Items Vol. 50 No. 2-3 (1996)

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( SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH COUNCIL) Volume 50 I Numbers 2-311une-September 1996 •

810 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10019

Transnational Religion and Fading States

explore a variety of religious formations and show why and how they have become an important component of an emergent and relatively recently theorized transnational civil society. I

by Susanne Hoeber Rudolph* This study of the place of transnational religion in world politics arose out of efforts by the Committee on International Peace and Security to rethink cold war conceptions of ecurity. Those conceptions emphasized states-by treating them as natural and exclusive actors in international relations; the Western world-by treating it as the center and peripheralizing the rest; and the balance of power and deterrence-by treating military force as the primary means of selfhelp in the allegedly anarchical space beyond state frontiers. With the end of cold war bi-polarity and the great fear of nuclear Armageddon, such conceptions have become dated, more akin to anachronisms than to universals independent of time, place, and circumstance. In a world of rapid communication, global and local processes can move money and products, images and people, guns and drugs, diseases and pollution, across increasingly porous and irrelevant state frontiers. Because sovereignty within and without state borders isn't what it used to be, fresh thinking about what security can mean and how it can be approximated seems in order. It is in this context that contributors to this project

• Susanne Hoeber Rudolph is professor of political science at the University of Chicago. She i co~itor of the forthcoming book. TransfUJliOfUJl R~ligion and Fading Slal~s. to be pubJi hed by Westview Press. This article is based on her introduction.

Transnational religion in liminal space: its demography Religious communities are among the oldest of the transnationals: Sufi orders, Catholic missionaries, Buddhist monks carried word and praxis across vast spaces before those places became nation states or even states. Such religious peripatetics were versions of civil society. In today's post-modem era, religious communities have become vigorous creators of an emergent transnational civil society. The modernist project, advanced in much social science, as ured us that religion would fade, then disappear, with the triumph of science and rationalism. Contrary to expectations, its expansion has been both an answer to modernity and driven by it. In response


Tran national Religion and Fading States. Susanne Ho~ber



Presidential Items. K~nn~lh Prrwill


Dissolution of Committee on Problems and Policy (P&P) 40 Becoming American/America Becoming. Josh D~Wind and 41 Char/~s Hirschnum Current Activities at the Council 48 New Directors nd Officers 48

New Staff Appointment Culture. Health, and Human Development Conferenoes Conference on Political Tran itions in Africa IPFP Research Training Workshop Recent Council Publications Awards offered in 1996 Grants Received by the SSRC in 1995-96


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to the deracination and threats of cultural extinction associated with modernization processes, religious experience claims to restore meaning to life. The language of international relations and security studies on the one hand, and of foreign policy and dome tic politics on the other, distinguished political life within states from the alleged imperatives of an imagined international sy tern. Thi distinction and separation deployed a rich vocabulary for "inside" and "outside," to follow Rob Walker's language. 2 Until recently, there were no words and metaphors for designating and populating the liminal space that cuts across inside/outside, a space that is neither within the state nor an aspect of the international state system but animates both. This liminal and cro cutting arena is becoming more densely occupied by communitie --environmentalists, development professionals, human rights activists, information pecialists-who e commonality depends less on co-residence in " overeign" territorial space and more on common world views, purposes, interests, and praxis. Peter Haas has theorized them as epistemic communities3-that is, communities sharing a common discourse. Such communities, including religious communities and movements, have implications for the international y tern. Their existence has transformed how we understand and explain what was "international relation ," i.e., relations among sovereign states in anarchic space. It is possible to theorize the e new tran national communities as constituting a "world politics" that encompasses both transnational civil society and sovereignty-sharing states. The object of this project i to create a space for religious group and movements in the consideration of such transnational solidarities. The communities that populate transnational civil society do not affect the tate" ystem" in the way some wish world governance might. They do not provide a statelike entity to impose order and perhap justice "outside," in anarchical space-by monopolizing force and supplying universal arbitration and rule enforcement. They do not even supply what tran national regimes are meant to provide: predictable systems of rules that facilitate cooperation.4 Instead, they create a pluralistic transnational polity. They hape perceptions and expectations that contribute to world public opinion and politics. While the fluidity of religion across political


boundaries is very old, recent migrations, communication links, and elite transformations joining East with We t and North with South have generated unaccustomed flows: Hindus in Leicester, Muslims in Mar eilles and Frankfurt, Pentecostals in Moscow and Singapore. Over the last 20 years or so Oklahoma city has acquired five mo ques, four Hindu temple , one Sikh gurudwara, and three Buddhist temples; and Denver has a similar configuration. There may be as many as 70 mosques in the Chicago metropolitan area and 50 temples in the Midwest Buddhi t As ociation. Muslims outnumber Episcopalians in the United States by two to one, and are likely to outnumber Jews in the near future. s The e are the demographics of a new religious tran nationali m. In an earlier transnationali m of Islam and Christianity, religion accompanied trade, conque t, and colonial domination. Versions of Chri tianity continue to flow outward from the West, but reverse flow are now conspicuous. Accustomed a we were to controlling missionaries' terms of trade, we may be astoni hed to find their products flooding our market. Much of this new transnational ism is carried by religion from below, by a popular religious up urge of ordinary and quite often poor, oppressed, and culturally deprived people, as well as by religion introduced and directed from above. Rethinking security What are the implications of transnational religions for conflict and cooperation, for ecurity, for the future of the nation state, and for the emergence of tran national civil ociety? When the Committee on International Peace and Security began in the 1980s to query the conventional significance of" ecurity," the relevance of transnational religions to security was Ie than obviou . In the nineties, as dome tic tranquillity and international peace were increasingly di rupted in the name of religion, such a focus came to seem more piau ible. But what is ecurity? Who e ecurity from whom/what? In American social cience discourses the significance of the word, when uttered in the 1960 through the 1980 , was relatively transparent. It had to do with the Western alliance and with the state. For the We tern alliance it denoted the security


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of the United State and its allies in a bi-polar world in the context of nuclear threat. Second, the dominant definitions of security were state-centric. States were the units of action, the definers and guarantors of security. They were the agents that would constitute the international sy tern, entering into alliances or conflict with other tate units in pursuit of the security they defined. They were also the objects of threats. The e meanings are now increasingly challenged in social cience discourse .6 Our reading of security turns the len away from the tate as prime actor, focu ing in tead on civil ociety as creator and guarantor of security, as well as threat to it. The hi torical experience of the 1990 provides an empirical backdrop for that different reading. In this decade, the balance of violence has hifted significantly from war outside, in anarchic pace between sovereign states, to war inside, between the embodiments of difference in civil society. Where war had been embedded in the imbalance of power among tates, it became related to imbalance of tatus in civil society among ethnic and religiou formations. Even as political development in advanced industrial democracies make it virtually impo sible to engage in interstate wars that create domestic casual tie , the fatality counts in civil conflict ri e to figures approximating or overwhelming figures for inter-state wars'? Focu ing on ecurity as a matter arising in civil society invites a redefinition of the problems that qualify as ecurity issues. Security problems center on physical and cultural urvival. The fear of death, Hobbes' ultimate causans, and calculations about the probabilities of survival, are implied by the threats of environmental degradation, famine, poverty, population density, disease, and chaos-generating migratory flows. 8 The e threats to the physical survival of individual and particular communities and countries, as well as of the whole human species, loom as large in the 1990 as a nuclear exchange or Armageddon did in the cold war era. But the fear of cultural extinction rivals the fear of physical extinction. One doesn't have to carry a New Hampshire license plate ("Live Free or Die") to recognize that physical survival is not enough in a world threatened by the death of meaning. Many of today's conflicts ari e from groups' fears that they are culturJUNE/SEPTEMBER


ally endangered species, that enemies seek their cultural, if not phy ical, annihilation. Such fears drive militant Sikhs, Sinhala Buddhists, Kurds, Hutus, Andean Indians, and Bosnian Serbs and provide motive and fuel to domestic conflicts in Punjab, Sri Lanka, Guatemala, Thrkey, Bosnia and Rwanda. Identities, including religious identities and the esteem conferred by them are at stake. Cultural, like phy ical, urvival is a critical security problem for the 1990 and beyond. Religion: vehicle of conflict or cooperation? Contributors to this project problematize religion in a variety of way , not least with respect to conflict and cooperation. Under what circumstances does religion divide per ons and groups? Under what conditions does it bring them together? The conflict-generating potential of religious mobilizations has received much more attention than their potential for cooperation. Moderni t theories cannot imagine religion as a positive force, as practice and world view that contributes to order, provides meaning and promotes justice. Are there arguments for religion's positive role? It can be argued that how people understand their condition affects their sense of ecurity as much as or more than do their objective conditions. If religion can be an opiate that reconciles humans to injustice, it can also provide the vision and energy that makes for collective action and social transformation. Daniel Levine and David Stoll tell of the earnest Liberationists and Pentecostal congregations of the Latin American poor empowered by religious self-teaching.9 It gives them "new orientations, social skills, and collective elf-confidence," though less of all of these than the most optimistic Liberationism anticipated. Stoll stresses the role of the new Protestantism among uprooted Latin American populations and recent migrants to cities. They construct new institutions and practices to negotiate the shock of transfer, while those living under the surviving hacienda regime, for whom the old time Catholicism suffices, remain passive. 1O Kane tells of mobile West African Sufis who spawn zawiyas, a familiar spiritual and social milieu, in new locations for the migrating faithful, that provide them with the security of identity, food, and education. I I Such accounts make visible how religious associaITEMs/27

tions give structure and meaning to human relation , how they create communities and enable action. That the ritual and belief systems of religious communities have a "security" component, that they make po sible both physical and cultural survival, is ometimes not visible until they are destroyed. Kane's account of the peaceable transnational trading and kinship networks of West African Sufis provides a benign contrast to the chaotic horrors of Rwanda and Somalia, where both tate and civil society contributed to the problem rather than the solution. A Habermas remarks, "Sometimes it takes an earthquake to make us aware that we had regarded the ground on which we stand every day as unshakable."12 States cannot, without the means of society, construct the ties that bind humans together in obligation. If practice and belief of religious formations can, at various levels, orient and facilitate collective action and provide security, they can al 0 generate conflict. Religions often provide not only the language and ymbol but also the motive for cultural conflict between and within state: Shi'i Iran, Orthodox Serbia, Jewish Israel and Muslim PLO, Buddhi t Sri Lanka, Protestants and Catholics in Ireland. Rather than reflecting disequilibria in the balance of power, tate conflict has taken on the aura of the jihad and cru ade. Holy war has joined elf-help and ideology as a casus belli "outside" and the confe ionally defined "other" has become the enemy within. Any consideration of the relationship between security and religion has to recognize the two faces of religious communitarianism. It can be a force for a predictable and norm-governed environment even as it may organize communities for collective action in conflict.

World politics in transnational space The challenge by NOD to state in world political arenas is a special phenomenon of the 199Os. 13 World ummits on human rights, the environment, population, and women brought states together in a twotrack discourse with relevant and often obstreperous NOD forums, and created a new arena for world politics: transnational civil society. The ociety they began to create had precedents. In place of the anarchy po ited by realist theory, Hedley Bull initiated a discussion of state cooperation with hi "Orotian" concept of "international society." 14 Keohane, Krasner,


and other:s elaborated the idea of state cooperation via treaties, international organizations, and regimes. But the e precedents differed significantly from the new tran nationali m. The older theoretical discourse of international relations had been carried on mainly via dichotomous oppositions, self-help/anarchy vs. world govern mentaVorder. 15 And it was carried on by dichotomous voices, neo-reali ts v . liberals who, despite their difference , were united by a belief that states are the only meaningful units of action in the global environment. 16 Since the 1990 , there are the makings of more complex, less divided theorizations which focus on non- tate actors and liminal phenomena, entitities operating on the border of inside and outside. Lipschutz for example speaks of "self-conscious constructions of networks of knowledge and action, by decentered, local actors that cro s the reified boundarie of space as though they were not there," and of heteronomous networks, "differentiated from each other in terms of specialization : there is not a single network, but many, each fulfilling a different funtion." 17 Once a non-state arena, a sort of "empty quarter" is imagined, where state are significant but not the only player, it become po ible to specify a space for tran national civil society in global politics. Civil ociety was a category elaborated in Western liberal thought by social contract theorists. Locke-but not Hobbe - poke of two realms beyond the "state of nature"-a societal bond that supported civil society and a state that, at minimum, provided a common judge and coercive power. Over the years the role of civil society has been to legitimize a space for nonstate associations, discourses, and practices that can limit or direct state action . In its Lockean version, civil society ha aI 0 tood for the idea that society has conventions and regularitie that govern human conduct even in the absence of state ; that force and coercion are not the only guarantors of order. Finally, civil society is characterized by the way it contrasts with the state. It is the realm of contest, of dispute, persuasion, mobilization, that is, the realm of politics, while the state is guarantor of order, umpire, executor of force, the realm of governance. The idea of transnational civil society, like the dome tic variant, invokes re istant and polemical connotation , a space for self-con cious, organized actors to as ert them elve for and against state policies,



action , and proce ses. It is this resistant and oppositional meaning that differentiates transnational civil society from the state cooperation that Hedley Bull designated as "international society." International ociety, like liberal regimes, was een as taming and transcending the anarchy posited by neo-realists and creating the conditions for cooperation and conflict in world politics. It was a statelike entity, providing authoritative guarantees. Transnational civil society, by contrast, is a political realm, repre enting and mobilizing interests and opinions. The religious formations and movements that inhabit transnational civil ociety engage in the persuasion and collective action of world politics. We cannot assume that transnational non-state space, transnational civil society, will be "civil." Entities bound by differing norms and interests will not always have strategic reasons to cooperate. Religious formations and movements may share analytic membership in a "religion" sector but will have good reasons to differ. Transnational pluralism i likely to result in both benign and non-benign outcomes.

Thinning out monopoly sovereignty Communities constituting transnational civil society may have authority and even power; they do not claim sovereignty. They have authority in that a formally organized religious transnational entity such as the Roman Catholic Church is in a po ition to license and de-license the activities of its organizational units in particular national sites, i.e., National Councils of Bishops. An informally structured movement uch that of the West African Sufis is able to shape the transnational pilgrimages of its adherents across sacred territory; to satisfy, by negotiations with nation states, their expectations and claims for free passage; and regulate via norms and conventional practice the as ociated kinship transactions, market behaviors, and political demands. 18 State claims to monopoly overeignty are rendered problematic by religious networks and communities in domestic and transnational civil society. Thousands of interveners in transnational space have the authority and power to provide an alternative to state activity, not replace it. The process being described here is not the collapse or demise of states but rather the thinning of their affect, function, and finality. JUNFlSEPTEMBER 1996

Tran national activity is guided by imaginary maps whose boundaries do not approximate the spaces depicted on political map : the large transnational realm of Catholic Christianity; the (smaller) transnational realm of the Tijaniyya Sufis. Catholics and Sufis create arenas governed by considerations other than sovereignty. Such arenas do not replace or supersede political maps showing territorially defined tates. We can imagine them as transparent plastic overlays, alternative meaning systems superimposed upon the meaning system of political maps. They do not replace state-defined space; they provide alternatives to it and competition to it. I u e the metaphor of plastic overlays as a counter to the zero- urn metaphors that often characterize the challenge that transnational forces offer the state. What this metaphor uggests is less a waning of states than a more complex set of interrelations in which rival identities and structures jostle the state. New alliance and goals become possible as domestic civil ociety joins up with transnational civil society to challenge states, and as states in concert employ elements in tran national civil society to limit particular state' overeignty. States will continue to be agents in such transnational policy realms as humanitarian welfare and emergency aid, arms control, human rights, and environmental degradation among many others. But they will increasingly move in a universe populated by political communities that cut across traditional geopolitical levels. States will be challenged by colluding transnational and domestic actors. They will trive in tum to subordinate such collaborations to their own purpo es. A re earch agenda designed to elaborate the causal significance and meaning systems of transnational politics can explore these complex interactions. It should do so with the object of inventing conceptual vocabularies that transcend the constraints imposed by the idea of a political universe who e only significant actors are states endowed with • monopoly overeignty. Notes I. Transnational Religion and Fading States (Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press. forthcoming). Contributors include Don Baker. Jose Casanova. Ralph Della Cava. Dale Eickelman. Cary Fraser. Daniele Hervieu-Leger. au mane Kane. Daniel H. Levine. James Piscatori (co-editor). Susanne Hoeber Rudolpb (co-editor). and David Stoll.


2. R.B.J. Walker, Inside/Outside: InternatiofUll Relations as Political Theory (Cambridge: Cambridge University Pres , 1993). 3. See Peter Haas, "Introduction: Epi temic Communities and International Policy Coordination," in a pecial i ue of InternatiofUll Organiwtion 46, no. I (Winter 1992). The general omi sion of religiou movement from the category of such epi temic communities is pre umably a replication of the pervasive enlightenment verity that draw boundarie between "rationali t" and "affective," critiqued in my contribution to the project. 4. Stephen D. Krasner, "Structural Cause and Regime Consequences: Regimes as Intervening Variable " in Stephen D. Krasner, editor, InternatiofUll Regimes (Ithaca: Cornell University Pre ,1983); and Robert O. Keohane, After Hegemony: Cooperation and Discord in the World Political &onomy (Princeton University Pre ,1984). 5. Diane L. Eck, "In the Name of Religion ," Wilson Quarterly 17, no. 4 (Autumn 1993): 99. These figures and estimates were gathered by the Plurali m Project at Harvard' Committee on the Study of Religion. See also New York 7imes (August 28, 1995). Philip Lewis provide an account for Britain in Islamic Britain: Religion, Politics and Idelllity among British Muslims (London: I.B. Tauri , 1994). 6. See, for example, David A. Baldwin's review e ay and the volumes he review . "Security Studies and the End of the Cold War," World Politics 48 (October 1995). 7. See SIPRI figures for casualtie in domestic wars in 29 countrie . The figures are topped by wars in Sudan (37,000 to 40,(00), Angola (122,000), Tajiki tan (20,000 to 50,(00), Guatamala (46,000). The compilation doe not cite years, but acknowledges that these figures are, in orne ca , cumulative over decades. 7ime IntematiofUll (October 9, 1995): 20.


8. The formulation of the ecurity problem in terms of phy ical and cultural urvival or extinction is borrowed from Lloyd I. Rudolph. 9. Daniel H. Levine and David Stoll, "Bridging the Gap Between Empowerment and Power in Latin America," in TransfUltiofUll Religion and Fading States. 10. David Stoll, Is Latin America Turning Protestant? (Berkeley: University of California Pre ,1992), 13. II. Ou mane Kane, "Muslim Mi ionarie and African State ," in TransnatiofUll Religion and Fading States. 12. JOrgen Haberma , The Theory of Communicative Action. Vol. 2, Lifeworld and System: A Critique of Fundomentalist Reasofl (Bo ton: Beacon Pre s, 1984-85), 400. 13. See e pecially Stephen Toulmin, ''The UN and Japan in an Age of Globalization; The Role of Tran national NGO in Global Affairs: unpubli hed m ., October 1994. 14. Hedley Bull, The Aflarchical Society (New York: Columbia University Pre ,1977). 15. Thu Kenneth Waltz, Theory of International Politics (Reading, Mas achusetts: Addi on-We ley, 1979), III; and Robert Keohane, "Neo-Liberallnstitutionali m: A Perspective on World Politic ," in IntematiofUlllnstitutions and State Power (Boulder, Colorado: We tview Pre , 1989). 16. For an intere ting account of the new theoretical players on the epi temological cene of international affairs, see Alex Wendt, "Con tructing International Politic : A Response to Mearsheimer," forthcoming in International Security. 17. Ronnie D. Lipschutz, "Recon tructing World Politics: The Emergence of Global Civil Society," Millenium: Journal of InternatiofUll SlIIdits 21 (3): 390-91 . 18. See Ou mane Kane, "Mu lim Mis ionaries and African States," in TransfUltiofUll Rtligion and Fading States.



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The March 1996 issue of Items included a "Presidential Items" comment setting forth a background logic for the substantial reorganization of the joint ACLS. and SSRC international program, I commented on changed world conditions and resulting transfonnations in world scholarship, suggesting that these changes called for new structures through which to pursue international scholarship. More pecifically, the comment implied that the familiar "joint committees" would be decommissioned; and it concluded with a promise to include in the next issue of Items a fuller account of what a replacement structure would involve. This es ay describes the pro pective network of committees and activities that will erve as a platfonn for the jointly administered international re earch and training program of the Councils. One feature of that program-<iissertation field research opportunitiesi not here described in detail, but will be the subject of a presidential commentary in the next issue of

Items. Redefining international scholarship Starting shortly after World War D, American higher education expanded its expertise about parts of the world that previously had been remote from main tream academic concerns. Nearly half a century later, under the label of "area studies," there is now a ignificant number of cholars trained in a wide range of languages, histories, and cultures, as well as in the methodologies of their academic disciplines. An infrastructure of academic programs, library and teaching resource , publications and scholarly associations also has been established. The joint committees of the ACLS and SSRC can take orne credit for the fact that the quality of American teaching and scholarship dealing with parts of the world outside Europe and North America has reached a level of insight, subtlety, creativity, and elf-reflection that would not have been imaginable when area tudies programs were first established. In the proce s, area studies affinned the power of new ideas to change longstanding assumptions and challenge conventional wisdom, not least about ourselves and • American Council of Learned Societies.


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the relationships that bind us to the world. Area studies, of course, proceeds largely in tenns of geographic boundaries, especially those that have prevailed since the Second World War hastened the end of the colonial empires. Obviously geographic boundaries have always been somewhat blurred and porous, what with cultural borrowing, trade routes, security alliances, population movements, and world religions. But the last half-century, characterized by a nation- tate system and superpower confrontation, has been an historical period during which it made sense to organize knowledge production with distinctions between Asia and Western Europe, or Africa and the Middle East, or Latin America and the Soviet Union much in mind. Now free from the bi-polar perspective of the cold war and increasingly aware of the multiple migrations and intersections of people, ideas, institutions, technologies and commodities, scholars are confronting the inadequacy of conventional notions of world "areas" as bounded systems of social relations and cultural categories. Critical problems and critical research issues appear in fonns that overwhelm conventional definitions of area and region-from the quality of economic, political, and environmental life around the globe to the conditions for ensuring the ecurity and well-being of all people. These contemporary is ues inspire new and urgent questions about history, religion, and artistic expression that highlight the contingent ways in which people have interpreted the conditions of their lives. It follows that we need new intellectual concepts and new ways to organize scholar hip.

I. Basic Principles The Councils have found it conceptually useful to draw a distinction between traditional area studies, on the one hand, and area-based knowledge, on the other. Area tudies has taken regions in their totality as its primary unit of analysis. To be an area scholar is to participate in an enterprise that seeks to know all that can reasonably be known about a world regionits languages, history, cultures, politics, religions. Traditional area tudies is primarily knowledge about an area. Area-based knowledge starts with knowledge about IlCMsI31

an area, but then applie that knowledge to proce e, trend , and phenomena that transcend any given area. It is our working premi e that areas, from remote villages to entire continents, are caught up in proce es that link them to events, that, although geographically distant, are culturally, economically, trategically, or ecologically quite near. To learn more and more about value or ocial condition in a particular area, then, means to learn more and more about how that area i ituated in event going on beyond its geographic borders-but not thereby out ide its culture or economy or ecology. Self-evidently, the obverse hold . Globalization doe not render the specifics of place incon equential; it reinforce the specificity of place. It i not homogenization. It differentiate , producing winners and 10 ers, the helped and the hurt. And the way in which the e winners and loser re pond to new opportunitie and fre h defeats is no Ie conditioned by their hi torie and value than it was in time pa t. We u e the tenn "area-ba ed knowledge" to point toward a cholarly enterpri e that can interpret and explain the ways in which that which i global and that which is local condition each other. Any number of phenomena-religiou fundamentali m, for instance-<>Ccur on a global cale and yet vary dramatically from one place to the next. For the Councils, then, one outcome of our new focus on area-based knowledge will be to enhance our capabilitie of incorporating area tudie into new arrangements, thereby repo itioning it contribution to re earch and training. Becau e area tudie remain di turbingly vulnerable to hifts in funding trend , and to change in the intellectual climate within the academy, it i worth emphasizing that the repo itioning herein recommended i an effort by the Councils to insure a durable place in intellectual life for area studies. Method of inquiry developed by and for area studie will continue to have a central role in the international program tructure of the Council . We will continue the effort to integrate an area-based epistemology into di cipline-ba ed tudie , and vice ver a. 1u t a one would not expect the discipline to advance in the ab ence of methodologie of quantification, they cannot advance in the ab ence of methodologie which reveal the varietie of human experience in the larger world. In addition to bringing the particular to bear on the 32\1TEMS

general and facilitating interregional compari on , area-based knowledge ha a larger epistemological role to play in contemporary cholarship. Here we have in mind the philo ophical debate that contrasts "view from nowhere" with "views from omewhere." Whether there are tran hi torical principles from which can be derived univer al truths is not something to be orted out here. But we do ugge t that thi "view from nowhere" argument need it philoophicaJ oppo ition. Area-based knowledge, broadly understood, anchors the po ition that views do come from omewhere; that they are hi torically and culturally rooted. A commitment to area-based knowledge, then, i centrally important to a key philo ophical debate underway in intellectual communitie around the world. A commitment to area-based knowledge i aI 0 a commitment to cholarly traditions more prominent in the humanitie than in the ocial sciences. The Council readily acknowledge that holding their re pective con tituencie together in a single program ha it challenge . If they have been succes ful during the long involvement with the joint area committee ,thi ha been becau e the different ets of di cipline have had unique contributions to make. Area-based knowledge nece arily involves undertanding the hi torie ,value ystem , and languages of pecific culture, ju t as it involves under tanding their politic , ocial tructure, and economie .

II. Continuing Tensions We begin to ee how thi ba ic commitment to areaba ed knowledge i manife t by considering a few of the familiar ten ion that occupy any organization re pon ible for re earch planning and training. We believe it will help the reader to ee where the Council are going if we al 0 make clear what our po ition i with regard to these ten ion .

Global vs. local Remapping the boundarie of international tudies i intended to reconfigure the fonn of social knowledge that emerge from the tudy of place. The rationale for area knowledge i no longer only the task of helping one ociety (the United States) to understand the "foreign other." It i now al 0 the more ubtle task of orting through the way in which the global and the local interpenetrate one another in a changing, VOLUME

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heterogeneou world. Thi task require area knowledge, but al 0 compari on acro areas. It require tool and technique that help the cholar to link local experience to broader context and to treat the local experience as the foundation for con tructing model , building hypothe e , and te ting theory. Area-ba ed knowledge i of course not in oppo ition to di cipline-ba ed knowledge. It i informed by and inform di ciplinary work. We can better identify how the new program intend to po ition it elf intellectually by reflecting more generally on the global vs. local i ue. The fact of globalization i virtually unconte ted and i empirically confirmed in analy e of capital flow , mas migration , flexible labor regimes, telecommunication network, touri m, and cultural tran fers. Not alway appreciated, however, are the novel ways in which globalization locate people, re ource , belief, and information along new route, in the proce forging ocial connection between individual and in titution which never before had contact or a common agenda. As noted above, area tudie as a tructure for organizing academic inquiry i challenged by the e global proce e. It familiar geographical boundaries have been di rupted, and today appear Ie table, more permeable and fluid. Different phenomena of intere t to the re earch community lead to different configuration of area . In thi flux the familiar country and regional labels given to u by the cartographer till matter, seriou Iy 0, but it would be limiting indeed if area knowledge were confined within these jurisdictional boundaries. Tran national labor flows provide a clear example of the ten ion po ed by global proce ses for the boundaries of area tudie, and iIIu trate the value of integrating knowledge of place with the tool and in ight of the di cipline . Those involved in uch flow , and there are million , are connected with multiple household as well as with multiple communitie and countries. They are citizen of no place and yet of multiple places. Tran national labor flows nece arily involve a dense web of people, ideas, and re ource pas ing through exi ting political and economic tructure, although not moothly or predictably. The genealogy of labor flow cannot be untangled without reference to the pecificities of given place and their hi tories. Yet uch que tion as



why worker cro s national boundaries, which worker move, what happen to tho e who do not move, and how worker experience their tran ition into new national labor market are concerns that tran cend place. They can be more fully comprehended by subjecting them to the method of the ocial ciences, for example through anthropological in ights into the changing dynamic of hou ehold during the transition from command to market economies, ociological contribution to the understanding of ocial movement generated by the entry of foreign workers into new labor market , and economic models about the implication of ocial policy for labor mobility. Equally important, the e mas migrations upset estabIi hed way of a igning meaning to ocial experience. Thu they create problem and opportunities for arti tic and religiou way of interpretation and expre ion a people eek to e tablish continuity or to articulate new cultural juxtapo ition . It i one of the paradoxe of globalization that as it promote integration, it frequently leads to the proliferation of difference. A the world i being drawn together through global tran portation and information y tern ,people are as erting difference and rejecting amene on an unprecedented global scale, and with consciousne s that the e a ertion take place on a global tage. Recent waves of racism, nationali m, fundamentali m, and communalism underline again the persi tence of the local. It is not urpri ing, therefore, that tudie of race, ethnicity, gender, religion, and nationali m-all carriers of the local and vehicle of the difference-are issues preoccupying many di ciplines. The e studies document that even the mo t global of phenomena-the Internet, for example, or international travel-are far from equally available. Area-based knowledge traces the pattern of inclu ion and exclusion, and helps us to ee more clearly the way in which global forces di tribute reward and penaltie . Globalization provide powerful support for reconceptualizing the meaning of place in the contemporary world, and for promoting analytic tools that permit u to gra p the interconnection of the specific and the general. The new international program tructure reflects our conviction that in the 21 st century local cultures cannot be fully tudied in isolation from global cultural and technological forces. The argument is imple but con equential. At a moment


when di ciplinary and area knowledge are often depicted as oppo ing epi temologie , the Council in i t on the need for the productive interaction of both. The value of thi commitment become even more evident when we move beyond the boundarie of U.S.-based ocial cience and humanitie , and begin to conceptualize international tudie a a truly international endeavor.

American-centric vs. international cholarship By the end of the Second World War, American cholars had begun to redefine their concern a international, and as explicitly political. The new mandate of comparative politic for example, according to a 1944 report, was to erve as a "con ciou in trument of ocial engineering" by "imparting our experience to other nation and integrating cientifically their institution into a univer al pattern of government" (American PoLitical Science Review 1944: 540-48). The tudy of world region has long ince moved beyond the notion that cience i the in trument of modernity and an in trument be t wielded by cholars based in the United State . De pite the e critiques, often led by humani t , we continue to wre tie with the legacy of the po twar con truction of area tudie a a project to export American experience abroad, and with the notion that there exi t a univer al pattern of government (electoral democracy) and a universal pattern of economic organization (market ). Among other thing , the e notion created powerful rationale ju tifying federal upport for area tudie programs. We do not wi h to convey the en e that area tudies has been tatic. Quite the contrary, cholar hip on world regions has moved a con iderable di tance from its po twar origin . Challenge to the po twar conception of area tudie have been harplyexpre sed by cholar in the United State, e pecially within the humanitie. Humani tic cholar hip ha become fertile ground for critique of the universali t claim of modernity (and of the ociaJ cience). Our under tandings of the way in which different people re pond to the changing context of their live have been made more complex by the encounter with realitie too diverse to be managed, integrated, or made American. Nor do we wi h to replace the un ati fying dichotomy of po twar area tudie, that of modernity versu 34\IlllM

tradition, with an equally un ati fying, po t-cold war dichotomy about globalization ver us "the local." What characterized the former wa a concern to replace the fixed tructure of tradition with the dynamic, change-promoting tructure of modernity. What we expect to characterize the latter is a concern with blurred boundarie , overlapping categorie , and the heterogeneity of contemporary experience. In place of the notion that U.S. concerns and research prioritie will define the intellectual terrain of area tudie , the new program will more fully acknowledge that there are many form of knowledge that ari e out of different intellectual traditions and hi torical concern . The development of major cholarly communitie around the world open up new opportunitie for international tudie to be international in form a well a content. Though re earch ha alway been an international enterpri e, American-based cholar hip in the ocial cience and humanitie held an unu ually privileged po ition in the decade immediately following World War II. That era ha passed; the United State i a dimini hing point of reference for many cholar located elsewhere. The Council have been centrally involved in this tran formation of cholar hip, in their effort-led by the joint committee -to trengthen the ocial cience and humanitie in dozen of countrie around the world and to the extent practical, to involve leading Latin American, African, A ian, and European cholars in Council- upported activitie . At pre ent, for example, approximately 30 percent of the joint committee member are non-American. The Council new program take the further internationalization of knowledge production a a key ta k. It will do 0 in term of partnership with nonAmerican in titution , in it e tabli hment of collaborative re earch network (ee below), and in it choice of problem areas to inve tigate. Part of this effort nece arily involve helping the U.S.-based ocial cience and humanitie di ciplines to ee themelve in Ie American-centered terms, an effort helped along by the development of a more internationally organized intellectual community. I

Area studies vs. discipline-based scholarship A more thoroughly internationalized program of organizing re earch i important from another point


50, NUMBERS '113

of view, i.e., that of the U.S. di cipline-ba ed cholar. A largely di cipline-controlled academy ha often treated area tudie a peripheral. Space doe not permit engaging thi is ue fully, though perhap mention hould be made that mo t American di ciplinebased scholar have been engaged in area tudie without recognizing it. It i ju t that they have taken the feature of American politic or ociety or culture or hi tory as their reference point. Indeed, in the program et forth here the Council ee much merit in treating North America a an "area" equally with other area in it involvement in the globalization trend referenced above. The internationalization of knowledge production ha far-reaching con equence for the Americancentric ocial cience and humani tic di cipline . Becau e important cholar hip i increa ingly practiced in many part of the world, to be current in econometric modeling, gerontology, comparative literature, or cultural analy is require more than knowing what one' American colleague are doing. A the discipline-based ocial cienti tor humani t eek out colleague abroad, American-centric cholar hip begin to fade. Probably more significant in the gradual (though certainly not completed) deparochialization of the di cipline are the theoretical challenge highlighted by the task of explaining local variation in the context of strong tendencie toward globalization. Comparisons that matter very often cro area and cultural boundarie . The propo ed program take advantage of the e tendencie ,a well as the pre ent inclination of many American univer itie to internationalize, to hasten the integration of area-ba ed-knowledge into di ciplinary work.

Basic vs. applied Probably no dichotomy has 0 haunted attempt to organize intellectual life a that which oppose ba ic v . applied re earch. Although there have been many creative efforts at blending or relabeling to try to escape thi dichotomy, in the end there i a difference between cholarship which i curiosity-driven and that which i problem-driven, between cholar hip which honors the principle of knowledge for it own ake and cholar hip in ervice of broad ocial goal . The differences are particularly important to recognize in a program that promise to join the humanities J



and the ocial ciences. For while both ets of discipline incorporate ba ic and applied principles, the humanitie are often regarded by keptics as aloof from ocially relevant i ue. On the contrary, the humanities have much to ay about the very issues of political and ocial identity, cultural transformation, changing gender role, and ocial cohe ion which roil o much of the contemporary world. We fully expect the new tructure to focu that cholarly energy. Humani tic cholar hip i primarily interpretive and valuative, employing methodologie that are pragmatic, trategic, and elf-reflective depending on the que tion po ed. The que tion , in tum, depend on context and the new program will be a dynamic context for humani tic inquiry. To addre ,then, how the Councils view the new program along the ba ic-applied continuum requires that we again ituate the program in the changed world condition . Only even year have pas ed ince the end of the cold war. In thi hort time, di cus ions of globalization, identity politic , democratization, and many other dramatic change in the organization of ocial life have become commonplace. Yet we have only begun to explore the true meaning and ignificance of phenomena that have raced beyond the vocabularies to which we have grown accustomed. That existing categorie come acro as increa ingly ob olete is not urpri ing, for they were con tructed largely by an international cholarly community seeking to interpret a world in which nation-states remained the central actor , linked to one another by ecurity alliances, trading partner hip, the U.N. y tem, and the Bretton Woods in titution . That familiar world has slipped away, and the world that i replacing it features stre ses and strains that are poorly understood and even more poorly managed. Scholar confront the rapid proliferation of new i sue and new relationships, including climate change and environmental degradation, religious upheavals and challenges to modem value systems, population growth and vast flow of refugees, pandemic and emergent di ea e , and industrial relocation and emerging markets. The e processes have brought new actors to the fore, including global corporation , transnational religious movements, international NGOs, and international media empires. I sue of religiou concern, cultural identity, and ITEMsJ35

political community are now played out in new context. E tabli hed political and cultural in titution are only partially managing to keep pace with the e development , often yielding place to new ite and form of intervention. International human right policy, for example, has been defined and often implemented by non- tate actors, a dramatic but hardly i olated example of the role of tran national NGO . Propelled by video and e-mail technologie , uch i sues as dome tic violence and child labor mu t be confronted in an immen e variety of local contexts around the world in way that challenge long held assumptions about morality, identity, and autonomy. Similarly, multilateral lending agencie , accu tomed to providing assi tance exclu ively through national governments, are now scrambling to catch up with the micro-credit revolution, a revolution who e origins and early practice emerged in a ocial space defined by neither the market nor government but responsive to local form of ocial olidarity. These are iIIu trative of broad pattern . And if it i a trui m to observe that the world i changing, 0 it i to ob erve that intellectual are in the early stage of providing the concepts and con truct that will be drawn upon by tho e who have to manage or cope with the e new condition. Anyone who participate in meetings on any of the dozen of vexing topic confronting the international policy communityfood ecurity, literacy, human right , refugee flow , fertility rate, emergent viru e , civil violence, climate change, trade imbalance, tructural unemployment, historical pre ervation-will have heard the plea for "better under tanding" of the human dimension or the ocial context or the cultural con traint . The plea, however phrased, i in fact an appeal for the kind of ocial intelligence that the ocial cience and humanities are expeeted to provide. We are motivated to re pond to thi plea, though in ways that we believe make be t u e of the particular strength of the two Councils. Although by no mean easily achieved, we hope to promote a cholar hip that is critically engaged with the world. An important step in this proce i learning to hear how problem are framed out ide the academy. Obviou Iy thi include the policymaking community, but it is hortsighted indeed to imagine that policymakers are the only voice that matter.


The array of world condition identified above are being lived out in complex in titutional settings, governmental and nongovernmental, market and nonmarket, in i olated environment and in den ely linked network . We trongly believe that, without having to acrifice any academic autonomy, many cholars-however they de cribe their purpo e-will need to come to term with, and hear from, the e mUltiple etting . In fact, an area-ba ed knowledge y tern is a vehicle for the expre ion of voices and per pective that can easily be ignored in the noise a ociated with globalization. Doe thi mean that the new international program i being converted into a "policy program?" No. The Council are academic organization , not think-tanks or contract hou e or policy forum. They will remain o. The explanation for thi lie beyond any con ideration of institutional tradition or historic niche. The fact i that short-term applied re earch is not likely to reveal the deeper patterns giving rise to the fundamental problems the world community is facing. To the contrary, what ba ic re earch i uniquely able to provide i new and deeper undertanding of critical phenomena, and indeed of the human condition; ocietie are inevitably impoveri hed by the lack of uch perspectives, without which, moreover, informed policy debate are impo ible. In the familiar phrase, there is nothing 0 practical a a good theory. Example of the power of new idea to generate change are abundant. It i through the re earch of ocial cienti t and humani ts that we generate new definition of security-taking into account the identitie and vulnerabilitie of ub-national group around the world; that we promote in ight on tructural unemployment-taking into account hi torical force eldom captured by the tandard policy tudy; that we produce more nuanced conceptions of democratization taking into account the multiple way in which citizen hip right can be extended to new actor or expanded to encompa s a broader array of right for egments of a polity; that we contribute to the eternal human effort to grasp how people under tand them elve , their past, and their pro peets. An wers to que tions uch as the e are not likely to be produced on demand. The deeper contours of the human experience are eldom predictable. Unpredictability recommend an important place in



the program for undirected re earch. What we propose, then, is to develop a set of institutional tructure through which there can emerge a robu t and vital basic re earch community, one that will be both available and able to help illuminate the core ocial i ue of the moment, whatever tho e is ue might be and without the expectation that uch i sue are knowable in advance. The central objective of the new program architecture will be to timulate basic critical cholar hip that bring area-ba ed knowledge to bear on global i sue , that fo ters integration of that knowledge with theorie derived from di cipline-ba ed studie , and that is international in its purpose and organization.

m. Architecture of Program: Five Components The familiar joint committee tructure took region as the fixed point, and then varied thematic foci and disciplinary contribution as appropriate. Thi fixed point was intellectually productive and organizationally convenient. But the logic of the preceding argument make it clear that the region cannot be the single, fixed referent. Neither, of course, do we intend to propose a program that has a pre et topical focus. In our continuing effort to develop and apply areabased knowledge, we will try to create a y tern in which region and di cipline and theme vary according to the re earch question at hand. The more difficult task is to promote a flow of ideas with sufficient points of convergence around which researchers can assemble a they generate international and interdisciplinary linkages, articulate scholarly re earch agendas and training needs, and link critical scholarship with i ue of ocietal concern. The structure we propo e represents the mo t subtantial reorganization of the joint international program ince the fir t area committees were e tablished at the two Councils in the late 1950 . Its pro pects for ucce will be enhanced by a proce s of continuous con ultation among the leadership and staffs of the Councils and the scholars, practitioner , and funders whose participation in the program is essential to its success. An initial tep, to which the boards of both Council are committed, i to decommission joint area committees. This will be accompli hed in a manner that does not abandon or neglect ongoing research projects. A number of pre-existing working JUNE/SEPTEMBER


group and advi ory panels will be kept in place for the duration of pecific responsibilities. Following are the five components of the new program.

• Collaborative Research Networks (CRNs) The re earch planning responsibilities of the Council will be met through collaborative re earch networks. It is thi program element that will advance critical cholarship on topics of pressing theoretical and sub tantive concern and will reshape the study of uch i ues by linking scholars separated by boundaries of di cipline, region, and methodological tradition. The topics that will give rise to CRNs will depend in part on funding opportunities but also on an as e sment of the comparative advantage of the new tructure and of the Councils' international contacts. It i not expected that there will be a large number of CRNs; the goal is not topical coverage so much a quality and impact. It i anticipated that CRNs will vary in how long they will stay in place. Some will last only as long as the pecific task that led to their appointment. Other CRNs will become semi-permanent, as they build an ever widening network on, say, religious and ethnic conflict, transition to democracy, or social development in the context of a global financial sy tern. In other cases, a CRN appointed for one purpose will, in accompli hing that purpo e, transform itself into a new CRN. Thus a CRN on agrarian technologies and ecological change might become a new CRN on land u e patterns and biodiversity. The examples could easily be multiplied. The point is that the flexibility of the CRN structure invites it to be a major home to fresh theoretical work, methodological innovations, and innovative arrangement bringing scholars together across regions.

• Human Capital Committee (HCC) Under the pre ent structure, training activities specific to a given region are attended to by the appropriate joint committees. In shifting from an area-based to an internationally defined structure, training will be designed and governed from a broader perspective. For instance, the new dissertation training program, funded by the Menon Foundation ( ee next issue of Items), will focus on exactly the issues set forth in this propo ai, and is conceptualized as a single program ImMsI37

rather than distributed across the several area communiti . A human capital committee in the new tructure will over ee and coordinate the wide range of fellowship and training programs now operating under the auspice of the Councils. It will al 0 work with regional advisory panels and field development working group to identify areas in which new program are needed and to ensure that such programs are designed in a manner that take into account the experiences of similar program el ewhere. It will also generate an analy is of human capital formation, one focu ed on training as a component of professional development. More specifically, the HCC will: (1) consider a given training experience in the context of what precedes it and follow it-the quality and diversity of different recruitment pool to i ues of long-term career maintenance; (2) review the flow of the Councils' projects designed to build local ocial cience and humanities infrastructures in regions where indigenous capacities are underdeveloped or threatened by political, social, and economic turmoil; (3) con ider the need for and coordinate the activities of field development working group devoted to training specialist on world regions that remain relatively understudied or insufficiently understood de pite the po twar achievements of area studies. Fellow hip and training activitie have long con tituted an integral part of the Council ' program , accounting for a major portion of annual budget and taff commitment ,e pecially of the international programs. Indeed, with support from a number of agencie , public and private, dome tic and international, the Councils now offer re earch and training opportunities for graduate students at all tages of progre s toward the Ph.D. degree, a well as for postdoctoral scholars in the social sciences and humanities. We are committed to maintaining and trengthening these programs, which provide opportunitie for scholarly innovation at each tage of the profe ional development of researchers. The new structure envisioned in this propo al will enable us to continue this tradition while taking care to maximize the productiv-


ity of human capital inve tments by integrating them in a comprehen ive package of new and existing program . The comprehensive program of both the HCC and field development working groups (see below) will build on element in place or being planned. To name the major programs: the International Predi ertation Fellow hip ; Title VIII program for Ea tern Europe and the former Soviet Union; Korea Foundation program ; Banglade h fellowships; the SSRClMellon Minority Opportunity Fellowships; International Di ertation Work hops; the program to train junior Central American cholars in poverty re earch; eminars for junior economi ts from po tociali t countries; the new Mellon-funded International Field Research Oi sertation Program; the NEHlFordfunded Advanced Research Grants Program.

• Regional Advi ory Panels (RAPs) The Council do not believe that area-based knowledge can be developed and enhanced without a way to bring together an interdi ciplinary group of cholars- imilar to the joint committee -who under tand a given region. The e regional advi ory panel (up to eight are envi ioned) will not, as is pre ently the case with the joint committees, have general authority over re earch and training. Meeting annually, the e panels will bring to bear perspectives of their re pective world regions on the research, training, and related components of the new international program. Each RAP will identify how global is ue impact and are influenced by the history, culture, politic ,and 0 forth of the region in which it i expert. It will also be their responsibility to trengthen link with regional cholarship. In every in tance a RAP will have multinational membership; and we will look for opportunities to build partnerhip between RAPs and in titutions from a given region. The project of the CRNs will frequently crosscut world region ,others will compare two or three region , and other will be activities best conceptualized as internal to a ingle region. In each instance, however, the project will contribute to theoretical formulations that are multi-level and multi-regional. Establi hment of regional advisory panels will as ure that a re earch agenda-setting enterprise is informed by perspectives rooted in a serious undertanding of what is going on in and between the vari-



ous parts of the world. Similarly, they will enable the Councils to remain attuned to the broadest po ible range of perspectives concerning the issue that international cholarship ought to be addressing, as well as the perspective through which tho e questions can most fruitfully be explored. Finally, they will al 0 provide a unique perspective on the human capital-related challenge that confront re earch communitie in different parts of the world, thus ensuring that the Councils are po itioned to respond quickly and appropriately to changing need throughout the world.

• Committee on Engagement On an ad hoc basi the pre ent joint committees took up what we will here refer to an engagement -arguing the importance of area-based knowledge (and all that is required to sustain it) in a variety of fora; talking with and listening to non-academic actor -from governments to NGO , from multilateral agencie to village organizations-who have a stake in cholarship on the emerging global issues; and making greater use of new information technologie to engage cholars from around the world in the common re earch enterpri e. The Councils believe it is time to more aggressively and elf-con ciously pursue these goals of engagement. Comprised of distinguished individuals from a variety of backgrounds, a committee on engagement will articulate and demonstrate the multiple ways in which contemporary ocietie will benefit from international knowledge grounded in an under tanding of local conditions. Clo ely as ociated with this advocacy, but with an important difference, engagement also includes a determined and deliberate effort to insure that the be t that international cholarship has to offer finds its way into public and private agencies struggling to manage a world that has slipped free of its familiar moorings. Engagement in this sen e involves creating a dialogue between cholars and those who can make effective u e of new insights or fresh interpretations. Finally, a committee on engagement will attempt to grapple with the challenges and opportunities to international cholarship repre ented by new technological frontiers. The implications of electronic communication vary dramatically for different communiJUNEISEPTEMBER 1996

ties of scholars, both in the United States and internationally. The proliferation of promising projects taking advantage of new technologies-from worldwide web ites, to e-mail discussion groups and on-line data, text, and image archives----<:onstitutes a historic opportunity to connect heretofore diffuse intellectual communities, and to link these communities with practitioners. Progress toward fulfilling this a piration is uneven. While in some parts of the world and for orne scholarly fields new modes of information distribution and retrieval open the door for unprecedented access to cholarship, other regions and fields are hampered by infrastructural or economic barriers. Building on the work in which the ACLS ha already pioneered, the Councils have an opportunity to playa leadership role in efforts to extend and deepen the u e of new technologies in the production and di semination of knowledge.

• Field Development Working Groups The new tructure proposed in these pages builds on the strong platform of U.S. area studies developed over the past decades. This platform is not uniformly strong, however, and the new program will remain involved with field development efforts focused in the United States. Drawing on non-core funding, the Councils will appoint field development working groups who e task is continued attention to training on relatively under- tudied world regions. Encompassing support for language training, field research and/or academic infra tructure, field development working groups may from time to time emerge from and be connected to discussions taking place in the RAP and HCC. But their primary mission is with the U.S. academic community, and thus will be generated and governed omewhat independently.

IV. Conclusions Five entities have been separately described but each is interdependent with the others. The human capital committee, for in tance, cannot function without acces to information about what is happening in regions around the world, and neither can it proceed in the absence of links with the methods and theories being generated by the collaborative research networks. Similarly, the committee on engagement must incorporate perspectives from each of the other four program components to connect them effectively with In:MSI39

perspectives from outside the academy. Linkages across program components are essential if we are to avoid and overcome the ever-present tendency toward scholarly insularity. Such insularity occurs when researchers from one discipline do not talk to those from other disciplines, when scholars in one part of the world (or who tudy one part of the world) do not know what is going on in other part and do not talk with tho e who do, when globalist theorize in ways that float free of history and place, and when scholars only talk to other scholars. Linkage will be strengthened through two basic principles that will govern administration of the new program: overlapping committee membership and multiple staff responsibilities. It will be common, for example, for a collaborative re earch network to include members from a number of the regional advisory panels. And the same mall taff, of course, will

be simultaneously working with all five of the components. The structure is thought of as an integrated system, but one that is intentionally open-ended and multidirectional. Many thing will happen simultaneously. Area-based knowledge will be tested by its deeper engagement with the disciplines. U.S. perspectives will be challenged through ustained interaction with non-U.S. academic communitie . Discipline-bound certainties will encounter the local knowledge of area peciali ts. Academic agenda will be expo ed to the concerns of practitioners. There is a degree of mes ine s inevitable in an openended structure with multiple tasks. We will live with this messiness, adju ting and, perhaps, improving as we go. We are pleased to announce that the Ford Foundation has provided a core grant to the Councils to allow them to undertake the changes outlined above. • -Kenneth Prewitt

Dissolution of Committee on Problems and Policy (P&P) Organized in 1925, two years after the founding of the Social Science Research Council, and charged with overseeing the intellectual direction of the SSRC's programs, the Committee on Problems and Policy was fonnally dissolved at the June 4, 1996 board of directors meeting. During its 70-plus years of existence, it exercised intellectual guidance over numerous programs, approving propo als, appointing committees, and e tabli hing directions for ocial science research and training, thus allowing the board and the board's Executive Committee to focus on administrative and fiduciary oversight.


De pite the original di tinction between P&P and the board of directors, a blurring of functions gradually occurred. The SSRC president and the board of directors, in consultation, arrived at the conclusion that it was undesirable to maintain what had become an unnecessarily complex governance structure. To implify governance, the board will assume responsibilities previously assigned to P&P and will preserve the free-flowing, lively exchanges among scholars from a wide range of fields that characterized P&P's semi-annual meeting . Most current P&P members will continue as members of the board for 1996-97.



Becoming American! America Becoming A conference on international migration to the United States by Josh DeWind and Charles Hirschman* Immigration has become one of the most controversial public policy issues in American society with politicians, the media, and citizen advocacy groups making a variety of claims about the forces that are driving international migration and the consequences of immigration for American society. Many of these claims are contradictory about the most elementary knowledge regarding immigration, as well as the relative wi dom of alternative policies. Immigrants are said to be taking American jobs and driving down wages-in particular adversely affecting poor African Americans and Latinos; but they are also said to be taking jobs Americans do not want and to be rejuvenating urban neighborhoods. The diversity of immigrants' cultural backgrounds is claimed to be enriching American culture, but then also to be diluting the traditional meaning of being an American. Immigration policy debates are creating a cacophony of calls for conflicting policy measures: controlling the borders with strict legal enforcement versus opening the borders to promote freedom of trade and movement; capping legal immigration versus expanding family reunification, the entry of skilled workers, and admission of refugees; limiting immigrants' access to public services versus preserving the right and ocial value of educating the children of undocumented immigrants. These are just some of the i ues in the air and on the airwaves as the U.S. Congress debates legislative alternatives that would regulate immigration and limit the access of immigrants to government services. National and international public policy issues, e pecially controversial ones, can stimulate social science research because they generate public interest and often attract new resources. There is, however, a • Josh DeWind, an anthropologist, is progmm director of the International Migration Program. Charles Hirschman, i professor of sociology and chair of the Department of Sociology at the University of Washington. He serves as chair of the Comminee on Intern tional Migration.



danger that responding to the details of the immediate situation and to the concerns, assumptions, or arguments of vocal policy makers and advocacy groups may divert social scientists from research and analysis that will contribute to more fundamental public understandings. Social scientists have a responsibility to clarify the nature of central issues, explain their origins and outcomes, and identify their wider social contexts and ramifications. While not aimed at resolving policy disputes, this use of social science can potentially contribute to the public's ability to assess the goals, consistency, and long-term implications of policy options being debated. With an awareness of both the potential difficulties and complementary relation between the social sciences and public debates, the SSRC, with support from the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, established a Committee on International Migration in 1994 to address the fundamental issues influencing immigration to the United States. The committee is expected t~ reach beyond contemporary policy debates to proVIde clear theoretical and empirical understandings of the factors and processes that shape international migration and its social consequences. The first activity of the committee was to take stock of the theoretical and empirical base of contemporary immigration study. Although the initial focus has been on the contemporary American experience, there is an explicit concern with understanding the present situation through comparisons both with the past and with other parts of the world. The stocktaking took place at a conference held on Sanibel Island, Florida from 18 to 21 January, 1996.' Titled "Becoming American!America Becoming," it emphasized the goal of exploring how immigration transforms both immigrants and American society. With the objective of advancing interdisciplinary theories that can explain the origins, processes, and outcomes of U.S. immigration, the committee commissioned leading scholars to survey and assess current underI Participants included Rich:ud Alba. State University of New York, Alb ny; Gary Genie, American University; Clarles Hirschman, University of Washington; Jennifer Hunt, Yale University; James Johnson, University of North Carolina, Ch:lpel Hill; Dougl Massey, University of Pennsylvania; Victor Nee, Cornell University; Patricia Pessnr, Yale University; David Plotke, New School for Social Research' Alejandro Pones, Johns Hopkin University; Rebecca Raijman, ' Popul tion Research Center; George Sanchez. University of Michigan, Ann Arbor; and Marta TIenda, University of Chicago.


tandings of a number of broad themes which, when taken as a whole, would con titute an overview of the field of immigration studie . This article attempt to di till orne of the central theme , theoretical perspective , and potential contributions to public understanding that became the focus of lively debates at the conference. Given their central nature for under tanding the implication of immigration for American ociety and culture, the i ue and points of view examined here are likely to orient future tudy of U.S. immigration well into the 21 t century.

Theory-building Responding to the conference' goal of advancing the development of immigration theory, the conference's keynote speaker, Alejandro Porte argued that the empirical tudie, elemental typologie , and conceptual frameworks that compri e much of the field' scholarship do not by themselve attain the level of theory. In pre cribing tandard for con tructing more encompas ing and powerful theoretical model, he identified intellectual element that, when combined with one another, can rai e their explanatory power to a theoretical level. Thi proce s begin with de criptive case tudie, which, when compared in terms of similarities and differences, can be helpful in identifying more general problem that merit explanation. Identification of po ible explanatory factors can then become the ba i for theoretical propo itions, which, when linked with other predictive tatements, can become the basi for elaborating theoretical explanation . After warning unwary cholar of orne pitfall to be encountered in the "delicate enterprise" of theorybuilding within the field of immigration tudie, Portes recommended again t attempt to con truct an all-encompassing macro-level theory to explain migration outcomes, and argued in tead for efforts focu ed on developing mid-range theorie that can draw on the burgeoning wealth of hi torical and contemporary research. He then offered a " ampler of theme "which he felt could yield new theoretical in ights: transnational communitie , second-generation adaptation, hou ehold and gender, and state and tate sy terns. Each of the e and additional topics became a focu of the conference discu sions.


Causes of migration: linking explanation to policy The uneasy tie between cholarly theory and the de ign of government policie that are intended to re trict undocumented immigration provided a backdrop for the di cu ion of a paper on the origins of migration, "What' Driving Mexico-U.S. Migration," by Douglas S. Mas ey and Kri tin E. Espino a. Drawing upon individual, household, community, and macro-economic data collected through ethnographic and urvey re earch in 25 sending communities in Mexico, Mas ey and E pino a mea ured the relative contribution of the variou explanatory factor employed by five competing theoretical models to predict the course of migration to the United State . The major factor and corre ponding theoretical model evaluated included the co ts and benefits central to neoclas ical economic , acce s to credit market of the "new economics," sectorial labor demands of egmented labor market theory, network ties of ocial capital theory, and foreign inve tment of world y tern theory. The author' analysis concluded that Mexican migration patterns correlated mo t clo ely with factor emphasized by the ocial capital and new economics theories-that i , factors central to proce se of ocial and human capital formation and of market con olidation. One part of the conference di cus ion focused, ometime with keptici m, on the uitability of some of the more than 40 individual factors that Mas ey and E pi no a elected to repre ent particular theorie . Some participant went further in que tioning whether uch a factorial analy is could provide adequate measure of the explanatory contributions of theories conceived at different levels of analysis. Neverthele ,the comprehensive and comparative approach was recognized as a ource of insight into the trengths and weaknes e of each theoretical model. Another part of the di cu ion focused on the lack of con ideration that legi lative debates give to the factor and proce e that Ma ey and Espinosa found mo t determinative of the size and direction of migration flow . Ironically, the authors argued, current U.S. immigration and economic aid policies that are intended or expected to reduce illegal migration (e.g., vi are triction , employer sanctions, legalization of undocumented immigrant , denial of ocial ervice , and free trade) inadvertently amplify the



effect of the factor and proce es found mo t re ponsible for stimulating migration. Legi lators anxious to control undocumented immigration, the authors argued, should reevaluate neoclas ical notion prevailing in Wa hington and give more attention to alternative ocial cience perspectives.

Immigrants and civic culture Shifting from the origin of migration to the incorporation of immigrants, Gary Gerstle' paper, "European Immigrants, Ethnics, and American Identity, 1880-1950," de cribed how pictures of immigrants' civic incorporation painted by past scholars were colored by the normative value of emancipation or con traint that they attached to as imilation and plurali m. The conference di cu ion of contemporary incorporation focu ed in tead on the relative contribution of tran nationalism and the values implied by co mopolitanism, both of which are at odd with past view based on geographic and conceptual boundarie of national culture. Underlying the discus ion were these que tions: Do uch international perspective of immigrant incorporation provide explanation clo er to the experience of contemporary immigrants and are they any freer of normative bias? The conceptual contributions of "tran nationali m," defined as applying to the simultaneou incorporation of migrants into ending and receiving ocietie , met with both criticism and elaboration. The concept was de cribed a being 0 inclu ive as to fail to di criminate between ignificant and in ignificant international tie or impact on migrants. Further, the ignificance of a tran national framework it elf was que tioned with the claim that tran nationali m will tum out to be a hort-term phenomenon that will not impede as imitation and that the concept, therefore, will have no long-term relevance. Neverthele ,other participant viewed a transnational framework as providing new in ight into the ambiguities of immigrant incorporation, uch as the multiple identities of immigrant and the limits of their participation in democratic proce e. Similarly, the framework of tran nationalism introduce new i sue about the intere t of ending tate in expanding their definitions of civic membership in order to maintain tie with national who have emigrated to the United States.



The di cu ion concluded with a recognition of the the need to specify further the conception of transnational "citizen hip" and to determine the prevalence of tran nationaJi m not only among contemporary immigrant but also amont past immigrants and their offspring. Expres ing the uncertainty regarding the outcome of uch re earch, one participant asked, "What doe it mean that the Mayor of Jalisco, Mexico owns a burrito stand in Southern California?"

Standards of citizenship and xenophobia David Plotke' paper on "Immigration, Political Incorporation, and Citizen hip" asked why many American are perturbed by the low rate of voting among immigrants when barely a majority of qualified citizen vote them elve . "After all," he asked rhetorically, "what harm can two million more nonvoter cau e?" Of course immigrant groups must often overcome exclu ionary barrier in order to establish a political voice. This has been true historically, despite a popular myth that political patronage machines smoothly incorporated immigrant . Today, in contrast, many citizen who have easy political access choose not to vote and fewer are active in political organizations. Given the limited control that the average voter has over what candidate he or he can vote for, the more general que tion i , how open American political in titution are to influence by either immigrants or the native-born. The mo t significant political activitie of immigrants and the native-born may take place out ide the electoral system. I ue regarding native-born citizens' suspicions regarding immigrant citizen hip help set the context for examining the nature of anti-immigrant sentiment in general. Why is anti-immigrant sentiment growing today? Is it comparable to 19th and early 20th century nativi m? Contemporary examples of xenophobia cited mo t frequently were from California. Writing on "Race, Immigration, and the Rise of Nativi m in Late Twentieth Century America," George Sanchez clo ely examined the 1994 Los Angele riots and reporting about them to illustrate the tendency of American to reduce the physical and cultural variation of immigrants into monolithic racial identities, with the result that racial biases become turned against the immigrants. Under tanding nativi m, defined as an irrational


antipathy toward the foreign-born, require that it be di tingui hed analytically not only from raci m but al 0 from what orne di cu ant termed citizen ' rational or legitimate concern regarding the material and cultural impact of large number of immigrant . Call for immigration re triction that have been aimed at maintaining a predominantly white ociety and a "traditional" Euro-American culture2 were de cribed a both raci t and nativi tic. However, re trictioni t mea ure to protect American from job di placement were viewed by ome participant as rational re pon e to real threat . Nativi m wa then de cribed a ari ing when citizen irrationally exclude immigrant in order to olve material problem that the immigrant have not cau ed.

The impact and economic progre

of immigrants

While there was con iderable agreement in defining nativi m as an irrational olution to a real problem, there was little con en u regarding ocial cienti t 'attempt to determine whether immigrant actually have an adver e economic impact on nativeborn Americans, particularly on low- killed African American . Although a thorough survey of national economic tudie by Rachael Friedberg and Jennifer Hunt, in their paper "Immigration and the Receiving Economy," concluded that immigrant have an inignificant adverse impact on the wage and employment of the native-born, thi conclu ion was hotly conte ted. "Why is it that ocial cienti t find 0 little effect," asked one participant, "yet public opinion is driven by the oppo ite perception?" One explanation wa that the categorie of information in national data ets, notably the U.S. Cen u , are inadequate to reveal industrial and occupational competition. Another explanation was that ignificant correlation of immigration with unemployment and wage reductions occurs in local labor market where, it was as erted, "uneducated immigrant peasant do compete with black high chool dropout ." Further, what might eem an "insignificant" adver e impact for the majority might constitute a " evere" impact for ome African Americans and member of other minority 2 For example. Peter Brimelow's AIi~n Nation: Common S~nu About Immigration Disastu (Random Hou • 1995).



group who already face high rate of unemployment and poverty. Skeptic countered that local labor markets may not be an appropriate unit of analysis in a national economy. That i , unemployment in the garment indu try of Memphi can be cau ed by an expan ion of the indu try in Lo Angele . It i not the influx of immigrant, other propo ed, but the international re tructuring of production and trade that hape labor market . Another view held that segmentation of the labor market limit direct competition between fir t-generation immigrant and the native-born, but that competition begin when the children of immigrant move into new labor market . The long, unre olved nature of thi debate was placed into a broader per pective when a participant a ked why the entry of immigrant into the labor market arou e more concern than the entry of women or the children of the baby boom whose large numbers and labor market impact dwarf that of immigrant . The implied an wer-that the impact of the native-born i different from that of the foreignborn-moved the que tion away from whether the fear of immigrant ' economic impact wa rational or irrational to an inquiry into the acceptability or legitimacy of any group' impact on the social and economic opportunitie of other group . Another di cu ion began with the unre olved i ue of economic mobility by immigrant group . I mobility facilitated by incorporation into the maintream economy or through elf-employment and reliance on ethnically-ba ed economic relations? The argument focu ed on whether immigrants di proportionately engage in elf-employment as a means to increase their earning or to circumvent blocked acce to employment. Arguing for a broader approach to under tanding immigrant economic incorporation and mobility, a paper by Marta Ttenda and Rebeca Raijman titled "Forging Mobility: Immigrant' Socioeconomic Progre in a Low-Wage Economy," u ed a ca e tudy of Mexican immigrant engagement to propo e a typology that would recognize multiple job holding and participation in more than one economic ector, be it formal or informal, main tream or ethnic. While mo t participants acknowledged the contribution that uch conceptual flexibility offered in matching the varying adaptability of immigrants to economic


50, NUMBERS 213

opportunity, they lamented that re earching uch adaptive trategie wa nearly impo sible with available data set , which generally report only one job and exclude information about the informal economy. More exten ive ethnographic re earch will be needed to explore the full contribution of thi framework.

Gender and households While a paper on "The Role of Gender, Hou eholds. and Social Network in the Migration Proce " by Patricia Pe ar a e ed the mo t important immigration cholar hip related to each of the e topics, mo t of the discu ion focu ed on gender. While the paper per ua ively argued for re earch on the experiences of both men and women and their relations with one another, again the discus ion focu ed more narrowly on the impact of gender on women compared to their class, national origin, and racial tatu . Attention was given to the cultural, cia ,and racial backrounds or context that determine whether female migrant find employment and as imilation to be emancipating from traditional patriarchal constraint . While orne participants considered the impact of cultural background ,other cautioned again t e tabli hing cultural typologie and ranking as a means for carrying out such analy e Ie t they become a vehicle for di crimination, for example, again t group with relatively high proportions of poor female-headed households. In addition to women's ocial backgrounds, it was argued that the context of employment, within the main tream economy or an ethnic enclave, for example, would also influence whether labor market incorporation lead women to greater independence or con traint. To the extent that female immigrant identify American culture as upportive of a new and desirable independence, they would be more likely to embrace assimilation. This tendency might run counter to a traditional maternal role of women raising their children into their family' culture. A consensu eemed to emerge that an analy i of a imilation from the perspective of gender, of both fir t and second generations, was needed.

Assimilation: new wine in old bottles? A children of po t-1965 immigrant come of age, the extent to which they have or will become "Americanized" i to be determined. In this context, JUNFlSEYTEMBER


model of the a imilation process that explained past proce e attain renewed relevance. The need to place the e proce se into a new conceptual context was emphasized in the di cussion of an assessment of "The A imilation of Immigrant Groups: Concept, Theory and Evidence" by Richard Alba and Victor Nee. The challenge today, according to one participant, was to an wer the que tion, "as imilation from what and into what?" Valuable as the notion of a imilation may be in etting benchmarks for meauring immigrants' cultural change, discussants cautioned again t repeating tereotypical portraits of tatic immigrant and American cultures. Like nativeborn American , immigrants of different regional, clas , racial and ethnic backgrounds have distinct cultural background compared to compatriots; and, further, their cultural beliefs and practices are evolving. The problem i linking a recognition of the dynamic group cultural proces e with contemporary notions of a imilation. The relation between contemporary as imilation and cultural diver ity differ from earlier periods in key way . There i increa ed racial and cultural diverity re ulting from immigration from non-European nation . There i al 0 the increased role of the state in providing protections again t discrimination based on race, ethnicity, nationality, and gender. As a re ult, the extent to which immigrants fight to retain their culture , the nature of those fights, and the re pon e of the native-born may now be qualitatively different from the past. Language retention is a good example. Similarly, the breakdown of the earlier ideal that there i a ingle "American" identity into which immigrant can as imilate and the growing recognition of diverse identities might now re ult in immigrant being forced to a imilate more narrowly into particular racial or ethnic egments of the American ocial hierarchy. As " traight line" a imilation into a ingle, incluive identity i no longer expected of immigrants, cholars have begun to identify distinct modes of incorporation and to earch for theories that can predict their outcome . Systematic comparison of America' pecial immigrant, racial, and ethnic history with other receiving countries' notions of national identity and membership was suggested as a mean for di entangling determining factors and for elaborating explanatory theories. ITEMsl45

Intergroup relations Differing patterns of conflict and hannony between immigrant, class, racial, and ethnic groups in American cities suggest the need for a comparative urban typology based upon explanatory variables. The focus on Los Angeles in a paper on "Immigration Refonn and the Browning of America: Tensions, Conflict, and Community Instability" by James H. Johnson, Jr., Walter C. Farrell, Jr., and Chandra Guinn, complemented papers examining intergroup relations in other urban ettings, such as New York City and Houston. Variables con idered for an urban typology included the size and racial/ethnic composition of immigrants, local structure of economic opportunity, relative integration or segregation of public culture and spaces, cro -group political alliances in politics, and the like. An alternative approach would comparatively examine how conflicts in particular citie reach the public phere and become emblematic of intergroup relation . One reason that local conflicts have an electoral dimension in New York City but less so in Los Angeles may be related to residential patterns. In new York there is a relatively high pre ence of white in or near minority neighborhoods whereas there is greater residential segregation in Lo Angeles County. Another factor may lie in differing political culture . Unlike New York, Lo Angele doe not have a hegemonic racial and ethnic political elite, 0 power and policie may be more likely to involve continuous inter-group competition. National politics may al 0 contribute to differing level of urban conflict and hannony. Participants noted that ome concentration of immigrant, uch as the undocumented in outhern California, do not have effective repre entation in the Congre ,which lead to non-re ponsive policie . How to compen ate cities for the burden of rapid growth of immigrant population is an i ue for national policie de igned to diminish local conflict ituation .

Conclusion: theory and public understanding The committee used the conference' clo ing se ion to as e the contribution of the preceding three day of di cu sion, especially a king whether fundamental theoretical is ue had been clarified and whether directions for both the field and the committee had been identified. The participant reiterated 46\ITEMS

their concern about exploring further the potentials for different fonns of engagement between the ocial sciences and public enlightenment, particularly with regard to policy development. There was general agreement that the contribution of social science to public understandings would be advanced by theories placing contemporary U.S. debates into broader spatial and temporal contexts. Touching on relations between the social sciences and public policy, Alejandro Portes cautioned at the conclusion of his keynote addre s that, "The presures for 'policy-relevant' re ults should not distract us from the painstaking development of concepts and propositions that alone can advance social science knowledge and provide a sound basis for both public understanding of immigration and policies that do not backfire on their original goals." While conference participants seemed confident that their research and theorie can contribute to immigration debates, they were less certain about how to structure collaboration with citizen group and legi lators in ways that will complement and not compromise cientific activities. How can the immediate and, perhaps, relatively horttenn concerns of policy advocates be attended to in a manner that does not divert from the challenge to develop broad and long-term theoretical understandings? Similarly, through what fora and media can the theoretical in ights of ocial scienti ts infonn the values and advocacy interests of policy makers and their public con tituencie ? The potential contribution of hi torical and regional compari on in broadening the scope of ocial cience theory were cited throughout the conference. Participants pointed out that historical comparison could be particularly helpful in explaining contemporary immigrant incorporation. It was sugge ted that comparing the hi torical relation between the formation of white ethnic groups and the racial identity of African-American internal migrants could shed light on the contemporary egmented incorporation of immigrants of color. A compari on of past and contemporary commitments to tran national economic and social networks was propo ed as a means of elucidating the proce e and extent of immigrant incorporation into contemporary civic life. Hi torical compari on were al 0 proposed as one way of initiating a ystematic exploration of the nature of gendered relations between male and female immigrant , both within hou ehold and in public spheres. In each VOLUME


of these cases, historical comparisons were een not only as benefiting contemporary scholarship and policy debates but al 0 as raising new reinterpretations of U.S. immigration history. Such compari ons would also playa role in bringing together the the analytical perspectives of historians and other social sciences. A similar interest was expressed in undertaking systematic regional and cross-national compari ons. Such comparisons were expected to broaden the applicability of ba ic concepts of re earch and analysis, to identify explanatory variables for differences and similarities, and to test the general applicability of theories developed in the U.S. context. Interregional comparisons within the United State were proposed as a means to redress the disproportionate focus on the experience of white European ethnic group on the East Coast-a view not particularly insightful for explaning Hispanic and Asian immigration on the West Coast. Comparisons between urban centers were propo ed as a means to explain both the



different outcomes of members of the same nationality group and similar outcomes between distinct nationality groups. Among the topic mo t often cited as suitable for international com pari ons were tho e regarding incorporation into civic life and the origins and nature of xenophobia. Comparing patterns of racial and ethnic identity formation in states where the opportunities for structural incorporation and demands for assimilation into a national identity vary may help to disentangle the complicated relation between race and ethnic identity formation and egmented assimilation for immigrants of color in the United States. Similarly, compari ons of the incorporation and exclusion of immigrants in other nations which are racially and ethnically homogeneous could help disentangle factor shaping anti-immigrant entiment, the segmented incorporation of immigrants into the American ocial hierarchy, and relations between native-born and immigrant group . •



Current Activities at the Council New Directors and Officers At its meeting on June 4, 1996, the Council's board of directors elected three new members. Shirley Lindenbaum, the Graduate Center, City University of New York, was elected as the representative of the American Anthropological Association; Neil Smelser, Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences, was elected as the representative of the American Sociological Association; and Nancy Birdsall of the InterAmerican Development Bank was elected as a member-atlarge. They will serve a threeyear term, effective July I, 1996. Kenneth W. Wachter, University of California, Berkeley, was reelected as the repre entative of the American Statistical Assoociation for another three-year term. Re-elected as membersat-large were Albert Fishlow, Council on Foreign Relations, and Burton H. Singer, Princeton University. They will also serve a three-year term, effective July I, 1996. The SSRC's officers for 1996-97 were also elected or re-elected at the June 4th meeting. Paul B. Baltes, Max Planck Institute for Human Development and Education (Berlin) is the new chair of the board; and Michelle J. White, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, is the new treasurer. Re-elected are: Barbara Heyns, New York University, vice-chair; Kenneth Prewitt, SSRC, president; Susan Hanson, Clark University, secretary; and 48\ITEMS

Kristine M. Dahlberg, SSRC, assistant treasurer.

New Staff Appointment Karen Bradunas has been named manager of human resources and general administration, effective March 27, 1996. She will be responsible for carrying out the SSRC's personnel policies and assisting the chief financial officer in developing administrative plans related to work proce s planning and organizational culture and performance. M . Bradunas will also oversee the implementation of the on-site travel agency program which will centralize all travel arrangements for SSRC functions. Prior to coming to the Council, Ms. Bradunas was an assistant vice president at Bankers Trust where she was in charge of client benefit programs. Her function included coordinating the needs of the bank's internal and external departments and outside vendors to ensure total client satisfaction. Previously, she served as a enior administrator for the Wyatt Company, a benefits consulting firm. The new HR manager was codirector and co-founder of the Bronx Conservatory of Music. Ms. Bradunas is a pianist and music teacher and a graduate of New York University where she received her B.S. in music.

Culture, Health, and Human Development Conferences The Committee on Culture, Health, and Human Development organized three activities in recent

months. The first, a mini-conference on "Social Science, Biomedicine, and International Health: Exploring Interconnections" held at the Council in late April, reviewed some of the substantive themes that have arisen out of the committee's work on culture and health. Two questions guided the review. First, how can such themes be elaborated, modified, and given specific shape in the committee's continuing research agenda? Second, how might scholars from the biomedical and international health communities be meaningfully integrated into the framing and pursuit of such an agenda? These questions were addressed in the context of the committee's emerging ideas on culture, political economy, and infectious disease, and the culture of biomedical technologies .• A meeting on "Culture, Mind, and Biology Making Each Other Up," was held at and co-sponsored by the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences in late May.2 This conference aimed to refine concepts, methods, and findings that can infonn a biocultural psychology capable of explaining the development and social reproduction of • These ideas have been developed primar· ily by committee members: Veena Das, University of Delhi; Arthur Kleinman, Harvard University; Margaret Lock, McGill University; and Mamphela Ramphele, University of Cape Town. 2 Org:mizers: Committee members Richard Shweder. University of Chicago; and Hazel Martus, Stanford University. Also, Center Fellows William Durham, Juna Heclthausen. Shinobu Kitayama, and Paul Rozin.



I ::

group-level diversity in psychological functioning. Such an agenda reflects an emerging convergence between the thinking of cultural-developmental psychologists and a sub-set of biological scientists who are dubiou of genetic reductionism and espouse an "epigenetic" perspective on human development. This perspective emphasizes environmental influence and complex brain plasticity. The non-reductive program considered at the conference thus seeks to bridge the divide between "brainless minds" and "mindless brains," and to examine the way culture literally (rather than metaphorically) gets under the skin. With support from the Wenner-Gren Foundation, a conference on "Culture of Biomedical Technologies," was held in Cambridge, England in early July) The meeting examined how the production and application of medical knowledge relates to the health and pathology of the human body and diverse human populations. Special attention was given to the culture and styles of reasoning in clinical medicine and biomedical science, and to the role of clinical technologies in normalizing realities and in determining per onal, clinical, and collective priorities. The Human Genome Project, reproductive technologies, and organ transplants served as case studies for the analyses of these topics. 3 Organized by committee member MIrpret Lock. with Allan Young. and AlJato Cambrosio. all of McGill University.



Conference on Political Transitions in Africa On June 4-7, 1996, the Joint Committee on African Studies (JCAS) held a conference on "Political Transitions in Africa: Violence and the Politics of Participation" in Niamey, Niger. The context itself was a critical component of the conference: Niger, after holding a national conference which led to a democratic transition in 1991, had its civilian government overthrown in January 1996. The JCASsponsored meeting occurred one month after a national referendum on a new constitution, and one month prior to presidential elections which are to restore civilian rule. The participation of Nigerien scholars, many of whom play important roles in developing a vision of their country's political future, helped to bring the realities of political transition into the working sessions of the conference. In addition, the meeting was covered in local newspapers, and the welcoming ceremony, held at the Universite Abdou Moumouni, was broadcast on the evening news on Nigerien TV. Conference conveners Pearl Robinson (Thfts Univesity), Catharine Newbury (University of North Carolina), and Mamadou Diouf (CODES RIA) assembled an international and interdisciplinary group that specializes both in current African regime change at the macro-institutional level, and in the reproduction and transformation of power relations at the micro-level. In link-

ing these two levels, papers presented at the conference wrestled with the question of why political liberalization and democratization in Africa was so often accompanied by increased violence and unrest. A range of case studies and several overview papers addressed this issue, centered around such themes as the role of the military and of "private" violence during regime change; the continuities of patrimonial authority relationships under formal democratic institutions; and the mobilization of social identities (ethnicity, gender) in the transition process. The conference benefited from the presence of two nonAfricanists-Vivienne Shue (Cornell University), a China specialist, and Paul Brass (University of Washington), a South Asia specialist-who provided a critical and comparative perspective on the papers and participated in a concluding round table discussion. The conference conveners intend to produce an edited volume which will include many of the papers presented, and possibly a second volume composed of papers presented by Nigerien scholars on the dramatic and fluid political events in their country. Support for the conference was provided by the United States Institute of Peace, and was co-hosted by the Universite Abdou Moumouni and the Centre d'Etudes Linguistiques et Historiques pour la Tradition Orale, a research institute affiliated with the Organization of African Unity and based in Niamey.


IPFP Research Training Workshop On February 12-16, the International Predissertation Program (IPFP) held a workshop in San Jose, Costa Rica in cooperation with FLACSO-Costa Rica, the Universidad de Costa Rica, and the Universidad Nacional Estatal a Distancia. The workshop was designed to provide an opportunity for a small multidisciplinary group of IPFP fellows, who e re earch interests focus on Latin America, to engage in critical discussions of their preliminary plans for dissertation research with Latin American students pursuing advanced social cience degrees in Co ta Rica, and to enable the fellows to establish contacts with local scholars. The workshop was chaired by Juan Pablo Perez S~inz, re earch scientist at FLACSO-Costa Rica


and Jorge Rafael Caceres Prendes, professor of international relations at the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Costa Rica. At the time of the workshop, the six IPFP fellows who participated were residing in Costa Rica, Cuba, Honduras, Mexico, and EI Salvador with the support of the IPFP. Their Latin American counterparts included a Costa Rican student from the University of Costa Rica and a Salvadoran student from the Universidad Nacional. Students spent most of the threeday workshop in discussions of the perceived strengths and weaknesses of each other ' preliminary plan for research. Topics ranged from the effect of demilitarization on political development in Costa Rica, to written and electronic media in EI Salvador, to negotiations between state and civil ociety during the consolidation of the post-revolutionary Mexican tate.

One afternoon was spent in oneon-one meetings between each of the students and local scholars with similar research interests. The workshop agenda also featured an excursion to an active volcano in the San Jose area. This workshop was one in a series initiated in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania in March 1993. Since then, there have been workshops held in Argentina, Colombia, Ecuador, Ghana, Israel, and Vietnam. ~ On pile 10 of the previous __ In error appeIn

in nbIe 1 in die figura cited for Walem Europe. The number 2 is exIIWIeOUI; .... the total should lad 70 .... IIDI 72. On pile 19 • report on the Abe Fellows' Confeftace .aen to Sumiko lno _ "he." Prolaa' lwao is In eminent female We apoloJize for the errors.



Recent Council Publications Comtructing Democracy: Human Rigbts, Citizensbip, .00 Society in Latin America, edited by Elizabeth Jelin and Eric Hershberg. Based on a conference held in October 1992 at the Centro de E tudio de E tado y Sociedad (Center for the Study of State and Society-CEDES) and spon ored by the Joint Committee on Latin American Studies. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Pre ,1996. x + 238 page . The 1980 were years of profound changes in Latin America. If from an economic per pective it wa a "lost decade" for mo t countries, in the political arena democratic institutional framework were e tabli hed acro s mo t of the region. The politic of democratization and the political economy of adjustment and liberalization, as well as the relation hip between the two processe , have under tandably attracted a great deal of cholarly attention. In contrast, important tran formation at the ocietal level were largely overlooked during the initial stages of Latin American regime transitions. Thi book moves beyond analyse of the political transition itself to explore is ues that are critical for under tanding relationhip between ocial actor and the construction of democracy in Latin America: How does the proce s of regime change and its aftermath shape the life chance of individual citizen and ocial group ? What will determine the pro pect for con tructing democracies in Latin America in which J ' ElSEPTEMBER 1996

citizenship rights become extended beyond the formally political? Contributor to the volume include ocial cientists from Latin America and the United States who analyze the ways in which ocial actors demand justice and re pect for their human right -a pirations that are central not only to the moment of tran ition but al 0 to the period when democratic institutions have upplanted tho e of the dictatorship they replaced. In their explorations of contemporary truggle around i ue of individual and collective right , and in their analy i of competing claims about ju tice and citizenship, the e e ay exhibit a common concern with the character of democratic life in Latin America, today as well as in the future. Elizabeth Jelin is a senior reearcher with the Con ejo Nacional de Investigacion en Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONICYT), Bueno Aires. Eric Hershberg, a political cientist, is director of the Program on Latin America at the SSRC. Fantasizing the Feminine in Indonesia, edited by Laurie J. Sears. Ba ed on a work hop held in June 1991 at the University of Washington and pon ored by the Joint committee on Southea t Asia. Durham, North Carolina: Duke Univer ity Pre ,1996. xvi + 317 pages. The torie of Indone ian women have often been told by Indone ian men and Dutch men and women. This volume asks how these representation -reproduced, tran formed, and circulated in hi -

tory, ethnography, and literature-have circumscribed feminine behavior in colonial and po tcolonial Indonesia. Presenting dialogues between prominent scholars of and from Indonesia and Indonesian women working in profe sional, activist, religious, and literary domains, this book di olves es entialist notions of "women" and "Indonesia" that have ari en out of the tensions of empire. The contributors examine the way in which Indonesian women and men are enmeshed in networks of power. They also pursue the torie of tho e who, sometimes at great political risk, challenge the e powers. This juxtaposition of voices and stories ilIu trates how indigenous patriarchal fantasies of feminine behavior merged with Dutch colonial notions of proper wives and mothers to produce the Indone ian government's present approach to controlling the image and actions of women. The book reveals the contradictions of po tcolonial positionings and the fragility of postmodern identities. Laurie J. Sears is associate professor of hi tory at the Univer ity of Washington, Seattle. Margins of Insecurity: Minorities and International Security, edited by Sam C. Nolutshungu. Sponsored by the Committee on International Peace and Security. Rochester, New York: University of Roche ter Press, 1996. xiii + 302 pages. ITEMS/51

A number of crises since the end of the cold war have demonstra~ the catastrophic insecurity of ordinary people in circumstances where states are either unable to provide protection or are themselves the principal ~ource of violence. Public opinIon on "ethnic cleansing" in the fonner Yugoslavia. "tribal bloodletting" in Rwanda. and atrocities against civilians in Somalia. Liberia. and Cbechnya has provoked leaders to recognize the problem of "international in ecurity of marginal populations." Yet, conventional appeals to human rights rarely are translated into effective ecurity policie that even begin to address the ituation of real persons, rather than that of ab tract "nation ." Redefming the agenda of international security is the tarting ~in! of this multidi ciplinary mquuy. The e says in this book emerged out of a serie of workshop on the international ecurity of marginal population which were intended to con~ tribute to an approach to international security that goes beyond the traditional emphasis on the interests and relations of states. The dominant theme is the need to treat the state-people relationship as profoundly problematic in the area of international security. Sam C. Nolutshungu i a professor of political science at the University of Rochester. The State of European Studies, by Peter A. Hall. A report ponsored by the Joint Committee on Western Europe and the Council for European Studies. New York: 52\1TEMS

Social Science Re earch Council, 1996.31 page. This pamphlet surveys the field of European studies in the wake of the collapse of communism and the move toward European integration. The author provides an overview of the . ch.olarly literature on European tOpICS In five key disciplinesan~~pology, economic , history, politIcal science, and sociologyand provides commentary on some of the major challenges facing the field. The report features an extensive bibliography. Peter A. Hall is profe or of government at Harvard University. Media and Politics in Japan edited by Su an J. Pharr and Ellis S. Krauss. Sponsored by the Joint Committee on Japane e Studies. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1996. xv + 389 pages.

interpreting the media's role in any industrial society, are the focus of this collection of essays by political scientists, sociolo~ists, social psychologists, and Journalists. Japan's unique kisha (pre s) club system, its powerful media business organization , the u es of the media by Japan's bureaucrats, and the role of the media in everything from political scandals to shaping public opinion are discussed in this volume. Susan J. Pharr is Edwin O. Rei~~hauer Professor of Japanese Pohtlcs at Harvard University and director of the Program on U.S.-Japan Relations. Ellis S. Krauss is a professor at the Graduate School of International Relations and Pacific Studie at the University of California. San Diego. Also noted:

Japan is one of the mo t mediasaturated ocieties in the world. The circulation of its "big five" national newspapers dwarf tho e of any major American new paper; NHK, its public ervice broadcasting agency, is econd only to the BBC in size. It al 0 has a full range of commercial televi ion tations highbrow and lowbrow magazin;s, and a large anti-main tream and mini-media. What role do the e media play in political life? Who e intere ts do they serve? As Japan's critic often hold, are they mainly servants of the state? Or are they watchdogs on behalf of the public, as the media themselves claim? And what effects do the media have on the political beliefs and behavior of ordinary Japanese people? These que tion ,central for

Economics and the Historian edited by Thomas G. Rawski e~ al. Based on a workshop on economic methods for Chinese historical research, held in Honolulu in January 1987 and sponsored by the Joint Committee on Chinese Studies. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996. viii + 355 pages. National Character and National Ideology in Interwar Eastern Europe, edited by I vo Banac and Katherine Verdery. Yale Russian and East European Publications 13. Based on a conference held in Dubrovnik, May 3 I- June 4, 1989 and sponsored by the Joint Committee on Eastern Europe. New Haven: Yale Center for International and Area Studies, 1995. xxvi + 255 pages. VOLUME 50, NUMBERS


Awards Offered in 1996 Following are the names, affiliations, and topics of the individuaJs who were offered fellowships or grants by Council committees in the most recent annuaJ competitions for research in the social sciences and humanities. * The awards for research abroad were made by the committees jointly sponsored by the SSRC and the American Council of Learned Societies (ACLS). In addition to funds provided by the two Councils, these awards received core support from the Ford Foundation, the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, and the National Endowment for the Humanities. AdditionaJ funding for grants administered by specific committees was provided by the Chiang Chingkuo Foundation for International Scholarly Exchange, the Ford Foundation, the German MarshaJl Fund of the United States, the Japan-United States Friendship Commission, the Korea Foundation, the Korea Research Foundation, the Luso-American Development Foundation, and the Rockefeller Foundation. Additional support came from the U.S. Department of State through the Research and Training for Eastern Europe and the Independent States of the Former Soviet Union Act of 1983 (1itle VIll), and the U.S. Information Agency through the Near and Middle East Research and Training Act (NMERTA). Fellowships in internationaJ peace and security are supported by a grant from the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation. The Ford Foundation supports the joint ACLS/SSRC InternationaJ Predissertation Fellowship Program. The Abe Fellowship Program is funded by the Japan Foundation Center for Global Partnership. Unless it is specifically noted that a program is administered by the ACLS, the programs listed are administered by the Council. The Council does not discriminate on the basis of race, color, gender, sexual orientation, national origin, age, religion, disability, marital or family status, or any other characteristic protected by applicable laws. The programs change every year, and interested scholars should write to the Council for a copy of the current generaJ brochure. IndividuaJ programs aJso publish brochures, with more complete descriptions of their aims and procedures, at various times during the year.

Predissertation and Dissertation FeUowships for Area and Comparative Training and Research International Predissertation Fellowship Program-The following graduate training fellowships were awarded by the program committee of the InternationaJ Predissertation Fellowship Program-Robert P. Weller (chair), Robert Bates, Julia Clancy-Smith, Daniel Doeppers, Raquel Fernandez, Dennis Hogan, A. Douglas Kincaid, Michael Piore, Su an Shirk, and M. Brewster Smith-at its meeting on March 18-19, 1996. The committee was assisted by a creening panel: Frank Bean, Leonard Berry, John Bowen, John Casterline, Paul Collier, David Dollar, Barbara Geddes, Dru Gladney, Gregory Gleason, Alma Gottlieb, Jerrold Green, Kenneth Hill, Ayesha Jalal, Philip Kuhn, W. George Lovell, Gerardo Munck, Ian Roxborough, William Turley, Michael Watts, James Werstch, and Mary Wilson. Ellen Perecman, Annin Patel, and Mark Edstrom served as staff for this program.

Glenn Adams, graduate student in psychology, Stanford University. How collective notions of selfhood and the experienced self vary across sociocultural contexts in Ghana Eileen Anderson, graduate student in psychology, Harvard University. The p ychological development of adolescent girls and body image development in relation to educational contexts in Belize Joel Andreas, graduate student in sociology, University of California, Los Angeles. Equality and privilege in postrevolutionary China Andrew Baker, graduate student in politicaJ science, University of Wisconsin, Madison. The determinants of voter choice in Brazil Narquis Barak, graduate student in anthropology, Harvard University. How mental illness is conceptuaJized and treated within Vietnamese culture Kimberly Smiddy Butler, graduate student in politicaJ science, Michigan State University. The role of politica1 parties in the consolidation of democracy in Malawi Teri Caraway, graduate student in political science, Northwestern University. Gender and the politicaJ economy of modernization in Indonesia •• This progmm is designed to prepare students to condud research in

• Listings do not necessarily indicate final acceplance.



the developing world.


Robin DeLugan, graduate tudent in anthropology, University of California, Berkeley. Nationali m and the proce s of con tructing a national identity in po t-civil war El Sal vador Jeffrey Elder, graduate tudent in ociology, Indiana University. Social organization, tratification, and labor recruitment pattern of large-scale organic agriculture in Cuba Karen Ferree, graduate tudent in political science, Harvard University. The microfoundation of ethnic politic in South Africa Jed Friedman, graduate tudent in economic , University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. The role of education in the ocioeconomic proce and its effects on demographic and economic phenomena in Vietnam Marku Gold tein, graduate tudent in agricultural economic , University of California, Berkeley. Intra-household allocation and its affect on poverty in Ghana Lynn Hempel, graduate tudent in ociology, Duke University. The ignificance of culture, gender, and elas on identity formation within and acro ethnic group In Mauritiu Michelle John on, graduate tudent in anthropology, University of Illinoi , Urbana-Champaign. The ritual tran formation from childhood to adulthood in GuineaBi au Hilary Jone ,graduate tudent in hi lOry, Michigan State University. Civil ociety as a matrix for political alliance and social interaction among Creole communitie in colonial Senegal Jame Lavin, graduate tudent in economic , Stanford University. The role of culture in making Shanghai and Jiang u Province the major economic growth centers in China Rachel Lucas, graduate student in ociology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. The relation hip between genderpecific behavior and tran mi ion of HIV in Ethiopia Elizabeth Lynch, graduate tudent in p ychology, Northwe tern University. Categorization and categorybased reasoning of natural-kind categorie in Mexico Michelle McAtee, graduate tudent in hi tory, University of Texas. How art is u ed to fashion a public image and how orne cultural practice may repre ent a form of re i tance in Peru Pamela McElwee, graduate tudent in fore try and environmental tudie, Yale University. The role of culture in mediating acce and control of land and resource in Vietnam Carole McGranahan, graduate tudent in anthropology and 54\1TEMS

hi tory, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. The intersection of hi tory and memory in understanding the nation- tate in exile and under tate sociali m in China John McPeak, graduate tudent in agricultural economics, Univer ity of Wi con in, Madi on. The dynamic deciion proce of pastoral producers in Kenya Lauren Morri ,graduate tudent in political science, University of California, Berkeley. How local-level rural communi tie re pond to increased levels of risk with the new market- tate relation under economic liberalization in Ghana Shara Neidell, graduate tudent in ociology, University of Penn ylvania. The conceptualization and measurement of women' autonomy in vilJage in Nepal Sybil Rhode, graduate tudent in political cience, Stanford University. The role of local political in titution in national democratization in Brazil Chri topher Ro in, graduate tudent in geography, University of Wi con in, Madison. The contradiction between traditional trade theory and uneven regional development theorie in economic geography in Brazil and Paraguay Matthew Rudolph, graduate student in political science, Cornell Univer ity. The tate formation proce in China Paitra Ru ell, graduate tudent in anthropology, University of Chicago. The transformation between identity con truction and capitali m in po t-apartheid South Africa Edward Schatz, graduate tudent in political science, University of Wi con in, Madison. The persi tence and interaction of egmentary and ethnic identities, and the ignificance of thi interaction for politic in Kazakh tan WilJiam Steven , graduate student in sociology, Northwe tern University. The relation hip between tructural con traints and agency in the reproduction of religiou form in Ghana Bruce Tyler, graduate tudent in ociology, Cornell University. The relation hip between ocial truggle and in titutional change in the country ide in Mexico and Brazil Brian Wampler, graduate student in political science, University of Texas. The influence of dominant cultural relation hip on the formulation of political identitie in Brazil Mary Catharine White ide, graduate student in p ychology, University of Chicago. Modern China's development and the effects of thi development on the p ychology and mental health of the Chine e people Wendy Wolford, graduate tudent in geography, University VOLUME

50, NUMBERS 213

of California, Berkeley. A grassroots land refonn movement in Northeast Brazil

Michigan, Ann Arbor. The bounds of bondage: forced migration between the Netherlands, East Indies, and the Cape of Good Hope, 1690-1750


Dissenation Fellowships The following dissertation fellow hip were awarded by the Joint Committee on African Studie -Pearl T. Robin on (chair), Paul ColJier, Denni D. Cordell, Mamadou Diouf, Paula Girshick, Bogumil Jewsiewicki, Eileen Julien, Peter D. Little, and Catharine Newbury-at its meeting on March 3, 1996. The committee was as isted by a screening committee-Jean AlIman, Donald Donham, Pauline Peters, Richard Waller, Jennifer Widner, and a election committee-Edmond Keller, Sara Berry, Michael Bratton, Iris B. Berger, James McCann, Enid Schildkrout, and Aliko Songolo. Ronald Kas imir and Nnennaya Okezie erved as staff for this program. Kevin Bohrer, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Wisconsin, Madi on. Refugee a cultural brokers of identity in N'Zerekore, Guinea Kathryn Caldera. Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of California, Berkeley. Women of Cape Verde: a study of development in West Africa Thomas Desch, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of California, Los Angeles. N'golo: martial art in Angolan and Diaspora history David Hughes, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Univer ity of California, Berkeley. ControIling land, controIling people: land allocation to refugees on the ZimbabweMozambique border Frederick Klaits, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, John Hopkin University. Creating parenthood and childhood in Botswana in the time of AIDS Juli McGruder, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Wa hington. Inve tigation of factor moderating progno is of schizophrenia in Zanzibar Wambui Mwangi, Ph.D. candidate in political cience, University of Pennsylvania. Money orders: money, the tate, and the politics of community in Kenya Heran Sereke-Brhan, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Michigan State University. Ethnicity, family, and power in Haile Sellas ie's Ethiopia Jacob Tropp, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Minnesota. State fore t con ervation and African experiences in the colonial Transkei Kerry Ward, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, University of



Dissenatioll Research Fellowships The following awards were made by the China Fellow hip Selection Committee (administered by the American Council of Learned Societies)-Peter K. Bol (Chair), Parks M. Coble, Thomas B. Gold, Shu-min Huang, Theodore Huters, Robert Hymes, Thomas H.C. Lee, Steven I. Levine, Victor H. Mair-at its meeting on April 14-15, 1996. Jason H. Parker and Ruth Waters erved as taff for this program. All recipient are Chiang Ching-kuo FoundationlACLS Fellow supported by funding received from the Chiang Ching-kuo Foundation. Bonnie Adrian, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Yale University. Sexuality and divorce in modern Taiwan: a cultural hi tory of infidelity Jame A. Ander on, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Washington. A pecial relationship: 10th-13th century Sino-Vietname e tribute relations and the traditional Chine e notion of world order Hilde G. De Weerdt, Ph.D. candidate in East Asian language and civilization, Harvard University. Writing for and about the civil service examinations in the late Southern Song Dynasty Ellen V. Fuller, Ph.D. candidate in education, Stanford Univer ity. Gender and authority: women as business executive and chool administrators in Japan and Taiwan John C. Hamm, Ph.D. candidate in East Asian languages, Univer ity of California, Berkeley. The common language of Chine e around the world: Jin Yong's chivalric fiction and its circulation through Greater China Eugenio Menegon, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of California, Berkeley. A ocial history of the Chinese rites controversy (1632-1844) Ruth A. Mostern, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of California, Berkeley. Paddies and prefectures: the creation of bounded territory in China during the Song era Hajime Nakatani, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology and art history, Univer ity of Chicago. Visualizing the mind in late imperial China: the henneneutics of appearance in


phy iognomics and portraiture Rebecca A. Nedo tup, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Columbia Univer ity. Belief, ritual, and making modernity during the Nanjing decade Stephen P. Udry, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Univer ity of Washington, Seattle. Manchu hamani m in Qing China (1644-1911) Paul A. Van Dyke, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, University of Southern California. Sino-Dutch trade in the early modem world: Taiwan in the 1630s and Canton in the 1730 and 1780

Eastern Europe The following awards were made by the Joint Committee on Eastern Europe (admini tered by the American Council of Learned Societie )-Norman M. Naimark (chair), Ivo Banac, Jo ef C. Brada, Valerie J. Bunce, David A. Frick, Victor A. Friedman, Su an Gal, Jan Gro ,Elemer Hanki ,Beth Holmgren, Michael D. Kennedy, and Ve na Pu ie-at it meeting on May 9-10, 1996. Jason H. Parker and Ruth Water erved as taff for thi program.

Dissertation Fellowships Tatiana Bajuk, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Rice University. Economi I and the formation of national identity in po t-communi t Slovenia Maria Bucur, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, University of IIIinoi ,Urbana-Champaign. Disciplining the future: modernization and eugenic in interwar Romania Audrey H. Budding, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Harvard Univer ity. Serb intellectual and the national que tion, 1961-1991 Zsuzsanna Gille, Ph.D. candidate in ociology, University of California, Santa Cruz. Wasteland in transition: change and continuity in the concept of waste and the production of wasteland in Hungary Meghan E. Hays, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Gender and national identity: the reform of women' education in 19th century Croatia France Trenholme Junghan , Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, The Graduate Center, City University of New York. Middle c1as formation and the production of "civil society": an ethnographic tudy of ocial change in Szeged, Hungary David E. Schneider, Ph.D. candidate in mu ic, University of California, Berkeley. Hungarian culmination points: 56\ITEMs

modernity and nationali m in five concerto by Bela Bartok Arturas Tere kina, Ph.D. candidate in history, Harvard Univer ity. The politics and poetic of territorial identity in the 17th century Grand Duchy of Lithuania Daniel Unow ky, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Columbia University. The image of the Good Emperor: imperial celebration and the truggle for unity in the Hab burg monarchy, 1848-1916 Margit Be senyey William , Ph.D. candidate in political cience, Indiana University, Bloomington. The European Union and tran ition to democracy: Hungary and Spain compared Jo hua D. Zimmerman, Ph.D. candidate in history, Brandeis University. Socialism and the national que tion: the Poli h Sociali t Party (PPS) and the Jewish Labor Bund, 1898-1907

Predissertation Travel Grants The following grant were approved by pecial subcommittee: Karen E. Ballentine, graduate tudent in political science, Columbia University Eagle Glas heim, graduate tudent in hi tory, Columbia Univer ity Charle W. Greer, graduate tudent in Slavic language and literature, Univer ity of California, Berkeley Paul Andreas Hanebrink, graduate tudent in hi tory, University of Chicago Jonathan Shawn Landre ,graduate tudent in religiou tudie , Univer ity of California, Santa Barbara Tara Elaine Nummedal, graduate tudent in history, University of California, Davi Eric E. Pourchot, graduate tudent in theatre, The Graduate Center, City University of New York Margarita Jerabek Wuellner, graduate tudent in art hi tory, University of California, Lo Angele

Language Training Grams The East European Language Grant Committee of the Joint Committee on Eastern Europe (administered by the American Council of Learned Societies)-Ronelle Alexander, Howard I. Aron on, Grace E. Fielder, Michael H. Heim. Madeline G. Levine. and Robert A. Roth tein-at its meeting on March 30, 1996, voted to award summer language training grants to the following individuals. Jason H. Parker and Karen Watt served as taff for this program. VOLUME

50. NUMBERS 213

Jonathan A. Barnes, graduate tudent in linguistics, University of California, Berkeley (Bulgarian) Nancy Bi hop, graduate tudent in dramatic art , Univer ity of California, Davis (Czech) Laurie L. Curry, graduate tudent in East European Studies, Georgetown University (Croatian) Aly a W. Dincga, graduate tudent in Slavic languages and literatures, University of Wi con in, Madi on (Poli h) Eli abeth Mae Elliott, graduate tudent in Slavic literature and language, Univer ity of Toronto (Bulgarian) Matthew P. Grad, graduate tudent in Slavic language and literature, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (Bulgarian) Kevin D. Harri on, graduate tudent in lingui tic, Yale Univer ity (Lithuanian) Edit N. Jakab, graduate student in Slavic tudie, Princeton University (Poli h) Eliza K. John on, graduate tudent in hi tory, Columbia University (Polish) Timothy C. Langen, graduate tudent in Slavic language and literatures, Northwe tern University (Czech) Mark R. Lauersdorf, vi iting a istant profe or of Slavic language and literature, Univcr ity of Kan as (Slovak) Barbara M. Mozdzierz, as i tant profe or of Gennan and Slavic language , George Washington University (Polish) Jason A. Pontiu , graduate student in Slavic language and literatures, Univer ity of Chicago (Czech) Maria Rubins, graduate tudent in Slavic language , Brown Univer ity (Czech) Laura Ann Shear, graduate tudent in Slavic languages and literatures, University of Chicago (Czech) Theodore R. Weeks, as i tant profe or of history, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale (Lithuanian)

Japan Dissertation Write-up Fellowships The following awards were made by the Joint Committee on Japanese Studie -TJ. Pempel (chair), Theodore C. Bestor, Mary C. Brinton, Andrew Gordon, Innela HijiyaKirschnereil, Hideo Otake, and Henry D. Smith at its meeting on May 9-11, 1996. The committee was assisted by a election committee: Theodore C. Bestor (chair), Innela Hijiya-Kirschnereit, Gary Allinson, Keith Brown, and France Rosenbluth. Mary Byrne McDonnell, Sheri Ranis, and Marjorie Huang erved as taff for this program. John Rogers, Ph.D. candidate in history, Harvard University. Teaching the profe sion of arms: education for the Samurai class in Tokugawa, Japan Satsuki Kawano, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Univer ity of Pittsburgh. Gender, family, and power: a cultural analysis of Japane e religio ity Keiko Hirao, Ph.D. candidate in ociology, University of Norte Dame. Married Japane e women's education, work hi storie , and their inve tment in child by gender Christopher Bolton, Ph.D. candidate in languages, Stanford Univer ity. The rhetoric of cience in the work of Abe Kobo Gregory Levine, Ph.D. candidate in art history, Princeton Univer ity. Jukoin : the fusion of ite and images at a Japane e Zen temple John Traphagan, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Pittsburgh. Activity and self-identity among the elderly in rural Japan Korea

Institutional Support Programs

Dissertation Research Fellowships

The East European Language Grant Committee of the Joint Committee on Eastern Europe voted to award grants to the following institutions in upport of East European language instruction for ummer 1996:

The following award were awarded by the Joint Committee on Korean Studies-Clark Sorensen (chair), Hyoung Cho, Chae-Jin Lee, and David R. McCann-at it meeting on February II, 1996. Mary Byrne McDonnell, Sheri Rani , and Marjorie Huang served as taff for thi program.

Arizona State University, for the teaching of first-year Macedonian Indiana University, for the teaching of first-year Bulgarian, first- and econd-year Czech, first- and second-year Polish, first-year Romanian, fir t-year Serbian/Croatian, first-year Slovak, and first-year Slovene



Michael Shin, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Chicago. The development of nationalism in colonial Korea in the 1920s Whasook Nam, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of


Washington. The rise of militant labor in the South Korean shipbuilding industry Soo-Jung Lee, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign. Northern Korean refugees in South Korea (Wollammin): national ideologie and personal identitie Soyoung Lee, Ph.D. candidate in art hi tory, Columbia University. We tern Japanese ceramic and the Korean factor: defining the Japan-Korea relation hip in ceramic arts Kathryn Norman, Ph.D. candidate, Oxford University. The ideology of rural Korean women in the early years of national development: 1967-1979 Latin America

Dissertation Research Fellowships The following awards were made by the Joint Committee on Latin American Studie -Paul Drake (chair), Alice Rangel de Paiva Abreu, Victor BulmerThomas, Carlo Ivan Degregori, Evelyne Huber, Bryan Roberts, Fernando Rojas, Hilda Sabato and Cynthia Steele-at its meeting on March 8-9, 1996. It was assisted by a screening committee: Karen Remmer (chair), Heloise Buarque de Holanda, Carlo Ivan Degregori, David Felix, Richard Salvucci and Rick Tardanico. Eric Hershberg, Su ana E pasa, and Alexandra Cordero erved as taft' for this program. Javier Auyero, Ph.D. candidate in ociology, New School for Social Re earch. The emergence and dynamic of Peronist political clienteli m Jane Clough-Riquelme, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, State University of New York, Binghamton. Political culture and its influence on the practice of citizen hip in Paraguay Eduardo Douglas, Ph.D. candidate in art hi tory, University of Texas, Au tin. The interpretation of hi tory and paintings in early colonial Tetzcoco, Mexico Leo Garofalo, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, University of Wisconsin, Madison. The role played by coca and chicha in the proce s of ethnic differentiation in Peru Gregory Grandin, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Yale University. Ethnicity and tate formation among the Maya of Guatemala' we tern highland Ereney Hadjigeorgali ,Ph.D. candidate in agricultural economic , University of California, Davi . Private water markets in Chile


Mark Healey, Ph.D. candidate in history, Duke University. How Peroni m haped, and re haped, Argentine mas culture using radio and other media Catherine Komi aruk, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of California, Lo Angele . The formation of a new profe sional c1as in socialist Cuba Steven Levitsky, Ph.D. candidate in political cience, University of California, Berkeley. The transformation of labor-based political partie in Latin America Patricia Sandler, Ph.D. candidate in musicology, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign. Indigenous mu ic in healing ceremonie of an Afro-Brazilian possession religion Maria Tapias, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of lIIinoi , Urbana-Champaign. Cultural constructions of herbal and we tern medicine in Cochabamba, Bolivia Eduardo Zegarra, Ph.D. candidate in argricultural economic , University of Wi son in, Madi on. The nature and functioning of water right in the Peruvian arid Coast Near and Middle East The following award were made by the Joint Committee on the Near and Middle East-Joel Migdal (chair), Juan Cole, Leila Fawaz, Deniz Kandiyoti, Ian Lu tick, Fedwa Malti-Douglas, and Sevket Pamuk. The committee was assi ted by a predoctoral screening committee: Leila Fawaz (chair), Abraham Marcus, Julie Peteet, and Robert Vitali . Steven Heydemann and Jennifer Hender on erved as taft' for thi program.

Predissertation Fellowships Lynda Carroll, Ph.D. candidate in archeology, State University of New York, Binghamton. Non-elite conumption and production in Anatolia: towards an hi torical archeology of the Late Ottoman Empire in Turkey Kathryn Ebel, Ph.D. candidate in geography, University of Texas, Au tin. In the garden of empire: landscape imagery and the Ottoman imperial vision in the 16th century David Hollenberg, Ph.D. candidate in religiou studie, University of California, Santa Barbara. Teaching old texts to ing: applying the study of Arabic oral literature to medieval Islamic narrative Frank Tipton, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Mas achuselts In tilute of Technology. New identities, new nationalitie : colonization and conflict in Aden and Port Sudan


50, NUMBERS 213

Patricia Wood ,Ph.D. candidate in political science, University of Washington. The relationship between gender and community in the Israeli feminist movement

Dissertation Research Fellowships for Underrepresented Disciplines Thomas Oko, Ph.D. candidate in ociology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. The public sphere and social change in Egypt Wendy Shaw, Ph.D. candidate in art hi tory, Univer ity of California, Los Angele . Nationali m and the development of museums in the republic of Turkey Susanne Steinmann, Ph.D. candidate in geography, Clark University. Gender, pa toralism, and intensification: changing patterns of resource management in Morocco

Dissertation Research Fellowships in the Social Sciences and Humanities Thomas Abowd, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Columbia University. Labor, resistance, and change in two Palestinian refugee camps Mark Baer, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Chicago. The Mu Iim-Jewi h community of Donme in the Ottoman Empire Stuart Borsch, Ph.D. candidate in history, Columbia University. The black death in Egypt and England: a comparative economic analy is Anita Fabos, Ph.D. candidate in cultural anthropology, 80 ton University. Minding your manner : gender ideology as an ethnic boundary marker for Sudanese immigrants Mark Levine, Ph.D. candidate in modem Middle Eastern hi tory, New York University. Re-imagining communities: a social and spatial history of Jaffa and Tel Aviv, 1909-1936 Josef Meri, Ph.D. candidate in Judeo-Islamic history, University of Oxford. Death, ritual, and knowledge in medieval Judeo-Islamic ociety Nancy Reynolds, Ph.D. candidate in Middle Eastern history, Stanford University. "Cultural commoditie ": department stores, gender and nationalism in Egypt: 1907-1961 Jonathan Shannon, Ph.D. candidate in cultural anthropology, The Graduate Center, City University of New York. The aesthetics of contemporary Arab mu ic performance in Egypt and Syria Sandra Sufian, Ph.D. candidate in modem Middle Eastern




History, New York University. The politics of health in mandate Palestine, 1920-1948 South Asia The following awards were made by the NMERTA Predis ertation Selection Committee, consisting of Sankaran Krishna, Todd Lewis, Ranjini Obeye ekere, and Jame Wescoat at its meeting on February 3, 1996. David Lelyveld and Peter Szanton served as staff for this program.

Predissertation Fellowships Rebecca Brown, Ph.D. candidate in art history, University of Minne ota, Minneapolis. Architecture and urban pace in Patna: the haping of a colonial mercantile city Gregory Grieve, Ph.D. candidate in the history of religion, University of Chicago. The practice of power in religiou architecture: the clash of development and traditional culture in the strategic use of Bhaktapur's temples Sarah Halvorson, Ph.D. candidate in geography, University of Colorado, Boulder. Water for fields and familie Heather Hindman, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Chicago. The production of nationalist discourse among the Newars of Nepal Paula Kantor, Ph.D. candidate in city and regional planning, Univer ity of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. Women's work in the informal sector: how policy inve tments in women impact the informal economy Niranjan Karnik, Ph.D. candidate in sociology, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign. World-making through crisi : refugees, adole cence, and cycles of violence Sharon Littlefield, Ph.D. candidate in art history, Univer ity of Minne ota. Jahangir and Shah Abbas: Indo-Iranian cultural exchange in the 17th century Clyde Long, Ph.D. candidate in South Asian languages and civilization , University of Chicago. Tamil identity through Bharatida an Rama Mantena, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Colonial governance and the u es of history: the emergence of historical narrative in Briti h India Kimberly Masteller, Ph.D. candidate in art history, Ohio State University. Inside the inner circle: a study of the Yogini temple of India


Brian Mooney, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. The con truction of an ideology of law in an Indian I lamic court Shara Neidell, Ph.D. candidate in ociology, University of Penn ylvania. Women' autonomy and contraceptive use: a village tudy Shankar Ramaswami, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Chicago. Science, tati m, and the oteriology of development: the making of the Green Revolution in India Parna Sengupta, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Cry tallizing categories and (re) casting identities: mi ionaries and local in East Bengal

Dissertation Fellowships The following awards were made by the Joint Committee on South A ia-Jame Boyce (chair), Amrita Basu, Radhika Coomaraswamy, Nicholas Dirks, Shelley Feldman, David Ludden, Jonathan Parry, Sheldon Pollack, Gyan Prakash, and Su ie Tharu at its meeting on March 23-25, 1996. David Lelyveld and Peter Szanton erved as taff for this program. Amy Bard, Ph.D. candidate in Middle Eastern and A ian languages, Columbia University. Text and performance: classical marsiyah in modem-day maj/is William Glover, Ph.D. candidate in architecture, University of California, Berkeley. Making Lahore modem: reconfiguring the urban land cape in turn-ofthe-century South Asia Su an Hangen, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Wi con in, Madi on. The con truction of Mongol identity through repre entation of the pa t: the mobilization of ethnic politics in east Nepal Shah Hanifi, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Tran -frontier trade and social change: Hindkowan and Pashtun in Pe hawar. 152fr1917 Matthew Hull. Ph.D. candidate in anthropology. University of Chicago. New indigenous communitie : built form and social practice in I lamabadlRawalpindi Scott Levi, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Wiscon in, Madi on. Indo-Turani commerce and culture. 1600-1800 (Recipient of the Louis Dupree Prize for Research on Central Asia) Farina Mir, Ph.D. candidate in history, Columbia University. Recovering Punjabi identity: locating language in a regional culture 6O\ITEMS

Sufia Uddin, Ph.D. candidate in Asian and Middle East tudie • Univer ity of Pennsylvania. Islam in Banglade h: an examination of Bengali Qur'an commentary and their normative influence Abraham Zablocki. Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Cornell University. New Buddhi t monasteries in Nepal: local and global processes of religious change

Bangladesh Fellowship Program The following awards were made by the Banglade h Committee-Jame Boyce. Shelley Feldman, Paul Greenough at its meeting on January 20. 1996. David Lelyveld and Peter Szanton erved as staff for thi program.

Bangladesh Fellowship Program. Predissertation Awards Fahimul Quadir. Ph.D. candidate in political science, Dalhou ie University. Democracy, development, and civil ociety in Banglade h: the que t for a new praxis for u tainability Rahim Quazi. Ph.D. candidate in economics, University of lIIinoi • Urbana-Champaign. Foreign aid and the Bangladeshi economy: cause of the failure of the aid regime and future economic growth without aid Jon Wit on, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology. New School for Social Research. The government of religion: a social history of the Briti h administration of Mu lim personal law in Dhaka and Mymemsingh districts, 1829-1872

Bangladesh Fellowship Program. Dissertation Awanls Semanti Gho h. Ph.D. candidate in history, Tufts University. Modernity and nationalism in colonial and po t-colonial Bengal. 1905-1971 Prashanta Tripura. Ph.D. candidate in ocial anthropology, University of Su sex. Ecology. ethnicity and coloniali m in the Chittagong hill tracts of Banglade h Southeast Asia The following award were made by the Joint Committee on Southeast A ia-Barbara Andaya, Richard Doner, Charle Hirschman. Jomo K.S.• Hy Van Luong, Hendrik Maier. Vicente Rafael. Craig Reynold • Teruo Sekimoto. and Anna T ing-at its meeting on AprilS-tO. 1996. David Lelyveld and Julia Cole served as staff for this program. VOLUME

50. NUMBERS '1J3

Dissertation Fellowships

Andrew Abalahin, Ph.D. candidate in Southeast Asian hj tory, Cornell University. Prostitution, policy, and the emergence of modem society: a comparison of the Philippine and the Netherlands Indies, 185~1942 Michael DiGregorio, Ph.D. candidate in urban planning, University of California, Lo Angele . Migrant trades in the Red River delta: a study of rural-urban linkage in contemporary Vietnam Anne Hansen, Ph.D. candidate in Buddhist tudie, Harvard University. The way of the world: narrative and ethical reflect jon in Southeast Asian Buddhi m (Cambodia) Emily Harwell, Ph.D. candidate in environmental studies,Yale University. The politics of inclu ion: natural re ource rules and claim in Indone ian Borneo Ann Marie Leshkowich, Ph.D. candidate in ocial anthropology, Harvard Univer ity. Tightly woven threads: gender, capital, and kin hip in Ho Chi Minh City' c10thjng and textjle markets Jan Mrazek, Ph.D. candidate in history of Southeast Asian art, Cornell University. Performance technique of the shadow puppet theater in contemporary Java: contemplations on the making of theatrical effects

Soviet Union and Its Succes or States The following awards were made by the Joint Committee on the Soviet Union and Its Succe or States-Jack L. Snyder (chair), W. Rogers Brubaker, Laura Engelstein, Richard E. Ericson, Anastasia Po adskaya, Philip Roeder, Daniel B. Rowland, Stephanie Sandler, M. Nazif Shahrani, and Frank Sysyn-at its meetjng on March 29-30, 1996. The committee was as isted by a creening committee: Brian Silver (chair), Marjorie Balzer, Monika Greenleaf, Joel Hellman, Janet Martin, and Mark Steinberg. Su an Bronson and Lisa Walker erved a taff to the program. Dissertation Fellowships

Hilary B. Appel, Ph.D. candidate in international relations, University of Pennsylvania. The political and ideological determinants of property rights formation : the case of Russia and the Czech Republic Catherine Atwell, Ph.D. candidate in history, Stanford University. Popular religion in provincial Rus ia: the Yaroslavl' region in the 18th century


Judith Lumina Chase, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Columbia Univer ity. Parliamentary oversight and the law: legi lative-executive relations in post-communist tates, 1991-1994 Sarah Simrall Cover, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of California, Berkeley. Contrasting conception : popular and elite approaches to illness in Mo cow and Smolensk, 1864-1914 Francine R. Hirsch, Ph.D. candidate in history, Princeton University. The Soviet Union as a work-in-progress: ethnographers and the making of the multjnational state and ociety, 1924-1939 John D. Kachur, Ph.D. candidate in literature, University of Pittsburgh. Di juncture and connections: Vladimir Makanin and the literature of tagnation and pere troika Paula A. Michael , Ph.D. candidate in history, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. Shamans and surgeon : folk medicine and the politics of health care in Soviet Kazakh tan, 1928-1941 Margaret Paxson, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Universite de Montreal. Speaking the past in rural Ru ia: a di cursive, ymbolic analysis of Russians' repre entations of their history Stephen H. Rapp, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Michigan. Tradition made and remade: the images of kingship in medieval Georgian historical literature Thomas R. Trice, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of IIIinoi , Urbana-Champajgn. The "body" politic: Rus ian funeral and the politics of representation, 1841-1929

Western Europe Dissertation Fellowships

The following awards were made by the Joint Committee on Western Europe-Peter Lange (chair), Barry Eichengreen, Go ta E ping-Andersen, Jan Gold tein, Heinz-Gerhard Haupt, Adam Przeworski, Marino Regini, Susan Carol Rogers, and Debora Silverman-at it meeting on April 12-13, 1996. The committee was a si ted by a creening committee-Sarah Farmer, Timothy Guinnane, Catharine Kudlick, Anthony Ma i, Gary McDonogh, Jane Nadel-Klein, Christopher Reed, Peter Swen on, and Eric David Weitz. Kenton W. Worcestor and Ju tjn J.W. Powell serve as staff for this program.


Maria Baader, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Columbia University. Inventing bourgeoi Judai m: gender, Bi/dung, and religion in Germany, 1800-1870 Falu Bakrania, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Stanford University. Re-fusing identitie : young Asian-Brits and the politics of popular culture Martha Easton, Ph.D. candidate in ociology, University of Minnesota. Norway again t the European union: democratic in titutions and the politic of identity (Award was funded by a special grant from the Delegation of the European Commi ion) Morgan Hall, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Columbia University. Modernization and cri i in Spain: the role of the Spanish ari tocracy, 1875-1936 Maria Mo ley, Ph.D. candidate in political cience, Duke University. Domestic in titution and international capital markets: the relation hip between government partian hip and capital flow Sean O'Riain, Ph.D. candidate in ociology, University of California, Berkeley. The limits of localism: global production and local ocial relation in the Irish information technology indu try Gary Richard on, Ph.D. candidate in economic , University of California, Berkeley. In urance in titution in England: 850-1850 Carla Valle, Ph.D. candidate in political cience, Harvard University. Between ociety and the (Deep Blue) tate: the end of the center-left partie and the collapse of the Italian regime Su an Waller, Ph.D. candidate in art hi tory, Northwe tern University. Artists and models in Paris: 1830-1900 Charles Walton, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Princeton University. Reshaping commercial life in the French Revolution Anne Wren, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Harvard University. Institutional choice and labor market di tributional outcome in We tern Europe

Robin on (chair), Paul Collier, Dennis D. Cordell, Mamadou Diouf, Paula Girshick, Bogumil Jew iewicki, Eileen Julien, Peter D. Little, and Catharine Newbury-at it meeting on March 3, 1996. The committee was assisted by a screening committee-Jean Allman, Donald Donham, Pauline Peters. Richard Waller, Jennifer Widner, and a election committee-Edmond Keller, Sara Berry, Michael Bratton, Iris B. Berger, James McCann, Enid Schildkrout, and Aliko Songolo. Ronald Kas imir and Nnennaya Okezie erved as taff for thi program.

Advanced Grants for Area and Comparative Training and Research



The following award were made by the China Fellow hip Selection Committee (administered by the American Council of Learned Societies}-Peter K. Bol (Chair). Parks M. Coble, Thomas B. Gold, Shu-min Huang, Theodore Huters, Robert Hymes, Thomas H.C. Lee, Steven I. Levine, Victor H. Mair-at its meeting on

Advanced Research Grants The following advanced re earch grants were awarded by the Joint Committee on African Studie -Pearl T.


Paul Berliner, profes or of ethnomu icology, Northwe tern University. An ethnomusicological study of tran mis ion, creativity, and change in Zimbabwe's Mbira music community: 1971-1996 Jonathon Gla man, a sociate profe or of history, Northwe tern University. The intellectual background of the Zanzibar Revolution, 1914-1964 Piero Gleijeses. profe or of political science, Johns Hopkin University. Cuba's policy toward Africa: from Algeria to the Horn, 1959-1978 Norma Jean Kriger, a sociate profe or of political science, John Hopkin Univer ity. Reintegrating former Guerillas in Zimbabwe Fran~oise Lionnet, as ociate profes or of French, Northwestern University. Dissonant echoes: education, de ire, and di avowal in po tcolonial Francophone literature Mohamed Mbodj, associate profes or of history, Columbia University. The emergence of national identitie : the Gambia, 1817-1965 Robert Nixon, associate profe sor of English, Columbia Univer ity. South African literature and the culture of cen orship N. Frank Ukadike, a i tant profe or of film and video tudieslAfroamerican and African tudies, University of Michigan. African video "film" production: the emergence of a new cultural art in Ghana

Postdoctoral Fellowships


50, NUMBERS 213

April 14-15, 1996. Jason H. Parker and Ruth Waters served as staff for this program. All recipients are Chiang Ching-kuo FoundationlACLS Fellows supported by funding received from the Chiang Ching-kuo Foundation. Linsun Cheng, assi tant profes or of history, University of Mas achusetts, Dartmouth. Entrepreneur hip, profe sional managers and the development of modern Chine e banks in the Republican Era Paul W. Kroll, profes or of Chinese literature, Univer ity of Colorado, Boulder. Divine ong and ver e revelations in medieval China Jerry Norman, profes or of Chinese language and linguistics, University of Washington, Seattle. A comparative study of the Min dialects Louis Putterman, profes or of economics, Brown University. Wages and productivity in China's industry under reform Gary W. Seaman, as ociate profe sor of anthropology, University of Southern California. A computer interactive study of the Rite of Co mic Renewal in Puli, Taiwan, Republic of China, 1972-1996 Shu-mei Shih, assi tant profe or of 20th century Chinese literature, University of California, Los Angeles. The national and the transnational: contemporary cultural production in Taiwan Rubie S. Watson, senior lecturer in anthropology, Harvard University. Sons and daughters: Hong Kong families on . the eve of communist rule

East Asia Regional Research Working Group The following awards were made by the East Asia Regional Research Working Group (EARRWG)-Stephan Haggard (Chair), Mary Brinton, William L. Parish, Uchang Kim, and Dae-Sook Suh-at its meeting on April 15, 1996. Mary Byrne McDonnell and Angie Lam served as staff for this program.

Research Planning Grants George C. Alter, associate professor of history and director of the Population Institute, Indiana University, for a workshop on family systems and demographic responses to economic tress Margo Rey-Okazawa, associate professor of social work, San Francisco State University, for a planning meeting




on the goals, strategies, and effectiveness of grassroots organizing in support of women and children affected by U.S. military presence in Okinawa, Korea, and the Philippines Patricia A. O'Brien, professor of history and director, University of California Humanities Research Institute; Gail Her hatter, professor of history and co-director, Center for Cultural Studies, University of California, Santa Cruz, for a conference on colonialism, nationali m, and modernity in East Asia Su an Jean Thompson, visiting assistant professor of sociology, Dartmouth College, for a planning meeting on agro-food sy terns in Ea t and Southeast Asia

Eastern Europe Postdoctoral Fellowships The following awards were made by the Joint Committee on Eastern Europe (administered by the American Council of Learned Socielies}-Norman M. Naimark (chair), Ivo Banac, Jo ef C. Brada, Valerie J. Bunce, David A. Frick, Victor A. Friedman, Susan Gal, Jan Gro ,Elemer Hankiss, Beth Holmgren, Michael D. Kennedy, and Vesna Pusic-at its meeting on May 9-10, 1996. Jason H. Parker and Ruth Waters served as staff for this program. Donna A. Buchanan, assistant professor of music and ethnomu icology, New York University. Performing democracy: the aesthetics and politics of change in Bulgarian mu ical culture John F. Connelly, a istant profe or of history, University of California, Berkeley. Creating the socialist elite: communist higher education policies in the Czech Lands, East Germany, and Poland, 1945-56 Martha Lampland, as ociate profes or of sociology, University of California, San Diego. The social constraints on economic transitions: labor productivity in Hungarian agriculture, 1940-1960 Howard P. Louthan, assistant professor of history, University of Notre Dame. Converting the Czechs: Catholicism in 17th century Bohemia Maryjane 0 a, assistant professor of government, Univer ity of South Carolina. Catholic activism, protest, and Solidarity in Poland, 1956-1993 Larry Wolff, professor of history, Boston College. Venice and Dalmatia in the Age of Enlightenment: colonialism, orientalism, and the Slavs of Eastern Europe



Research Planning Grants

The following award were made by the Joint Committee on Japane e Studies-TJ. Pempel (chair), Theodore C. Be tor, Mary C. Brinton, Andrew Gordon, Irmela Hijiya-Kirschnereit, Hideo Otake, and Henry D. Smith at its meeting on May 9-11, 1996. The committee was as i ted by a selection committee: Theodore C. Be tor (chair), Irmela Hijiya-Kirschnereit, Gary Allinson, Keith Brown, and Frances Rosenbluth. Mary Byrne McDonnell, Sheri Rani ,and Marjorie Huang served as taff for this program.

Theodore C. Be tor, profe or of anthropology, Cornell University. (I) Comparative research methods: field re earch in Japan. (2) Con umption and identity in Japan Andrew Gordon, profe or of hi tory, Harvard University. Hi tory of the Joint Committee on Japanese Studie Hideo Otake, profe sor of political science, Kyoto Univer ity. A comparative tudy of French and Japane e politic TJ. Pempel, profe or of political science, University of Washington. Politicaltran ition in Japan Henry Smith, profe or of history, Columbia University. The urban built environment: architecture, modernization, and national identity in A ia

Advanced Research Grants Andrew Bar hay, as ociate profe or of hi tory, University of California, Berkeley. Science and culture in Japane e capitali m, 1945-2000 Mary Elizabeth Berry, profe or of hi tory, University of California, Berkeley. The code of strangers: cartography and the information culture in early modern Japan Prasenjit Duara, profe or of hi tory, University of Chicago. Japane e colonial discourse and Chine e identitie : the case of Manchukuo, 1932-1945 James Akira Fujii, associate profe or of East Asian language and literature, University of California, Irvine. A ia in Imperial Japan: colonialism and the culture of public phere Sheldon Garon, profe or of hi tory and East A ian tudie , Princeton University. Molding a culture of "diligence and thrift": aving and frugality campaigns in 20th-century Japan Yuko Kawani hi, as ociate project director, School of Medicine, University of California, Lo Angeles. Coping by familie of the mentally ill and their interaction with ocial structure: a United State -Japan comparative tudy Robert Kidder, profes or of ociology, Temple University. The organization of legal service in po t-quake Kobe William W. Kelly, profes or of anthropology, Yale University. You gotta have guts: ideologie and institution of Japanese profe ional baseball Gary Leupp, as ociate profe or of hi tory, Tufts University. Workshop laborers in Tokugawa Japan Robert Uriu, assistant profe or of political science, Columbia University. Do ideas matter? The interaction of power, intere ts, and ideas in U. S.-Japan trade relation


Korea The following award were made by the Joint Committee on Korean Studie -Clark Sorensen (chair), Hyoung Cho, Chae-Jin Lee, and David R. McCann-at its meeting on February II, 1996. Mary Byrne McDonnell, Sheri Rani , and Marjorie Huang erved as staff for this program.

Advanced Research Grants Michael Seth, as i tant professor of history, Phillip University. Education, tate and ociety in South Korea, 1945-1971 Hyung-I1 Pai, as i tant profe or of hi tory and East Asian cultural studie , University of California, Santa Barbara. The museum in the recon truction of the ancient past: conte ted monuments, colonial memories, and the manipulation of national identity in Korea and Japan Sheila Miyo hi Jager, re earch associate, Center for East A ian Studie , University of Kan as. Women and the word: reading, re i tance, and romance in colonial Korea Doh C. Shin, profe sor of political science, University of Illinois. The democratization of mass politic and culture in Korea: a global perspective

Research Planning Grant Larry Burmei ter, as ociate profe sor of sociology,



University of Kentucky. Reexamining East A ian land refonn: cia s and culture in action

Latin America

Lu tick, Fedwa Malti-Douglas, and Sevket Pamuk. The committee was a i ted by a Po tdoctoral Screening Committee: Resat Kasaba (chair), Donna Lee Bowen, Hasan Kayali, Farhad Kazemi, and Judith Tucker. Steven Heydemann and Jennifer Henderson served as staff for this program.

Advanced Research Grants The Joint Committee on Latin American Studie -Paul Drake (Chair), Alice Rangel de Paiva Abreu, Victor Bulmer-Thomas, Carlo Ivan Degregori, Evelyne Huber, Bryan Roberts, Fernando Rojas, Hilda Sabato, and Cynthia Steele-awarded grants to the following individuals. Eric Hershberg, Alexandra Cordero, and Su ana E pa a erved as taff for this program. Laura Enriquez, a i tant profe or of ociology, Univer ity of California, Berkeley. Rural re pon e to economic crisis in Cuba and Nicaragua Carlo Fonnent, as i tant profes or of politic and ociology, Princeton University. Society and politic in 19thcentury Cuba Peter Guardino, assistant profes r of hi tory, Indiana University. Popular political culture in Oaxaca, 1750-1850 F10rencia Mallon, profes or of hi tory, University of Wi con in, Madi on. The role of the South in the fonnation of the Chilean tate, 1881-1993 Jeffrey Needell, as ociate profe or of history, Univer ity of Florida, Gaine ville. Slavery, monarchy, and the Conservatives' con lrUction of the Brazilian tate, 1831-1871 Manuel Pastor, as ociate profe or of economic , Occidental College. Trade liberalization, macroeconomic refonn, and economic development in Argentina and Mexico Ileana Rodriguez, a ociate profe or of Spani h, Ohio State University. The gene i of discursive practice in the colonial new world order Orin Stam, as i tant profe or of anthropology, Duke University. Po twar renewal of peasant life in Andean Peru Steve Stem, profe or of hi tory, Univer ity of Wiscon in, Madison. Struggles over memory in the remaking of Chile, 1973-1998

Near and Middle East The following awards were made by the Joint Committee on the Near and Middle East-Joel Migdal (chair), Juan Cole, Leila Fawaz, Deniz Kandiyoti, Ian J



Mid-Career Skills Enrichment Fellowships for Tenured Faculty Walter Kaegi, profe or of history, University of Chicago. The Muslim conque t of North Africa and its aftennath Shaun Mannon, assistant profe or of hi tory, Princeton Univer ity. The quality of mercy: interce ion and social status in late medieval Egypt Postdoctoral Fellowships in Underrepresented Disciplines Michael Bonine, profe or of geography, University of Arizona. Environmental ustainability and the melropoIi of I tanbul Jamil Ragep, as ociate profe or of hi tory of cience, Univer ity of Oklahoma. The intellectual, institutional, and ocial context of Islamic scientific cosmography Yas er Tabbaa, as i tant profe or of history of art and architecture, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. The medieval I lamic ho pital: in titutional and architectural hi tory Keith Walter, a i tant profes or of lingui tics, Univer ity of Texa ,Au tin. Code switching and diglo sic witching in Tuni ia: language contact, social change, and the political economy of language Postdoctoral Fellowships in the Social Sciences and Humanities Walter Annbru t, a i tant profe or of anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Egyptian cinema in the 1960: ocial history of a public sector institution Dirk Vandewalle, as i tant profe sor of political science, Dartmouth College. Resource booms and politics of economic policymaking: Libya, Indonesia, Morocco, Nigeria, and Yemen Jenny White, a i tant profes or of social anthropology, Univer ity of Nebraska, Omaha. Rethinking civil society: reciprocal foundations for civic action in urban Turkey Madeline Zilfi, a ociate profe or of history, University of Maryland. Seculari m and identity in the early modem Middle Ea t: religion, cia ,and gender in Ottoman Itanbul, 1703-1774


South Asia

Univer ity ofWa hington. Exorci ing representations: narration and politic in Javane e dramatic practice

Postdoctoral Fellowships The following award were made by the Joint Committee on South A ia- Jame Boyce (chair), Amrita Basu, Radhika Coomaraswamy, Nicholas Dirk , Shelley Feldman, David Ludden, Jonathan Parry, Sheldon Pollack, Gyan Prakash, and Su ie Tharu. David Lelyveld and Peter Szanton erved a taff for this program. Sum ita S. Chakravarty, core faculty in communication , The New School for Social Re earch. Coloniali m' other face: the reception of vi ual technologies in India, 1850-1930 Nilanjana Chatterjee, as i tant profe or of anthropology, Queen College, City University of New York. Cro ing boundarie : refugee women , work, and identity in Calcutta Stacy L. Pigg, as i tant profe or of anthropology, Simon Fraser University. The production of public knowledge about AIDS in Nepal Sumathi Ramaswamy, as i tant profe sor of hi tory, University of Pennsylvania. Empire of geography: Lemuira and the geographical imagination in colonial outh India Su an A. Reed, adjunct a istant profe or of anthropology and as i tant director, In titute for Global Studie in Culture, Power and Hi tory, John Hopkin University. Dance and the nation: art and the politic of performance in Sri Lanka

Southeast Asia Advallced Research Grants The following awards were made by the Joint Committee on Southeast A ia-Barbara Andaya, Richard Doner, Charle Hirschman, Jomo K.S., Hy Van Luong, Hendrik Maier, Vicente Rafael, Craig Reynold , Teruo Sekimoto, and Anna T ing-at it meeting on April 8-10, 1996. David Lelyveld and Julia Cole erved as taff for thi program.

Kay Mohlman, vi iting lecturer of ociology, University of IIIinoi , Chicago. Economy and dome ticity in the urban Philippine : Do indu try and commerce belong at home? John Pemberton, as i tant profe or of anthropology,


Soviet Union and its Succ

or States

The following po tdoctoral grants were awarded by the Joint Committee on the Soviet Union and Its Succe or State -Jack Snyder (chair), W. Rogers Brubaker, Laura Engel tein, Richard Eric on, Philip Roeder, Anastasia Po ad kaya, Daniel Rowland, Stephanie Sandler, M. Nazif Shahrani, Frank Sy yn-at its meeting on March 29, 1996. The committee was as i ted by a creening committee: Lewi Siegelbaum (chair), Olga Matich, Louise McReynolds, and Thomas Remington . Su an Bron on and Deborah Mo erved as taff for thi program. Advanced Research Grams John Bailyn, professor of Slavic language , State Univer ity of New York, Stony Brook. Linguistic theory and Slavic languages: the role of functional categories in acqui ilion and diachrony Benjamin Nathan, profe or of hi tory, Indiana University. Beyond the pale: the Jewi h encounter with Rus ia, 1840-1900 Robert Geraci, profe or of hi tory, Harvard University. Window on the Ea t: national and imperial identities in late T ari t Ru ia David Herman, profe or of Slavic languages, University of Virginia. Poverty of the imagination: 19th century Ru ian literature on the poor Anne Ne bet, profe or of language and literature, Univer ity of California, Berkeley. Picture thinking: cinema and the Soviet imagination in the age of Eisen tein Gerald Ea ter, profe or of political science, Miami University. Center-regional relation and tate building in po t-communi t Ru ia Institutional Support Programs In its twelfth national competition of grants to American in tiMe that offer inten ive training in the Ru sian and non-Ru ian language of the former Soviet Union, the Joint Committee on the Soviet Union and its Successor State, as i ted by a creening committee-Stephanie Sandler (chair), Michael Aier, Victor Friedman, Frank Miller, and Azade-Ay e Rorlich-made the following





award at its meeting on March 8, 1996. Su an Bron on and Deborah Moss served as taff for the program.

Russian Language Institutes in the United States Beloit College, Center for Language Studie Bryn Mawr College, Ru ian Language In titute Indiana Univer ity, Ru ian In titute The John Hopkin Univer ity, School of Advanced International Studie Middlebury College, Rus ian School Monterey Institute for International Studie ,Ru ian Program Norwich University, Ru ian School University of Iowa, Ru ian Program

Russian Language Institutes in Russia Univer ity of Arizona Council for International Educational Exchange Univer ity of Kentucky

Non-Russian Language Institutes ill the Ullited States Arizona State Univer ity, Tatar program Harvard Univer ity, Ukrainian program Indiana Univer ity, Georgian, Kazakh, Uzbek, and Turkmen Program University of California, Lo Angclc, Azcri program University of Illinois, Chicago, Lithuanian, and Latvian programs Univer ity of Washington, Kazakh, Kirghiz, Tajik, and Uzbek program

Non-Russian Language Institutes in the former Soviet Union Univer ity of Kansas, Ukrainian program

Other Programs Abe Fellow hip Program The following grants were awarded by the Abe Fellowship Program Commitlee-Takatoshi Imada, Merit Janow, Take hi Matsuda, Fred Notehelfer, Emiko OhnukiTierney, Richard Samuels, and Akihiko Tanaka-at its meeting on October 14-16, 1995. Mary Byrne McDonnell, Sheri Ranis, Mary Lea Cox, Jennifer Bourque, and Steven Wheatley served as staff for the Abe Fellow hip Program.

Muthiah Alagappa, enior fellow, Program on International Economic and Politic, East-West Center. Regional in titution and international ecurity: a theoretical inquiry Jay P. Choi, a istant profe sor, Department of Economics, Columbia University. International technology licensing in an integrated world economy Takahiro Fujimoto, a ociate profe sor, Faculty of Economic , Univer ity of Tokyo. A comparative tudy of dynamic capability building in the U.S., European, and Japane e automobile industrie: orne cases of product development and as embly operations Michael Gerlach, as ociate profe sor, Haas School of Bu ine s, University of California, Berkeley. Network organization in Japan and the United States Andrew Gordon, profe sor, Department of History, Harvard University. Comparative perspectives on po twar y tem of indu trial relations Akiko Hashimoto, as ociate profe or, Department of Sociology, Univer ity of Pitt burgh. Collective memories of World War II in Japan, Germany, and the United States Juichi Inada, as ociate profe or, Faculty of International Relations, Yamanashi University. Japan's role in the multilateral aid regime Bob John tone, contributing editor, Wired (San Franciscobased monthly magazine). Enabling components: Japane e entrepreneurs and the origins of multimedia Junko Kato, a ociate profe or, Department of Social Science, University of Tokyo. Party politics, economic performance, and tax revenue tructure in 18 advanced industrial countrie Satu P. Limaye, research fellow and head of program on South Asia, Japan In titute of International Affairs. U.S.-Japan relations with India after the cold war Takeshi Ma himo, profe sor, Department of Music, 0 aka College of Mu ic. A study on the pa t and present of American hi tory education on race and ethnic groups: a que t for hi tory education defined from a multicultural tandpoint Mark Medi h, pecial a i tant and counselor to the as i tant admini trator, Bureau for Europe and the new independent states, United State Agency for International Development. Comparative study of foreign assistance a an in lrument of foreign policy Patricia Robin on, a si tant profe or, Department of International Management, Stem School, New York


University. Down izing in Japan and America Mark Tilton, as i tant profe or, Department of Political Science, Purdue University. Competition policy in Japan, Germany, and the United State Kenneth We t, profe sor, Department of Economic , University of Wisconsin, Madison. As et prices, bu ine inve tment, and the rece ion in Japan: a comparative analy i Taketo hi Yamamoto, profe or, Faculty of Social Studie , Hitotsubashi University. MacArthur' media: cen orship in Occupied Japan

Berlin Program for Advanced German and European Studi The following doctoral di ertation and po tdoctoral research fellowships for a re idential year at the Free University of Berlin, were awarded by the joint U.S.German election committee of the Berlin Program for Advanced German and European Studie on April 18, 1996. Members of the American committee are: Charle Maier (chair), Peter Baldwin, Lily Gardner Feldman, Anton Kaes, and Herbert Kit chell. Kenton W. Worce tor and Justin J.W. Powell erved as staff for this program. Alon Contino, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, University of Virginia. Immaterial con umer good : tourism and the commercialization of the past in Germany, 1900-1990 Arthur Daemmrich, Ph.D. candidate in technology tudie , Cornell University. Pharmaceutical regulation: the science of politic and health in Germany and the United State Elizabeth Drummond, Ph.D. candidate in history, Georgetown University. German and Poli h protective ocietie before World War I Timothy Dowling, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Tulane University. Stalin tadt: a model for life in East Germany Robert Kahn, Ph.D. candidate in political science, The John Hopkins University. National legal culture, lructures, and rights protection: Holocau t denial and the law in Germany Mark Landsman, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Columbia University. From plan to purchase: con umption in East Germany, 1945- 1971 Eli Nathans, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, The John Hopkin University. Drawing the boundarie of the national community in Germany: 1871 - 1933 Bradden Weaver, Ph.D. candidate in political cience, Yale


University. Party organization and elite recruitment in the new federal Lallder Caroline Wiedmer, Ph.D. candidate in German Studie , University of Washington. Recon truction sites Jeffrey Wil on, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, University of Michigan. Nature and nation: environment and national identity in Germany, 1848- 1914

International Migration In April , the Committee on International Migration awarded fellow hip and grants based upon recommendation made by it predoctoral and po tdoctoral award committee . Members of the Committee on International Migration are: Charles Hirschman (chair), Alexander Aleinikoff, Robin Cohen, Nancy Foner, James Johnson, Demetrio Papademetriou, Alejandro Portes, Ruben Rumbaut, George Sanchez, Mary Waters, and Aristide Zolberg. Members of the predoctoral award committee are: Jame John on (cochair), George Sanchez (cochair), Maria Patricia Fernandez-Kelly, Margaret Gib on, John Mollenkopf, Abel Valenzuela, and Morrison Wong. Member of the po tdoctoral awards committee are: Nancy Foner (cochair), Mary Waters (cochair), Thomas E pen hade, Manuel Garcia y Griego, Victor Nee, Alice O'Connor, and Deborah Phillip. Jo h DeWind and Miah Arnold erved as taff for thi program.

Dissenatioll Research Fellowship Rafael Alarcon. Ph.D. candidate in city and regional planning. University of California. Berkeley. Immigration from Mexico and India. high technology and regional development in Silicon Valley Su an Blank. Ph.D. candidate in ocial relation , University of California, Irvine. Cultural orchestration: acculturation within a culturally diverse context Jennifer Hirsch, Ph.D. candidate in population dynamic and anthropology, The John Hopkin University. Migration, gender, sexuality and reproductive health: a comparative tudy of Mexican women in two communities Kathy Kaufman, Ph.D. candidate in ociology, Columbia University. Situation wanted: immigration, household demand and the dome tic ervice labor market, 1965-1985 Jee-Young Jennifer Lee, Ph.D. candidate in ociology, Columbia University. Immigrant entrepreneurs: opportunity lructure and intergroup relation Catherine Pet, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, University of


50, NUMBERS 213

California. Lo Angeles. The export of womanpower: Filipino nur eSt migration. work. and community in post-industrial America Minority Summer Dissertation Workshop

Michael Aguilera. Ph.D. candidate in sociology. State University of New York. Stony Brook. The social. political and economic effects on Mexican immigration Carol Archer. Ph.D. candidate in political cience. The Graduate Center. City Univer ity of New York. The development of a pan-ethnic identity among Caribbean immigrants in New York City and its effect on political and community participation Lionel Cantu. Ph.D. candidate in ociology. University of California. Irvine. Queer transgre ion : gay immigrants and the political economy of identity Je sica De Leon. Ph.D. candidate in anthropology. University of Florida. A new pha e of Hi panic migration: the structural and ociocultural factors of Puerto Rican migration to Central Florida Lourdes Gutierrez. Ph.D. candidate in anthropology and ocial work. University of Michigan. Ann Arbor. Gender. ethnicity. and tran national migrant circuits Melanie Heron. Ph.D. candidate in sociology. Pennsylvania State University. Changing Caribbean immigration patterns and immigrant adaptation: a migration y tem approach Richard Kim. Ph.D. candidate in hi tory. Univer ity of Michigan. Ann Arbor. Korean immigration to the United State. 1903-1945: the makings of a diasporic community Jeffrey Lewi • Ph.D. candidate in education. Univer ity of California. Davis. Tran national migration and the <><:ial con truction of childhood Alejandra Marchev kyo Ph.D. candidate in American culture. University of Michigan. Ann Arbor. The empire trikes back: international migration. border politics. and propo ition 187 Gina Perez. Ph.D. candidate in anthropology. Northwestern Univer ity. Rethinking Iran nationalism: race and gender considerations in Puerto Rican migrations Gaspar Rivera. Ph.D. candidate in ociology. University of California. Santa Cruz. Mixtec re istance to globalization and the tran nationalization of labor: the forging of a grassroots binational organization of indigenou migrant workers Gina Sanchez. Ph.D. candidate in anthropology.


University of Texas. Au tin. The negotiation of "racial" and cultural identity among Cape Verdean Americans Kimberly Simmons. Ph.D. candidate in anthropology. Michigan State University. International migration and the (re)clas ification of Dominicans: Dominicans create an Afro-Dominican identity in the company of African Americans in the United State Quynh-Giang Tran. Ph.D. candidate in ociology and population re earch. Pennsylvania State University. Impact of Vietname e community content on immigrant occupational status: relating ocial capital and human capital Maria Yen. Ph.D. candidate in city and regional planning. Univer ity of California. Berkeley. Poverty. survival. and pro perity in the Vietnamese refugee community Postdoctoral Research Fellowship

Jiemin Bao. re earch fellow of the Beatrice Bain Research GrouP. University of California. Berkeley. Marriage among ethnic Chine e in Bangkok: an ethnography of gender. exuality. and ethnicity over two generations Ingrid Ellen. re earch fellow of public policy. The Brooking In titution. Welcome neighbors?: race. immigration. and the po sibility of neighborhood integration Luin Goldring. as i tant profes or of sociology. York University. Membership. participation. and rights in the context of Mexico-U.S. transnational migration: changes in state claims and policies. and transmigrant practices Gallya Lahav. con ultant and re earch associate of political cience. Population Divi ion of the United Nations and Center for European Union Studies. The evolution of immigration policy in the United States and Europe since 1965: changing the gatekeepers or "bringing back the tate" Carmen Whalen. a istant professor of Puerto Rican and Hi panic Caribbean tudie and history. Rutgers Univer ity. From labor migrants to the "underclass": a history of Puerto Rican migration to Philadelphia Steven Zahnizer. undergraduate advisor and research as istant in economics. University of Colorado. Boulder. New approache and new i ues in the study of Mexican migration network Research Planning Grants

Denni Cordell. profe or of history. Southern Methodist University. The new Dallas immigrants. ethnic entrepreneur hip. and cultural diversity Jorge Duany. as ociate profe or of ociology and anthro-


pology, University of Puerto Rico. Circular migration between Puerto Rico and the United State : a tran national approach Ramon Gro foguel, as i tant profe or of ociology, State University of New York, Binghamton. Identity and citizen hip rights of colonial Caribbean migrants in the metropoli John Odland, profe or of geography, Indiana University. Planning meeting for transnational migration project

Sexuality Research Fellow hip Program Committee The following award were made by the Sexuality Re earch Fellowship Program Committee-John Gagnon and Anke Ehrhardt (cochairs), Lourdes Arguelle , John Bancroft, Jacqueline Forre t, John Fout, Gilbert Herdt, and Beth Richie-at its meeting on March I, 1996. Diane di Mauro and Mirja Pitkin erved as taff for thi program.

Dissertation Fellowships Sharon Abbott, ociology and women' studie, Indiana University. The production of pornography: a te t of organizational theory in the ex indu try. Advisor: Martin S. Weinberg Elizabeth Arm trong, ociology, exuality, organizations, and culture, University of California, Berkeley. Multiplying identitie : identity elaboration in San Francisco' Ie bian/gayorganization , 1964-1994. Advisor: Ann Swidler David Behan, anthropology, New York University. Sexuality and gender in two New York City trans exuaVtransgender communitie . Advisor: Shirley Lindenbaum Wayne Brekhus, ociology, Rutgers Univer ity. Chameleons by day, peacocks by night: guppies (gay yuppie) in uburbia. Advisor: Cathy Stein Greenblat Lionel Cantu, ociology, University of California, Irvine. Queer tran gre sions: gay immigrants and the political economy of identity. Advisor: Nancy Naple Elizabeth Clement, history, University of Pennsylvania. Trick or treat: pro titution and working-cia women' sexual morality in New York City from 1900-1940. Advisor: Carroll Smith-Rosenberg Su an Dalton, sociology, University of California, Santa Barbara. Legal actors and the con truction of the problematic homosexual parent: thirty years of child custody case and the reproduction of heteronormativity. Advisor: Ken Plummer


Robyn Kliger, medical anthropology, University of California, Berkeley. The recovered memory controversy: contemporary understanding of sexuality. Advisor: Laura Nader Fernando Ona, medical anthropology, University of California, San Franci co. A formation of community among A ianlPacific I lander gay youth in an era of HlY/AIDS. Advisor: Lawrence Cohen Patricia Pugliani, ociology, State University of New York, Stony Brook. HIY/AIDS: impact zone of an epidemic. Advisor: John Gagnon Djuana Stoakley, p ychology, New York University. Ecological influence on adolescent sexual behavior. ,Advisor: Frank Furstenberg, Jr.

Postdoctoral Fellowships: Cindy Me ton, p ychology and behavioral ciences, University of Washington. Childhood sexual abuse and the cognitive organization of the sexual self. Advisor: Julia Rue Heiman Joanne Meyerowitz, hi tory, University of Cincinnati. Changing sex: tran exuality in the United States, 1945-1970. Advisor: John Bancroft Lucia O'Sullivan, p ychology, Columbia University. Determinants of sexual ocialization in girls. Advisor: Heino F. L. Meyer-Bahlburg

SSRC-MacArthur Foundation Fellow hips on Peace and Security in a Changing World The Committee on International Peace and SecurityLawrence Freedman (chair), Lynn Eden, Jean Bethke EI htain, Takashi Inoguchi, Peter Katzenstein, Atul Kohli, Samuel Nolutshungu, Su anne H. Rudolph, Steven Smith, Phjlip Tetlock, and Frank von Hippel-voted to award the following SSRC-MacArthur Foundation Fellowships in Peace and Security in a Changing World at its meeting on March 2 I-22, 1996. Arun P. Elhance, Steven Heydemann, Robert Latham, Daniel Chiplock, Allison Lichter, and Lucinda Rosenfeld erved as staff for this program.

Dissertation Fellowships The committee was as i ted by a ubcommiuee-Hugh Gu terson (chair), Jonathan Friedman, Janice Gro Stein, Sheila Jasanoff, Michael Klare, and Mahmoud Mamdanifor these award .


50, NUMBERS 213

Tarak Barkawi, Ph.D. candidate in political science, University of Minnesota. The constitution of force beyond borders Kanchan Chandra, Ph.D. candidate in political cience, Harvard University. Elite choice in multi-ethnic societie Shi Roh, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Columbia University. Ethnic mobilization on the borders of the Chinese empire Amy Ross, Ph.D. candidate in geography, University of California, Berkeley. Human rights, political transitions and truth commi sions: confronting the past and creating the future in new democracies Srirupa Roy, Ph.D. candidate in political cience, University of Pennsylvania. Divided we tand: the politics of diver ity and identity in po t-independent India Daniel We sner, Ph.D. candidate in international relations, University of Denver. Free political participation: as ociation and expre sion in Vietnam's culture Postdoctoral Fellowships The committee was a sisted by a screening committee-R.B.J. Walker (chair), Meredith Woo-Cuming , Carolyn Nordstrom, Diana Liverman, Martin Shaw, and Steve Fetter-for the e awards. Abiodun Alao, lecturer in war studies, King's College, London. Diamond , iron, and civil war in Sierra Leone and Liberia: the interrelationship between mining and conflict in West Africa Cecelia Lynch, assistant profe sor of political science, Northwestern University. Religion and international intervention Ramana Mani, postdoctoral fellow in physics, University of Toronto. India's participation in a Ii sile material production cutoff convention Francois Nsengiyumva, freelance journalist, Washington, D.C. The Rwandan crisis: a puzzle to the international community Darini Rajasingham, senior lecturer, Open University of Sri Lanka. Beyond return?: reconceptualizating internally displaced people in the security orders of the international system and Sri Lanka Eileen Scully, assistant professor of history, Princeton University. Servitude in the global village: indentured labor and the American-Asia Pacific community International Peace and Security

The Committee on International Peace and Security also

Ju ElSEP'reMBER 1996

made the following awards in 1995-1996: Research Workshops Peter Andreas, Cornell University and H. Richard Friman, Marquette University. Liberal internationalism, the state, and the illicit global economy Amy GurowilZ, Cornell University and Chris Reus-Smil, Monesh University. Cataly ts of change: non- tate actors, international social norms, and state behavior in new i ue-areas Visiting Scholar Fellowships The committee was as isted by a subcommitteeCatherine Boone, Jeffrey Taylor Checkel, Peter M. Lewis, S. Neil MacFarlane, and Martha Brill Olcott-for the following awards. Mu a Abutudu, (Nigeria), political science, University of Benin. Confronting political shock: civil society and the annulment of the 1993 presidential election in Nigeria Orner El Garrai, (Egypt), economics and social anthropology, Cairo Institute for Human Rights. The position of peace and ecurity under Islamic state (Sudan as a case tudy) Ikechukwu (Aike) Iyioke, (Nigeria), political science, The Guardian Ltd., Lago . The shrinking vegetation: potential and consequences-a case of Nigeria's smoldering animal pastures Maria Koroknai, (Romania), sociolinguistics, University of Bucharest. The Hungarian minority groups in countries neighboring Hungary-a potential threat for stability north of Bosnia Simon Mawondo, (Zimbabwe), philosophy, University of Zimbabwe. Human rights discourse, ethnic conflicts, and state overeignty Cyril Obi, (Nigeria), political science, Institute of International Affairs, Lagos. Oil, environmental conflict, and national security in Nigeria: ramification of the ecology-security nexus for sub-regional peace Peter Otim, (Uganda), sociology, Center for Basic Research, Kampala. Pastoralism and violence: the case of Karamoja Aghasi Yenokian, (Armenia), political science and business administration. Armenian Center for National and International Studies, Yerevan. Conflict resolution and cooperation among international organizations


Grants Received by the Council in 1995-96 A summary of grants received during the year ending June 30, 1996* Asia Capital Fund

Japan Foundation

Fall meeting of Project LINK


Can dian International Development Agency Fall meeting of Project LINK


Collaborative network for research on tran ition to democracy in Africa (Joint Committee on African Studie )




Ford Foundation SI,OOO,OOO





• Docs not include "in kind" grant ; that i • support or travel. hotel. received by Council committee in the conrerence. and imilar expen ronn or direct paymenll by other organization. .



SSRC-Mellon Minority Undergraduate Fellow hip Program and annual ummer conference SI,975,OOO SSRC-Mellon Minority Undergraduate Fellow hip Program summer conference S8,OOO International Di ertation Field Research Fellow hip Program 1,000,000 International po tdoctoral fellow hip


Fellow hip for training and re earch in Africa (Joint Committee on African Studie ) A tudy on attitude toward abolition of nuclear weapon among American nuclear trategi ts



Swed' h Agency for Research Cooperation with Developing Countries Political economy of water in South A ia: rural and urban action and interaction (Joint Committee on South A ia)


U.S. Department of State

German Marshall Fund of the United States Berlin Program for Advanced German and European Studie

A tudy of the involvement of foundation and other NGO in foreign affairs

Rockefeller Foundation

German-American Academic Council Young Scholars' In titute Program, 1996-1999 (Joint Committee on We tern Europe)


National Endowment for the Humanities 500,000

Ford FoundationlInstitute of International Education Follow-up activitie to conference on political tran ition in Africa (Joint Committee on African Studie )

Advanced re earch on Japan (Joint Committee on Japanese Studie )

Andrew W. Mellon Foundation

Center for European Studi ,Harvard University

Sexuality Research Fellow hip Program Dissertation field re earch fellow hip in international/area studie Re earch and training on the re tructuring of Central American politic and economies in the 1990 (Joint Committee on Latin American Studie )

S309,509 $4,054,394

Alton Jones Foundation

Comm' ion of the European Union

New Europe Project (Joint Committee on We tern Europe)

Japan Foundation Center for Global Partnership

Japan-United States Friendship Commission 10,000

Chiang Ching-kuo Foundation for International Scholarly Exchange

Di sertation field re earch upport in 1996 (Joint Committee on We tern Europe)

S31 ,615

Abe Fellow ' Conference Abe Fellowship Program

Carnegie Corporation

Conference on economic governance and flexible production in East A ia

Dissertation workshop on Japan (Joint Committee on Japanese Studies)

Ru ian, Eurasian, and East European Studie fellow hip program for graduate training, dis ertation completion, po tdoctoral research, and language in titutes (Joint Committee on the Soviet Union and Its Succe sor States)


SI ,300,OOO

50, N UMBERS 2J3

u.s. Information Agency Near and Middle

Wenner-Gren Foundation

East Research and Training Act (NMERTA) Predoctoral fellowship program (Joint Committee on the Near and Middle East) Postdoctoral fellowship program (Joint Committee on the Near and Middle East) Predoctoral foreign language and area studies fellowship (Joint Committee on South Asia)






Support for anthropological re earch on violence against women: victims and ideologies (Joint Committee on South Asia) Conference on Cultures of Biomedicine (Committee on Culture, Health, and Human Development) Total:


$15,000 $12,900,055



FAX (212) 377·2727

The Council was incorporated in the State of minois. December 27. 1924, for the purpose of advancing research in the social sciences. Nongovernmental and interdisciplinary in nature, the Council appoints commi/lees of scholars which seek to achieve the Council's purpose through the generation of new ideas and the training of scholars. The activities of the Council are supponed primarily by grants from private foundations and go~mment agencies. Directon, 1996-97: PAUL B. BALTES. Max Planck In tiMe for HUITl3ll Development and Education (Berlin); ROBERT H. BATES. Harvard University; IRIS B. BERGER, Slale University of New York. Albany; NANCY BIRO Au.. Inler·American Development Bank; ALBERT FtsHLOW. Council on Foreign Relation; SUSAN F1SKI!, University of Massachusetts, Amherst; Su AN HAN , Clark University; BARBARA HEY S. New York University; SHIRLEY LINDENBAUM. The Graduate Center. City University of New York; KENNElll PREwrrr. Social Science Research Council; JOEL SHERZER. University of Texas, Au tin; BURTON H. SINGER, Princeton University; NEIL SMELSER. Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences; KENNElll W. WACKTER. University of California. Berkeley; MICHELLE J. WHITE, University of Michigan. Ann Arbor. OJIicen and Staff: KENNETH PREwrrr. President; KRISTINE DAHLBERG. Chief Financial Officer; GLORIA KIRCHHEIMER. Editor; KAREN BRADUNAS. Manager of Human Resources and General Administration; ITTY ABRAHAM, SUSAN BRONSON. JOSH DEW, 0, DIANE DI MAURO, ARUN P. ELHANcE. ERIC HERSHBERG. S11!VEN HEYDEMANN, RON KAssIMIR. FRANK KESSEL, ROBERT LArnAM, DAVID LELYVElD (ACIlNG). MARY BYRNE MeDoN ELL, Eu.EN PEROCMAN. SHERI H. RANIs. RAMON TORR£CJutA. KENTON


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