication Campaign”. The works nominated for this category are judged depending on how good of a job was done on television, a really good job on the radio, a really good job on print and a very good job online. The work, the advertisements, placed on these media will be different on each medium matching the mediums aesthetic and style. From the execution of an integrated communication campaign you can tell if the concept chosen was really worth it. Integrated communication campaigns or commonly known as 360 degree campaigns translate into having an advertisement placed in every channel possible and still being successful. Making some banners and being proud of that is not an integrated campaign, he states. Question No 6: Apart from the efficient media placement of an advertisement, what role does advertisement content play in advertising efficiency? . Mr. Tsekouras believes in the ultimate power of content. He is one of those people that believe that content is king and nothing can substitute its power, as we can tell by his answers in the previous questions. Question No 7: Do you believe in the power of advertising content over the efficient media placement? . Mr. Tsekouras does believe that certain media have a different dynamic than others. He believes that the Internet has a lot more powerful values and people have been engaging more with content on the Internet, in contrast to television or the classic radio. But advertising content will always be more important according to Mr. Tsekouras. Question No 8: When can an advertiser be sure that his/her idea is going to be efficient? 104


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. Mr. Tsekouras believes that no one can ever be sure if something they created is going to be liked by people. After a research you can understand how people perceived what you made and then you can see what you can make better. In any case you almost never lose in this game because people usually perceive it in ways that are always beneficial for a brand. Even if the results are different from those expected those are still some important and valuable results for the brand. The real problem is for people to find something so boring that they do not even notice it or remember it at all. A creative’s fear is people’s indifference. Lina Kyriakou-Interview Question No 1: What are the criteria that an advertising campaign is created today? . Ms. Kyriakou supports that these criteria are based on what the client wants to do. Does the client want to sell? Does the client want to introduce something that did not exist before in the market? Does the client just want one more advertisement? Does the client want to create awareness? Maybe a hard sale is what the client is all he needs. All these are so different goals and in order to be achieved different factors are taken under consideration. Usually the clients do not really know what it is that they want. Someone in the Account Management has the ultimate task to help them out and understand what they really want and what the real goals that need to be achieved. Ms. Kyriakou continues by saying that another parameter that plays a catalytic role when creating an advertising campaign is the budget being available. This budget will be usually distributed for content creation and media distribution. You cannot reach everybody for a long period of time with no budget even if that is what the client wants. Question No 2: What is it that a user requires from a medium, in order to be completely satisfied from it? . Ms. Kyriakou bases her answer off of what she has observed. She believes that people seem to be more accepting of “grey” types of advertising like placing a product within a movie used by the actors in a series or a movie or in a show in general. The subscription model seems to be In touch with this type of advertising. This is the type of “television” that does not force the viewer to view advertisements. These types of subscription models are referring to OTE TV, Nova, Netflix, HBO and Amazon Prime. This seems to be the type of entertainment people seek and the media that can support it will surely thrive, according to Ms. Kyriakou. All in all, she concludes, people want rich content and easy accessibility to it. Question No 3: What opinion do you believe that people have for traditional media? . It is said by many that traditional television will not survive and it will be substituted by subscription models like Netflix but Ms. Lina Kyriakou does not believe in that at all. The models do change but traditional television will find its way to adapt to viewers’ needs. She believes that television as we know it will never really die. 105


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The medium has gone through some really hard times but at the moment the cost of placing an advertisement on television is back to wear it used to be. This translate to television actually having a big audience. People do still watch television according to Ms. Kyriakou, and a lot of people in fact. Shows like Survivor, Power of Love, GNTM and Master Chef have intensive product placement. There are no advertisements only during the breaks but during the shows themselves. Of course, she highlights that the subscription model will evolve. Advertising on television in general is not a one way road leading to advertisement spots. There so many ways to communicate something and we can see that when it comes to gaming, companies have advertised their brand through a game scenario. This does cost more but it is extremely effective and it is being done. She invites us to also take under consideration the fact that different generations consume different media. She states that the needs of her niece and the needs of her friends are very different when it comes to content consumption. The opinion of people about media is different among Millennials that are digital natives and different among the generations before them. Question No 4: What opinion do you think that people have for new media? . She believes that things can take a very bad turn as well when it comes to the Internet. When numerous pop-up advertisements appear and numerous banners are surrounding the content, someone is trying to consume, the new media can be perceived as well not the best outlet to get entertained and informed as well. Companies and agencies need to think about the people they are trying to appeal to. Ms. Kyriakou states that companies and agencies should not want to irritate them and if they cannot skip an ad on YouTube they will be irritated for example. Now everything is more measurable as well with new technologies and the Internet. With growth hacking and performance marketing new possibilities are presented to the table. This does not make advertising as we know it useless. It makes it more effective and measurable, according to Ms. Kyriakou. With the Internet you can thrive or fail completely. She says, jokingly, that if you want to hide something place it in the third page of Google. Question No 5: What opinion do you have upon integrated communication campaigns? . About integrated media campaigns, Ms. Lina Kyriakou explains that integrated communication campaigns are actually targeted toward a specific audience and not just everybody. It would be a misconception to think that an integrated communication campaign is used in order to get your message across to as many target groups possible without having to think too strategically. An integrated communication campaign is to find your target audience in different places and give them, through these different channels, well- crafted content. This is why a very good research is needed before-hand upon each medium and in which phase of the consumer’s journey it really belongs. Each medium can give a different piece of information, like a puzzle. She boldly states that an integrated communication campaign is the right campaign. She is not all about digital because it is perceived as cheaper than other media campaigns. 106


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A digital campaign is not as cheap as everybody thinks and it is not effective for many target groups. Question No 6: Apart from the efficient media placement of an advertisement, what role does advertisement content play in advertising efficiency? . Ms. Kyriakou believes that content plays a very important role. A very well-crafted media strategy can be planned and the channels chosen could be ideal. But if the message is so indifferent and boring that everybody forgets, then the campaign has failed. According to her, content comes first and then comes the media placement. Question No 7: Do you believe in the power of advertising content over the efficient media placement? . Many campaigns that became “viral”, we think that it was because they were projects called in the advertising world a “big idea”. Ms. Lina Kyriakou debunks this perception. It is very hard for something to become viral organically and with no big budget. Thinking that something becomes viral just because it was embraced by the people is so far from the truth. Paid publicity through media gets the word of mouth started and that needs a good budget to back it up. That buzz in order to be created is strategically supported from media publicity and a campaign is still not guaranteed that it will become viral. If agencies and companies knew the secret of becoming viral, everything would be viral by now. Question No 8: When can an advertiser be sure that his/her idea is going to be efficient? . Ms. Kyriakou believes that no one can ever be sure of the outcome. Yes, there is performance marketing out there which is based on calculable results and data. However, this is all based of a campaign or something already crafted and given already to the world to see, interact and judge. You can see the conversion rate fired up by an activation and based on that you can see what you can keep doing or do better next. But you still do not have the answers before-hand and things change. Diana Birba-Interview Question No 1: What are the criteria that an advertisement-advertising campaign is created today? . Mrs. Diana Birba reminds us that she will answer things from the client’s standpoint which is different from someone’s working in an advertising agency. In order for a company to decide on doing an advertising campaign, the company has a business goal that needs to be achieved. For this business goal and for the advertising campaign KPIs (Key Performance Indicators) are needed to be established. Is it desirable to achieve penetration, frequency, sales, consumption, a new product, a new service or an activation? Depended on what you want to achieve as a business, things change. You might want to create awareness, induce product trial or call to action. She says that a communication plan, and not an advertisement, is built upon strategy through which these business objectives are translated to communication objectives. 107


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There should be a clear look of success, what is really needed to be achieved and be definite to when these goals are considered achieved. When an advertising agency receives the communication objectives, it begins to build an advertising strategy. The agency has to think of the way it is going to appeal to the chosen target group. When it comes to older generation, traditional media are chosen. You use a different media mix when you want to appeal to younger generations. When this consumer profiling is done, it is very needed to find the consumer’s touch-points and create a connection plan. Question No 2: What is it that a user requires from a medium, in order to be completely satisfied from it? . Everything should be consumer oriented, Mrs. Diana Birba states. The message receivers, in order to be satisfied, have to be offered relevant content in the right context. Question No 3: What opinion do you believe that people have for traditional media? . Traditional media are very important here in Greece. We cannot discard them from our strategy just because the digital world is evolving. Mrs. Birba is very adamant about that. In fact she has observed a simultaneous media consumption of both traditional and digital media. She states that researches have shown that seven out of ten young people still watch television every day. She adds that researches have also shown that ten out of ten young people visit the Internet every day. She believes that without the classic radio everything would be chaotic because this is where we hear many new songs and then we search to find them on YouTube to listen to them again. YouTube is actually one of the biggest search engines in Greece right now. If someone sees which the most viewed videos on YouTube, those would be videos that are linked to content from the traditional media such as television shows. She is very adamant about this interrelation-interconnection. Question No 4: What opinion do you think that people have for new media? . She believes that new media are serving the purpose, for a big part, in order to watch again or navigate through content that is related to the content produced by traditional media. New media on their own are very chaotic. Question No 5: What opinion do you have upon integrated communication campaigns? . She believes that through different touch-points you can find your target group the right time and give them the right information. There are very effective ways of communicating something without irritating and without getting the target audience annoyed, if the campaign is executed correctly. Question No 6: Apart from the efficient media placement of an advertisement, what role does advertisement content play in advertising efficiency? 108


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. Mrs. Diana Birba is one more of our experts that believes that content is extremely important and is above all. She states, that, if you do not have the content you are not going to catch your target group’s attention even if you are paying all the right media to promote it. Question No 7: Do you believe in the power of advertising content over the efficient media placement? . If a message is very strong and solid it is not impossible to be transmitted from mouth to mouth. But those kinds of ideas are one in a million, according to Mrs. Birba. She believes that those “big-ideas” do exist and there are many examples of concepts that became viral organically for the most part. However, an assistance is always needed from the media in order for the message to be transmitted to the right audience faster. Question No 8: When can an advertiser be sure that his/her idea is going to be efficient? . She is one of the experts that also believes that you can never really be 100% sure. Eric Parks-Interview Question No 1: What are the criteria that an advertisement-advertising campaign is created today? . Mr. Eric Parks thinks that everything is based on the company’s goals and what it wants to achieve through the campaign. Question No 2: What is it that a user requires from a medium, in order to be completely satisfied from it? . Media users want to be irritated and interrupted the least possible, according to Mr. Eric Parks. Google at least has figured out an algorithm in order to present to each user an advertisement linked to its actual interests and search history. It is way better, according to Mr. Parks, than having to watch completely random advertisements that are not linked to any of the viewer’s needs whatsoever. It is very useful that on the web you can now see advertisements linked to your interests. Of course, this has its withdrawals. Yes, people prefer to see advertisements related to their interests. But this is creating a feeling of lack of privacy. People start to feel that companies know way more about them than they should. So even if advertisements in new media seem a better and less irritable solution. It is very important to learn to use the available data wisely, carefully and in a respectful manner. Hyper- targeting is not a solution for a better media experience that is for sure. Question No 3: What opinion do you believe that people have for traditional media? . He admits, that personally, he cannot stand them at all. In his television device he will watch with his family Netflix, Amazon prime and Nova. He hasn’t consumed content from the traditional television for a while. He does not believe that he is an exception. Many people are like him today. He believes that it is no coincidence that BBC radio rebranded itself and was renamed to BBC Sounds. It now includes both podcasts 109


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and classic radio shows and music. On-demand streaming is now ruling the world. People now want to consume content exactly when they want to. Traditional media do not have a lot of time left and everybody can see that. He states that there are huge investments placed right now upon on-demand streaming. For now, there is a market for traditional television and there is some consumption. But, in 15 years Mr. Parks is not so sure that NBC will still exist, at least in the form we know it today. According to Mr. Parks, traditional media impact cannot be ever the same in the future as it used to be. Question No 4: What opinion do you think that people have for new media? . He believes that people have embraced them. His son is a literal digital native and someone that belong to the generation that succeeds the Millennials and is called Generation Z, a very interesting generation indeed. This generation, according to Mr. Parks, has only known on- demand entertainment. Question No 5: What opinion do you have upon integrated communication campaigns? . Mr. Parks believes that integrated communication campaigns are overestimated. Of course, he believes that it is important to produce something integrated and cohesive. You should not talk in two different ways as a brand. But he is against the idea of creating a 360 campaign that includes every single touchpoint possible for every brand. This must be done only when it really serves the goals set. He states that there are companies that abandoned the digital component completely and focused on off-line campaigns. Companies must identify what works best for them. Sometimes, depending on your target group, it would be as simple as just advertising your brand on television. Mr. Parks agrees with the tactic of integrated communication campaigns when it comes to producing a unified and solid message. He does not believe that integrated communication campaigns are some type of “holy grail� and will bring the ultimate solutions to every issue. It should not be regarded as a goal in itself. Question No 6: Apart from the efficient media placement of an advertisement, what role does advertisement content play in advertising efficiency? . There is a notion, in general, that it does not matter what you say but to have the right positions and be in the right place to say it. Mr. Parks has heard of that, but it has no further extensions. Creativity plays a gigantic role and we all know that. If something stands out from everything else, it will bring perceptible results. Mr. Parks says that we have to look at things strictly commercially: if you do not think creatively you are leaving money on the table. So simple. Question No 7: Do you believe in the power of advertising content over the efficient media placement? . Mr. Parks believes that both are important. What is really needed is to not overestimate or underestimate one or another. A beautiful idea written in a piece of paper 110


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will not get to be known. From the other hand a great and strategic placement on a billboard in Manhattan with an indifferent message is also useless. Media placement is extremely important but so is good content. Social hacking is a thing, but it is misjudged and not implemented the way it should. It should also not be the ultimate goal. Question No 8: When can an advertiser be sure that his/her idea is going to be efficient? . According to Mr. Parks, there are media and ways to promote something that enable a company to have everything under control. This means that you do a small investment of money and your idea has its limits. When you create advertisements for Facebook to sell shoes then things are quite measurable, and you can see how many people viewed what you have put out. If your budget is bigger you can conduct focus groups and many other things. But in strict communication rules marketers and advertisers can never know. What performance marketers and growth hackers do is a lean procedure of depending on Facebook advertisements. If we are talking about a big production that is going to be aired on television and will cost half a million, you cannot growth hack that. You cannot do anything before-hand to know if it is going to work.

3.3.4

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Qualitative Research Method - Analysis

n this part of our thesis we will analyze what we can take from all the answers given from the experts as a whole. All in all, we can safely say that the opinions and tac-

tics among experts overlap with each other. We do not see extremely different opinions among one another. For example, we do not see one expert completely discarding something someone else has said and another expert supporting exactly the same arguments with another. There are slight differences that we can observe ourselves just by reading the description of their answers individually. Combining their answers, we can conclude that in terms of media we cannot discard traditional media yet. Most of our experts do not watch traditional television and prefer to entertain themselves through subscription models such as Amazon Prime, HBO or Netflix. When it comes to creating a campaign, they cannot discard completely traditional media. People do watch traditional media and their experience and company researches show that young people have not given up on traditional television at all. It cannot be denied that anything online is thriving. Our research with our 223 representative Millennials proved exactly these facts that our sample answered. So, our experts were in touch with our sample’s reality and consequently with what is going on with Millennials’ preferences in terms of media consumption. Without traditional media, at least when it comes to Greece, everything is chaotic. It is not easy to know what you are going to see on YouTube without television and the radio. In Greece, most people do consume online content linked to television content, according to our experts. So, when it comes to integrated communication campaigns they support that they are much needed, and they are useful when it comes to achieve various goals or multiple goals at once. An integrated communication campaign is used for specific target 111


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groups and not to promote many messages to many people. This is wrong according to our experts. Today, integrated communication campaigns are used to produce an integrated and solid message which will be displayed differently, at different times of the day and at different touchpoints. The aim is to find your target audience to as many touchpoints as possible but at the same time you cannot irritate your target audience or make them feel captive to your message. It is a true art to craft a strategic integrated communication campaign. Companies and advertising agencies have to choose their media collaborations carefully, they have to choose touchpoints wisely. At the same time, using every touchpoint possible or just as many touchpoints offered is not a strategy and is not the ultimate solution as well. One medium can be enough sometimes, depending on the goals and the target group. Through their answers we understand that, although they do not belong to the Millennial generation, they themselves have many similar preferences to Millennials. This could be interesting for future research and it will be discussed later. We are only stating this because, in their interviews, we got a glimpse of what another generation’s media consumption might be like. After all it seems that not just Millennials are changing everything in the game, but all generations collaboratively do that. When asked about content crafting, everybody was adamant that it is the most important thing when it comes to any advertisement and any campaign. Content is king and that was confirmed in this part of our research. A strategic placement is very important. Both are needed but you can’t have bad content and a good placement or a perfect planned out placement with dull content that no one is going to devote time and attention to it. Content is crafted differently depending on which medium it is going to be placed. Content crafting is linked very closely to media placement and they go hand in hand. It has to be a perfect fit in order to really get across the desired target group. Everybody believes that content is king, apart from Mr. Eric Parks that thinks that both are strictly equally important. But no one really discards the importance of media placement. In fact when it came to the question of the big idea they explained that not as many ideas, that have become viral, were “big ideas” adored and embraced by people. Most of these big campaigns have a strong back up support from paid media publicity, constant promotion and strong public relations work. So, either they understood it or not, our experts admit that content cannot always be that strong because it is not always easy to craft perfect content and by perfect we mean content that can become viral organically because people will adore it. People’s preferences change. People are also not a big mass. Those days are over. A consumer base is consisted of individuals with different likings. Even though its generation or even a specific demographic, has some very similar characteristics, there are no rules that are unbreakable. Each person is looking for a solution to his own problems. People are different and it is not effective to categorize people into teams. However, at the same time it is not easy to craft this type of content that will thrive no matter every individual’s likings. Also, performance marketing and growth hacking are acknowledged by our experts and have made things more calculable. In general the Internet has made everything more calculable. Things before the Internet were pretty much “hit or miss”. Now, smaller campaigns on social media can have completely measurable results and 112


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marketers can use these results in order to better their campaign’s performance. It is not so easy, yet, to measure campaigns of a bigger scale. There is no way yet to know, exactly, what content to craft in each every situation. Content is king and should be crafted in the most careful way possible. When you combine good content with a good media placement and a good public relations strategy to boost the campaigns publicity and trigger word of mouth, the results will always be rewarding. Researches and consumer insights are always useful but they should not be the only thing taken under consideration when creating an advertising campaign. Advertising creators should always be in touch with what really people want and not depend on researches only. In addition, companies will always gain from an advertising campaign that was crafted carefully. Sometimes different results might be brought in by these campaigns. Nevertheless, when people begin to talk about a brand this is successful in itself. A campaign really fails when nobody pays attention to it. Advertisers are afraid of not getting through to their audience. This is why both placement and content are important. A good media placement will find the consumer at several of his or her touchpoints and the advertisements content will either grab his attention or leave him indifferent. However, it has to be made clear that even if the content of an advertisement is liked by its target audience, it is not guaranteed that it will become viral. Very few campaigns do become viral organically. Almost all big campaigns get a boost from paid media collaborations for additional publicity. The Internet is powerful enough to spread a campaigns message from mouth to mouth and message to message but this does not always happen and it is not as easy. When this happens it is a really important success. However, there is no real strategy that can be implemented to create something that it will become viral. If creating something that would become viral was so easy, everybody would do it. Everybody involved in the advertising industry should keep trying to discover new ways to advertise and get in touch with their target audience. Everything is changing fast when it comes to technology, media and most importantly people’s preferences. What makes people really excited changes depending on age, generation, time of the day, time of the year, period of time etc. Companies and agencies should not face these facts as threats but as opportunities to keep exploring and planning out various strategies and with all the new technology offered to measure their results and become continuously better.

3.3.5

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Limitations of our Research

here are several limitations to this research that need to be taken under consideration. Our sample was mostly contacted through Facebook which already offered

us a sample that is active on social media. There were very few Millennials that were contacted through Viber because they did not have any social media account therefore they did not answer accurately in question 3.14, when asked which social media they used the most. In addition, many were the ones that in question 3.27, that did not believe that any of the media listed could reinstate and be effective in the future. This is an important observation that we have to point out in our limitations, because the aim of this research 113


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was to understand the nature of each medium and see what its effect is on consumers in order for advertising agencies and companies to understand where it is more effective to place their advertisements.In terms of sampling, regarding our questionnaire, most of the people of our sampling were between the ages of 18-24 and we had very few people between the ages of 35-39. Consequently, we did not get to see what older representatives of the Millennials generation had to say. A lot more data and information could be extracted from this research if older Millennials had answered the questionnaire. In addition, this research is focused on Greek people only, this is a limitation itself. Also, even though Greece is going through an economic crisis, it is considered to have a developed economy and the people that answered this questionnaire were economically stable. This is also a limitation as we did not see what applies to people with less economic stability when it comes to media consumption and advertising preferences. In terms of sampling, regarding the interviews, it was not an easy task to find experts that had the time to provide for an interview. Having more experts to interview was not possible. However, it would have been more confusing. In addition, the questionnaire was not based on any specific model or theoretical framework making it less academic and more of a regular press interview. Nevertheless, through these four interviews we managed to extract all the information we were hoping for, for this research.

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III

Part C


Chapter 4: Our Epilogue Our Epilogue

4.1

Discussion and Conclusions

M

any of our expectations were proven wrong while conducting this research. A very harsh propaganda has been going around for the decline of traditional media

and the rise of automation, performance marketing and measurable results. We asked 223 Millennials who consume media content, who watch advertisements everywhere they go, and consume various products and utilize various services, to tell us what they think about media and advertisements on them. In an attempt to have a more integrated approach to the subject we contacted some very acknowledged and talented professionals in the field of advertising, communication and multinational companies like Coca Cola. We wanted to see how in touch they were with what this very important generation really wants and does not want. It seems that the experts we interviewed were very in touch with this generation and even though they were not Millennials themselves they prefer the same things that the majority of Millennials, that completed our questionnaire, do. All in all, we did not see an extreme aversion towards traditional media. At the same time, our observations are not solely optimistic for traditional media as a whole even though many Millennials have hope that traditional media can adjust. Our experts, as a whole, are also hesitant towards traditional media. They do believe that traditional media have a certain power for now. There are still certain target groups that can be reached effectively only through traditional media. However, this is not a rule that will apply for many years to come. Maybe the future of television would be subscription and on-demand models and the future of classic radio could be podcasts. Nevertheless, Greek Millennials are not so ready to admit something like this, so our research does not support it adamantly. There are some people that are really let down by traditional media and some people that listen to podcasts, but the majority is not admitting to have given up on traditional media. Consequently, even though the experts we interviewed do not watch traditional television and see the future in podcasts, they also see that traditional media play a crucial role, currently, in campaigns and cannot be dismissed. There is no doubt that YouTube is winning over Greek Millennials. Greek Millennials visit YouTube every day and according to the experts this is because YouTube has found the right balance between providing content and showing advertisements. Greek Millennials and anyone, in fact, does not want to feel hostage to advertisements and content anymore. In addition, as the pace of life becomes faster no one wants to see discounts, products or services that are not matching their interests. Online advertising can offer everyone what really matches their interests and make advertisements less irritating and practically useful. Advertisements can now become an ally to the consumer. They are not an enemy anymore trying to disorient him and trying to convince him into buying something useless. Of course, this is not an easy task because people value their privacy and this privacy feels violated when advertisements seem to know too much about them all the time everywhere. This is where demented conspiracies enter the game and this is 117


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why companies should respect and use wisely the user’s information they gain through various algorithms. Apart from strategic media placement, which is the main focus of this research, content cannot be dismissed. Greek Millennials want to be entertained and informed by the media and they demand quality content otherwise they will keep seeking what they want to different outlets when a current outlet does not provide them with that. Quality content suddenly is not so interesting if it is surrounded or interrupted by advertisements. Media, advertising and content consumption are very closely linked. The nature of each medium and how much it is able to evolve and adapt to the needs of people’s needs content-wise, where and how often advertisements are placed and how these advertisements are made, plays a role in order for people to engage with a medium, a product, a show, anything.

4.2

A

Potential for Future Research s both traditional and especially new media are going through major changes every day we cannot say that a definite answer has been given through this thesis or

can be given by any paper in fact. The research about media and advertising placement must keep going on in order to have an integrated view of things and reach fruitful conclusions at some point. The changes are fast and vast and in one way or another traditional media are still in the game and have not left for good, yet. Every month new things are introduced, for example chatbots started to become very popular here in Greece the last year, or so. It would be very interesting if a future researcher would focus more on a research that would be about chatbots being introduced to digital media and how people feel about that. For example, how would they feel if chatbots delivered them various product deals and took over online advertising as they knew it. This is not something distant, it is something that has been happening progressively more and more. We did insert one question about chatbots, asking Millennials if they would prefer them over newsletters. This question itself however is not enough to fully understand how Millennials feel about this new form of information delivery. It would be very interesting for future researchers to consider making a comparison between Millennials and Generation X and Y to see how media appeal in each generation. A more in-depth historical analysis and theoretical background would be interesting to see the evolution of each medium, what appealed to consumers in each era and why. If we understand the history of media, we can take hints and apply what was done right and eliminate what is wrong. It would be very interesting if someone did a research that compares the results about media usage and preferences among Generation Y, Generation and finally and most importantly about the emerging most important generation to come: Generation Z. This generation is comprised ultimately by digital natives. They did not get born in an era without Internet like Millennials. Generation Z never knew one year of their life without Internet in their lives. This Generation is a lot different than Millennials and very soon these too generations will coexist in working spaces and in other aspects of 118


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life. Therefore, analyzing their preferences and media consuming behaviors would be extremely useful for researchers, companies, agencies, and many more. In addition, in depth interviews from Millennials or representatives from Generation Z would be also very useful. Through the answers we gathered from our questionnaire we observed that our sample had a lot to say whenever they had the chance to an open question. Their answers were also very helpful to decode the rest of their answers. Someone could consider to include them in their own research as the findings would be very valuable and interesting. Finally, it would be very useful if someone found a way to do a research about each medium’s nature and how content crafting is affected by that beforehand. Content is king no matter what. So, if we want to discuss about ultimate advertising effectiveness, we cannot leave aside advertising content. However, it is very hard to understand which content really works and what people like. It is very subjective and there are no universal truths when it comes to advertising content. People change, their preferences change and in researches that have used some indicative examples of advertising for people to evaluate their content, they do not offer some long-term results that agencies and companies can follow or keep in mind long-term. This would be a real challenge for future research, to formulate a procedure that would be effective to set some foundations to measure content effectiveness and extract some universal principles for content crafting in the 21 st century.

4.3

I

The Future of Advertising

t does not seem possible that media will exist without showing advertisements or having any type of sponsored content. Therefore, everybody: media, companies,

agencies, startups, have to find a way to adapt and offer the quality people are seeking. There is no reason to abuse any medium for promotional reasons because this tactic has the opposite result. Agencies and companies have all they need to create what people need. They just need to be constantly in touch with their needs. Therefore, researches like this need to be done continuously. People need to be asked how they feel, what they want, what is it that makes them happy and thrive. Media have become an inseparable piece of our life. They complete our life and if used right they can make our life better. Through media we get informed, entertained and connected. People do want to know what to buy and buy it in the best price. If media are administrated correctly, if algorithms are crafted well enough and companies and agencies really want to give a quality advertisement to them without considering consumers naive and unintelligent things can change dramatically only for the best. After all, the people behind media content and advertisements are consumers themselves. It is not hard to be in touch with the human nature and create creatively. Creativity is key in many aspects. Thanks to the Internet, no company can fool anyone because they will get exposed online in front of the eyes of so many people. The Internet leaves no room for mistakes or mischief. Companies need to be transparent and respectful because people can make them thrive, and people can tear them down. There are many professionals 119


Chapter 4. Our Epilogue

in the field that know very well what they are doing, and this is proven by the experts we interviewed. These experts knew how to talk respectively of people’s needs and the situation of media and advertising. There is a future for advertising. Advertising cannot seize to exist. Many things do change fast but not everything has changed and change is not bad. Keeping the good qualities of what media through the years have given us and converging them into the technologies people do use, we will have a healthy evolution of media. Print is not dying, billboards are not dying, the radio is not dying, and television is certainly transforming but not dying. Yes, anything digital is thriving. Many of its components are changing and it is under a process of constant remodeling, but that can only be expected.

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Appendices


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“The field of advertising is in the process of an amazing transformation. New fascinating possibilities are being opened and dialogues with the consumer are being developed much more effectively, the environment around us is in constant renewal and change. Having, before us, a network that has really done a lot of steps ahead and today is tangled with all the tools to manage the future, I feel confident that the future is ours.� Antonis Passas, CEO Publicis One Greece and Northeastern Europe


Profile for stavroulapltou

Advertising on Traditional Media versus Advertising on New Media  

Bachelor Thesis by Stavroula Pollatou. The Millennial Generation decoding advertising effectiveness based on media placement.

Advertising on Traditional Media versus Advertising on New Media  

Bachelor Thesis by Stavroula Pollatou. The Millennial Generation decoding advertising effectiveness based on media placement.