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( SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH COUNCIL) Volume 49/ Number 4 / December 1995 •

Alternative Perspectives on National Security Peter J. Katzenstein * This es ay summarizes a project by scholars of international relations interested in bringing sociological insights to bear on issues of national security. I Put briefly, this project, "Norms and National Security," makes problematic the state interests that predominant explanations of national security often take for granted. In offering a sociological perspective on the politics of national security the project seeks to how that security interests are defined by actors who respond to cultural factors. This does not mean that • Peter J. Katzenstein is Walter S. Carpenter. Jr. Prof, r of International Rei tions at Cornell University. I Thi article is an excerpt of the introductory chapter of The Culturr of National ~curily: Id~nlily and Norms ill World Politics. P. J. Katzenstein, ed. (New York: Columbia University Press, forthcoming. 1996). The book summarizes a project of the Council's Committee on International Peace and Security, funded by the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation. Olapters and project particip3llts include: (I) "Introduction: Alternative Perspectives on National Security" (~r J. Katzenstein); (2) "Norms, Identity and Culture in National Security" (Ron Jepperson, Alexander Wendt, ~r J. Katzenstein); (3) "S , Norms and the Proliferation of Conventional Weapon "(Dana P. Eyre and Marie C. Suchman); (4) "Norms and Deterrence: The Nuclear and Chemical Weapons Taboos" (Richard Price and Nina Tannenwald); (5) "ConslJucting Norms of Humanitarian Intervention" (Martha Fmnemore); (6) ''Culture and French Military Doclrine before World War Ir' (Elizabeth Kier); (7) "Cultural Realism and Strategy in Maoist China" (Alastair lain Johnston); (8) "Identity, Norms and National Security: The Soviet ease" (Robert Hennan); (9) "Norms and National Security in Germany and Japan" (Thomas U. Berger); (10) "Collective Identity in a Democratic Community: The Case of NATO" (Thomas Risse-Kappen); (II) "Identity and Alliances in the Middle East" (Michael N. Barnett); (12) .'The Causes and Consequences of Norms in International Politics" (Paul Kowert and Jeffrey Legro); (13) "Conclusion: National Security in a Changing World" (Peter J. Katzenstein).

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power, conventionally understood as material capabilities, is unimportant for an analysis of national security. States and other political actors undoubtedly seek material power to defend their security. But what other kinds of power and security do states seek and for which purposes? Do the meanings that states and other political actors attach to power and security help us explain their behavior? Answers to such questions raise issues of both theory and evidence,

The End of tbe Cold War and International Relations Theory Our point of departure is influenced greatly by the inability of international relations theory, both mainstream and critical, to explain fully what John Mueller aptly calls a quiet cataclysm:2 the dramatic changes that have shaped world politics since the mid-1980s and that have affected profoundly the environment for the national security of states. The main analytical perspectives on international relations, neo-realism and 2 John Mueller, Qui~1 Coladysm: Rtflections on Ih~ Rtcenl Transformalion o/World Politics (New York: HarperCollin , (995).


Alternative Perspectives on National Security. P~tu J. Katltnsl~in 89 Note on Field Development, SMllty &ldman and Illy Abraham 94 Current Activities at the Council 100 Staff Appointments 100 Community Response to


100 Social Change Workshop on Coercive Diplomacy 101 German·American Academic Council Surruner Institutes 10 I Global Environmental Change Seminar 102 Recent Council Publication 103 Books Noted in It~ms, 1995 105


neo-Iiberalism, share with all of their critics an inability to fore hadow, let alone foresee, the e momentous international changes. Furthermore, with the end of the cold war, international relations specialists-whatever their theoretical orientation-are uncertain about how to interpret the consequences of change. Disagreement is widespread on what are the most important questions worth po ing, let alone on what might con titute plausible answers to these questions. Are we living in a unipolar, bipolar or a multipolar world? Is the world increasingly divided into zones of peace among pro perous states in the center and zones of war between poor states in the periphery? Is the risk of war rapidly increasing in Asia while it remains negligible in Western Europe or is the reverse closer to the mark? I the main cause of war in the periphery the excessive strength or the deplorable weakness of tates? Is ideological conflict between states in the international system diminishing or increasing? The uncertainties that mark international relations scholarship make this the right time to cast about for analytical perspectives that invite us to take a fresh look at the world we live in. This project concentrates on two underattended determinants of national security: the cultural-institutional context of policy on the one hand and the constructed identity of states, governments, and other political actors on the other. We explore these determinants from the theoretical perspective of sociological institutionalism with its focus on the character of the state's environment and on the contested nature of political identities. The primary purpose of this project is to e tablish the e causal factors, and the theoretical orientations from which they derive, as relevant for the analysis of national security. This project does not offer a theory of national security. To insist on such a theory would be premature and immodest in the midst of a wide-ranging discussion of structural and post-structural as well as economic and sociological approaches in the social sciences. But the project seeks to redress the extreme imbalance between structural and rationalist styles of analysis and sociological perspectives on questions of national security. What scholars and policy makers consider to be national security i sues is not fixed but varies over time. At the beginning of the 20th century, for example, pronatalist policies were widely believed to


strengthen national power and security. In the interwar period the focus on eugenics illu trated a partial hift from the quantity to the quality of population as an important measure of national power and ecurity. And after 1945 there was a dramatic discontinuity in how national elites viewed population control po1icie • no longer as ources of national security but of national well-being. The domain of national ecurity is ues thus is variable. In the 19th century the concept covered economic and ocial dimensions of political life that, for a variety of reason , were no longer conidered relevant when national security acquired a narrower military definition in the fir t half of the 20th century, and e pecially during the cold war. The intellectual move to broaden the concept thu return the field of national ecurity to its own past. This project is elf-consciou in bringing together two fields of tudy normally kept apart. Its theoretical tance highlight the ocial determinants of national ecurity policy; but it adopt a traditional, narrow definition of security studies. It does 0 despite the fact that the argument for a broadening of the field has ubstantial intellectual merit and i reflected in the changing agenda of United State foreign policy as well as in the curricula of many chools of foreign affairs. Why, then, doe this project focus on traditional i sues of national security? The main reason is a healthy re pect for the ociology of knowledge. Intellectual challenges are often di regarded because they do not meet reigning paradIgms on their preferred ground. It might have been easier to point to the limitations of existing theories of national security by investigating some of the "new" security issues dealing, for example, with migration or environmental degradation. But in all likelihood this would have been pointle s. Such challenge would be dismissed as kirting the hard task of addressing the tough political issues in traditional security studies. This project deals with what most scholars of national security would consider to be hard cases. It chooses political topics and empirical domains that favor well-established perspectives in the field of national security. If the style of analysis and the illustrative case material can establish plausibility here, it should be relatively easy to apply the project's analytical perspective to broader conceptions of security that are not restricted to military issues or to the state.


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A Sociological Perspective on National Security Participants in this project adhered to the sociological use of concepts such as norms, identity, and culture as summary labels to characterize the ocial factors they analyzed) The e factors re ult from social processes, purposeful political action, and differences in power capabilities. Project participants used the concept of "norm" to describe collective expectation for the proper behavior of actors with a given identity. In some situations norms operate like rules that define the identity of an actor. In such instances norms have "constitutive effects" that specify what actions will cause relevant others to recognize a particular identity. In other situations norms operate as standards that specify the proper enactment of an already defined identity. In such instances norms have "regulative" effects that specify standards of proper behavior. Norms thus either define (or constitute) identities or prescribe (or regulate) behavior, or they do both. The participants refer to "identity" as a shorthand label for varying constructions of nation- and statehood. The process of construction typically is explicitly political and pits conflicting actors against each other. In invoking the concept of identity the authors depict varying national ideologies of collective distinctiveness and purpose. And they refer as well to variations across countries in the statehood that is enacted domestically and projected internationally. Finally, the term "culture" is invoked as a broad label that denotes collective models of nation-state authority or identity, carried by ideology, custom, and law. Culture refers to both a set of evaluative standards (such as norms and values) and to cognitive standards (such as rules and models) that define what social actors exist in a system, how they operate, and how these actors relate to one another. The definitions of these concepts share an emphasis on what is collective rather than subjective. Sociological approaches to the analysis of national security sometimes appear nebulous in their specification of the factors that affect the behavior of states or 3 One of the difficulties in making the sociological approach plausible for scholars of national security lies in their intuitive equation of the concept of ~ with morality. The project focuses analytically primarily on the analYSI of reguI ory noons (defining standards of appropriate behavior) and constitutive nonns (defining actor identities). It touches less directly on evaluative noons (stressing questions of morality) or practical noons (focusing on commonly accepted notions of "best solutions").


?ther political actors. We can easily conjure up the Image of a column of 50,000 tanks stretching from Cleveland to Seattle that tells us omething about the size of the Soviet military at the end of the cold war. It is harder to fathom what force made the Democratic candidate for president in 1988, Governor Dukakis, dre s up in military fatigue and ride around on a tank to demonstrate his toughness on the issue of national defense, looking foolish in the proce . Collectively shared expectations of the American public about the military toughnes of presidential candidates made the ~overnor behave the way he did. Collective expectatIOns can have strong causal effects. Such expectations de erve clo e crutiny for a better understanding of national security policy.

Social determinant 1: cultural-institutional context. In harp contrast to the realist view of the international system as a Hobbesian state of nature, neoliberalism offers a theory of the cultural-institutional context of state action. It defines regimes as particular combinations of principles, norms, rules, and procedures. 4 Power shapes international regimes. Often these regimes emerge when a hegemonic state, such as the United States after 1945, attempts to mold the international order to suit its interests and purposes. But international regimes do not simply mirror power relationships. With the passing of time they acquire their own dynamic. Regimes reduce transaction costs and thus enhance the potential for coordinating conflicting state policies. Regimes present states with political constraints and opportunities that can affect substantially how governments calculate their interests. In an important article Kratochwil and Ruggie have noted that this line of argument subscribes to a view that is too behavioralist.s The neo-liberal application of regime theory captures only what in a statistical sense is "normal" about norms. But norms reflect also the premises of action. While above a certain threshold behavioral violations invalidate norms, occasional violations do not. Critics of neo-Iiberal institutionalism have made this their central point. These critics insist that social change engenders a process of selfreflection and political actions that are shaped by collectively held norms. 4 Stephen D. Krasner. cd .• InfernolioMI Regime$ (Ithaca: Cornell University Press. 1983): Volker Rittbezger. cd .• Regime ThLory and InlernolioMI Relatioru (Oxford: Oxford University Press, \993). ~ Friedrich Kmtochwil and John Gerard Ruggie, "International Organization: A State of the Art an Art of the State," InlernolioMI OrganiWlion 40, no. 4 (Autumn 1986): 753-75.


Self-reflection does not occur in i olation but i communicated to others. In the proce s of communication norm can emerge in a variety of ways: pontaneously evolving, as ocial practice; con ciou Iy promoted, as political strategies to further pecific interests; deliberately negotiated. as a mechani m for conflict management; or as a combination, mixing the e three type . State interests and trategie thu are haped by a never-ending political proce that generates publicly understood tandard for action. Social detenninant 2: political identity. International regime are ocial in titution that mitigate conflict in a decentralized international ociety of tate . But a rationali t theory of regime factor out of its analy i the actor identities that often are con equential for the definition of actor interest . Cultural-in titutional contexts do not only con train actor by changing the incentives that shape their behavior. They do not imply regulate behavior. They al 0 help con titute the very actors whose conduct they eek to regulate. International and dome tic environments shape state identities. With the end of the cold war i ues of collective identity have become centrally important, rather than the reduction in political uncertainties that inhibit agreements. For example, the hape and peed of the European integration proce s and the que tion of how that Europe will relate to the outside world is of critical political importance and has given rise to xenophobia and a new wave of nationali m. Analogous political developments are occurring in Eastern Europe, in the member tates of the Commonwealth of Independent State , in many Third World countries, and in the United State . And in Asia the intensification of efforts to create new forms of multilateral ism designed to facilitate policy coordination are closely linked to conte ted definitions of Asian identity. With few exceptions, neo-reali m al 0 remains silent on the issue of identity for two reason . First, it stresses the ecological dynamics that self- election and functional imperative have for tate . Secondly, neo-realism seeks to di tance itself from traditional realism which did pay attention, implausibly, to hulman nature,6 and, plausibly, to is ues of national identity. Since neo-reali ts view tate as undifferentiated and unitary actors they ide tep con ideration of 6 Ann Tickner. G~ndu in IntuMtional R~latioflS: F~minist P~rsptctiv~s on Achi~ing GloIxll &curity (New YorIc: Columbia University Press, 1992), p.lO.


i ue concerning the character of the tate and the con truction of tate identitie . Yet the international and dome tic ocieties in which tates are embedded hape their identities in powerful way . The tate is a social actor. It is embedded in ocial rules and conventions that constitute it identity and the reason for the intere ts that motivate actors. 7 On this point the contra t between a ociological perspective on the one hand and neo-Iiberali m and neo-reali m on the other i ub tantial. Hi tory i more than a progre ive search for efficient in titution that regulate property right . And history cannot be reduced to a perpetual recurrence of samenes , conflict, and balancing. Hi tory is a process of change that leave an imprint on tate identity. In a broad historical perspective the eventual uccess of the national tate in We tern Europe hould not blind us to the wide array of in titutional experimentation, both dome tic and international, that preceded it. 8 Influenced by a long hi tory of universal empire , regional kingdom , and ubcontinental empire , A ian tate also differ greatly from the conventional image of unified, rational tate. 9 The historical evidence compels us to relinqui h the notion of states with unproblematic identities. The identity of states emerges from their interactions with different social environments, both domestic and international. The analysi of nationalism a an "in trumental social con truction"IO offers an important example. The national identities of states are crucial for understanding international politics and national security. They cannot be tipulated deductively but mu t be inve tigated empirically in concrete hi torical ettings. The international society of tates also shapes varying tate identitie by virtue of recognizing their legitimacy and admitting them to international organizations who e membership is often restricted only to tate .11 Governments crave the diplomatic recognition by members of the international society of states 7 Bruce Andrew, "Social Rules and the State as a Social Actor," World Politics (July 1975): 521-40, p.536. • Charles Tilly, ClH,c:ion, Capital and Euro~an Stat~s, AD 99().1990 (Oxford: Blackwell, 1990). 9 Susanne H. Rudolph, "Pre idential Addres : State Fonnation in AsiaProlegomena to a Comparative Study," The Journal of Asian Studiu 46, no. 4 (November 1987): 731-46. 10 Ernst B. H ,"Nationali m: An Instrumental Social Construction," MiII~nium 22, no. 3 (Winter 1993): 505-64. II John Gerard Ruggie. ''Continuity and Transformation in the World Polity: Toward a NeorcaIist Synthesis," Mbrld Politics 35, no. 2 (January 1983): 261-&5.


49, NUMBER 4


because it be tows upon them the legitimacy they may need to ecure their exi tence. In Africa and elsewhere, for example, sovereignty con titute and legitimate states that are extremely weak in term of material power. 12 Statehood thu depend partly on a tate' position in the international society of states. The Complementarity of Analytical Perspectives This project puts center tage analytical concepts that the exi ting literature on national ecurity acknowledge only obliquely. Some tudies eek to explain a pects of national ecurity with reference to social facts. But they tend to do 0 in a manner that ubordinates the cau al force of ocial fact to a materialist or rationali t view of the world. In this view, for example, identities and norm are either derivative of material capabilities or are deployed by autonomous actor solely for instrumental reasons. Based on the assumption that rationality is a natural rather than a constructed concept, the e studie view ideologies largely in the service of rational calculations. For particular research questions in specific situations it may be sensible to conceive of tates as actors with unproblematic identities that balance and bandwagon (as in nea-realism) or conduct their political business in institutions that lower transaction co ts (as 12 Robert H. Jackson, QUlUi¡Slalt:I: Sovtrtignty. Inltmalional Rtlalions, and Iht Third World (Cambridge: Cambridge University Pres , 1990); John W. Meyer, "The World Polity and the Authority of the Nation¡State," in Albert Bergesen, ed., Sludits in Iht Modtm World Sysltm (New York: Academic Press, 1980), pp. 109-37.


in neo-liberalism). But for many research questions and in many situations we must capture additional factor to explain problematic aspects of national security policies. The effort to te t sociological, culture-based explanation again t economic, interest-based explanations centers on identifying and describing problems overlooked by existing scholarship and specifying the ocial factor - tate identity and the cultural-institutional context-that shape conceptions of actor intere t and behavior. Some contributions to this project view the context of states and governments as more permeated by social facts than is typical of mo t scholarship on national security. Other contributions focu on the problematic nature of the identity of states and governments. While the individual contributions privilege one or the other aspects in their empirical re earch, the project as a whole makes both moves simultaneously, In this view the crucial question is not to establi h whether interests prevail over identities and norms or whether identities and norms prevail over interests. What matters is how identities and norms influence how actors define their interests in the first place. This project thus argues that we should not take for granted what needs to be explained: the sources and content of national security interests that states and governments pursue. Focusing on political identity and the cultural-institutional context offers a promising ~venue for elucidating the changing contours of national security policy. •


Notes on Field Development The case of Bangladesh By Shelley Feldman and Itty Abraham *

Broadly peaking, field development mean either the development of an area of tudy through training programs in the United State for, ay, the tudy of the humanities in Southea t A ia, or the invigoration of scholarly communitie abroad through, for example, work hops on ocial cience methodologie for cholars in Central America. In this article we are concerned with field development activitie abroad and, in particular, with the culture and context in which field development activitie are ituated. The proximate cau e of these reflection i our recent vi it to Bangladesh when we had the opportunity to meet with more than one hundred academic and re earch cholars in the social cience and humanitie from different universities, nongovernmental organization , and research centers acro the country. By way of background, we hould note that the Joint Committee on South A ia (JCSA) has been engaged in the promotion of Banglade h tudie for a considerable period of time. Pre ent field development activities have been made po ible becau e of a grant from the Ford Foundation which allow the committee to sponsor a program of graduate fellowhips for re earch and training. The initial award to the Council (1991-95) focu ed on di ertation-level tudents in North American universitie in order to encourage the study of Banglade h and to provide incentives for Banglade hi tudent tudying in the U.S. to undertake doctoral re earch on que tion focused on Banglade h. After two years of operation, the Foundation agreed to modify the program to include a predi ertation component. Predi ertation awards would give graduate tudent an opportunity to travel to Banglade h for three to four month in order to meet faculty and tudent, improve Bengali language skills, visit potential field ite, and examine archives and other data sources. Thi ummer the Ford • Shelley Feldman i an i3le pro~ or in the Department of Rural Sociology and director of the South A ia Program 31 Cornell University. Itty Abraham. a political scientist. i program officer for the Joint Committee on South A ia and the Joint Commillee on Southeast Asia. He is currently on leave as a vi iting fellow t the Center for International Security and Arms Control at Slllnford University.


Foundation renewed it award to the Council for another four year . Thi ummary of recent activitie make clear that thu far the JCSA ha been engaged only in dome ti~ field development activitie. Our recent vi it wa an ~pportunity to examine the po sibility of engaging In field development in Bangladesh. It quickly became apparent that extending our exchange with Banglade hi in titution would be no ea y task. ~lthough we recognized that field development activitIe abroad had to be peeific enough to account for the particular condition affecting cholar and cholarship in a given country, what we came to appreciate during this vi it were the deeply embedded tructural condition which framed academic in titution in Banglade h. While fully aware of the pecificitie of the Banglade h ca e, there i the ignificant likelihood that others may encounter imilar con traint when con idering field development opportunitie in other ituation . Thu , our experience can be meaningful to a broader audience. The larger purpo e of field development activitie i , to our mind, inextricably linked to the role of the academy a a core in titution of a vibrant public phere. Thi i particularly true of Banglade h. From the earlie t day of Banglade h' movement again t Paki tani dominance (1947-71), tudent and faculty of the universitie played a central role in articulating-and took the lead in making po ible-an independent polity reflecting a significant proportion of the popular will. Thi hi tory i mo t vi ibly manife ted in the ubiquitou "Shaheed Minar," or Martyr 'Minaret, that dot every Banglade hi campu : a concrete mark of re pect to the cholar who have given their live in the truggle to ecure independence. The importance and re peet that the academy hold al 0 i ugge ted by the fact that the Paki tani tate recognized only too well the significance of the academic intervention. In 1971, at the height of the civil conflict, intellectual were directly targeted for elimination, culminating, in a ingle night, in a whole ale rna acre of Dhaka Univer ity tudent and faculty, in an attempt to tifle the intellectual leader hip of the independence movement. Since independence, the univer itie have grown in number but have uffered the neglect common to many developing tate. Notwith tanding their place in the Banglade h independence movement, deterioration in the condition of the univer ities i easily visiVOLUME 49. NUMBER 4

ble today. In an all too familiar tory, while the number of tudent eeking to enter in titution of higher learning have grown exponentially over the last 25 year , the re ource devoted to capital ex pen e , librarie , teaching, and maintenance have lagged far behind. Moreover, with the inability of faculty alarie to keep up with the co t of living, and the inadequacy of hou ing and other benefit , it i hardly urpri ing that faculty are not alway able to u tain an emphasi on teaching and re earch a their first priority. Pre ure on faculty al 0 include the carcity of re earch fund , the unavailability of book and journal , the expen e of communication , and the hortage of tangible reward for re earch and teaching. However, there are a number of faculty who do manage to u tain their focu and participation in the intellectual life of the academy. Thi appear to happen almo t olely through personal inve tment which i leveraged by the reward , re ource , and recognition they receive el ewhere. For in tance, the Centre for Social Studie at Dhaka Univer ity i utained and managed by the effort of a mall number of faculty under the guidance of B.K. Jahangir. More than ten year ago, Jahangir initiated weekly eminar and the publication of a bimonthly journal at the university in order to engage both international and Banglade hi cholars, faculty, and tudent in an ongoing interdi ciplinary exchange. There is little doubt that thi kind of achievement i made po ible largely becau e of the energy and commitment of a few Dhaka Univer ity faculty, but it i al 0 u tained by the re earch opportunitie and network that Dr. Jahangir and hi colleague have generated through collaboration and exchange with cholars abroad.

Bangladesh and ''Development'' The con traints under which faculty like Dr. Jahangir work underscore the particular role that Banglade h plays in global thinking about development. Over the years, Banglade h has become the prototypical example of economic and ocial extremes, one used to prove the hypothese and olutions of development cholars and activi t : "If this theory works in Bangladesh it can work anywhere." And even when the e ideas are disavowed, it is argued that "Bangladesh is a special case, local conditions are too complicated for this theory to hold true." Tho e keptical of development can equally point to Bangladesh, especially its record of local NGO initiative , to argue DECEMBER


that foreign plan and initiative are inherently flawed and that locally-based effort are the only way to improve the quality of life of large mas e of people. Here, the international recognition of the Grameen Bank Project provide the benchmark measure of ucce . Framed in thi way, Banglade h' location in development di cour e as the "laboratory" case allow what appear to hold true here to be een as readily applicable el ewhere. But thi di cursive location al 0 make it extremely difficult to retain a di tinction between "in ide" and "out ide," between proce e and pattern of development framed as national achievement and tho e derived from Banglade h a the global development laboratory. It i worth remembering that in the 1970 , it wa common to hear that each of the country' admini trative unit (thanas) had become a ite for experimentation for different development agencie . Over the year ,thi ha led to the infiltration of development activitie into nearly all ite of public and private life, affecting in di crete but ignificant way change in con umption habit , land price ,pattern of employment, local political organization, and tate overeignty. Partially in re pon e to the overwhelming pre ence of foreign donor agencie and NGO, chotar in the academy and in particular field of the ocial cience have changed the focu of their work to adapt to the need of these organization . While ome cholar have actually left the univer ity to begin their own con ultancy firm and NGO , it i particularly faculty in department of economic and anthropology who have realized that there now exi t an enormous demand for their experti e. The e opportunitie pay well by local tandard ,even though Banglade hi conultants do not typically receive the arne remuneration a expatriate con ultants. A a re uh, and quite under tandably, the e faculty often reframe their research intere ts, frequently to the exclu ion of basic re earch and humani t analy es, to devote the majority of their time to applied project defined and paid for by the donor community. Thi has re ulted in the tran formation of academic re earch, and even of applied re earch projects, driven by a particular set of intellectual concerns and commitments, into evaluation and feasibility studie required by foreign aid projects. But, quite apart from the decline in the perceived value of basic cholarship, external re earch upport has led to an incentive tructure that has deeper implication . lTEMsI95

First, student enrollments over the la t ten years have changed in response to the demand for con ultant and the emphasi on particular economic and field urvey kills. The be t tudent are now increasingly likely to enter field like economic , political cience, anthropology, and bu ine management, where con ultancy opportunitie are perceived to be the mo t exten ive and mo t lucrative. A a re ult, the humanitie , which have di proportionately uffered from the lack of re ouree , now bear the added burden of in tructing student who are indifferent cholars, and who would prefer admis ion in a department with a higher potential for future employment and perceived economic ecurity. Thu , it wa not urpri ing to learn that humanitie faculty face the very real problem of the reproduction of their field of expertise due to the ab ence of qualified tudents. But, as well, they often are left to feel like econd-c1as citizen, and have begun to que tion the value of their intellectual work. This transformation has radically altered the univer ity, once the comer tone of intellectual inquiry and exciting basic re earch. Second, a distinction mu t be drawn between the premier, capital-ba ed university and the regional univer ities. Apart from facing the privations suffered by all univer ities, the regional universities must cope with the deprivation of location. While the capital city, Dhaka, bears all the marks of it direct insertion into the cireuits of international development, it aI 0 reap the benefits of that po ition. Con ultancies are more readily available since mo t donor have their head office in Dhaka, and the pre tige of Dhaka University ensures that its faculty are more likely to be chosen for large projects since they tend to have greater international vi ibility and network within the donor community. Thus, whatever re ouree are available are more likely to flow here than anywhere el e. Faculty in the regional universities expre ed their frustration with feeling left out of the range of re earch and employment po sibilities that exi t in Dha.."a. Junio.r cholar , in particular, are een to suffer dIsproportIOnately since they are neither likely to have the connections to piggy-back on contract i ued in Dhaka, as some of their senior colleague are still able to do, nor are they able to compete with e tablished senior faculty for the few research opportunities that do come to the e universities. Finally, the shaping and prioritizing of social que tions and values is significantly influenced by an 96\1TEMS

incentive tructure that privilege economic analy e above all other , development-related policy que tion over other form of knowledge, and current applied re earch over hi torical and conceptual analy e . Thi marginalize theoretically valuable and ocially ignificant work done on, for example, indigenou form of knowledge, the unique hi tori cal legacy of I lamic and Hindu religiou and arti tic tradition , or the use of oral hi torie in recon tituting memory a part of interpretation of contemporary ocial life. Civil Society and Privatization The irony of Banglade h's present location in the in titutional circuit of development may be ob erved in a number of ways. One i the growing di cussion in development circle about the meaning and significance of "civil ociety." Yet, we have already noted how the academy, a crucial ite for the growth of civil ociety, has been y tematically marginalized over the last two decade , with the pre ent meaning of civil ociety often re tricted to the ri e of social movements and NGO activitie . This marginalization is exacerbated by another trend, that of privatization. Perhaps the mo t novel feature of higher education in Bangladesh today is the creation of private universitie . Two private universities have recently opened in Dhaka, with two other e tabli hed in smaller cities. With higher alarie and pre tige, the e universities are able to attract orne of the country's best scholars, at least in the fields of economics, business administration, tati tics, computer science, and Engli h language training. . . The idea behind privatizing university education In Bangladesh is fairly imple: to provide, facilities and training for undergraduate which parallel standards of We tern univer ities at a significantly lower cost. On the one hand, this allows parents unwilling to send their children abroad for higher education an opportunity to have them receive a Western- tyle and quality education in the country, and to do so without having to pay the relatively high tran action costs of foreign exchange. On the other hand, private education is as umed to offer student a greater possibility for po tgraduate admission into Western universities, given hat courses and course syllabi are often generated in concert with colleagues in particular U.S. academic departments. These private universities are expensive and only the very rich can afford to send


49. NUMBER 4

their children to them. Not urpri ingly, the demand of thi clientele lead to a concentration in bu ine admini tration and commerce program , followed by economic ,a well a a trong empha i on English education and computer in truction. The private un iver itie are thriving and appear to have no hortage of applicant from among the rapidly expanding bourgeoi ie of Dhaka City. In fact, in Ie than three year, the univer itie boa t of a growing tudent body of between 150 to 400 tudent ; both are preparing to move to larger campu e in the affluent uburb of Dhaka in the next few year . The logic underlying the creation of the e univer itie i that the exi ting tate-run univer ity y tern has failed. Not only are tate univer itie not offering cour e and program that are of intere t to the emerging Banglade hi elite, but condition in the univer itie do not in pire confidence. Faculty are often ab ent, except for time pent in the cia room; tudent and admini trator are indifferent; exam often are not held on time; the library ha mall, and u ually outdated, holding ; and the phy ical tock of the campu e i in decline. While the e indictment are often accurate, the effect of thi perception ha been to further reaffinn the marginality of the tate univer itie . The move to privatize higher education corre pond to the parallel y tern of econdary chooling which already erve to increase difference between a mall but growing urban elite and a large urban lower middle and working cia . It i not urprising that the general public has yet to que tion thi hift as it i naturalized by the logic of privatization characteri tic of contemporary development di course. Moreover, the e private universities receive upport. material and otherwi e, from a number of foreign donor ex pre sing, a it doe , their policy pre criptions for agriculture, indu try, and the tate itself. The ucce s of this effort will enable the tate to reduce funding to the universitie further, removing an important political thorn in their ide, as well as reiterating and trengthening new class divi ions in Bangladeshi ociety.

Research Projects as Field Development Where does this leave field development? We would argue that due to these factors, orne peculiar to Bangladesh, others more general in cope, both training and re earch conditions have deteriorated in DECEMBER 1995

Banglade h in recent years. Thi leave little doubt that the ocial cience and humanitie in the country need support- upport far greater than the Social Science Re earch Council' traditional activitie or re ource can encompa . Especially tragic, to our mind ,i the diminution of the perceived value of the humanitie , the decline of ba ic re earch, and the exce ive compartmentalization of the di cipline . For the e reason , traditional field development activitie abroad, uch as work hop on ocial science methodology, appear more a a way to trengthen di ciplinary foci than to provide creative alternative based on collaboration acro discipline and upporting re earch que tion marginalized by a developmentali t world view. What we ugge t i a et of field development activitie that addre the three condition outlined above and that build upon the trength that currently exi t in the Banglade hi academy. Hence we propose that field development activitie build upon collaborative, interdi ciplinary re earch projects based on que tion that peak directly to the concern and intellectual predilection of local scholars. Collaborative re earch project are ba ic to the Council' international activitie and have garnered a great deal of re pect and recognition within the academic community. Moreover, they facilitate international exchange, the building of an international intellectual community and the fo tering of an intellectually recognized body of scholar and scholarship. Further, if these collaborative project are al 0 tructured with an eye toward con tituting training as a central activity, this allow a number of concern to be addre ed simultaneou ly. Internationally- and locally-based scholars conducting re earch together promote dialogue between different region and cholarly traditions and create new tran national scholarly network . The joint planning of a re earch agenda al 0 enable increased attention to be paid to the humanitie and to furthering interdi ciplinary and basic re earch. The sharing of pedagogical tyle and infonnation and the collaborative training of students through joint re earch activities can help tudents enter profe sional networks which will allow their participation in a global community of cholars. The Joint Committee on South Asia has, in collaboration with cholar in Banglade h, conceived of a research project that upports these goals. Thi project will bring together cholars from the ocial sciences and the humanities to develop a deeper understanding ITEMsI97

of the 1947 partition of East and We t Bengal through the exploration of a number of i ue of critical theoretical importance. The project que tion the traditional idiom of partition, an idiom that invoke border as fixed, event and ocial proce e a decree, and movement a forced migration by adding new voice to the official record. It eek to con truct alternative interpretation of event and to document a more complex view of the way in which tate border , citizen hip, and official identitie hape daily life. It i anticipated that tudent and faculty will jointly collect and analyze new evidentiary ource relating to thi period, including the u e of oral narrative , personal diaries and document , new paper record and other public ource, folktale and storie.


The project' fir t tage would con i t of a workhop for the identification and haring of material already collected, and the development of a methodological trategy to help reinterpret official hi toriographie of the period. We ee thi effort as a potential fir t tep toward a recon ideration of field development, through trengthening collaborative network among international cholar and furthering the development of theoretically ophi ticated interdi ciplinary cholar hip. A collaboration between Banglade hi cholar and colleague working on imilar i ue abroad hold the promi e of bringing uch an initiative to fruition, while recognizing the condition con training the growth of Banglade hi cholarship and focu ing on i ue of central importance to local scholars. •


49. NUMBER 4

Papers Available from the Policy Conference on Persistent Urban Poverty On November 9-10,1993, the Committee for Research on the Urban Underclass (19~1994) held a conference in Washington, D.C. on the subject of persistent urban poverty, bringing together government officials, communitybased program practitioners, and academic researchers. Through the National Center for Chlldren in Poverty (NCCP) at Columbia University, papers from the conference are now available, at cost, from the NCCP Ubrary. Authors and titles in the series include: •

Martha A. Gephart, Alice O'Connor, and Richard R. Peterson. Persistent Urban Ponrty: InugraJing Research, PoIU:" and Praetice. Thi paper provides an overview of th i u raised in the following papers.

• J. LaW'J'eoce Abu. The Effects of Poor Neighborhoods on Children, Youth, and Families:

• • • • • •

• • • • •

• •

• • • • • •

Theory, Research, and Policy ImplicatWns. Lisa Aikman. Fighting Urban Poverty: Lessons from Local Intervention Programs. Barry Bluestone, Mary Huff tevenson, and Cbr' Tilly. Public Policy Altematins for Dealing with the lAbor Marlcet Problems of Central City Young Adu/Js: ImplicatWns from Cu"ent lAbor Marut Research. Geraldin Kearse Brookins. Social Science Knowkdge and Policy Assumption : Assessing the Tensions Between Philosophically Different CommunicatWn Needs and Procenes. Prudence Brown and Harold Richman. Communities and Neighborhoods: How Can Existing Research Inform and Shape Current Urban Change Ini/iaJives? Gary Burtle and Lawrence Mishel. Recent Wage Trends: The Implications for Low Wage Worun. Elliott Currie. Missing Pieces: Notes on Crime, Poverty, and Social Policy. Jeffrey Fagan, Darlene Conley, Julius Debro, Richard Curtis, Ansley Hamid, Joan Moore, Felix PadiUa, John Quicker, Carl Taylor, and James Diego Vigil. Crime, Drugs, and Neighborhood Change: The Effects of DeindustriaJizlltion on Social Control in Inner Cities. Karen Gibson and Peter Hall. American Poverty and Social Policy: What Can Be Learned from the European Experience. Chester W. Hartman. Memo to the Social Science Research Council Regarding U.S. Housing PolU:y. Pamela A. Holcomb. A Historical Overview of Welfare Reform: Major Themes, Initiatives, and Tensions. Robinson G. Hollister. Social Policy Research Through Major Data Gathering Projects: Four Contemporaneous Examples. Michael B. Katz and Thomas J. Sugrue. History and the "Undercws" Debate. P. Lindsay Cbase-Lansdal • Family Processes in Relation to Persistent Urban Poverty. Douglas S. M y. Housing SegregatWn and Penistent Urban Poverty. Arthur J. Naparstek. Rethinking Poverty Through a Community-Building Approach: Policy Memorandum on Community Reinvestment Sandra J. Newman. The Rok of Housing and Community Development Programs in Fighting Persisunt Urban Poverty. Robert J. Sampson. Concentrated Urban Poverty and Crime: A Synopsis of Prior Community-Level Research. Bruce J. Schulman. Federal &onomic Policy and Penistent Urban Poverty. Thomas J. Smith. Improving Praetice in the Youth Employment Field. Mercer L. SuUivan. Community Development as an Anti-Poverty SiraUgy. Margaret Weir. Urban Policy and Persistent Urban Poverty.

For individual prices and ordering InformaCion, contact: NCCP Library, Columbia University School of Public Health, 154 Haven Avenue, New York, NY, 10032. Attention: Carole Oshlnsky. Pbone: (212) 927-8793. Fax: (212) 927-9162. Email: Internet WWW: http://cpmcnet.columbia.eduldeptlnccp.




Current Activities at the Council Staft' Appointments Ronald Kassimir has been named program officer for the Joint Committee on African Studie ,effective January I, 1996. Mr. Kassimir expect to receive his Ph.D. in political cience from the University of Chicago in the winter of 1996. His di ertation is entitled ''The Social Power of Religious Organization: Catholic Church Formation during State Collap e in Uganda, 1954-1994," and i based on field work carried out in Uganda and at missionary archives in Rome with partial upport from the SSRC. Mr. Kassimir holds a master's degree in international affairs from the Columbia University School of International and Public Affairs (1986) and a certificate in African Studies from the Institute of African Studies at Columbia where he has been assistant director since 1994. Mr. Kassimir received a B.S. in economics from the University of Pennsylvania's Wharton School. The new program officer is also adjunct assistant profe or at Columbia's Department of Political Science where he teaches a course in contemporary African politics. His re earch interests include the ways in which international models of social and religious organization are reconstructed in Africa and elsewhere, the role these institutions play at the grassroots and national levels, and their capacity to contribute to processes of democratization, social mobilizalOOJTEMS

tion, economic reform, and cultural change. Mr. Kas imir bring to the SSRC a commitment to the development of innovative ocial cientific approache to African i ue through the ex pan ion of re earch linkage with cholar from different di cipline . David Lelyveld has been appointed acting program officer for the South and Southeast A ia program a a temporary replacement for Itty Abraham who is on leave for the academic year. Mr. Abraham i a vi iting fellow at the Center for International Security and Arms Control at Stanford Univer ity where he i working on a project entitled ''The Power of Science: Atomic Energy and the State." Mr. Lelyveld, who hold a Ph.D. in hi tory from the University of Chicago (1975), ha been dean of tudents at the School of General Studies, Columbia Univer ity, where he also taught cour e in the departments of history, religion, Middle East, and Asian languages and cultures since 1986. He was previou ly associate profes or of hi tory at the University of Minnesota, and he has also taught at the University of Washington. He is currently an adjunct associate professor of hi tory at Hunter College, City University of New York. Mr. Lelyveld i the author of Aligarh's First Generation: Muslim Solidarity in British India (Princeton University Pre , 1978). He has al 0 written articles and chapters in a number of jour-

nal and book , and ha edited everal cholarly publication . Hi mo t recent re earch deal with language tandardization in South A ia, e pecially with regard to Hindi-Urdu and the project of a national language.

Community Responses to Social Change The Committee on Culture Health, and Human Develop~ent continued the development of it project on "Community Re pon e to Social Change" at a re earch in titute held at the University of Cape Town on October 21-22, 1995. Falling under the committee' program on Health, Suffering, and Social Tran formation , and funded by the Rockefeller Foundation, the meeting built on foundation laid by the committee' conference on "Social Suffering" held at Bellagio in the ummer of 1994 and a ub equent re earch planning workshop. Papers from that conference are expected to appear in Daedalus (Winter 1996, vol. 125, no. I) and in a larger, companion volume. At the Cape Town meeting the younger scholars involved in the project presented reports of their ongoing re earch: Naomi Adel on (York University) has been working with the Cree-a small band of indigenous people in northern Canada-investigating the ocial, cultural, and political dimensions of their proces of ocial "healing." Komatra Cheung atiansup (Harvard





University) has been doing fieldwork among the Kui people in rural Thailand, examining cultural and political constructions of marginality in that community. Working in Dharavi, one of the largest slums in Bombay, Deepak Mehta and Roma Chatterji (University of Delhi) have compared everyday violence and political violence, including the impact of the "communal" violence between Hindus and Muslims following the demolition of the Babari Masjid at Ayodhya in December 1992. Mill Soko (University of Cape Town) has been documenting the experiences of victims of apartheid, and examining how the biographies of previous and current policy makers instrumentally affect policy directions in South Africa. Studying survivors of the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima. Maya Todeschini (Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales) has examined both their narratives of the event, and the way public officials have, and have not, acknowledged their physical health and p ychological needs. As a product of the institute discussions, and in collaboration with their committee-member mentors-Veena Das, Arthur Kleinman, Margaret Lock, and Mamphela Ramphele-the scholars are preparing a publication that will compare and contrast their ethnographies around the theme of how small communities respond to and cope with political violence and dislocation; this publication will, in tum, complement the Bellagio conference papers.


Worksbop on Coercive Diplomacy The Committee on International

Peace and Security ponsored a threeday research planning workshop on June 7-9, 1995 on "Coercive Diplomacy" at King' College, London. Participants included political scienti ts, sociologi ts, and hi torians. * It was the second of two work hop meetings organized by Lawrence Freedman of the War Studies Department at King' designed to explore the changing dynamics of modes of trategic coercion in a po t-cold war world. Seeking to move beyond the traditional concern of the ecurity field with deterrence-based models of tate-to- tate coercion, the workshop critically evaluated the logic of trategic coercion that was dominant during the cold war and questioned its continued application in a post-cold war world. It also probed the extent to which the involvement of nonstate actor , e.g., drug traffickers, as well as non-military means of coercion, e.g., economic ones, force scholars and policy makers to rethink how they employ strate• Participants included Lawrence Freedman. King's College London. chair. Committee on International Peace and Security; Clement Adibe (former SSRC-MacAnhur Foundation Fellow). U.N. In tiMe for Disarmament Research. Geneva; Syed Ali. BBC World Service. Bush House. London; Robert Ayson. King's College London; James Gow. King's College London; Monica Hirst. FLACSO. Buenos Aires; Peter Viggo Jakobsen. Aarhus Universitet. Denmark; Korina Kagan (current SSRC-MacAnhur Foundation Fellow). Hebrew University. Jerusalem; Yuen Foong Khong (former SSRC-MacArthur Foundation Fellow). Nuffield College. Oxford University; Joseph Lepgold. Georgetown University. Washington D.C.; Yezid J. Syigh. Oxford University; and Gary Schaub Jr.• University of Pittsburgh. Robert Latham served as staff.

gic coercion in current and future international political environments. Regions drawn into analyis included the Balkans, the Middle East, Latin America, Africa. and East A ia.

German-American Academic Council Summer Institutes With funding from the German-American Academic Council, the SSRC and the Wissenschaftskolleg zu Berlin have joint responsibility for organizing a series of summer institutes for promising junior scholars from Germany and the United States working on topics of significant contemporary interest in the social and natural sciences. The institutes are comprised of two 10-14 day interdisciplinary workshops held during consecutive summers. The first four institutes have attracted the participation of a total of eighty-four fellows, more or less equally divided between Germans and Americans, with a smattering of other nationalities. Thirty-nine of the fellows are women, 44 are men. Seven disciplines have been represented to date: anthropology, biology, economics, history, political science, psychology, and sociology. The inaugural two institutes, held in 1994-95, were on "Family Development, Life Cycle, and Lifestyles," and "Globalization, Social Policy, and SemiSovereign Welfare States in Europe and North America." Two institutes were initiated in 1995 and will continue in 1996. The first, on "The Political Economy of European Integration," was held on August 7-18, 1995 in Berkeley, ITEMs/101

California and focu ed on the political and economic dimension of European integration.· Participants evaluated the economic arguments in favor of a single market and the exchange rate mechanism, and al 0 considered whether political condition are driving the movement toward European integration. A follow-up workshop will be held in Bremen, Germany in August 1996. The other 1995-96 GAAC institute·· i addre ing the topic • Conv~non: Barry Eicllengreen. University of California. Berkeley; Mich I Ziim. Universitlit Bremen; Jonah Levy, University of California. Berkeley; and Kevin O'Rourke, University College Dublin. ParticipanlJ: Petra Behrens, UniversiW Bremen; Paul Bergin,Yale University; Clifford Canubb Stanford University; Vivek Dehejia, Columbia University; adric Dupont, Universit~ de ~ve; Michelle Egan, University of Pittsburgh; Rainer Ei ing, UniversiUit Mannheim; Roberta Gatti, Harvard University; Phillip Genschel, Max-P1anck-lnstitut flir Gesellschaftswi nschaften; Carsten Hefeker, Universitlit Konstanz; Katja Hinz, Universitlit Jena; Nicol Jabko, University of California, Berkeley; Daniel Kelemen, Stanford University; Thomas KOnig. Universi . Mannheim; Malhi Moersch, University of North Carolina; Adam Posen, Harvard University; Suzanne Schmidt, Max-PlanckInstitut fiIr Gesellschaftswissenschaften; Frank Schimmelfennig, Universitlil Tilbingen; Marc Smyrl, Harvard University; Simone VI< e, Northwestern University; and Dieter Wolf, Universitlit Tilbingen. •• Conv~nors: Bobbi S. Low, University of Michigan; and Heinz-Ulrich Reyer, Universitlit ZIlrich. Participants: John Bock, University of New Mexico; Stanton Braude, Washington University; John Cooley, University of Michigan; RUdiger Cordts, Ruhr Universitlit; Jennifer Davies-Walton, McM ter University; Michael Haberl, Universitlit Milncllen; Gerald Kerth. Universitlit Wurzburg; Andrea Knebel, Arizona State University; Paula )vey, Harvard University; Sara Johnson, University of New Mexico; Steven Josephson, University of Utah; Sonia K1eindorfer. UniversiW Wien; Amy Pari h, University of CalifornIa, Davis; Karen Parker. University of Michigan; Ulrich Reichard, Universitlit G&tingen; Marcus Reif. Universidt WIIrzburg; Klaus Schilder, Universi WOrzburg; Simone Sommer, Universi Tilbingen; JOri Wettlaufer, Universitlit Kiel; d Klaudia Witte, Ruhr Universitlit.


of "Mating Sy tern and Parental Care: Their Ecology and Evolution." The initial work hop was held in Bielefeld, Germany, at the Zentrum fur Interdiziplinare For chung, on Augu t 14-26, 1995. Thi in titute i exploring the diver ity of ocial organization, mating ytern and parental care pattern . It i al 0 concerned with achieving a high level of interdi ciplinarity, drawing on biological, anthropological, and p ychological approaches in the tudy of mating ystem . A follow-up work hop will be held in Ann Arbor, Michigan in the ummer of 1996.

Global Environmental Change Seminar The Committee for Research on Global Environmental Change(GEC) held one of it eries of eminars on the human dimension of global environmental change during it meeting on October 12-13, 1995 at the Council. The eminar, on the interrelation hip between global phenomena and local culture , was arranged by GEC chair Steven E. Sanderson (Univer ity of Florida). Invited participant were Michael R. Dove (East-We t Center, Honolulu) and J. Stephen Lansing (University of Southern California), both anthropologists; and Chri tine Padoch (New York Botanical Garden), a speciali t in human ecology. Mr. Sanderson was the se sion moderator. In introducing the speakers, he noted that the relation hip between global and local was one of the most important research areas to emerge from the committee' recent First Open Meeting of the Human Dimensions of Global

Environmental Change Community at Duke Univer ity in June 1995. M . Padoch began the discu ion with ob ervation on the prevalence of diver ity at the local level, the difficulty of eeing thi from larger cale (e.g., through remote ensing methods), and the importance of taking it into account. She referred to her own work in the Peruvian Amazon, where in the ingle village of Santa Ro a on the Ucayali River, twelve di tinct types of agriculture and thirty-nine variation in re ource-u e trategie were found among the 46 hou ehold of the village; moreover, the e trategie change ignificantly over a l2-month period. Referring to hi mathematical imulation tudie, Mr. Lansing reported on hi long-term work with the Baline e y tern of water management through "water temples." This y tern provide a mean through which the local farmers can coordinate their schedule of irrigation, planting, and harve ting in order to balance water u e, rice production, and pe t control. With thi Y tern, the farmers have managed to integrate aspect of a global technological phenomenon, the Green Revolution, without di rupting the delicate ecological balance in the rice paddies. Mr. Dove pre ented hi analysis of the meaning of global and local, and ugge ted that the global-local dichotomy may be based on a false distinction between global objectivity and local engagement. Often dialogues tart with the global, and the local is problematized, much as global change discus ions ometime present Northern concerns and VOLUME

49. NUMBER 4

problematize Southern problem . Reconciling the global and the local is the challenge of a global ociety. A paradigm change is needed to move away from tudie of the local that are then related to the global. Mr. Sander on ummed up ev-

eral leading thread of the pre entation, noting the need for wellbounded 'concepts that can be u ed acro s a range of problems. For example, within a globally integrated commercial system, in titution matter greatly. The discussion that followed empha-

ized the need for research acro cales in the field of global environmental change. This eminar, like other committee eminar, was videotaped for archival purpo e and for use in outreach activitie .

Recent Council Publications East Timor at the Cro roads: The Forging of a Nation, edited by Peter Carey and G. Carter Bentley. With a foreword by General Ant6nio Ramalho Eane (President of Portugal, 1982-86). Spon ored by the Joint Committee on Southeast Asia. London: Ca ell, 1995. xx + 259 page . In the past twenty years, the former colony of East Timor ha been under Indonesian military occupation, an occupation that has re ulted in the de truction of much of the country's indigenous ociety. Despite enormous odd , the people of East Timor continue to pre s for the independence which they failed to obtain in the mid-1970. This book, which brings together contributions by both East Timorese and Western specialists, provides an account of the process by which a once i olated and traditional society has been forged into a nation with a deep en e of its own identity rooted in its unique religiou ,cultural, and historical heritage. The toll of Third World colonialism ha proven to be a high one for Indonesia. The book con iders the


new diplomatic initiatives which are currently in train, under the auspices of the UN, to bring about a re olution of the Timor problem without jeopardizing the integrity of the Indonesian Republic. An exten ive bibliography of title on Ea t Timor publi hed between 1970 and 1994 i particularly useful for scholars. Peter Carey i a fellow and tutor in modem hi tory at Trinity College, Oxford. G. Carter Bentley has taught Southeast Asian tudies and cultural anthropology in everal American un iversitie . Ethnicity, Markets, and Migration in the Andes: At the Crossroads of History and Anthropology, edited by Brooke Lar on and Olivia Harris, with Enrique Tandeter. Spon ored by the Joint Committee on Latin American Studie . Based on the 1987 volume, fA participacion

indfgena en los mercados surandinos; Estrategias y reproduccfon social, siglos XVI a XX (Harris, Larson, and Tandeter, eds.), La Paz: Center for the Study of Economic and Social

Reality (CERES). Durham, North Carolina: Duke Univer ity Pre , 1995.428 page. Until now, Andean pea ants have primarily been thought of by cholars a i olated ub i tence farmers, u re i tant" to money and to different markets in the region. This book overturn this as umption and put in its place a new perspective as it explores the dynamic between Andean cultural, ocial, and economic practice and the market forces of a colonial and po tcolonial mercantile economy. The e e says how how, from the very earliest period of Spanish rule, Andean pea ants and their rulers embraced the new economic opportunities and challenged or subverted the new tructure introduced by the colonial administration. They also explain why, in the 20th century, the notion developed that Andean peasant were con ervative and unable to participate effectively in different markets, and reveal how do ely ethnic, inequalities were tied to evolving market relation . A a reconsideration of ethnic, das , and gender i sue in the


context of rural Andean markets, the volume provides a more fully formed picture of the complex mercantile activitie of Andean peasant. Brooke Lar on is as ociate profe or of hi tory and director of the Latin American and Caribbean Center at the State University of New York, Stony Brook. Olivia Harri i enior lecturer and chair of the Department of Anthropology at Gold mith' College, London. Enrique Tandeter is chair of the Department of History at the University of Bueno Aire and an a ociate at the Center for the Study of State and Society in Buenos Aires.

The Politics of Democratic Consolidation: Southern Europe in Comparative Perspective, edited by Richard Gunther, P. Nikiforo Diarnandouro, and Hans-Jiirgen Puhle. Volume 1 in a new erie, 'The New Southern Europe" (R. Gunther and P.N. Diamandouros, general eries edi-


tors). Spon ored by the Subcommittee on the Nature and Con equence of Democracy in the New Southern Europe of the Joint Committee on We tern Europe. Baltimore: The John Hopkin University Pre ,1995. xxxiii + 493 page . With democracy on the ri e worldwide, que tion about "tranition" are rapidly being replaced by que tion about "con olidation." How can leader provide for a table democracy once a nation has made it initial commitment to the rule of law and to popularly elected governments? This volume focuse on four nation of Southern EuropeSpain, Portugal, Italy, and Greece-that have ucce fully con olidated their democratic regimes. Drawing on a decade of extenive re earch into Southern Europe' democratic tran itions and consolidations, the authors take tock of findings while comparing and contrasting Southern European democratic trajectories

with tho e of South America and Eastern Europe. They examine the impact of hi torical, international, regional, military, and political factor -including the role of political partie and intere t group -on the proce . The book, part of a long-term SSRC project, offer a model for the tudy of democratic con olidation elsewhere and al 0 ugge t the direction that emerging democracie can take. Richard Gunther i profe or of political cience at Ohio State University. P. Nikiforo Diamandouro i profe or of political cience at the Univer ity of Athen . Han -Jiirgen Puhle i profe or of political cience at the Univer ity of Frankfurt. Correction

In the previou i ue, Theodore Bestor wa incorrectly idenlified as profe r of anthropology at Columbia University. He is associate profe or of anthropology and director of the East A ia Program at Cornell University. We pologize for the error.


49, NUMBER 4

Books Noted in Items, 1995 China under Jurchen Rule: Essays on Chin InteUectual and Cultural History, edited by Hoyt Cleveland Tillman and Stephen H. We l. Based on a conference ponored by the Joint Committee on Chine e Studie in December 1993 at the University of Arizona. Albany: State Univer ity of New York Pres • 1995. xxi + 385 page . (June/September)

American Studies. Based on the 1987 volume, La participacion illd{gena en los mercados surandi1I0S; Estrategias y reproduccfoll social, siglos XVI a XX (Harris. Larson. and Tandeter, eds.). La Paz: Center for the Study of Economic and Social Reality (CERES). Durham. North Carolina: Duke University Pre • 1995. 428 page . (December)

editors). Sponsored by the Subcommittee on the Nature and Con equence of Democracy in the New Southern Europe of the Joint Committee on Western Europe of the Social Science Research Council and the American Council of Learned Societies. Baltimore: The John Hopkin University Pres, 1995. xxxiii + 493 pages. (December)

Chinese Historical MicroDemography, edited by Stevan Harrell. Studies on China 20. Based on a conference ponsored by the Joint Committee on Chine e Sludie in January 1987 in A ilomar, California. Berkeley: University of California Pre , 1995. xiv + 236 page . (June/September)

Globalization and the Western Welfare State: An Annotated Bibliography. edited by Elmar Rieger and Stephan Leibfried. Spon ored by the Center for Social Policy Re earch. Bremen. in cooperation with the Mannheim Center for European Social Re earch (MZES) and the Social Science Research Council. (March)

Remapping Memory: The Politics of TimeSpace, edited by Jonathan Boyarin. Sponsored by the Committee on International Peace and Security. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1994.

Coffee, Society, and Power in Latin America, edited by William Roseberry, Lowell Gudmundson. and Mario Samper Kutschbach. Sponsored by the Joint Committee on Latin American Studies. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press. 1995. (March)

Governing Capitalist Economies: Performance and Control of Economic Sectors. edited by J. Rogers Hollingsworth, Philippe C. Schmitter, and Wolfgang Slreeck. Spon ored by the Joint Committee on Western Europe. New York: Cambridge University Pre ,1993. (March)

East Timor at the Crossroads: The Forging of a Nation. edited by Peter Carey and G. Carter Bentley. With a foreword by General Ant6nio Ramalho Eane (President of Portugal. 1982-86). Sponsored by the Joint Committee on Southeast Asia. London: Cassell. 1995. xx + 259 pages. (December) Ethnicity, Markets, and Migration in the Andes: At the Crossroads of History and Anthropology, edited by Brooke Larson and Olivia Harris. with Enrique Tandeter. Sponsored by the Joint Committee on Latin


Policy Implications of Latino Poverty, by Maria E. Enchautegui. A report pon ored by the Committee for Public Policy Research on Contemporary Hispanic Issue . Washington. DC: The Urban Institute, 1995. (March) The Politics of Democratic Consolidation: Southern Europe in Comparative Perspective, edited by Richard Gunther, P. Nikiforos Diamandouro , and Han -JOrgen Puhle. Volume 1 in a new series, "The New Southern Europe" (R. Gunther and P.N. Diamandouros, general series


The Requirements of a Trans· national World. A report ponored by the Abe Fellowship Program. New York: Social Science Research Council, 1995. Es ay based on presentation made at the econd Abe Fellow ' Conference held in July 1994. 27 page . (June/September)

Ritual and Scripture in Chinese Popular Religion: Five Studies, edited by David Johnson. Publications of the Chinese Popular Culture Project 3. Based on a conference sponsored by the Chinese Popular Culture Project and the Joint Committee on Chinese Studies, and held in January 1990 in Bodega Bay, California. Berkeley: University of California Pre s, 1995. xv + 265 pages. (June/September) Sexuality Research in the United States: An Assessment of the Social and Behavioral Sciences, by Diane di Mauro. New York: Social Science Research Council, 1995. (March)




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ISSN 0049·0903


49, NUMBER 4

Items Vol. 49 No.4 (1995)  
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