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( SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH COUNCIL) Volume 49/ Numbers 2-3/ lune-September 1995

605 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10158

Kenneth Prewitt Named President of the SSRC Returning to the organization he headed from 1979 to 1985, Kenneth Prewitt has been named president of the Social Science Research Council, effective July 1, 1995, by its board of directors acting on the recommendation of a Presidential Search Committee. He succeeds David L. Featherman who has been appointed director of the University of Michigan's Institute for Social Re earch after serving as SSRC

president since 1989. Prior to his selection as the Council's chief executive officer, Mr. Prewitt was senior vice president of the Rockefeller Foundation where he directed its science-based development programs in agriculture, population, health, education, and the environment. Mr. Prewitt, a political scientist, was a member of the University of Chicago faculty for 17 years and chair of the Political Science Department. From 1976-79 he was director of the National Opinion Research Center (NORC). He has also taught at Stanford, Washington, and Columbia universities. The new SSRC president received his B.A. from Southern Methodist University, an M.A. from Washington University, and a Ph.D. from Stanford University. A prolific writer, Mr. Prewitt has published a dozen books and numerous essays and articles on a wide

CONTENTS OF THIS ISSUE Kenneth Prewitt Named Pre ident of the SSRC Knowledge and Security in the Post-Cold War World. Robert lAtham Black Studies. Multiculturalism. and the Future of American Education, Manning Marable A Pan路European Research Agenda. Susan Bronson and Kenton W. Won::ester Interaction. Collaboration. and Engagement, Mary Byrne McDonnell and

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Suri H. Ranis Current Activities at the Council Vice President of SSRC Resigns New Staff Appointment 43 New Directors and Officers Major Grant to Peace and Security Program 49 Recent Council Publications Council Fellow hip and Grant Programs. 1995-96 S6 Awards Offered in I99S (List of Names) Grants Received by the SSRC in 1994-9S

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S8 61

62 63

67 86

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range of topics, including urban politics, ethics and public policy, executive elites and democracy, and the relationship between social science and private philanthropy. He is a member of numerous advi ory and editorial boards and a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the American A ociation for the Advancement of Science, and the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences. A former Guggenheim Fellow, he received the Distingui hed Service Award from the New School for Social Research. In accepting the position at the Council, Mr. Prewitt noted that the organization is stronger and more diversified than when he last served as president. This, he commented, "is obviously attributable to the leadership qualities of my three predecessors (successors) and to the ability of the Council continually to renew and reinvigorate itself with dedicated staff, board members, and especially, the hundreds of scholars who serve on Council committees." Discussing the importance of the ocial sciences and his hopes for the Council, Mr. Prewitt said, "In recent years I have attended numerous international meetings concerned with one or another of the major global issues-food supply, pandemics, migration, resource depletion, proliferation, and so on. These are meetings convened by institutions which have to cope with the causes and consequences of these issues. Invariably, at some point in the proceedings, a senti-

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ment along the following lines is voiced: 'We need to understand the human dimension if we are to make headway.' Sometimes this is an explicit call for help from the social cience ; ometime it is implicit. But it is always there. In the more ophisticated formulations, the next sentence goe as follows: 'Where are the tructures that can connect us with the be t intellectual work?' This i not a moment when the ocial cience need be hy about what they have to offer. It may, though, be a moment when they have to rethink how their contribution can be t be made. It is an effort in which I would like to ee the SSRC engaged." Over 120 nomination for the position were received by the Presidential Search Committee which was headed by Albert Fishlow, Council on Foreign Relations, chair of the Executive Committee of the Council's board of directors. Other members included Burton H. Singer, Princeton University, chair of the SSRC' board of directors; Barbara Heyns, New York University, vice-chair; Paul B. Baltes, Max Planck Institute for Human Development and Education, SSRC board member; and Lawrence D. Bobo, University of California, Los Angeles, a former board member. Also Crauford Goodwin, Duke University; Alejandro Portes, The Johns Hopkins University; and Rhonda Cobham-Sander, Amherst College. M. Priscilla Stone, program director of the Joint Committee on Africa, served as staff representative.

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Knowledge and Security in a Post-Cold War World

which has become an increasingly important concern over the la t decade.

Some

Robert Latham * In an earlier Items article l I detailed the origin , purpo e, and achievement of the SSRC-MacArthur Foundation Program on Peace and Security in a Changing World. My focu was on the change the program has effected in regard to (I) bringing young cholar into the security field; (2) expanding the range of is ues considered relevant to the study of peace and ecurity; and (3) utilizing methods and disciplinary approaches that had not previously been employed in the field. I now propo e to explore how the collective efforts of ten year of re earch by fellows funded by the program has generated new ways to understand what ecurity is. In this article I will offer one way to comprehend how fellows' re earch ha cumulatively re haped a new approach to the tudy of ecurity. This understanding is ultimately my own, but it is meant to help reader take note of the many significant themes that have emerged acros ten years of research. In pre enting this perspective, I do not mean to imply that for the program's fellows there is one best way to define security. Quite to the contrary, I will try to how that what emerge from a consideration of the work of the fellows collectively is a perspective that is broad and variegated and transfonns how we approach the important que tions about what security is and who should be made secure. 2 This perspective stands outside conventional discourses on security that have emerged even in the aftennath of the cold war. It therefore encourages scholars to examine, and policymakers to consider, previously unexplored dimensions of security. This perspective al 0 has significant implications for how we might want to think about the relation hip between security and global governance, • Robert Latham, a political scienti t, is program officer to the Committee on International Peace and Security which admini ters the SSRC-MacArthur Foundation Program on Peace and Security in a Changing World. I R. Latham. "Moments of Transformation: The SSRC- MacArthur Foundation Program in International Peace and Security on the Eve of Its 10th Anniversary," Items. 48 (I): 1-8. March 1994. 2 The importance of these questions i stressed by Steve Smith, "Mature Anarchy, Strong States and Security, Anns Control. 12 (2): 325-39 September 1991 . JUNE/SEPTEMBER

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post~old

war lines of debate

Unique opportunities for widening the debate among cholars and policy makers on how to redefine and expand conceptions of peace and ecurity in the We t were opened up with the end of the cold war in Europe. For the mo t part, two broad approaches have dominated thi debate. In one approach we are asked to conceive of security along more expansive geographic lines. According to this view, we no longer are to be concerned solely with national security. In tead, attention is to be directed toward global, international, transnational, regional, and subnational security, as well as variants of "common" or "collective" ecurity that are typically a ociated with institutions uch as the United Nations or the Organization for Security Cooperation in Europe. All of these notions are meant to expand the geographical reach of ecurity beyond the isolated nation-state.3 A econd approach to expansion and redefinition asks us to move beyond the narrow concern with military force associated with national ecurity during the cold war. This would be done by focusing on the different aspects of modem life that might be een as relevant to ecurity in a po t-cold war environment. Mo t frequently, these include politics, economics, society, and the environment.4 A major goal of redefining security along the e line has been to emphasize that threats to states and societies involve more than organized interstate military violence. Threats can include environmental degradation, political instability, and economic well-being. Advocate of this approach, therefore, have asserted that there are different categories of security that are relevant to tates, including political security, economic security, and environmental security. The e approaches do expand and challenge the cold war conception of national security in significant ways. They rai e questions about the value of limiting our focus to the implications of interstate war for a given tate or society. And they expand the set of ana3 See the ISA presidential address of Helga Haftendorn, "The Security Puzzle: Theory-Building and Discipline-Building in International Security." International Studies Quarterly. 35 (1991): 3-18. • See Barry Buzan. Peoples. States & Fear: An Agenda for International Security Studies in the Post-Cold War Era, 2nd ed. (Boulder, Colorado: Lynne Rienner, 1991), pp. 19-20.

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Iytical and methodological tool available for r:e earch by focusing on social, political, and technologIcal factors from a broad range of ocial phenomena. But in these two approaches there is little basis for overcoming the continued identification of the state and the tate sy tern as the central organizing element for thinking about security. Concept of international ecurity generally re t on an as umption that "the international" represents the aggregate of variou states and the interactions that occur across their borders. In a similar fashion, it is the fate and life of individual states and ocieties that i usually at stake in the concepts of political, economic, or environmental security, although the source of these new types of threats is often thought to be located in the international system. s It should therefore not be surprising that even in the current intellectual environment of ex pan ion and redefinition, there is a continued endurance of a core en e of what security is about in much of U.S. academia-i.e., violent conflict and organized military force among states.6 That is because underlying the continued appeal of traditional understandings of security even in a post~old war environment in leading U.S. academic institutions and policy circles is the perceived centrality of the tate as an actor in the enforcement, development, and provision of ecurity. Such provi ion can take place on behalf of a nation, a .. region, or a Third World ociety gripped by deep cIvIl strife. The state is understood to be the ultimate agent of security: a producer of conflict, a deployer of force, a participant in the prevention and ending of war,. a super-polluter or guardian of greenne ,an organIzer of economies, and so on. The wide-ranging aspects of our modem social existence on thi planet are till viewed only as dimensions of life within the modem state. That is, economic or material life, collective existence, political organization, military force, and the environment are typically under tood to be contained and secured within and by a single tate, a group of states, or the totality of tates. States remain, in principle, the context for the e important phere of life even in a post~old war intellectual environment. 3 A critique of this understanding of environmental security is 1Tl3~ by Daniel Deudney, "The Case Against Linking Environmental Degradauon and National Security," MiIIl!nnium, 19 (3): 461-76, Winter 1990. 6 The case for thi core is made by Stephen Walt, "The Renaissance of Security Studies," inll!Tnaliona/ SIUilII!S Quartu/y. 35 (2): 211-39, June 1991.

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Rethinking security For ten years the SSRC-MacArthur Foundation Program on Peace and Security in a Changing World ha encouraged cholar to take a broad-based approach to thinking about peace and ecurity. In thi effort scholars in the program have generally built on the intellectual architecture of the two approache di cu ed above by integrating the international focu of the first approach with the non-military focu of the econd. But what cholars in the program have achieved collectively i to tum on it head the perspective of the econd approach: i.e., that the variou dimensions of modem life relevant to ecurity are contained in di crete tate. In the econd approach it i a umed that the tate remain the ultimate context of ecurity. In contra t, in the work of the program' fellow , it appears that it is tlte various spheres of modem life that are the contexts of security, rather than the state. The e pheres include: the patterning and configuration of military power in global per pective; the structuring of life in the polity; the dynamic of collective exi tence; the organization of material life; and the condition of the bios (the Greek term for "life" which I am u ing to denote the diver e dimenions of human and nonhuman life on the planet). Each sphere con titute a unique dimension of ocial exi tence that i manife ted in various local contexts (e.g., collectivitie in Central America or economic di tribution patterns in northern Indone ia). When viewed from a global per pective, the e local practice and patterns aggregate into di tinct field of relation , proces es, history, and knowledge centered about each dimension of ocial existence. For example, the tate form, as it has been reproduced acro the globe, ha dominated in the 20th century how life in a polity i conceived and con tituted. A thi example make clear, the focu on phere rather than tates doe not mean that researcher in the program have turned away from the tate. On the contrary, fellow have been deeply concerned with how tate and other actors impact life in tho e pheres-and they recognize that state do 0 in deci ive ways. But they are keenly aware that tate are not the only agent for whom the question "What i ecurity?" and "Who hould be made ecure?" are relevant. What the fellow have done i locate a rich array of tangible referents that can be understood to form five di tinct but intertwined sphere to answer the e fundamental que tion for the field of peace and ecurity. VOLUME

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(1) The patterning and configuration of military power in global perspective

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In the first sphere the notion of military-related security is expanded far beyond the confines of "national security." The new context is not the state and its security per se but the ways that military power is deployed, governed, produced, and exercised on a global scale. 7 What has emerged in the work of many of the fellows is a sense that military power designed by states, deployed at borders, made subject to agreements, and used in lethal combat constitutes a field of action and practice occurring across the globe. 8 Scholar in the program have concerned themelve with such dependent variables as ecurity regimes, ecurity communities, institutionalizations of non-proliferation, and changing forms of coercion. Independent variables have included norms, institutional relations, science and technology, and psychological proces es, to mention only a few. Oleg Bukarin combined political and technological factors in his analysis of the impact of Soviet nuclear policy and practice on the patterns of nuclear proliferation and afety. Elisa Harris explored how the technology of biological and chemical weapon ha shaped policymaking and the options for building international controls. Hugh Gusterson moved far beyond a state-centric focus by offering an analysis of the culture of the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, including its language, rituals, ethics, and emphasis on secrecy. And Lynn Eden has conducted a study of how the weight of past decisions and organizational interests have shaped discourse and policy options regarding the development of nuclear weapons. (2) The structuring of life in the polity By the time formal empires dissolved in the mid20th century, nation-state had come to monopolize conceptions of what a polity is. Of cour e, recent trends regarding European integration have opened up thinking about the po ibilities of new political forms. And the apparent weakness and occasional dis olution of some post-colonial states, especially in Africa, provide further grounds for thinking about forms of governance out ide the Western-style nation-state model. 7 On one level this sphere of security is consi tent with the way Walt "Renai sance of Security Studies," p. 212, thinks of security when he ' define it as "the tudy of the threat, use, and control of military force ." • This i what some mean by the term in/una/ional u curily, but uch a term i , pointed out above, highly under-specified.

JUNFlSEPTEMBER 1995

Despite these countertrends, the nation-state remains the chief means of administering the myriad dimensions of modern life. Fellows have recognized that fashioning a form of life within a given polity-a process that has been reproduced across the globehas crucial ecurity implications. Perhaps most impor~an~ ~f all is state-led violence against groups and IndiViduals. But closely allied is the problem of more general state-linked repression as a threat to aspects of life that lie beyond the issue of physical harm, including democratic governance, human rights, and individual well-being (especially in the economic sense). Sergio Aguayo has explored ways of thinking about ecurity in Mexico that are grounded not in the state per se but in society, and that are clearly linked to issue such as democratic values and justice. Focusing more intently on the international realm, Diana Cammack has analyzed the extent to which NGO's have promoted democratization, human rights, and sustainable economic growth for refugees in various Third World polities. Beyond this, the character of a polity and its ability to mediate or govern heterogeneou forces (ethnic or otherwise) have important implications for whether bodies of citizen across the fabric of global society can fashion livable political and ocial environments for themselves. Alexander Naty, for example, has explored the tensions between the law and ideology of the unitary state and the articulation of specific ethnicities in Ethiopia. (3) The dynamics of coUective existence The winding down of the cold war has increased the salience of all forms of collective life, but most of all that of the ethnic and national group. For the most part, the state-as the "bounder" and organizer of nations and ocieties--continues to be a crucial force in collective existence. But there are tensions between states and the collectivities that often have been contained within them. Indeed, there are time when states and the collectivities individuals associate with do not coincide. Scholars funded by the program have recognized and examined these tensions and the more fundamental aspects of the ecurity of collective existence. Security can be a matter of the sheer continued existence of a collectivity (e.g., a diaspora), or the capacity of a collectivity to e tablish its own form of life and identity. Bhavna Dave has explored the processes that led to the emergence of the Kazakh national intelligentsia and the tensions that this emerITEMsl45


gence engendered vis-a-vis the forces of Russian nationalism in the area. Security i al 0 directly a 0ciated with the growing occurrence of inter-collectivity conflict that occurs outside the context of a given state. Charles Hale's work on the conflict between Mestizo and Indian collectivities in Latin America has shown how marginalized cultures that share an experience of oppression and resistance can clash. Finally, transnational collective formations and their impact on their own and other collective forms of life further challenge the deep state-centricity of most approache to security studie . Su anne Rudolph's re earch planning project on the ri e of tran national religiou networks (e.g., Islamic, Catholic, and Evangelical) force us to think of the relationship between security and collective life that spills acro s state boundarie . (4) The organization of material life The ways that material life-production, exchange, and consumption-is organized on a global, regional, and local basis bears directly on such tangible ocial forms as markets, industrial tructures, and sy tems of distribution. There are important struggles, ten ions, and threats inherent in how these forms are con tituted, maintained, and reconfigured. And there are few more demanding and important tasks for a program on peace and security than coming to terms with the relationship between the workings of the international economy and political conflict. The program's scholars have established that not only ba ic material survival, but conditions of survival are subject to threat. 9 Unequal distribution outcomes, repressive tructures of economic decision-making, and denied economic rights pose serious threats to people struggling to construct or maintain vita1lives on this planet. Daniel Little, for example, in his study of food security and international conflict, has challenged policies that prioritize economic growth over the alleviation of poverty and harsh conditions of existence. More generally, fellows have turned to political-economic organization, norms, institutional form , and technology a factors in order to explain changing conditions of material exi tence and their bearing on the emergence of threats.

9 Buzan, P~opl~, Slal~s and F~ar, p. 19, also points to "conditions of exi tence" as an i ue in security. However, it is the nation¡ tate's exi • tence that he i concerned with.

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(5) The conditions of the bios In recent year many leading policy maker have come to accept the notion that environmental threats con titute an important dimension of national ecurity. Unfortunately, while this under tanding of security recognize that there are global dimen ion to environmental threat, the e dimension are generally treated as external influence on the internal sphere of the nation- tate. Policy maker and cholars alike can be fru trated in their attempt to ort out the con equence for variou locale of a failure to addre environmental problem that ultimately are global in cope. The re earch of the fellow makes it clear that there are co ts to taking state-centric and unilinear views of the environment. Fir t, uch view can hift our focu away from the role of tate them elves a ignificant polluters, rather than merely guardians of the anctity of the dome tic pace. Second, there i little room for consideration of non tate actors- uch a transnational ocial movements~xcept perhaps a intermediarie between tate. And, as in the military phere, making the tate an actor in a wider context open the way more clearly for analy is of tran national regimes bearing on the bio phere, and for linking local and global proce e and outcomes. Third, the environment i only one aspect of a much broader phere encompa ing a whole range of factor relevant to the biologic and organic dimen ion of exi tence on the planet. The e include narcotics and other drug , which directly relate to the politics of the body, and the welfare and development of pecie , which have important implication for biodiver ity. Fellow have identified economic change, migration, population, technology, and organized crime as force that impinge on the bios. One example i the work of Diana Liverman on the environment and ecurity in Mexico. She ha ought to under tand the direct role of international relation in the cau es and olutions to environmental problem in Mexico, including debt, technology tran fer , multinational corporation , agricultural trade, and political alliance . Pluralizing security In the way that re earcher in the program have treated security, the traditional concerns of the security field-violent conflict and military force-are factor pre ent in all five phere, not ju t the fir t. For example, there are repres ive dome tic militias and civil VOLUME

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war bearing on the polity; violent ethnic conflicts bearing on collective exi tence; polluting military action (e.g., Iraq's "environmental terrori m" in the Per ian Gulf and U.S. nuclear dumping) bearing on the bios; and economic warfare and military-indu trial complexe bearing on material life. In the arne fa hion, political, ocietal, and economic relation pill acro all five phere . Al 0, the re earch of fellow ugge t a more expan ive way to treat the patial dimen ion of ecurity. For in tance, the security of a given region can be under tood in term of the configuration of military power, the tructuring of politie , the dynamic of collective , the condition of the bios, and the organization of material life that occur within it. It i for thi reason that the ab tract divi ion of ecurity according to type of relation (political, economic, military, and environmental) or patial diviion (international, regional, collective) di cu ed above doe not capture the full extent of reformulation offered by the fellows. Above all, ecurity in a po t--cold war world mean that a far more extensive et of actor can take re ponibility for etting the term for their own peace and ecurity, rather than passively receiving the pre cription of tate policy makers. 10 Tran national religiou organizations, environmental group , human rights organization , regional economic cooperative , local communitie , diasporas, and refugee are ju t a few of the collectivities who e articulation of definition ofand condition for-peace and ecurity reflect the pecific dimen ion of their ocial and political life. Security may tum on is ues uch as acce to an important market roadway, the effects of a new dam, the containment of tran border organized crime, and the violent persecution of a religiou minority. Security can thu be viewed as bearing on the mediation, mitigation, or even governance of threats to contending ways of configuring social existence that are inherent in each security sphere. For example, threat can emerge to the flow of re ources, the exi tence of collectivitie , the integrity of political space , the autonomy of agents, and the variegated forms of cultural life.

Security and global governance This per pective on ecurity i e pecially relevant to the task of forging link , in theoretical and 10 See Smith, "Mature Anarchy," who points out that different people will define security in different way .

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methodological term ,between ecurity and global governance. Over the la t decade the concept of global governance ha become pervasive in di cusion of international affair in both the cholarly and policymaking communitie . Security i frequently under tood to be an important area of governance. For example, in a new and highly vi ible report by the U.N.' Commi ion on Global Governance, it was proclaimed that with the end of the cold war the "world community eemed to be united around the idea that it hould a ume greater collective re pon ibility in a wide range of area, including ecuritynot only in a military en e but in economic and ocial term a well." I I What i global governance? In principle the goal of global governance i the regulation, mediation, urveillance, and even legitimation, at the global level, of proce e and tran action occurring acro the planet. To date, it i in the economic realm that in titution and arrangement for global governance uch a GATT have been mo t developed, and have received the greate t attention. But more mundane areas of governance include global communication embodied, for in tance, in international po tal ervice. How does the work of thi program's fellows fit in? Contained within the five pheres of global life de cribed above are exactly the type of planetary proce e and tran action that are, in principle, ubject to governance. On one level, global governance can be understood to be the governance of these five spheres of global social and political life. That i , in each phere there are relation , practices, and in titution which might be governed on a transnational and democratic basis through the cooperative effort of tate , international organization , and other relevant non- tate actors. If the di cu ion of the security in the last section i taken eriou Iy, the interface between ecurity and governance can be understood to revolve ultimately around the phenomenon of threat. What i crucial is addres ing the que tion of how the global community governs threats to spheres of global social and political life. The knowledge that fellows have generated in each of the pheres de cribed above, constitute a robust foundation for pur uing this question into the 21 t century.

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Report of the Commi ion on Global Governance. Ou, Global (New York: Oxford University Press. 1995), p. I.

N~ighbo'hood

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Conclusion It has been my intention in this article to present one way to view the extensive body of research generated collectively by the fellows of the SSRC-MacArthur Foundation Program on Peace and Security in a Changing World. The perspective that has been developed above is not meant to impose a fmn grid of interpretation over that body of research. I have sought, instead, to show how the work of fellows could be viewed in a fashion that focuses our attention on some common themes and concerns, but which, at the same time, allows us to remain open to the diversity of issues and approaches that have emerged out of the program across a decade of funding. Ultimately,

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no single perspective, no matter how open it is, is capable of capturing the full range of contributions to the security field the program has encouraged through: (I) the introduction and incorporation of methodological and theoretical developments that cut across the the social sciences, humanities, and natural sciences; (2) the participation of a community of scholars and activists that is global in cope; and (3) the articulation of a research agenda that is broad enough to help create new intellectual environments for scholarship and policymaking. Above all, ensuring that scholarship on peace and security in a changing world develops an enduring and self-sustaining capacity for innovation will likely be the most important contribution a program of this sort can make.

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Black Studies, Multiculturalism, and the Future of American Education by Manning Marable* African-American tudie, broadly defined, is the systematic study of the black experience, framed by the ocioeconomic, cultural, and geographical boundaries of sub-Saharan Africa and the black diaspora of North America, the Caribbean, Brazil and Latin America and increasingly, Europe it elf. At its core, it is als~ the black intellectual tradition as it has challenged and interacted with Western civilization and cultures. In the social ciences and the humanities, that intellectual tradition ha assumed a complex burden over many generations, eeking to engage in a critical dialogue with white cholar hip on a range of complex is ue , and mo t significantly, the definition and reality of race as a ocial construct, and the factors that explain the structures of inequality which greatly define the existence of black people across the globe. This definition was at the heart ofW.E.B. Du Bois' assertion nearly a century ago, that "the problem of the [20th] century i the problem of the color line." From Du Bois' point of departure, we can a ert that the problem of the 21 st century is the challenge of "multicultural democracy"-whether American ociety can and will be re tructured to include the genius and energy, talents and aspirations of millions of people of color-Latinos, Asian Americans, American Indian , Arab Americans, African Americans, and others. I would like to explore three interrelated issues which provide a framework for discussing the study of the contemporary African-American experience, and questions of racial and ethnic diversity within a democratic ociety. The first topic is to consider the debate over black tudie and more generally, what has been termed "multiculturalism," especially in the context of • Manning M3r.lble is director of the Institute for Research in African· American Studies and profe sor of hi-tory and politic31 science at Columbia University. This article i based on a I3lk delivered by Mr. ~~Ie to t.he Soci31 Science Research Council in M3I'Ch. It will appear In • lightly different form III a ch:tpter in M. Marnble. B~yond Blac/e and Whjt~: R~thinkinR Rac~ in "m~rican Politics and Soci~ty (Verso Publi hers. forthcoming 1995).

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higher education. The critics of both multiculturalism and black studies have linked the concepts with the concurrent controversy urrounding "political correctness" on campuses and in public school curricula. But we need to go beyond rhetoric to define multiculturalism properly. Second, what is the ocial context for a discussion of racial diversity and pluralism within American society as a whole? Because I am a social scientist of the African-American experience, my commentary will focus briefly on the disturbing trends away from equality within the national black community. These inequalities are leading u to two unequal Americas, divided not simply by racial identity, but by sharply divergent levels of skills, learning, and acce s to educational opportunities. And finally, there is the larger issue of the future of race and ethnicity within American society itself. The que tion of difference within any ociety or culture is alway conjuncturaI, ever-changing, and conditional. "Race" is not a permanent social category, but a historical product of slavery and human exploitation, an unequal relation hip between social groups. We must rethink old categories and old ways of perceiving each other. We mu t define the issue of diversity as a dynamic, ever-changing concept, leading us to explore problems of human relations and social equality in a manner that will expand the principles of fairness and opportunity to all members of society. For any oppre ed people, questions of culture and identity are linked to the tructure of power and privilege within society. Culture is the textured pattern of collective memory, the critical consciousness and aspiration of a people. When culture is constructed in the context of oppre sion, it may become an act of resistance. Definitions of "multiculturalism" A working definition of multiculturalism begins with the recognition that our nation's cultural heritage does not begin and end with the intellectual and aesthetic products of We tern Europe. Multiculturalism rejects the model of cultural assimilation and social conformity which, within the context of our schools, has often relegated African Americans, Latinos, and other people of color to the cultural slums. The mythical melting pot in which a diverse number of ethnic antecedents were blended into a nonracist and thoroughly homogenized blend of cultures never existed. ITEMsl49


A similation always as umed that the price for admi sion to America's cultural democracy for racial and ethnic minorities was the urrender of tho e thing which truly made u unique: our language and tradition , our foods and folkway, our religion, and even our name. The cultural foundations of the United State draw much of their creativity and originality from African, Latino, American Indian, and A ian element . Multiculturalism ugge ts that the cro -cultural literacy and awareness of the e diver e group i critical in under tanding the e ence of the American experience "from the bottom up." Part of the general confusion about the concept of multiculturalism is that there are trikingly different and ometimes conflicting interpretation about it meaning. For example, in We tern Europe, particularly in the Netherlands and the United Kingdom, a highly re trictive and regimented interpretation of multiculturalism exists. Different ethnic and racial minoritie are, in effect, locked into their re pective culture , with an emphasis on the ocietal management of real or po sible cultural, religious, and ocial difference . "Tolerance" for diversity i the common denominator; all people are perceived as being equal, politically and ocially, free to pur ue their own unique ritual ,collective traditions and creative art , without fear of di crimination or haras ment. Within the parameter of this type of tolerance, there i an emphasis on the contours of difference, within the value , heritage and group behaviors of di tinct cultural con tituencies. Rarely is there any discu ion linking culture to power, to a minority group's acce to the re ource , privileges and property which i concentrated within certain elites or c1as e . In titutional raci m i hardly ever mentioned or even acknowledged. Within the United State , there are at least four major interpretation of multiculturali m, reflecting the widely diver e ethnic, racial, and ocial c1as compo ition of the nation. African-American tudie i an integral part of the multicultural debate. In very implistic terms, the e contradictory interpretation are "corporate multiculturalism," "liberal multiculturali m," "racial essentiali m," and "radical democratic multiculturali m." Corporate multiculturalism eeks to highlight the cultural and ocial diver ity of America' population, making manager and corporate executive more sensitive to differences uch as race, gender, age, lan50\1TEMS

guage, phy ical ability, and exual orientation in the labor force. A number of major corporation regularly pon or pecial program honoring Martin Luther King, Jr.' birthday, or the Mexican-American holiday, Cinco de Mayo. Other hold "multicultural audit" for their taff and per onnel, work hop and training eion empha izing awarene and en itivity to people of color, women, and other . The major rea on for thi multicultural metamorpho i among dozen of America' large t corporation can be summarized in two phra e : minority market and labor force demographic . The value of the African-American con umer market in the United States exceed $300 billion annually; the Spani hpeaking con umer market i not far behind, at $240 billion annually. Since the early 1960 , there ha been ub tantial evidence from marketing re earcher indicating that African American and Latino have trikingly different buying habit than white . To reach thi growing con umer market, white corporation are now forced to do much more than produce adverti ement featuring black, A ian-American, and Hi panic actors di playing their product. Multicultural marketing utilizes element of minority culture in order to appeal directly to nonwhite con umers. A the overall labor force becomes increa ingly A ian, Latino, Caribbean, and African-American, the pre ure increa e on corporation to hire greater numbers of nonwhite managers and executive , and to di tribute their product through minority-owned firm . Of cour e, nowhere in the di course of corporate multiculturalism is the idea that raci minot an accidental element of corporate ocial relations. In tead, the basic concept i to "celebrate diver ity" of all kind and varietie , while criticizing no one. Troubling concept like "exploitation," "raci m,"" exi m," and "homophobia" are rarely mentioned. Liberal multiculturali m, by contra t, i explicitly antiraci t, and take for granted that educational in titution have a powerful ocial re pon ibility to decontruct the ideology of human inequality. It i genuinely concerned with ae thetics, ideology, curriculum theory, and cultural critici m. Liberal multiculturali m i broadly democratic a an intellectual approach for the decon truction of the idea of race. But like corporate multiculturali m, it doe not adequately or fully addre the inequalitie of power, re ource , and privilege that eparate mo t Latino ,African American , and many A ian American from the great majority of VOLUME

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white upper- and middle-cla American. It doe not conceive of it elf as a praxi , a theory which eek to tran form the reality of unequal power relation . It deliberately emphasizes ae thetics over economics, art over politic . It attempt to articulate the perceived intere t of minority group to increase their influence within the exi ting mainstream. In hort, liberal multiculturali m i liberali m within the framework of cultural diver ity and plurali m. The mo t articulate and influential proponent of thi perspective i Henry Loui Gate, Harvard Univer ity' director of African-American tudie. The third model of multiculturali m i racial e entiali m. Here, advocate of diver ity prai e the artifact, ritual and hi torie of non-We tern people as original, unique, and even uperior to tho e of We tern Europe and white America. They juxtapo e the de tructive di crimination of "Eurocentri m" with the nece ity to con truct a counter hegemonic ideological and cultural world view. For many people of African descent, this has been tran lated into the cultural and educational movement called "Afrocentri m." Fir t developed a a theoretical concept by Temple Univer ity cholar Molefi A ante, Afrocentri m has quickly in pired a virtual explo ion of child' book, curriculum guide , cultural, hi torical, and educational textbook , and literary work . The trength of the Afrocentric perspective and analy i are undeniable: the fo tering of pride, group olidarity, and elf-respect among black them elve ; a richer appreciation for African language , art, mu ic, ancient philo ophies, and cultural traditions; a commitment to unearth and to de cribe the geniu and creativity of blacks in the context of a raci t and unforgiving America. A a paradigm for under tanding and reinterpreting the contours of the African experience, Afrocentri m al 0 advance an internationali t perpective, drawing correlation between black communitie from Lago to Lo Angele , from Brooklyn' Bedford-Stuyve ant to London' Brixton. A white American have retreated from an hone t dialogue about the pervasiveness of racial inequality in American life, many black American are attracted to an Afrocentric perspective. In hundred of communitie where black parents are attempting to pre sure board of education to make curricula more culturally plurali tic, Afrocentri m provides a logical oppo itional framework to traditional Eurocentri m. In many way ,Afrocentri m is broadly defined by many black Ju ElSEYrnMBER 1995

a imply an awarene of one' cultural heritage and a recognition of the common de tiny of all people of African de cent. The contradictions and weakne es of Afrocentri m are ju t a triking. Although frequently di cu ed in the context of multiculturali m, in many re pects Afrocentri m is theoretically and programmatically at odd with the larger trend toward pluralism and educational diver ity. Conceptually, many Afrocentri t have ab olutely no de ire to engage in a critical di course with white America, at any level. They retreat into a bipolar model of racial relation , which delineate the contour of the black experience from a photographic negative of whitene . In effect, thi "freezes" the meaning of culture, reducing the dynamic and multiple current of interpersonal and group interaction to a rigid et of hi torical categorie . From a practical tandpoint, an Afrocentric perspective perceive black studie as a unified di cipline; that i , a di tinct body of knowledge informed by a coherent methodology and a di tinct body of literature which help to define the field. William M. King, for example, characterized the "Afrocentric perspective" in cholarship a the application of that "world view, normative a umption, and frame of reference [which] grow out of the experience and folk wi dom of black people." But thi approach rai ed a ho t of que tions. A Delore P. Aldridge, long-time coordinator of black studie at Emory Univer ity ob erved, "many black tudie departments, originating as a re ult of pre ure and flawed liberal con cience , lacked an agreed-upon body of knowledge, disciplined frame of reference, or ba e of knowledge-the very characteri tic that defined every other tandard academic di cipline." To create the character of a di cipline, Afrocentri ts utilized variou tactics, both admini trative and political. In the case of the African-American Studie Department at Temple Univer ity, chairper on Molefi A ante in isted that all faculty hired adhere to an "Afrocentric perspective" as their primary commitment toward cholarly re earch and teaching. A ante wa ophi ticated enough not to in i t that this meant that whites were unqualified to teach in hi field. A ante's follower at mailer in titution frequently did not make hi ubtle distinction , and reduced hi Afrocentric theorie to their lowe t common theoretical denominator. In my judgment, the argument that white were unqualified by their racial cia ification and/or experiITEMs/51


ences to teach the African-American experience, has been made far more often by white administrators and faculty than by blacks. The hidden assumption at work here is that no one who was not born black would have the interest or proper dedication to the study of black life. Setting aside the example of Herbert Aptheker, and the hundreds of gifted and dedicated white intellectuals who di prove this hypothe is, the great danger in this argument is that it as urnes that knowledge is grounded in racial, biological, or even genetic factors. But if race it elf i a social con truct, an unequal relationship between ocial groups characterized by concentrates of power, privilege, and authority of one group over another, then anyone of any ethnic, class or social background should be able to learn the complex experiences of another group. Membership or identity within an oppressed racial group often yields unique per onal in ights, which may be translated into texts, and in clas room teaching. But our imaginations do not have to be impri oned by the boundaries of our skin color-or by our gender, religious upbringing, phy ical impairment, or exual orientation, for that matter. The more separatist and racially es entiali t variety of Afrocentrism rarely explores the profound cultural dynamics of creolization and multiple identities of nationalism and ethnicity found throughout the black world, from the Hispanicized blackness of the Dominicans, Puerto Rican , and Colombians, to the vast complexities of race in Cuba and Brazil, to the distinctions and tensions eparating rural conservative Chri tian blacks in the Mississippi Delta and the co mopolitan, urban, secular, hip-hop culture of young blacks in Watts, Harlem, and Chicago's South Side. But the most serious weaknes of Afrocentri m i it general failure to integrate the insights of cultural difference drawn from the perspectives of gender, exual orientation, and class. It has no theory of power that goes beyond a racialized de cription of how white , as a monolithic category, benefit materially, psychologically, and politically from in titutional racism. Thu , rather than eeking allies acro the boundarie of race, gender and clas , mo t Afrocentri ts approach the world like the main character in Ralph Elli on's clas ic novel, Invisible Man: enclo ed inside a windowles room filled with thou ands of glowing light bulb -illumination without vision. Finally, there is the insurgent movement toward "radical democratic multiculturali m," or what might 52\IreMS

be de cribed more accurately as a tran formationi t cultural critique. The e educators, artists, performers, writers, and scholars are in pired by the legacy of W.E.B. Du Boi and Paul Robe on. They empha ize the parallels between the cultural experience of America's minority group with oppres ed people throughout the world. Oi cu ion of culture are always linked to the que tion of power, and the way in which ideology and ae thetic are u ed to dominate or control oppre ed people. The goal of the radical democratic multiculturali t i not the liberal inclu ion of representative numbers of blacks, Latino and others into the literary canon, media, and cultural mainstream, but the democratic re tructuring of the sy tern of cultural and political power it elf. It i to rethink the entire hi tory of thi country, redefining its heritage in order to lay claim to its future. It i to redefine America it elf. Scholar in thi current include Harvard University philo opher Cornel We t; femini t Bell Hook ,Angela Oavi and Patricia Hill Collins; legal cholars Patricia Williams and Lani Guinier; anthropologi t Leith Mulling ; and political theorist Jame Jenning . The democratic multiculturali t approach black tudie in a very different manner. They in i t that African-American tudie is not a discipline, like physic or p ychology, but a broad intellectual dialogue and exchange which incorporate divergent perpectives and concern . It intellectual anchor re t with a erie of theme and que tions which cut acro individual di cipline . At the center of thi exchange i a debate and dialogue concerning the nature of identity-Who and what i the African American, culturally, ocially, and in the oppre ive context of racial domination? How has the black community in America and elsewhere evolved over generation ? What common cultural and ocial element tran cend geography and influence the con truction of black reality in America, the Caribbean, Africa and el ewhere? What j the future of African-American people within the context of a plurali tic democratic ociety which has yet to fulfill it promi e of equality and ocial justice? Such que tion can be pursued through hi tory, political cience, religion, philo ophy, ociology, anthropology, literature, and a ho t of other di cipline . This is not to ay that the radical democratic multiculturali ts agree with each other on all the es ential . Far from it. We t has major re ervation and critici m VOLUME

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about the term "multiculturalism." Hooks emphasizes the cultural dimensions of social change, and sharply di ents from a theoretical perspective that would place cla s at the center of her analysi of ociety. Guinier, the outstanding voice for challenging the problems inherent in "majority-rule democracy" of her generation, emphasizes the legal and policy dimenion of politics, and is much Ie s concerned with cultural or ideological phenomena. Collin 'analy is of black femini m is close conceptually to that of many Afrocentrists. Mullings and Davis, among others, approach ocial analysis from the vantage point of class relations. One could argue that the differences between the e public intellectuals of the multicultural left are ju t a significant as their imilaritie . Their "unity" i created to a great extent by the criticism of their opponents on the right, and by their common commitment to expand the definition and boundaries of academic discourse and intellectual engagement to relate to the very real and practical problems of inequality which define urban America today.

Deconstructing race The que t for a unified theoretical framework and approach to the tudy of race and diversity has been elu ive. For nearly half a century, we have pursued the goal of diversity in higher education, with at be t mixed and uneven results. In the 1950 and early 1960 , liberal educators declared proudly that they were committed to the goal of a "color-blind environment." I distinctly recall professors saying to me that they "could not remember" whether this or that student was "a Negro." They fully embraced the liberal perspective of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., that individual hould be judged "not by the color of their kin but the content of their character." At the arne time, we should assert that "color blindne s," the eradication of white privilege and superiority and the abolition of all hierarchies that perpetuate black inferiority, should be our ultimate goal. As the great reggae arti t Bob Marley of Jamaica once observed: "Until the color of a man's skin is of no greater con equence that the color of his eye , there will be war." But the question should be, How do we get there? How can we "deconstruct" race? We cannot get there by pretending that race and color no longer matter, that they have magically declined in significance since the sixties. In a racist society, color symbolize the Ju. 'E/SEPTEMBER 1995

inequality of power relations, the ownership of property and resources, between various group and classes. To end racial prejudice, we must restructure the power relations between people of color and upper- to middle-income whites. This means that we must pur ue a "color-con cious" trategy to create the conditions where color is one day irrelevant to determining the po it ion of power, educational acces , health care, and other opportunities of daily life. In the 1970 and 1980s, the ideal of color blindness gave way to what could be termed "symbolic repreentation." Liberal educators believed that the recipe for cultural diversity would be achieved by bringing repre entative of a new pectrum of interests into the academy-women, racial minorities, physically disabled people, Ie bian and gays, as well as others. Programs were e tabli hed to create new academic cour es in women's studies, black studies, Chicano tudies, gay and Ie bian tudies, and Asian-American tudie . Minorities and women were appointed as counselors and college recruiters. Multicultural student services centers were e tablished to address perceived concerns of the tudent of color. The e reform should have repre ented a beginning, rather than the end, of a proces of educational reconstruction on issue of ocial and cultural difference within the academy. Instead, at many colleges and universitie ,progress eems to have tailed. One rea on i that women and racial minorities were usually hired and sub equently located in the bureaucratic margins of academic in titutions, rather than within real centers of power. There were few deliberate program which actually tried to identify cholars of color and/or female faculty with administrative abilities who could mentor and cultivate them and help them advance. At ome institutions, minority faculty occupied a revolving-door position, usually at the de ignated ranks of in tructor or a i tant profe or, never to be tenured or reappointed. Many white administrator implemented affirmative action program and employed the discour e of diverity but, privately, never really believed in its validity. They never accepted the academic rationale of African-American studies, yet they adopted these programs on their campuse largely out of political necessity. To quell student unrest, to reduce criticism from minority educator and elected officials, they created uch program and departments on a ghettoized basis. Such program, white con ervative (and liberal) eduITEMs/53


cators were convinced, would appeal to minority tudents. Moreover, department with traditional curricula would not be forced to alter their way of teaching or their di criminatory hiring policie . Hi tory departments wouldn't have to offer African-American hi tory to tudents if the black tudie program was deemed responsible for it. Mu ic department could ignore Duke Ellington. Literature department could skip Alice Walker, Langston Hughe , Toni Morri on, and James Baldwin. The con piracy of silence on the part of orne second-rate yet politically astute black educator wa expre sed in the con truction of academic ghetto . Some African-American tudies program actively di couraged the cro s-Ii ting of course with traditional department , on the ground that thi would undermine the unit's academic autonomy and integrity. Students received the dangerous and erroneou impression that only individuals who happened to be of African descent had the cultural background and intellectual training nece ary to teach all thing black. Active, dedicated younger African-American cholars who were hired by uch program were frequently discouraged from interacting with colleague who were trained in their arne di cipline but who were affiliated with different academic departments. One example of this proce s i repre ented by the Black Studies Department under Profe or Leonard Jeffrie at the City College of the City University of New York. The controversy urrounding Profe or Jeffries over the past three and one-half years-hi anti-Semitic speech in Albany, New York, in the summer of 1991, hi sub equent, ha ty firing a chairman of black studies at City College, and his succe ful legal uit to reclaim his po ition and damage of $400,OOO-ignore the fundamental i ue at take. Jeffries had been reinstated as chair of black tudies many times, going back over two decade , by the presidents of City College. Hi last rein tatement a chair had occurred barely one month prior to hi controversial peech, which had parked alumni and public criticism calling for his immediate ou ter. Yet the CUNY central admini tration knew full well about the major academic hortcoming within the department-the fact that tudents received grade for ubmitting ab olutely no written work, or that Jeffrie kipped clas es, or that an atmo phere exi ted of intimidation and hara ment for other black faculty who disapproved of Jeffrie ' version of racially epa54\ITEMS

rati t Afrocentri m. They ignored a mountain of tudent and faculty complaints becau e of their own in titutional raci m; the va t majority of white, middlecia tudent at CUNY were unaffected.

Po ible approaches We mu t be hone t and rigorou in our critici m of uch program . But we must al 0 criticize tho e who have concluded that multicultural tudie have no relevance to higher education. On the contrary-the criteria for educational excellence mu t have at it core a truly multicultural vi ion and definition. We must have African-American tudie program and re earch in titute ; women' tudie and ethnic tudies programs; and academic program reflecting the totality of the cultural and ocial diver ity which i America. The challenge before u is to create programs de igned to impact the totality of the learning experience for all tudents. The challenge i to retrain our teacher and faculty 0 that they approach the art of in truction with a richer appreciation of the intricate factor of ethnicity and cultural diversity within their own di cipline . We mu t go beyond the traditional definition of diversity, the idea of cultural difference as a secondary feature of higher education' periphery, to redefine the core or the main tream of the academy' central mi ion for itself. We mu t as ert, for example, that the eriou tudy of the African-American experience i important not just to black tudent for ethnic and racial pride rea on , but for everyone; that all tudents, regard Ie of their ethnic background or heritage, can become intellectually enriched by exploration into the African-American experience. In practical term ,thi mean that black tudie cholar mu t go beyond imply the development of new cour e , to engage in a general di cu ion about faculty and taff development, and the u e of racial diver ity criteria in the promotion and tenure of teachers, and in the evaluation of cia room in truction. Course in black tudie mu t be placed in the general requirement for all tudent, regardle of their ethnic background . We need to initiate collaborative projects linking re earch to the development of i ue that impact black and other people of color not only in ide the United State, but acro the globe. Mo t importantly, black tudie need to rea ert the connections between academic excellence and ocial respon ibility. The black community i faced with a erie of economic, ocial, and political problem, and VOLUME 49. NUMBERS 2/3


I

cholar hip can be a critical tool in analyzing the mean for re olving and addressing contemporary i ues. In the legacy of W.E.B. Du Boi and other, we hould recognize that liberation i linked to the be t cholarly re earch. The next generation of black tudie programs mu t recognize that "knowledge i power," and that the purpo e of cholarly re earch i not merely to interpret but to change the world. A diverse community Compounding the challenge for the study of the black experience i the fact that the ocial compo it ion of the African-American community itself has changed harply ince the 1960 . One cannot really peak about a "common racial experience" which parallels the univer al oppo ition blacks felt when confronted by legal racial egregation. Moreover, the contemporary black experience can no longer be defined by a single et of ocioeconomic, political and/or cultural characteri tics. For roughly the upper third of the African-American population, the po t-1960 era has repre ented real advancements in the quality of education, income, political repre entation, and social statu . Social cientists e timate that the ize of the black middle class, for example, has increased by more than 400 percent in the past three decade . One out of every even black hou eholds, as of 1990, had annual gro incomes exceeding $50,000. For the middle third of the African-American population, it recent experience has been a gradual deterioration in it material, educational, and ocial conditions. For example, ince 1974 the median income of black American has declined from 63 percent of that for white Americans, to 55 percent. However, it i the bottom one-third of the black community which in thi past quarter-century has experienced the mo t devastating social con equence -the lack of health care, wide pread unemployment, inadequate hou ing, and the ab ence of opportunity. Change in public policy towards black America and our central citie and the re ultant divisions within the bl'ack community have contributed to a profound ocial cri i within black hou ehold and neighborhood . For example, the infant mortality rate for black infant i twice that for white. Blacks who represented only 13 percent of the total United States population, now account for approximately 80 percent of all "premature deaths" of individuals ages 15 to 44, who die from preventable di ease and/or violence. Jl' ElSEPTEMBER 1995

Currently, more than 650,000 African-American men and women are incarcerated and at lea t one-half of the e prisoners are under age 29. In many cities the dropout rate for nonwhite high school students exceeds 40 percent. The majority of urban homeless people are black and Latino, and, as of 1989, nearly one-half of all poor black families were spending at least 70 percent of their income on shelter alone. Black America also face a crisis in leader hip. In 1964 there were 104 black elected officials in the United State , with only five members of Congress and not one black mayor. Though small, this group of leaders under tood the interests and need of tho e they repre en ted because they had largely grown up in and continued to live within their con tituent communities. By 1994 there were more than 8,200 black office holders throughout the nation, including 40 member of Congres and 400 mayors. This growing number of African-American leaders, with a broad influence in federal, state and local governments, is largely comprised of individuals who have their roots in the middle c1as , the upper third of the income earner within the African-American community. Black leaders frequently lack organic connections with working-class and low-income communities; although they frequently speak for the interest of the entire black community, they lack a scientific or critical method for as e ing or articulating mass public opinion. Organization uch as the NAACP, for example, do not have any cientific or quantitative measurement of their own members' opinions. National black leaders rarely, if ever, interact with key African-American social science scholars or are familiar with recent research on the ocioeconomic tate of the black community. Black America stands at a challenging moment in it hi tory-a time of ma sive ocial disruption, class tratification, and political uncertainty. The objectives for black politics in the age of Jim Crow segregation were imple: full equality, voting rights, and the removal of "white" and "colored" sign from the doors of hotel and schools. Today's problems are fundamentally different in scope, character, and intensity: the flight of capital inve tment from our central cities, with thou ands of 10 t jobs; the deterioration of the urban tax ba e, with the decline of city ervices; black on black violence, homicide and crime; the decline in the quality of our public schools and the crisis of the community'S value . To this familiar litany of problem one more must be added: the failure to identify, ITEMs/55


train, and develop rising leaders within the AfricanAmerican community who are infonned by a critical and scientific understanding of the needs and perspectives of their own people. These are the social science challenges of black studies. In order to respond to them we must not only know the statistics; we must also acquire a concrete understanding of the views of black Americans. We must, furthennore, re pond to the needs of African Americans by encouraging the production of socially responsible scholarship and by nurturing the development of rising young leaders from within the black community. We need to engage in a dialogue with painful honesty and to examine, with a clarity of vision, the real roots of the current economic, social, political, and educational problems within African-

American society. Equipped with this critical perspective, we can begin to implement long-tenn and comprehensive strategies for democratic empowennent and ocial change. *

A Pan-European Research Agenda

The group's fir t meeting, held in late 1992, wa devoted to a wide-ranging discu sion concerning the history, boundaries, and limitation of Europe as an object of tudy. This meeting generated four research themes that eemed especially promi ing from a panEuropean per pective: (I) coming to tenns with the past; (2) property tran formations; (3) labor, territory, and regulation; and (4) collective ocial actors. The econd meeting, held in mid-1993, was tructured around infonnal pre entations of four papers on each of the e topics. A number of invited pre enters and discus ant participated at thi meeting, which was convened in Berlin at the Wi en chaftszentrum Berlin fUr Sozialfor chung (WZB).2 The third meeting focu ed on three commi sioned paper , each devoted to the ta k of defining a panEuropean re earch agenda. 3 In his paper '''Europa, Europa' . .. The Agenda," Charle Maier identified a number of characteristic which help demarcate a di -

A report on the Pan-Europe Working Group

by Susan Bronson and Kenton W. Worcester* The Pan-Europe Working Group held its third and final meeting at the Council on November 12, 1994. 1 The working group, which was constituted in 1992, was charged with the task of exploring whether and how a comparative research agenda spanning the various regions of Europe could be promoted by the SSRC and the American Council of Learned Societies (ACLS). The working group was primarily composed of East Europeanists, West Europeanists, and cholars studying the fonner Soviet Union, but al 0 included scholars who define their work in tenns of the variables they examine rather than a specific region. • Susan Bronson, a historian. is program officer of the Joint Committee on the Soviet Union and Its Succe sor States; Kenton W. Worcesler. a political scienti t. is program director of the Joint Committee on We tern Europe. I The members of the Pan·Europe Working Group were David Stark. Cornell University (chair); Ellen Comisso, University of California. San Diego; Tony Judt, New York Universily; Herbert Kitschelt, Duke University; Peter Lange, Duke University; Charles Maier, Harvard University; James Millar, George Washington University; Susan Carol Rogers, New York University; Jack Snyder, Columbia University. Susan Bronson, Jason Parker (ACLS), and Kenton W. Worcester served as taff to the working group.

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• Auth() r.f N()/~: TIle mis. ion of the In. tilUle for Research in African· American Studies at Columbia University i to generate scholarship which explores the hi. torieal and . ocioeconomic contours of black New York and of urban black America generally. with a commitment to . ocial resporu ibility. addres. ing the contemporary political • . ocial. and economic problerru that challenge race relation. throughout our society. The In. tilUle·. "Black Leadership and Public Policy Project" is one of several major research initiative. • concentrating on the pre.c;ent state of the African·American community's effon.~ to achieve power• . ocial development. and innuence within the . tructures of American democracy. TIle project seeks to bridge the gap between African·American scholars and leaders in practical fields of politics and public policy. economic develop· ment. civil rights. and society.

2 Guests included Lazlo Bruzt, In. titute of Sociology. Hungarian Aeademy of Sciences; Barry Eichengreen. University of California. Berkeley; Gemot Grabher. WZB; Ele~r Hankis , University of Budape t; Manfred Hildermeier. Universitiit Gottingen; George Kolankiewicz, University of El x; Janos Matyas Kovacs. In tilUle of Economics. Budapest; Mark Mazower, University of Su. sex; Clau OfTe. University of Bremen; David So kice. WZB; Mark von Hagen. Columbia University; and Helmut Wie.c;enthal, Humboldt Universtlit. Berlin. , Special guest were Victoria de Gmia, Columbia University; Peter Rutland. We leyan University; and Louise lilly. New School for Social Research.

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tinctively European pace. The e include "multiple ethnicitie and overeignties; hi torical locus of a world religion that tands in potential oppo ition to territorial authority; a highly developed legali m; recurring fear and stigmatizing of re ident nonChri tian ." Mr. Maier concluded hi paper by ugge ting that "Europe will continue to compri e part of a global transformation and will be tudied as such. Where the enterpri e can remain European in focu i in it concentration on Europeans' own preoccupation with who they are and, increasingly, who they are not." The econd presentation, by Jack Snyder, examined "Pan-Europe as a Regional Sy tern." Mr. Snyder advanced an explicitly relational per pective that de cribed Europe as a field of interacting forces. In hi conclu ion, he ugge ted that "the pan-European pri m has been a fruitful one for under tanding European politics, ociety and culture in the past. PanEurope has often acted as a tightly coupled y tern, though it ha been coupled more often through conflict than through integration. De pite the recent rhetoric about the European Common Home, panEurope eem less compelling as an analytical tool now than in the past, largely becau e of the perhap temporary demise of the Ru ian military threat." Victoria de Grazia's paper on "Hi torical Per pective on Euro-American Con umer Culture " focu ed on the ways in which European con umer culture have been defined in relation to U.S. conurner culture. Ms. De Grazia highlighted three important areas for new pan-European research: alternative and ob tacles to the development of American-style mas con umption; the role of con umption in social tratification and forming collective ocial identities; how rna con umption influence political ystems and political cultures and vice ver a. A he ugge ted in her paper, the e areas are important from the perpective of "understanding the role of mas consumer

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practice ... in altering cultural meaning, social identity, and conception of collective action." Di cu ions of the three paper produced several broad conclusions regarding a pan-European research agenda. First, the group noted that while there are many topics that lend them elve to comparative tudy, the be t work involve limited, focu ed compari on de igned to addre relatively narrow questions. In addition, many of the mo t interesting compari on are not within orne pan-European space, but rather lie out ide it. Second, a theme that emerged repeatedly in di cu sions of all three paper i that Europeans are defined by a kind of reflexivity about their identity. Debate over who i , and who i not, a European are central in the current period, e pecially in terms of contrast and compari on to the United States and Ru ia. Thi further highlight the difficulties of focu ing on pan-European topic . Finally, the working group pointed out that the divi ion of Europe into di tinct pheres or region predates the cold war. This further complicates the problem of putting post-1989 Europe into a ingle frame of reference. Some of the mo t pre ing concerns for the former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe are tangential in relation to We tern Europe. At the arne time, projects centered in We tern Europe are often difficult to extend to Eastern Europe in conceptual term . While the participants at thi meeting agreed that there are a number of re earch areas where the potential for pan-regional exploration is con iderable, they al 0 reaffirmed the relevance of traditional area boundaries. Herbert Kit chelt noted that new theoretical ideas emerge only through a deep knowledge of place. Thu , as the group began to identify re earch themes that cut acro s Europe's boundaries, they returned to the pecificitie of each region and the importance of gauging how i ue and problematics play out in particular regional and local ettings.

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Interaction, Collaboration, and Engagement

Council on the pon or hip and production of policyrelevant re earch project .

The Abe Fellowship Program and the implementation of mission-oriented research

Implementing the mi ion-oriented concept

by Mary Byrne McDonnell and Sheri H. Ranis*

I

Since it founding in 1923, the SSRC has had a coni tent intere t in promoting re earch that engage cholar hip with the problem and puzzle of an increasingly complex world. Initially, the goal was to tackle dome tic concern - and to u e multidi ciplinary social cience to contribute to the" olution" of dome tic ocial problem . As the Council and American social science matured in en uing year , the goal has hifted in re pon e to a recognition that ocial cience i not a panacea for national social ill , although it can provide data and analysi to as i t in better under tanding the i ue , and mapping the landcape of the problem at both the macro and micro level . Thi i the e ence of "mi ion-oriented ba ic re earch": re earch topic developed and conducted in re pon e to the practical concern of ociety and the world at large. In recent years, the Council has moved away from its roots in projects de igned to "olve" ociety' problems towards a prominent role in providing multidisciplinary forum in which re earcher are encouraged to pool their in ights in an attempt to identify new problem , recast old problem , and make their work relevant for an audience that includes tho e who create and implement policy. As concern for national ocial problems has been joined by a trong focu on global and international is ue , the Council ha increa ingly examined the e i ue and ought way to bring the knowledge generated through ocial cience re earch to the attention of international policy maker and implementers. In 1991 the SSRC pre ident, David Featherman, reaffirmed these goal by calling for the e tabli hment of "interdi ciplinary team that focu on mi ion-oriented ba ic re earch" in both dome tic and international context . 1 Thu , the mi ion-oriented rubric gave new impetu to ongoing debate within the • Mary Byrne McDonnell, a hi orian, i. progrnm director of the Abe Fellow hip Pro&rnm. the Joint Committee on Japanese Studies. the Joint Committee on Korean Studi , and the East A ia Regional Research Working Group. Sheri H. Rani , a political scientist, serves as program offi¡ cer to the Abe Fellowship Progrnm as well the Korea and Japan programs. I David L. Featherman, "Mi ion-oriented Basic Research," I(t flll. 45(4): 75-77, December 1991.

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A the Council wa thinking through the complex et of relation hip between the academy and the policy world in 1991 , it was approached by the newly created Japan Foundation Center for Global Partner hip (CGP) to as i t in developing a flag hip program for international re earcher . A SSRC and CGP talked, it became clear that both side were grappling with the arne et of i ue. Together with the American Council of Learned Societies (ACLS), SSRC and CGP de igned a new fellow hip and re earch program to e tabli h an enhanced level of intellectual cooperation between the Japane e and American re earch communitie around a et of international and global i ue of pre ing concern. The Abe Fellow hip Program wa conceived from the tart a an active attempt to implement a mis ionoriented re earch trategy through the con truction of new interdi ciplinary and international network of cholar and re earchers. However, the intellectual task of devi ing a program to develop international, interdi ciplinary cohorts of ocial cienti t who e re earch topic are guided by real-world concern and i ue i a ubtle and complex affair. One trategy wa. to provide a ignificant incentive for work along the line through the creation of a pre tigiou fellow hip competition which identified and rewarded re earcher who e work took a mi ion-oriented approach. In a bilateral eUing, the Abe Fellow hip Program pecifically mentor re earcher in the ocial cience and the humanitie who are able to look at experience and future challenge facing the United State and Japan in a comparative or global per pective. The program eek to promote deeply contextualized comparative and cro -cultural re earch, and thu look for three qualitie in the fellow hip competition propo al. : contemporary focu , policy relevance, and a comparative or tran national perspective. The past four round of competition have produced 65 fellow from more than a dozen di cipline and profe ion . Through careful and rigorou recruitment and election, the fellow repre ent the kind of interdi ciplinary and international talent that mu t be mobilized to tackle challenging and relevant policy que tion . A Mr. Feathennan ha pointed out, "In a tran national world, it i unlikely that any di cipline, V OLUME

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anyone university, or the cholars from any ingle nation will be able to make great headway again t the problem of the 21 t century by going it alone."2 Not only mu t talent be mobilized on an individual ba i , but it mu t be brought into contact with other working on imilar problem from different di ciplinary and national per pective . Situation mu t be created which fo ter u tained interaction among the re earcher working on particular i ue and the community re pon ible for making and implementing international policy concerning tho e i ue. The Abe Fellow hip Program build and develop relation hip and network within the pool of elected re earchers, other international re earcher , and policymaker through a variety of program. In particular, the fellow 'conference i conceived a a place for Abe Fellow to meet, interact, exchange idea , and confront the challenge of policy relevance head on. During a four- to ix-day period, through work hop, pre entation and continuou di cu ion, the conference become a forum for confronting the gap between nation ,di cipline , theory and practice. In short, it i an attempt to actively break down boundarie by actively a i ting the Abe Fellow in their ability to work comparatively, internationally, cro culturally and in team etting. An experiment in mi ion-oriented problem-solving During the 1994 Fellow 'Conference held in Montauk, Long I land, the Abe Fellow participated in a et of policy problem- olving work hop that were devi ed to demon trate that the interchange of knowledge and di covery by both re earchers and policymakers can be put to use-first to pinpoint the important problem to be addre ed, and then to make tentative step toward analyzing and even olving them. The e work hop provided an opportunity for the fellow to pend a concentrated period of time con idering i ue of global cope, problem of particular concern to advanced indu trialized ocietie, and i ue in U.S.-Japan relation -the three areas of ub'tantive concern to the Abe Fellow hip Program. The work hop groupings were intentionally organized to be mall, multidi ciplinary, and multinational to encourage a rich exchange of idea . Other innovative feature were added to the exer2 D. Fe:lIherm:m. "What Doe. Society ced from Higher Educ:lIionT' 47(213): 41. June-Septcmber 1993.

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ci e to pre the point that a policy-relevant re earch agenda i not imply the pre erve of the academy. The boundarie circum cribing re earch are porou and include from the out et, rather than exclude, the thinking of government, indu try, the not-for-profit world, and many other policy player. Con equently, the workhop were de igned to enable fellow to work directly with senior policymakers and practitioners who would be able to provide expert information and in ights on the current tate of play in policy formation, thereby te ting the policy relevance of the fellow 'thinking. Practitioner interacted with the group by haring information, making commentary, and pre enting a policy "reality check" if di cu ion moved in too arcane a direction. The role of the practitioner was not to lead the group, but to keep it on a policy-relevant cour e. In addition, individual as igned to be facilitator as umed the role of panel chair and erved to remind the group of two persi tent theme : implication of the di cu ion for U.S.-Japan relation and their potential application to new areas of academic re earch. A very pecific policy challenge was given to each problem- olving team. (The topic of the challenge elected were determined in advance by polling the fellow.) Furthermore, each of the policy challenge wa framed in term of a "real world" cenario. The cenario concept wa a con ciou tep back from offering a imulation game or concocting an improbable eUing in which the participant would be forced to role-play. Rather, each scenario wa based as c10 ely a po ible on ituation that could occur or had occurred. Fellow were a ked to approach the problem as them elve , whether in the form of a "wi eper on 'group" or a panel of academic expert . The cenario were al 0 de igned to be a middle ground between the broad policy challenge and the particularity of pecific ca e and in tance . The point wa not to di cu the ingular nature of one country' bureaucratic y tern and it impact on policy, but to determine the general principles and influences that have an impact on the way government in general approach policy. Although participant were asked to confront que tion presented in the cenario , the exerci e did not a ume olution would ari e. Whether the individual work hop came to either con en u or di agreement on pecific points, the organizer expected that the di cu ion would re ult in a matrix of interrelated ITEMs/59


approaches and ideas which, it was hoped, would expose gaps and push the boundaries of current theoretical and empirical knowledge towards new agendas for future research. Two outcomes were envisioned from the workshops: (1) a collection of observations and/or analyses on important policy issues that represents both considered academic opinion and the real-world contingencies of policymakers; and (2) a list of new multidisciplinary research questions grounded in both academic theory and policy-relevance. The analyses did take place in an intensely collaborative atmosphere, and the other much hoped-for outcome, new directions in research, was realized by many of the groups as well. Four years after its founding, and with only two fellows' conferences behind it, it is perhaps too soon to evaluate how well the Abe Fellowship Program and the fellows' conference experience has succeeded in

its goals of fostering new interactions between di ciplines and national groupings, promoting new fonns of collaboration, and providing examples of mutually enriching cross-fertilization between the academic and policy worlds. The be t test might be to mea ure the degree of engagement with networks of researchers outside their discipline and in the policy world that Abe Fellows are able to maintain over the next 10 to 15 years. If Abe Fellows can transcend the "anti-communities" of academic life that David Damro ch has written about so eloquently, than perhaps indeed, the program can be judged a succe S.l Clearly, building a mission-oriented cohort is a slow and tedious proce s but it is one to which the Abe Fellowship Program and the SSRC remain committed. ) David Damrosch. "The Scholar as Exile:' Lingua Franca. February 1995. p. 60.

A Sampling of SSRC Collaborative Activities between Academicians and Practitioners Programs Abe Fellowship Program Sexuality Research Fellowship Program Public Policy Research on Contemporary Hispanic Issues

Projects Building Foreign Policy Institutions in Civil Society in Non-Russian Successor States--Soviet Union and Its Successor States Program Communities and Neighborhoods-Working Group on Communities and Neighborhoods Debating Biodiversity-Africa Program Inter-State Cooperation in the South Asian Ganges-Brahmaputra-Barak Basin-International Peace and Security Program Landed Property Rights and Global Environmental Change-Global Environmental Change Program National Implementation of Natural Resource and Environmental Accords-Global Environmental Change Program The Political Economy of Water Use-South Asia Program Population, Family, and Gender in Muslim Central Asia and the Middle Ea t-Soviet Union and Its Successor States Public Policy and Absent Dads-Working Group on Communities and Neighborhoods Social Learning in the Management of Global Environmental Risks-Global Environmental Change Program Urban School Reform-Urban Initiatives Program

Meetings Conference on Persi tent Urban Poverty-Program on Re earch on the Urban Underclas International Peace and Security Fellows' Conference Series-International Peace and Security Program HUD Roundtables on Urban Policy-Urban Initiatives Program Seminar Series on Economic Liberalization and Democratic Consolidation in Latin America and Eastern Europe--Latin America Program First Open Meeting of the Human Dimen ions of Environmental Change Community-Global Environmental Change Program Violence against Women: Ideologies and Victimization-South Asia Program

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Current Activities at the Council Vice President of SSRC Resigns Stanley J. Heginbotham, vice president of the Council since July 1990, announced his resignation effective July 30, 1995, in order to devote full time to research and writing. He plans to be associated with the In titute for Ea tWest Studies and the Council on Foreign Relations. Working closely with David L. Featherman, former president of the Council, Mr. Heginbotham shared major re ponsibilitie for program development and served as Iiai on with the major foundation . During his tenure at the SSRC, he was instrumental in re haping the cour e of the international programs, serving as staff to the task force that was formed for that purpo e, and as coordinator of a major professional staff strategic planning effort. His article, "Re haping the Course of International Scholarship" (Items, 48[213], June/September 1994), was reprinted widely and continues to playa ignificant role in influencing the thinking of scholars and policymakers.

New Staff Appointment Kristine M. Dahlberg has been named chief financial officer of the Council, effective July 10, 1995. Ms. Dahlberg will also JUNE/SEPTEMBER

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erve as director of administration. In addition, her duties will include overseeing development efforts at the SSRC. Prior to coming to the Council, Ms. Dahlberg was chief financial officer and urban programs officer for the National Trust for Historic Preservation in Washington, D.C. Her duties included the superviion of a national loan pool for reinvestment in urban neighborhoods. Previously, he served as chief financial officer of Trinity Church-Wall Street, senior vice president and treasurer of Union Theological Seminary, and vice pre ident for finance and administration of the National Aquarium in Baltimore. Earlier she was finance and real estate officer for The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions. Ms. Dahlberg received her MBA, with a specialization in finance, from the University of North Carolina.

New Directors and Officers At its meeting on June 6, 1995, the Council's board of directors elected a new member, Iris B. Berger, State University of New York, Albany, as the repre entative of the American Historical Association. She will serve a three-year term, effective July I, 1995. The Council's officers for 1995-96 were also elected or reelected by the board. Kenneth Prewitt was elected president. Burton H. Singer, Princeton University, was re-elected as chair of the board; Barbara Heyns, New

York University, and Su an Han on, Clark University, were re-elected as vice-chair and secretary, respectively. Robert H. Bates, Harvard University, was named treasurer; Kristine M. Dahlberg, the Council's new chief financial officer, was appointed assistant treasurer.

Major Grant to Peace and Security Program The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation has awarded a five-year grant of $6.5 million to the Council's Program on International Peace and Security (IPS). The award represents the third phase of support for the program from the Foundation. It will enable the Council to continue its long-term effort to promote intellectual creativity, innovation, and imagination in the field of international peace and security studies. The grant will support a wide range of activities to be carried out by IPS in collaboration with the MacArthur Foundation . These include the awarding of 55 twoyear SSRC-MacArthur Foundation Fellowships on Peace and Security between 1995 and 1998; the annual fellows' conference; a semi-annual research workshop competition for the MacArthur network; publication of an SSRC-MacArthur Foundation fellows' newsletter; and other activities in support of the professional development of SSRC-MacArthur fellows. Funding from MacArthur also provides support for IPS' research planning activities. ITEMsl61


Recent Council Publications The Requirements of a Transnational World. A report sponsored by the Abe Fellowship Program. New York: Social Science Research Council, 1995. 27 pages. Essays based on presentations made at the second Abe Fellows' Conference held in July 1994 by David L. Featherman, former president of the SSRC; James R. Lilley, director of Asian Studies at the American Enterprise Institute; and Theodore C. Bestor, associate professor of anthropology, Columbia University. See page 57 of this issue for a description of the conference.

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China under Jurchen Rule: Essays on Chin Intellectual and Cultural History, edited by Hoyt Cleveland Tillman and Stephen H. West. Based on a conference sponsored by the Joint Committee on Chinese Studie in December 1993 at the Univer ity of Arizona. Albany: State Univer ity of New York Pre , 1995. xxi + 385 pages. Chinese Historical MicroDemography, edited by Stevan Harrell. Studies on China 20. Based on a conference pon ored by the Joint Committee on Chine e Studie in January 1987

in A ilomar, California. Berkeley: Univer ity of California Pre , 1995. xiv + 236 pages.

Ritual and Scripture in Chinese Popular Religion: Five Studies, edited by David John on. Publications of the Chine e Popular Culture Project 3. Ba ed on a conference spon ored by the Chine e Popular Culture Project and the Joint Committee on Chine e Studies, and held in January 1990 in Bodega Bay, California. Berkeley: Univer ity of California Pre s, 1995. xv + 265 pages.

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Council Fellowships and Grants for Training and Research 1995-96 Joint International Programs for Area and Comparative Training and Research (Note: All awards are contingent on the availability o/funds)

(1) Predissertation Awards International Predissertation Fellowship Program: Support for graduate students at selected universities. in the fields of economics, political science, psychology, and sociology, and other social sciences, designed to increase the flow of talented graduate students in the social sciences into research and teaching careers oriented to the developing world. Two types of fellowships are offered to support training that will prepare students to develop a dissertation project that is both context-sensitive and methodologically sophisticated. Deadline: Contact SSRC or the American Council of Learned Societies, 228 East 45th Street, New York, NY 100 17. Eastern Europe: Predissertation Travel Grants for travel to Eastern Europe to help students define their dissertation programs. Deadline: February 1, 1996.-Near and Middle East: Predis ertation Fellowships for upport of four to nine months engaged in direct preparation for dissertation research through training and study in the Middle East. Deadline: November 1, 1995. South Asia: Predissertation Fellowship for short-term field trips to Bangladesh, Nepal, Pakistan, or Sri Lanka, for graduate students in the social sciences and the humanities for the purpose of investigating potential research sites and materials, language training, and establishing local contacts. Deadline: November 1, 1995. Southeast Asia: Predissertation Fellow hips for hort-term field trips to Southeast Asia for graduate students in the social sciences and humanities for the purpose of investigating potential research sites and materials, training in Southeast Asian languages not available in the U.S., and establishing local research contacts. Deadline: November I, 1995. Soviet Union and Its Successor States: Graduate Training Fellowships for 12 months of support to students in their third, fourth, or fifth year of graduate study. Deadline: December I, 1995.

(2) Dissertation Awards Nine to 18 months of support for doctoral dis ertation re earch abroad in the social sciences and the humanities Africa, China, _. Eastern Europe, -- Latin America and the Caribbean, South Asia (Bangladesh, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka), Southeast Asia, and Western Europe. --- Deadline: November I, 1995. Korea. Deadline: November 15, 1995. Fellowships for dissertation write-up Japan. Deadline: November 15, 1995. Fellowships for dissertation write-up in the U.S. Soviet Union and Its Successor States. Deadline: December I, 1995. Four to nine months of support for doctoral dissertation re earch abroad in the social sciences and the humanities Near and Middle East. Deadline: November 1, 1995.

• University of California, Berkeley; University of California, Los Angeles; University of California, San Diego; University of Chicago; Columbia University; Cornell University; Duke University; Harvard University; University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Indiana University, Bloomington; Massachusetts In titute ofTcchnology; Michigan State University; University of Michipn, Ann Arbor; University of Minnesota, Twin Cities Campu ; University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; Northwestern University; University of Pennsylvania; Princeton University; Stanford University; University of Texas, Austin; University of Washington; University of Wisconsin, Madison; and Yale University. •• For details and in tnlction on how to apply for these fellow hips and grants, address the American Council of Learned Societies, 228 East 45th Street, New York, NY 10017. For all others, address the specific program at the Social Science Research Council. ••• Succes ful applicants to the dissertation fellow hip competition for Western Europe become automatically eligible for the i.us(r American Development Foundation Fellowship if their projects relate to Ponugucse studies.

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(3) Other Predoctoral Awards in Area Research Berlin Program for Advanced German and European Studies. Nine to 12 months of support for comparative and interdisciplinary study of the economic, political, and social aspects of modern and contempomry German and European affairs. Open to applicants who have completed all requirements (except the di ertation) for the Ph.D. in germane social science and cultuml studies fields and po tdoctoml scholars who have received the Ph.D. degree or its equivalent in the last two years. Deadline: February I, 1996. East European Language Training Grants. Summer training in any East European language (except tho e of the Commonwealth of Independent States) in the United States or Eastern Europe. Advanced undergraduates, graduate students, and postdoctoral scholars may apply. Deadline: February I, 1996.·· Near and Middle East: Dissertation Research Fellowship for Underrepresented Di ciplines in Middle East Studies. Four to nine months of support for di ertation re earch requiring field work in the Middle East. Open to applicants who have completed all the requirements (except the di ertation) for the Ph.D. in economics, ociology, psychology, linguistics, demography, geogmphy, philosophy, and the fine arts. Deadline: November I, 1995. Near and Middle East: Ibn Khaldun Prize. An international competition for outstanding papers in the ocial ciences and humanities open to gmduate students working on topic relating to the contemporary Middle East and North Africa, or on historical topics in that region since the beginning of I lam. Theoretically informed and/or comparative studies incorpomting the Middle East and other regions of the world are encouraged. Applicant hould have completed at least one year of graduate school. Deadline: July 15, 1995. Soviet Union and Its Successor States. Summer workshops in (a) Po t-Soviet Dome tic Politic and Society, (b) Sociology and Anthropology, and (c) Economics of Tmnsition to Market Sy terns. Work hop are designed to counteract the isolation of graduate students and junior scholars by providing an opportunity to intemct with peers, e tablish contact, and promote innovative re earch. Open to students enrolled in Ph.D. programs and junior cholars who received the Ph.D. degree after June 1990. Deadline: Contact the program on the Soviet Union and Its Successor States.

• Special Award: Louis Dupree Prize for Research on Central Asia. A $2,500 prize will be awarded for the mo t promising dissertation involving field research in Centml Asia, a region broadly defined to include Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, Kirghizia, Mongolia, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, and culturally-related contiguous areas of Iran, Pakistan, Kazakhstan, and China. Candidates who receive a dissertation re earch fellowship under competitions administered through a relevant program (China, Near and Middle East, South Asia, Soviet Union and Its Successor States, and SSRC-MacArthur Foundation Fellowship on Peace and Security in a Changing World) will be eligible to apply.

(4) Advanced Research Grants Up to one year of support to scholars in the ocial sciences and the humanitie for advanced area and comparative research projects China,· and Eastern Europe.· Deadline: November I, 1995. Japan and Korea. Deadline: November 15, 1995. Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Soviet Union and Its Successor States. Deadline: December I, 1995. Four to nine months of support to scholars in the social ciences and the humanities for advanced area and comparative research projects Near and Middle East. Deadline: December I, 1995.

(5) Other Awards to Advanced Scholars in Area Research Berlin Program for Advanced German and European Studies. Nine to 12 month of upport for comparative and interdisciplinary tudy of the economic, political, and social aspects of modern and contempomry German and European affairs. Open to applicants who have completed all requirements (except the dissertation) for the Ph.D. in germane social cience and cultuml studies fields and po tdoctoral scholars who have received the Ph.D. degree or its equivalent in the last two years. Deadline: February I, 1996.

• Contact the American Council of Learned Societies. 228 Enst 45th Street. New York. NY 10017.

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East European Language Training Grants. Summer training in any East European language (except tho e of the Commonwealth of Independent State) in the United State or Eastern Europe. Advanced undergraduate • graduate students. and po tdoctoral scholars may apply. Deadline: February I, 1996.* Japan. Grants for Re earch Planning Activitie . Seed grant intended to advance research concerning Japan in the ocial cience and humanitie . Innovative projects at the planning tage which promote comparative or interdi ciplinary perspective and involve the participation of cholar from outside North America are particularly encouraged. Deadline: Contact the program on Japanese tudie. Korea. Grants for Re earch Planning Activitie . Seed grants intended to advance re earch concerning Korea in the ocial cience and humanitie . The program i intere ted in (I) promising new ideas or que tion who e di cu ion offer potential for theoretical or methodological advance in the ocial sciences and humanities; and (2) topics to which inadequate research attention has been devoted. Deadline: Contact the program on Korean studies. Near and Middle East • Postdoctoral Fellow hips (or Underrepresented Disciplines in Middle East Studies. Intended to promote the integration of area experti e into di cipline currently underrepre ented in Middle East tudie . Fellow hip are for field work in the Middle East for two to nine month . Applicants mu t have their Ph.D. in the discipline of economic , ociology, p ychology, linguistics, demography, geography, philo ophy, and the fine arts. Deadline: December I, 1995. • Mid-Career Skills Enrichment Program (or Tenured Faculty. Four to nine months of upport to as ociate and full profes or for re earch in a Middle Eastern country in which they have not previou Iy tudied, and/or for training in a new field. discipline. or method. to enhance their ability to conduct re earch in geographic areas with which they are already familiar. Deadline: December I, 1995. Soviet Union and Its Successor States • Summer Workshop in (a) Po t-Soviet Domestic Politics and Society, (b) Sociology and Anthropology, and (c) Economics of Transition to Market Systems. Workshop are designed to counteract the i olation of graduate students and junior cholars by providing an opportunity to interact with peers, establi h contact. and promote innovative research. Open to tudents enrolled in Ph.D. program and junior cholars who received the Ph.D. degree after June 1990. Deadline: Contact the program on the Soviet Union and Its Succe or State. • Research and Development Grants. For support of meetings, workshop , and pilot projects devoted to initiative and innovation in the theorie , methods, and approache applied to the study of the former Soviet Union. or to pre-Soviet period , in a manner that demon trate knowledge about the successor states of the former Soviet Union. Deadline: September 15, 1995 and March I, 1996.

(6) Institutional Awards in Area Research and Training Eastern Europe. Institutional grants to support instruction in Albanian, Bulgarian, Czech, Hungarian, Macedonian, Polish, Romanian. Serbo-Croatian, Slovak, or Siovenian. Deadline: February I, 1996.* Soviet Union and Its Successor States • First-year Fellowships in Underrepresented Fields in Soviet Studies. Award to university departments in di ciplines that are underrepre ented in po t-Soviet tudie . For 1995-96, awards will be made in the field of ociology and anthropology. Deadline: December I, 1995. • Summer Language Institutes (or Ru ian and Soviet Languages. Award provide fellow hip to tudents enrolled in language training program for the summer of 1996; provide financial as i tance to teachers enrolled in uch programs; support cultural activitie to enhance the language curriculum; and support improvement of exi ting program of ummer language in titute . Deadline: December I, 1995.

Additional Award Programs at the SSRC Abe Fellow hip Program. Awards to Japane e and American research profe ionals or other nationals ba ed in Japan or the U.S., for the purpo e of encouraging international multidi ciplinary re earch on topics of pressing global concern, and fo tering development of a new generation of researchers intere ted in long-range policyrelevant topics. Deadline: September I, 1995 . • Contact the Americ3Il Council of Learned Societie , 228 East 45th Street, ew Yorle, NY tOO17 .

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International Migration • D· ertation and Postdoctoral Fellowship • The program offers one-year dis ertation and one-year po tdoctoral fellow hip intended to upport research that will advance theoretical understandings of immigration to the U.S., the proce e of ettlement, and the outcome for both immigrant and American. Deadline: February I, 1996. • Minority Summer D· ertation Worksbops. Support for graduate tudents who are of African, Latino, Asian, Pacific I land, or Native American ance try and are matriculated in a doctoral program to undergo training on refining research topic, designing research method, and preparing propo al for funding. Deadline: February I, 1996. • Research Planning Grants. Grants intended to fo ter interdisciplinary collaboration through meeting ,conference, work hop, preliminary inve tigation , and other activilie needed to prepare interdi ciplinary re earch propo als. Team of two or more cholar from at least two different di cipline are eligible to apply. Deadline: February I, 1996. SSRC-MacArthur Foundation Fellowships on Peace and Security in a Changing World. The program offers two-year di ertation and two-year po tdoctoral fellow hip intended to upport re earch on the implication for peace and ecurity is ue of worldwide cultural, ocial, economic, military, and political change . Fellow are required to undertake training that add a new competence to their existing di ciplinary kills; training mu t permit a ignificant departure from previous work. Deadline: December I, 1995. International Peace and Security • Research Worksbop Competition. Grant to support small workshop on topic that te t establi hed as umplion about peace and security. Workshop mu t be initiated by recipients of SSRC-MacArthur Foundation Fellow hip in International Peace and Security (past and pre ent), MacArthur Foundation Grants for Re earch and Writing, MacArthur Collaborative Studie Grants, or any other direct or indirect grant from the MacArthur Program on Peace and International Cooperation. Deadlines: September 15, 1995 and February 15, 1996.

• 1995 Visiting Scbolar Fellow bip Competition. Three- to six-month fellow hip allow cholars, journalist, public servants, lawyers, and others to pursue re earch on innovative topic in international peace and ecurity tudie at universitie and major research centers outside their home regions. The 1995 fellow hip are offered to scholars and re earchers from ub-Saharan Africa, Central and Eastern Europe, and the non-Ru sian succe sor state of the Soviet Union. Deadline: July 15, 1995. Public Policy Researcb on Contemporary Hispanic I ues. Latina Junior Faculty Re earchlMentoring Grant. Awards to support projects that show the building of mentor relationship between enior and junior faculty; al 0 propo al for pilot tudie or eed money for future larger projects. Untenured Latina faculty at higher education in titutions (including two-year colleges) are eligible to apply. Deadline: September 15, 1995. Sexuality Researcb Fellowsbip Program. Two year of dis ertation and po tdoctoral fellow hip intended to upport ocial and behavioral research on sexuality topic and thereby promote multidisciplinary, policy-relevant research. Scholars are invited from a wide range of social science discipline including anthropology, demography, economics, education, ethics, history, cultural and women's tudies, political science, p ychology, and ociology. Applicants for dis ertation award should ubmit a joint application with an advisor; applicants for po tdoctoral fellow hip should submit an application jointly with a research as ociate. Deadline: November 30, 1995.

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Awards Offered in 1995 Following are the names, affiliations, and topics of the individuals who were offered fellow hip or grants by the Council committees in the mo t recent annual competition for re earch in the ocial ciences and humanities.· The awards for re earch abroad were made by the committee jointly spon ored by the Council and the American Council of Learned Societie (ACLS). In addition to funds provided by the two Councils, the e awards are supported by grant from the Ford Foundation and the National Endowment for the Humanitie . Additional funding for grants administered by pecific committee i provided by the Chiang Ching-kuo Foundation for International Scholarly Exchange, the Ford Foundation, the German Marshall Fund of the United State, the Japan-United State Friend hip Commission, the Korea Foundation, the Korea Research Foundation, the Lu o-American Development Foundation, and the Rockefeller Foundation. Additional support comes from the U.S. Department of State through the Re earch and Training for Eastern Europe and the Independent States of the Former Soviet Union Act of 1983 (Title VDI), and the U.S. Information Agency through the Near and Middle East Research and Training Act (NMERTA). Fellowship in international peace and security are supported by a grant from the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation. Grants from the Ford Foundation upport fellowships for public policy research on contemporary Hispanic issues. The Ford Foundation also supports the joint ACLS/SSRC International Predissertation Fellowship Program. The Abe Fellow hip program is supported by the Japan Foundation Center for Global Partnership. Unless it is specifically noted that a program is administered by the ACLS, the programs listed are administered by the Council. The Council does not di criminate on the basis of race, color, gender, sexual orientation, national origin, age, religion, disability, marital or family tatus, or any other characteristic protected by applicable laws. The programs change somewhat every year, and intere ted scholars should write to the Council for a copy of the current general brochure. Individual programs also publi h brochures, with more complete descriptions of their aim and procedures, at variou times during the year. See also the summary of all current fellowship and grant programs on page 63-66. • Grants Ii ted here may not have been accepted as of thi date.

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Predissertation and Dissertation Fellowships for Area and Comparative Training and Research International Predissertation Fellowship Program·· The following graduate training fellowships were awarded by the program committee of the International Predis ertation Fellowship Program-Robert P. Weller (chair), Robert H. Bate, Stephen G. Bunker, Daniel P. Doeppers, Raquel Fernandez, Jonathan Fox, Dennis P. Hogan, Michael J. Piore, Susan L. Shirk, and M. Brewster Smith-at its meeting on March 16-17, 1995. The committee was a si ted by a screening panel: Benedict Ander on, Tom Bassett. William Beeman, Jere Behrman, Laurie Brand, Daniel Chirot, Dale Eickelman, Joseph Esherick, Jeffrey Frieden, Harriet Friedman, Alma Gottlieb, Francis Hagopian, Robert Harms, Sylvia Maxfield, Jane Menken, Laura Nader, Barry Naughton, Emilio Pantojas-Garcia. Ellen Perecman, Amy Chazkel, and Mark Edstrom served as taff for this program. Lesley Bartlett. graduate tudent in anthropology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. The impact of social and cultural relations on the interpretation, acquisition, and u e of literacy in Brazil Alan Bond, graduate tudent in economics, University of Chicago. The interplay of economic policy and cultural factors in Peru and, specifically, the connections between economic growth and inequality Kirk Bowman, graduate student in political science, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. The effect of demilitarization on political development in Costa Rica Daniel Cohen, graduate tudent in agricultural and resource economic, University of California, Berkeley. The transfer of irrigation technologie between Israel and Jordan Carlos Cordero-Cancio, graduate student in political science, University of Minnesota. How international relations affect forms of being and understanding in Nicaragua Diana Davis, graduate student in geography, University of California, Berkeley. The influence of indigenous veterinary cience, the role of women, and the gendered nature of indigenous knowledge on patterns of re ource use among nomadic pastorali ts in eastern Morocco Paula De pins, graduate student in agricultural economics, University of Wt consin, Madison. Rural-urban linkages •• Thi program is d igncd to prepare tudents to conduct research in the developing world.

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and hou ehold dynamic in the context of imperfect markets and production, price, and income uncertainty in economie of outhern Africa Su an Fitzpatrick-Behren, graduate tudent in hi tory, Univer ity of California, San Diego. The role of culture in the interactions between indigene and Maryknoll mi sionarie in Peru Satomi Furuichi, graduate tudent in sociology, University of Texas, Au tin. Japanese minority culture in Brazil Julian Go, graduate tudent in ociology, University of Chicago. The articulation of the Filipino culture and policie and practice of the American colonial tate Jennifer Grocer, graduate tudent in anthropology, Univer ity of Texas, Au tin. The con truction of a national identity in Azerbaijan Sumedha Gupta, graduate tudent in p ychology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. The bi-directional influence of culture and cognition in India Barbara Halpenny, graduate tudent in ociology, Indiana University. How choice are made in Vietnam to fund and develop particular sciences and technologie Darrick Hamilton, graduate student in economics, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. Economic and health development of Trinidad and Tobago Camille Harper, graduate student in p ychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Family characteri tics a ociated with po itive adaptation in South African children and adole cents facing extreme economic and ocial di advantage Ariana Hernandez-Reguant, graduate student in anthropology, University of Chicago. The relation hip between tate discourse and social practice following the tate' repositioning in a new international land cape, and in the context of political, social, and economic reform in Cuba Katherine Hoffman, graduate tudent in anthropology, Columbia Univer ity. How verbal expre ion in Morocco hapes and reflects individual 'attitudes toward identitie , nationhood, and gender con truction Maranatha Ivanova, graduate tudent in political cience, University of California, Berkeley. How culturally pecific notion of citizen hip, politic , and legitimate authority are repre ented in popular culture and how the e representation hape and tructure popular protest in China Mariaelena Jefferd , graduate student in anthropology, Michigan State University. Power, acce ,and accountability in relation to food security for Mi kitu Indian in Honduras and Nicaragua Amy Kaler, graduate student in sociology, Univer ity of 68\ITEMS

Minne ota. Linkage between "macro" political and ocial tructure and everyday life in Zimbabwe Akil Khalfani, graduate tudent in ociology, University of Penn ylvania. The impact of the legacy of apartheid in South Africa on fertility, mortality, and migration in South Africa Jonathan Krieckhau ,graduate tudent in political cience, Princeton Univer ity. The effects of tate intervention in economic development in Brazil Randall Kuhn, graduate tudent in demography, Univer ity of Penn ylvania. The effect of inten ive maternal experience on women' health and well-being in Banglade h Catalina Lucero, graduate tudent in political cience, Univer ity of California, San Diego. The effect of changing in titutional tructure on individual behavior within in titution in Mexico Ana Malik, graduate tudent in political cience, Indiana Univer ity. In titution and ethnic polarization in Tuni ia Ethan Michel on, graduate tudent in ociology, University of Chicago. The nature, cau es, and con equences of the force that control, con train, and hape economic action in China Ellen Moodie, graduate tudent in anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. The application of different theorie regarding written and electronic media in EI Salvador Le a Morrison, graduate tudent in political science, Duke Univer ity. Democratic in titution in non-We tern, multi-ethnic ocietie uch as Kenya Ziad Mun on, graduate tudent in ociology, Harvard Univer ity. Sociological theory on ocial movements in the context of Middle Eastern ocietie in light of the particular hi tory of the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt Niall O'Murchu, graduate tudent in political cience, Univer ity of Washington. The role of Briti h colonial power in the exacerbation of communal conflicts in Pale tine and Northern Ireland Jocelyn Olcott, graduate tudent in hi tory, Yale University. Negotiation between tate and civil ociety during the con olidation of the po t-revolutionary Mexican tate Loren Ryter, graduate tudent in political science, University of Washington. Oppo itional ideologie and political hegemony of the Indonesian state Ward Sayre, graduate student in economics, University of Texa ,Au tin. The impact of political event on the economy of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip Smita Singh, graduate student in government, Harvard Univer ity. The influence of political and ocial configuration on economic policy in Indone ia and Nigeria Jennifer Spruill, graduate tudent in anthropology, VOLUME

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University of Chicago. Democratic transition in South Africa and implications for human rights and identitie , and particularly exual orientation Alii on Truitt, graduate student in linguistic , University of Texas, Austin. Language u e, national identity, and ocial change in Vietnam Shirley Yen, graduate student in p ychology, Duke University. How culture-particularly Chine e culture-affects the expression of depres ive symptom Africa Predissertation Fellowships

The following predis ertation fellow hip were awarded by the Joint Committee on African Studies-Pearl T. Robinson (chair), Paul Collier, Dennis D. Cordell, Mamadou Diouf, Paula Girshick, Bogumil Jewsiewicki, Eileen Julien, Peter D. Little, Catharine Newbury, and Paul Richards-at it meeting on February 24, 1995. The committee was assisted by a creening committee-Jean M. Allman, Charles Piot, Elizabeth Schmidt, Richard Waller, ehri topher Waterman, and Jennifer Widner. M. Pri cilia Stone, Barbara Bianco, and Nnennaya Okezie erved as taff for this program. Nathalie Arnold, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Indiana University, Bloomington. Cultural identity and the transformation of community Kevin Bohrer, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Wisconsin, Madison. Textiles and identity in Guinea France ca Castaldi, Ph.D. candidate in dance history, Univer ity of California, Riverside. Forging identities through time: a tudy of dance practices in Senegal Elisa Forgey, Ph.D. candidate in history, Univer ity of Pennsylvania. Wealth power and identity: the spaces of struggle and alliance between Hamburg and Duala merchants Wendi Haugh, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Pennsylvania. National language policy and local language u e in Namibia James La Fleur, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Virginia. Cultivating new world cultigen and social inequity on the 17th-century Gold Coa t Ghislaine Lydon, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Michigan State University. Credit, cash crop, and currency: the infiltration of the French franc in Mauritania and Senegal, 1848-1930 Akinwumi Ogundiran, Ph.D. candidate in archeology,

JUNFlSEPTEMBER 1995 ~

Bo ton University. The Akusumite archeological landcape: a patial analy is of an "interaction sphere" in northern Nigeria Stephen Onyeiwu, Ph.D. candidate in economics, University of Connecticut. Technological capability and production performance in the Nigerian textile industry Jeremy Rich, Ph.D. candidate in history, Indiana University, Bloomington. Authority, privilege, and law in Rafai and Zemio, 1894-1960 Dissertation Fellowships

The following dissertation fellow hip were al 0 awarded at the committee's meeting on March 3, 1995, with the as i tance of the creening committee and a selection committee-Edmond Keller, Michael Bratton, Iris B. Berger, James McCann, Enid Schildkrout, and Aliko Songolo. Martha Baker, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Elders and urbanites: migration and the cultural con truction of age in Kisumu, Kenya Scott Kloeck-Jen on, Ph.D. candidate in political science, University of Wisconsin, Madison. Local-level interactions with non-governmental organizations in Mozambique Patrick Malloy, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of California, Los Angeles. Cultural history and the colonial ho pital: Tanga, Tanganyika, 1902-1961 Agnes Odinga, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Minnesota. Women, di ease, medicine and change: a social history of south Nyanza, Kenya, 1930-1980 Steven Pierce, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Land, law, and colonial power in northern Nigeria Peter Walker, Ph.D. candidate in geography, Univer ity of California, Berkeley. Roots of crisis: population environment, and the ocial history of smallholder tree planting in Malawi

China Dissertation Research Fellowships

The following awards were made by the China Fellowships Selection Committee (administered by the American Council of Learned Societies)-Peter K. Bol (chair), Parks M. Coble, Shu-min Huang, Jo eph S.M. Lau, Thomas H.C. Lee, Steven I. Levine, Victor H. Mair, and William L. Pari h-at its meeting on April 10, 1995. Ja on H. Parker and Ruth Waters served as staff for this program. 1TEMsl69

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All recipients are Chiang Ching-kuo FoundationlACLS Fellow upported by funding received from the Chiang Ching-kuo Foundation. Michael I. Como, Ph.D. candidate in religious tudie, Stanford University. Soteriology and the tate: acred kin hip in early China and Japan Robert J. Culp, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Cornell University. New culture and political prote t in the citie and town of China' 10werYangzi region, 1915-1927 Pierre F. Landry, Ph.D. candidate in political cience, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Authoritarian tability and local elite trategie in China; Jiang u and Hubei ince 1971 Chri topher A. McNally, Ph.D. candidate in political cience, Univer ity of Wa hington. Dynamo or dino aurs: market competition, owner hip tructure and enterprise autonomy in the PRC' indu trial reform David A. Pietz, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Washington Univer ity. The Huai River and tate-building in 20thcentury China Jennifer G. Purtle, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory of art, Yale Univer ity. Placing their mark: an art-hi torical geography of Min (Fukien) painters of the Ming Dynasty, 1368-1644

Eastern Europe The following award were made by the Joint Committee on Eastern Europe (admini tered by the American Council of Learned Societie )-Norman M. Naimark (chair), Ivo Banac, Jo ef C. Brada, Valerie Bunce, David A. Frick, Victor A. Friedman, Su an Gal, Elemer Hankiss, Beth Holmgren, Michael Kennedy, and Ve na Pu ic-at it meeting on March 3 I-April I, 1995. Jason H. Parker and Ruth Water erved as taff for this program. Dissertation Fellowships

EI peth J. Carruthers, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Princeton University. Patterns of colonization by German and Slav of the region along the lower Vistula River between the 12th and 15th centuries Stephen M. Dickey, Ph.D. candidate in Slavic language , Indiana University. Parameter of verbal aspect in Slavic Catherine Ep tein, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Harvard University. Old communi t in the German Democratic Republic, 1945-1989

70\ITEM

Pauline Gianoplu , Ph.D. candidate in ociology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Legitimating identitie : "Bizne men" and the new bourgeoi public phere in contemporary Poland Meghan E. Hays, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Univer ityof Michigan, Ann Arbor. Gender and national identity in 19th-century Croatia Paull. Jukic, Ph.D. candidate in history, Yale Univer ity. The Soviet Union and the war in Yugo lavia, 1941-45 Jeremy R.N. King, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Columbia Univer ity. From empire to nation- tate: ethnic upheaval in the Hab burg lands of Central Europe, 1848-1918 Rita A. Krueger, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Harvard University. For the good of the fatherland: patrioti m of the Bohemian ari tocracy, 1770-1830 Martina U. Lind eth, Ph.D. candidate in Slavic language, Indiana University. Referential and expletive ubjects in We t Slavic Gerald A. McDermott, Ph.D. candidate in political cience, Ma achu etts In titute of Technology. The politic of po t-sociali t in titutional formation in the Czech Republic Robert Nemes, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Columbia Univer ity. Between reform and revolution: Budape tin the 1840 David E. Schneider, Ph.D. candidate in mu ic, Univer ity of California, Berkeley. Hungarian culmination point : folk mu ic and meaning in four concerto by Bela Bartok Anna Szemere, Ph.D. candidate in sociology, University of California, San Diego. Pop culture and social tran ition in Hungary Li a R. Whitmore, Ph.D. candidate in German tudie, Stanford University. The curtain, the tower, and Prenzlauer Berg: unofficial poetic in the GDR Paul R. Williams, Ph.D. candidate in land economic , Univer ity of Cambridge. The role of law in promoting Central and Ea t European tran boundary environmental cooperation Graduate Training Fellowships

Sharon G. Cooley, graduate tudent in ociology, New School for Social Re earch. Area- pecific curriculum and language tudy to trengthen ociological research on political partie and party system Kimberly Ja tremski Purinton, graduate tudent in Slavic languages, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. Additional cour ework in Poli h and Serbian literatures

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Predissertation Summer Tra vel Grants The following grant were approved by special ubcommittee: Andreas S. Beckmann, graduate tudent in hi tory, Stanford Univer ity Jame E. Bjork, gmduate student in hi tory, Univer ityof Chicago Diane G. Gal, Ph.D. candidate in philo ophy and ocial cience , Columbia Univer ity Helena S. Gibb , Ph.D. candidate in compamtive literature, New York Univer ity Lynne Hirsch, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Stanford Univer ity Andrea R. Orzoff, graduate tudent in hi tory, Stanford Univer ity Caroline I. Vanderkar, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Oregon

Language Training Grants The Ea t European Language Grant Committee of the Joint Committee on Eastern Europe (admini tered by the American Council of Learned Societies)-Ronelle Alexander, Howard I. Aron on, Gmce E. Fielder, Michael H. Heim, Madeline G. Levine, Robert A. Roth tein, and Erne t A. Scatton-at it meeting on May I, 1995, voted to award language training grants to the following individual . Jason H. Parker and Ruth Water erved as taff for this program. Dana K. Akanova, Ph.D. candidate in Slavic languages and literature , University of Chicago (Macedon ian) Margarita M. Balmaceda, Ph.D. candidate in politics, Princeton University (Hungarian) Chad E. Bell, tudent in modern language and literature , University of Oklahoma (Czech) Anne C. Bellow, Ph.D. candidate in geography, Rutgers Univer ity (Poli h) William Lee Blackwood, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Yale Univer ity (Hungarian) George I. BowIe ,graduate tudent in geography, Pennsylvania State University (Bulgarian) Donald W. Buckwalter, as istant profe sor in geography and regional planning, Indiana University of Penn ylvania (Hungarian) Lorraine A. Bu ch, Ph.D. candidate in Slavic studie , Northwe tern Univer ity (Poli h)

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Catharine E. Cashner, gmduate student in Slavic and Ea t European languages and literature, Ohio State Univer ity (Czech) M. Kathryn Cirk ena, a i tant profe sor in communication program, Ru ell Sage College (Romanian) Jeffrey T. Cobb, Ph.D. candidate in comparative literature, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (Polish) Letitia C. Coffin, graduate tudent in Ru ian and East European tudie, Univer ity ofWa hington (SerboCroatian) Craig Craven ,gmduate student in Slavic language and literature, Princeton Univer ity (Czech) Mark Dahl, graduate tudent in hi tory, University of Wi con in, Madi on (Poli h) Karen De mond, graduate tudent in mu ic, New York Univer ity (Poli h) Giorgio G. DiMauro, graduate tudent in Slavic language and literature, Harvard University (Poli h) Naomi V. Eckhardt, graduate tudent in linguistic , University of Pitt burgh (Slovak) Melis a D. Feinberg, graduate tudent in hi tory, Univer ity of Chicago (Czech) Bradley E. Fel ,graduate student in hi tory, Iowa State University (Poli h) David S. Frey, graduate tudent in history, Columbia University (Hungarian) Jack R. Friedman, graduate tudent in cultural anthropology, Duke Univer ity (Romanian) Jame W. Fru etta, graduate tudent in history, Arizona State Univer ity (Macedon ian) Yelena Furman, graduate tudent in Slavic languages and literature , University of Washington (Czech) Rachel T. Gabara, Ph.D. candidate in comparative literature, Univer ity of Michigan, Ann Arbor (Poli h) Eagle Gla heim, graduate tudent in hi tory, Columbia Univer ity (Czech) Dominique Gore, gmduate tudent in Slavic languages and literature, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (Poli h) Veronika Grady, gmduate tudent in Germanic language , Univer ity of Texas, Au tin (Yiddish) Andrew T. Green, graduate tudent in political cience, Univer ity of IIIinoi , Urbana-Champaign (Czech) Simon Greenwold , Ph.D. candidate in Slavic language and literatures, Northwe tern Univer ity (Poli h) lame C. Hamon, Ph.D. candidate in ociology, Univer ity of California, Berkeley (Czech) K. David Harri on, Ph.D. candidate in Slavic languages, Yale University (Lithuanian) lTEMsnl


Karin E. Hill, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Kentucky (Romanian) Eric C. Kaldor, graduate student in program in ocial relation , University of California, Irvine (Hungarian) Daniel H. Karvonen, Ph.D. candidate in linguistic , Indiana University, Bloomington (Hungarian) Pre ton S. Keat, Ph.D. candidate in political science, University of California, Lo Angele (Poli h) Kri tian R. Knutsen, graduate tudent in hi tory, University of Chicago (Romanian) Sean Lambert, graduate tudent at the Ru ian and East European Institute, Indiana University, Bloomington (Romanian) Virginia L. Lewi , as istant profe or in foreign language, Drake University (Hungarian) Jame J. Marino, graduate tudent in English, University of Mas achusetts, Amherst (Czech) Sean A. McKitrick, Ph.D. candidate at the Center for Politic and Economic , Claremont Graduate School (Czech) Rebecca Jean Nash, graduate tudent in anthropology, Univer ity of Virginia (Czech) Tara E. Nummedal, Ph.D. candidate in history, Univer ity of California, Davi (Czech) Elizabeth A. Papazian, Ph.D. candidate in Slavic language and literature , Yale University (Czech) Robert M. Ponichtera, Ph.D. candidate in history, Yale University (Hungarian) Karen Link Rosenflanz, Ph.D. candidate in Slavic language and literatures, Univer ity of Michigan, Ann Arbor (Czech) Victoria Salin, Ph.D. candidate in agricultural economic , Purdue Univer ity (Hungarian) Robert F. Schlack, profe or in economic ,Carthage College (Bulgarian) Alex A. Sedillo , Ph.D. candidate in economics, University of California, Santa Cruz (Hungarian) Erin K. Shoaf, Ph.D. candidate in political cience, Stanford University (Czech) Yuki Takatori, graduate tudent in Iingui tic , Yale University (Poli h) Dmitry Tartakovsky, graduate tudent in hi tory, Arizona State University (Macedon ian) Jonathan A. Terra, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Stanford University (Czech) Angela L. Thieman, graduate tudent in anthropology, University of Colorado, Boulder (Serbo-Croatian) Rebecca Tracy, graduate tudent in Slavic and East European studie , Ohio State University (Romani) 72\ITEMS

Caroline I. Vanderkar, graduate tudent in anthropology, University of Oregon (Czech) Li a Ryoko Wakamiya, Ph.D. candidate in Slavic language and literature, University of California, Lo Angele (Czech) Elaine S. Weiner, graduate tudent in anthropology, Univer ity of Rorida (Czech) Trevor L. Wy ong, Ph.D. candidate in government and politic, University of Maryland, College Park (Romanian) Institutional Support Programs The Eastern European Language Grant Committee of the Joint Committee on Eastern Europe voted to award grant to the following in titution in upport of East European language in truction: Arizona State University, for the teaching of Macedonian and Serbo-Croatian, ummer 1995 Beloit College, for the teaching of Hungarian, ummer 1995 Indiana Univer ity, for the teaching of Czech, Hungarian, Poli h, and Romanian, ummer 1995

Japan Dissertation Write-up Fellowships The following award were awarded by the Joint Committee on Japane e Studie -TJ. Pempel (chair), Theodore C. Be tor, Mary C. Brinton, Andrew Gordon, Irmela Hijiya-Kirshnereit, Hideo Otake, J. Mark Ram eyer, and Henry D. Smith-at it meeting on March 11-12, 1995. The committee was a isted by a election committee: Mary C. Brinton (chair), Paul Anderer, John C. Campbell, Andrew Gordon, and David Plath. Mimi M. Kim and John X. Kim erved as taff for thi program. Timothy George, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Harvard University. Minamata: power, policy, and citizen hip in po twar Japan Kyu Hyun Kim, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Harvard Univer ity. The tate, civil ociety, and institutional representation in early Meiji Japan: ideologies and politic of the popular rights Mmovement, 1873-1890 David Moerman, Ph.D. candidate in religion, Stanford University. Local paradi e and the theater of tate: Kumano pilgrimage in early medieval Japan Christiana Norgren, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Columbia University. A comparative study of Japanese reproductive policy and ideology VOLUME

49. NUMBERS 213


Takeyuki Tsuda, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of California, Berkeley. Strangers in their homeland: the ethnic adaptation of Japanese-Brazilian return migrant and the Japane e sociocultural respon e Gennifer Weisenfeld, Ph.D. candidate in art history, Princeton University. Murayama, Mavo, and modernity: constructions of the modern in Tai ho period avant-garde art Korea

Dissertation Research Fellowships The following awards were awarded by the Joint Committee on Korean Studie -Clark Sorensen (chair), Alice H. Amsden, Robert Buswell, Jr., Hyoung Cho, ChaeJin Lee, Young Ick Lew, David R. McCann, and Dae-Sook Suh-at its meeting on March 24-25, 1995. Mimi M. Kim and John X. Kim erved as staff for thi program. Byung Yool Ban, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, University of Hawaii, Manoa. The Korean revolutionary movement in China and Russia in the early 20th century Kyung Moon Hwang, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Harvard University. The transformation of the tructure and personnel of Korean bureaucracy in the late 19th and early 20th centuries Andrew Killick, Ph.D. candidate in eLhnomu icology, Univer ity of Washington . The ocial history and ethnographic study of Korean opera in P'ansori style Alexandre Mansourov, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Columbia Univer ity. The role of civilian-military connict in North Korea in the origin of the Korean War Sunwoong Park, Ph.D. candidate in sociology, Univer ity of California, Lo Angele . The cau es of the recent tran ition to democracy in South Korea Jiweon Shin, Ph.D. candidate in sociology, Harvard Univer ity. The in titutionalization of Chri tianity in Japan, Korea, and Taiwan

Latin America

Skidmore and John Watanabe. Eric Hershberg, Alexandra Cordero, and Jennifer Raskin served as staff for tm program. Beverly Adams, Ph.D. candidate in art history, University of Texas. Austin. Locating the international: art in Argentina, Brazil, and the United State in the 1950 and 1960 Steven Barracca, Ph.D. candidate in political science. University of Texa ,Au tin . Local government and democratization in Mexico: opposition politics in Yucatan Lourdes Blanco, Ph.D. candidate in history, Columbia University. Female religiou expression in I7th-century Lati n America Sarah England, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of California, Davis. A Garifuna transnational community between Honduras and New York City and its implications for their evolving political, cultural, and class consciou ness Deborah Erdman, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Univer ity of California, Lo Angeles. Leon Viejo: the complicated structure of a simple ociety in precolonial and colonial Nicaragua Fernando Filgueira, Ph.D. candidate in sociology, Northwe tern University. Politics, policie , and poverty in the outhem cone of Latin America, 1970 -1990 Brodwyn Fischer, Ph.D. candidate in history, Harvard University. The poverties of Rio de Janeiro: urban ocial inequality and its interpretations, 1930-1964 Steven Marquardt, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Washington. Environment, labor, and the state in Co ta Rica's Pacific banana industry, 1938-1984 Hugh Raffle , Ph.D. candidate in fore try and environmental tudie, Yale University. A river runs through it: landscape transformation in the Amazon e tuary Raymond Robertson, Ph.D. candidate in economics, University of Texas, Austin. Trade regime and Mexican wage tructure: cau e and consequences of change Narda Sotomayor, Ph.D. candidate in agricultural economic, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign. Interlinkages of credit markets: the relation hip between traders and farmer

Dissertation Research Fellowships

Near and Middle Ea t

The following award were made by the Joint Committee on Latin American Studie -Barbara Stalling (chair), Jere Behrman, Ruth Cardo 0, Paul Drake, Fernando Rojas Hurtado, Hilda Sabato, and Cynthia Steele- at its meeting on March 17-18, 1995. It was assisted by a screening committee: Bryan Roberts (chair), Heloisa Buarque de Holanda, Karen Remmer, Richard Salvucci, Rick Tardanico, Thomas

The following award were made by the Joint Committee on the Near and Middle East-Joel Migdal (chair), Soraya Altorki, Kiren Chaudhry, Juan Cole, Leila Fawaz, Deniz Kandiyoti, Zachary Lockman, Ian Lustick, Fedwa MaltiDouglas, and Sevket Pamuk. The committee was as isted by a creening committee: Ian Lustick (chair), F. Gregory Gause, ill, Fatma Muge Gocek, Joel Gordon, and Julie

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Peteet. Steven Heydemann and Sandra Fahy served as taff for thi program.

Predissertation Fellowships Ellen Am ter. Ph.D. candidate in hi tory. University of Penn ylvania. The colonization of Algerian women: education. health. and the welfare state. 1880-1960 Michaelle Brower. Ph.D. candidate in political science. Univer ity of Minne ota. Contemporary Arab political thought Jo Conrad. Ph.D. candidate in Near Eastern tudie. University of California. Berkeley. Turki h folklore Katherine Hoffman. Ph.D. candidate in anthropology. Columbia Univer ity. Language practice and identity negotiations in Morocco Katherine Kol tad. Ph.D. candidate in religiou tudie. University of California. Santa Barbara. Contextualizing I lamic ritual law and law in contemporary Egypt Pete Moore. Ph.D. candidate in political ience. McGill University. The parodox of civil formation: the comparative case of Kuwait and Jordan Rebecca Stein. Ph.D. candidate in modem thought and literature. Stanford Univer ity. Touring the peace proce : touri m and the changing map of the Middle Ea t Je ica Winegar. Ph.D. candidate in anthropology. New York Univer ity. Social relation and contemporary Egyptian art

Dissertation Research Fellowships for Ullderrepresellted Disciplines Shana Cohen. Ph.D. candidate in ociology. Univer ity of California. Berkeley. Economic development and the formation of a middle c1as culture in Morocco France Has o. Ph.D. candidate in ociology. University of Michigan. Ann Arbor. Gender. conciou ne s and action: the effects of Intifada participation on lower income Pale tinian women Andrea Jacob • Ph.D. candidate in Iingui tic • Univer ity of Texas. Au tin. Gender a a grammatical and cultural category Heghnar Zeitlian. Ph.D. candidate in art hi tory. Univer ity of California. Lo Angele . The image of an Ottoman city: urban pace. ocial tructure and civic identjty in 17th- and 18th-<:entury Aleppo

Dissertation Research Fellowships in the Social Sciellces and Humanities David Buchman. Ph.D. candidate in anthropology. State 74\1TEMS

Univer ity of New York. Stony Brook. Informal Mu lim education: the tran mi ion and interpretation of I lamie knowledge in contemporary Yemen John Collin • Ph.D. candidate in comparative tudies in di cour e and ociety. Univer ity of Minnesota. Intifada narrative and the "generation" of Pale tinian nationali m Andrew Cou in • Ph.D. candidate in anthropology. Emory Univer ity. The politic of health: nation-building. political identity. and the utilization of ervice in Pale tinian healthcare clinic on the We t Bank Su an Kahn. Ph.D. candidate in anthropology. Harvard University. New reproductive technologie in I rael: ocial u e and cultural meaning John Lamoreaux. Ph.D. candidate in religion. Duke Univer ity. Dream divination in the early medieval Near East Kathryn Libal. Ph.D. candidate in anthropology. Univer ity of Wa hington. The ethnic ocialization of Kazakh children in the Republic of Turkey and the People' Republic of China Saba Mahmood. Ph.D. candidate in anthropology. Stanford Univer ity. Islami t di cour e and women's ubaltern public sphere in Egypt Keith Watenpaugh. Ph.D. candidate in hi tory. University of California. Lo Angeles. Creating the Arab; creating the Turk: nationali m and the formation of national identitite in Aleppo and Antioch. 1908-1945 Nadia Yaqub. Ph.D. candidate in Near Eastern tudie. University of California. Berkeley. Literary and lingui tic aspect of Pale tin ian-Lebanese poetic duel

South A ia The following award were made by the Joint Committee on South A ia-Jame Boyce (chair). Amrita Basu. Radhika Coomara wamy. Nicholas B. Dirks. Shelley Feldman. David Ludden. Jonathan Parry. Sheldon Pollock. Gyan Prakash. and Su ie Tharu-at it meeting on March 17-19. 1995. Ilty Abraham. Sandra Fahy. Dana Troetel. and Peter Szanton erved as taff for thi program.

Predissertatioll Awards Gregory Grieve. Ph.D. candidate in hi tory. Univer ityof Chicago. Symbolic pace and ocial power: community. hierarchy. and sanctity in a Nepale e temple complex Jeffery Kile. Ph.D. candidate in anthropology. Univer ity of California. Berkeley. Emotion and change in exual culture: re pon e to AIDS among young men of India and Paki tan VOLUME

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Laura Kunreuther, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. The currency of secrets Carole McGranahan, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Univer ity of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Khampa in Kathmandu: preparation for fieldwork in hi torical anthropology Laura Miller, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, New York University. Animal economies and urban provisioning at Harappa Robert Rozehnal, Ph.D. candidate in South A ian tudies, University of Wi consin, Madi on. Sufis, shaykh , and shrines: Muslim central identity in Punjab, Pakistan

Dissertation Awards Jody Dick, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Princeton University. Conte ted tradition: negotiation of female renouncer practice in Sri Lanka Robert Nichol ,Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Penn ylvania. Autonomy and empire: a ocial hi tory of the Yusufzai of Peshawar, 1700-1900 Anupama Rao, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology and history, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Charting Dalit women's history: narrative of caste and gender in Mahara htra, 1818-1994 James Reeves, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. Introduction of capitalist bu ine s relations and di cipline to Nepal John Roo a, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, University of Wi con in, Madi on. Nationalism, Islam, monarchy: Hyderabad, 1880-1948 Sayeeda Saiki a, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Wi con in, Madison. A tudy of the hi tory of identity: the case of the Ahoms in northea t India

Bangladesh Fellowship Program, Predissertation Awards Semanti Gho h, Ph.D. candidate in history, Tufts University. Who e nation? In earch of identitie in colonial and po t-colonial Bengal 1905-1971 Mursaleena Islam, Ph.D. candidate in economics, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign. Economic asse sment of u tainability: the case of water re ource development program in Banglade h Katherine Komenda, Ph.D. candidate in religious tudie, University of California, Santa Barbara. The ritual link: uncovering Bengal cultural identity through exploration of village religio ity

JUNE/SEPTEMBER

1995

Bangladesh Fellowship Program, Dissertation Awards Zahir Ahmed, Ph.D. candidate in ocial anthropology, Univer ity of Su ex. Indigenous knowledge sy terns and agricultural activity in the coa tal area of Banglade h Anjan Gho h, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Rumor, go ip and communal trife in Banglade h and We t Bengal, 1946-1994 Pika Ghosh, Ph.D. candidate in art hi tory, University of Penn ylvania. Bengali temple terracotta from the mid17th to mid-18th centurie : a cultural reasse ment Erin O'Donnell, Ph.D. candidate in South A ian tudie, Univer ity of Chicago. Ritwik Ghatak's films: the contruction and perpetuation of popular memory in po tindependence Bengal Rahnuma Shehabuddin, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Princeton Univer ity. Unveiling re istance: women's truggle in South Asia Hugh Urban, Jr., Ph.D. candidate in religiou tudie, University of Chicago. Secret bodies: revi ioning the body and the ocial body in the Vaisnava-Sahajiya tradition of Bengal

Southeast Asia The following awards were made by the Joint Committee on Sou thea t Asia-Barbara Andaya, Richard Doner, Robert Hefner, Charle Hirschman, Jomo K.S., Hy Van Luong, Hendrik Maier, Vicente Rafael, Craig Reynolds, Teruo Sekimoto, and Anna Tsing. Itty Abraham and Julia Cole served as staff for this program.

Predissertation Fellowships William Cumming , Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Univer ity of Hawaii, Manoa. Precolonial tate and social structure and the ub equent impact of colonial rule in the kingdom of Gowa, South Sulawe i Chan Ngoc Le, Ph.D. candidate in music, University of California, Berkeley. The interplay between music and society in the Quan Ho tradition Suzanne Moon, Ph.D. candidate in science and technology studie , Cornell University. Agricultural technology transfer and development in the Netherlands Ea t Indies, 1900-1940 Ingrid Muan, Ph.D. candidate in art hi tory, Columbia University. Cultural production and alternative "modern" artistic practice in Cambodia

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Natalie Quizon, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Washington. The Philippine as transnational terrain

Dissertation Fellowships Jo hua Barker, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Cornell Univer ity. Technology and culture in We t Java ince 1875 Caroline Cleave , Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Chicago. The cultural meaning of tran national migration in a Tagalog community, the Philippine Amity Doolittle, Ph.D. candidate in fore try and environmental tudie, Yale Univer ity. Pattern of resource ownership and use in Sabah, Malay ia Thamora Fishel, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Cornell Univer ity. Gender and the culture of local politic in Thailand Ethan Mark, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Columbia Univer ity. Culture and communication between Japanese and Indone ian , 1942-1945 Harriet Phinney, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Washington. Reproductive trategie among the Kinh in Northern Vietnam Jacqueline Siapno, Ph.D. candidate in language and literature, Univer ity of California, Berkeley. Islam, gender relation , and di course of power in Aceh, Indone ia

Soviet Union and Its Successor tat The following awards were made by the Joint Committee on the Soviet Union and Its Succe or State -Reginald E. Zelnik (chair), Barbara Anderson, Jame Millar, Philip Roeder, Daniel Rowland, Stephanie Sandler, M. Nazif Shahrani, Jack Snyder, and Frank Sy yn-at its meeting on March 23-24, 1995. The committee was as i ted by a creening committee: Philip Roeder (chair), Marjorie Balzer, Janet Martin, Sally Pratt, Jame Richter, and Sarah Pratl. Su an Bron on and Li a Walker erved as taff to the program.

Dissertation Fellowships Izabela Kalinow ka-Blackwood, Ph.D. candidate in literature, Yale University. Nineteenth-century Russian and Polish accounts of travel to the Orient Kathleen Kuehnast. Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Minnesota. The interplay of gender, ethnicity and Islam in contemporary Kyrgyzstan Pauline Luong, Ph.D. candidate in political cience,

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Harvard University. State-building trategie in po t-Soviet Central A ia Rus ell Martin, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Harvard University. Dyna tic marriage and court politic in Mu covy, 1500-1725 Catherine O'Neil, Ph.D. candidate in literature, University of Chicago. Pu hkin' critical remark on Shake peare and hi literary appropriation of Shake peare' work Lynda Park, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology and hi t ry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. The Ru ian Geographic Society and its work in Siberia in the mid19th century Abby Schrader, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, University of Penn ylvania. The autocracy' refonn of corporal puni hment in 19th-century Ru ia Valerie Sperling, Ph.D. candidate in political science, University of California, Berkeley. The development of the women' movement in po t-communi t Ru ia Jennifer Spack, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Yale University. The Solovetskii Mona tery in the period between 1478 and 1645, before the Old Belief schi m Catherine Wanner, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Columbia Univer ity. The making of national identity in po t-Soviet Ukraine Erika Weinthal, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Columbia University. Joint re ource ystem and water haring agreement in Central A ia Cynthia Werner, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Indiana Univer ity. Hou ehold networks, ritual exchange and economic change in contemporary rural Kazakh tan Paul Werth, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory and anthropology, Univer ity of Michigan, Ann Arbor. The Orthodox church and its 19th-century mi ion along the Volga

Graduate Training Awards Adrienne Edgar, graduate tudent in hi tory, University of California, Berkeley, for training in the anthropology of Middle Eastern, I lamic and nomadic ocietie Alexander King, graduate tudent in anthropology, University of Virginia, for cour ework in Koryak language and lingui tics Marie Alice L'Heureux, graduate tudent in architecture and urban planning, University of California, Berkeley, for interdisciplinary training with emphasis on Baltic countrie Rory MacFarquhar, graduate tudent in political cience, Harvard Univer ity, for coursework in the political economy of privatization in the fonner Soviet Union

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49, NUMBERS 7J3


Western Europe

Advanced Grants for Area and Comparative Training and Research

Dissertation Fellowships The following awards were made by the Joint Committee on We tern Europe-Peter Lange (chair), Barry Eichengreen, Gill ta Esping-Ander en, Jan Gold tein, Heinz-Gerhard Haupt, Philip Nord, Adam Przeworsld, Marino Regini, Susan Carol Rogers, and Debora Silverman-at its meeting on April 7-8, 1995. The committee was assisted by a creening committee: Jeffrey Ander on, Nancy Bermeo, Patricia Craig, Sarah Farmer, Patrick Ireland, Catherine Kudlick, Jean Lave, Anthony Masi, Gary McDonogh, Susan Parman, Christine Poggi, and Christopher Reed. Kenton W. Worcester and Justin l .W. Powell served as staff for this program. Pepper D. Culpepper, Ph.D. candidate in government, Harvard University. The limits of public policy: reforming education and training system in France and eastern Germany Ivan Ermakoff, Ph.D. candidate in sociology, University of Chicago. Crisis and abdication: a comparative inquiry into proce se of repUblican breakdowns Vladimir Jankovic, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Notre Dame. Meteors under scrutiny: private, public, and professional weather in Great Britain, 1780-1850 Ian McNeely, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Scribe and citizens: writing, political culture, and local society in Wtirttemburg, 1770-1830 Eleni Myrivili, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Columbia University. The "liquid border" of the south Balkan region Kirsten Schultz, Ph.D. candidate in history, New York University. The transfer of the Portugue e court to Rio de Janiero and the transformation of political culture, 1808-1822 John Shovlin, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Chicago. Political economy as social taxonomy: a cultural history of economic thought in 18th-century France Carina Johnson, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of California, Berkeley. Contested repre entations of the exotic in the Hab burg empire, 1520-1576

JUNE/SEPTEMBER

1995

Africa

Advanced Research Grants The following awards were made by the Joint Committee on African Studies-Pearl T. Robinson (chair), Paul Collier, Dennis D. Cordell, Mamadou Diouf, Paula Girshick, Bogumil Jewsiewicki, Eileen Julien, Peter D. Little, Catharine Newbury, and Paul Richards-at its meeting on March 25, 1995. M. Priscilla Stone, Barbara Bianco, and Nnennaya Okezie served as staff for this program. Nancy L. Clark, associate professor of history, California Polytechnic State University. A society at war with itself: South Africa, 1935- I 945 Nancy Ro e Hunt, assistant professor of history, University of Arizona. Pronatalist traffic in the Belgian Congo Biodun Jeyifo, professor of English, Cornell University. The African theatrical avant-garde in post-colonial and postmodem frame: Wole Soyinka and Athol Fugard Terrence J. McCabe, associate profe or of anthropology, University of Colorado, Boulder. Incorporating individuals into ecosystem analysis: research among the Turkana of Kenya Gay W. Seidman, assistant professor of sociology, University of Wisconsin, Madison. Household negotiations in South Africa Aili Marie Tripp, assi tant professor of political science, University of Wisconsin, Madison. Gender and new politics of participation in Uganda Luise White, visiting assistant professor of history, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. Malediction and malpractice: medicine and misfortune in a postcolonial tate

China

Postdoctoral Fellowships The following awards were made by the China Fellowships Selection Committee (administered by the American Council of Learned Societies)-Peter K. Bol (chair), Parks M. Coble, Shu-min Huang, Jo eph S. M. Lau, Thomas H. C. Lee, Steven I. Levine, Victor H. Mair, and William L. Parish-at its meeting on April 10, 1995. Jason H. Parker and Ruth Waters erved as staff for this program.

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All recipients are Chiang Ching-kuo Foundation!ACLS Fellow upported by funding received from the Chiang Ching-kuo Foundation. Julia F. Andrews, a ociate profe or of hi tory of a~ Ohio State Universtiy. Traditional Chine e painting in an age ofrevolution, 1911-1937 Gary H. Jefferson, as ociate profe or of economic , Brandei Univer ity. Refonning large- cale enterpri e in Chine e indu try Terry F. Kleeman, as i tant profe or of Chine e culture, University of Penn ylvania. Sacrifice in Chine e religiou hi tory Li Liu, Vi iting as i tant profe sor of archeology, Tuft University. Development of chiefdom ocietie in the middle and lower Yellow River Valley in neolithic China: a tudy of the Long han culture Meli a A. Macauley, profe or of Chine e hi tory, Northwestern University. The civil reprobate: pettifoggers, property, and litigation in China, 1723- 1919 R. Keith Schoppa, profe or of history, Valparaiso University. Local ocial and political dynamic of war, collaboration and re i tance: Zhejian Province, 1937-1945 Mary E. SCOll, as ociate profe or of humanitie , San Francisco State University. The meaning of popular culture in 2Oth-century China Kyoko Tokuno, assistant profe or of East A ian religion , University of Oregon. Buddhi t cripture: conception and praxi in 15th-century China

Pole , Ukrainian and the Poli h-Co ack War, 164 ~9 Laura A. Crago, as i tant profe or of history, University of Notre Dame. Work, religion, and national identity in the haping of Poli h working-cia s cultural identity, 1815-1929 Gerald W. Creed, a i tant profe or of anthropology, City Univer ity of New York, Hunter College. Revolution redux : the politic of agriculture in Bulgaria and beyond Elizabeth E. Ki , a i tant profe or of politic , Princeton University. Realizing right: truggle for human and civil rights in East-Central Europe Ako Rona-Tas, as i tant profe or of ociology, Univer ity of California, San Diego. The bu ine elite in Hungary and the Czech Republic: the relation hip between in titutionaJ change and elite mobility David Stark, as ociate profe or of ociology, Cornell Univer ity. Analy i of new property fonns in the po tociali t Hungarian economy

Japan The following award were made by the Joint Commillee on Japane e Studie -T.J. Pempel (chair), Theodore C. Be tor, Mary C. Brinton, Andrew Gordon, Innela HijiyaKir hnereit. Hideo Otake, J. Mark Ram eyer. and Henry D. Smith-at its meeting on March 11-12, 1995. The committee was as isted by a election commillee: Mary C. Brinton (chair), Paul Anderer, John C. Campbell, Andrew Gordon, and David Plath. Mimi M. Kim and John X. Kim erved tafT for this program.

Eastern Europe

Advanced Research GraJtts

Postdoctoral Fellowships

Paul Berry, assi tant profe sor of art hi tory, Univer ityof Wa hington. The arti tic identity of Japane e painter under the impact of war and peace from the late 1920 to the early 1960s Suzanne Culter, as i tant profe or of ociology, McGill Univer ity. The ocial care of abandoned children of foreign worker in Japan Laura Hein, as ociate profe or of hi tory, Northwe tern University. The relation between democracy and capitali m in po twar Japan Eiko Ikegami, as ociate profe or of ociology, Yale University. The origin and development of Japane e civility Ann Jannella, as ociate profe or of hi tory, University of Pittsburgh. The early 19th-century vaccination movement and the ri e of the medical sy tern in Japan

The following award were made by the Joint Commillee on Eastern Europe (admini tered by the American Council of Learned Societies}-Nonnan M. Naimark (chair), Ivo Banac, Jo ef C. Brada, Valerie Bunce, David A. Frick, Victor A. Friedman, Su an Gal , Elemer Hanki , Beth Holmgren, Michael Kennedy, and Ve na Pu ic-at its meeting on March 3 I-April I, 1995. Ja on H. Parker and Ruth Water erved as taff for thi program. Oliver Aven , as i tant profe or of politic , Princeton Univer ity. Ethnic identity and the con truction of democratic community: the ca e of Latvia Ger hon Bacon, enior lecturer in Jewi h hi tory, Bar-Ilan University. The history and memory of conflict Jew ,

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VOLUME

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Mark Mason, as ociate profe or of management, Yale University. Hi torical analy is of the role of Japane e multinationals in East Asian integration Matthew Mizenko, assistant professor of Ea t Asian tudie, Haverford College. The narratives of internationalization and negotiations of identity in the ca e of Nitobe Inazo Michael Mola ky, assi tant profe or of literature, Connecticut College. Women' literature during the po twar American occupation period Jennifer Robert on, a ociate profe or of anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. The u e of theater as a technology of Japane e imperialism, 1931-1945 Richard Smethurst, profes or of hi tory, University of Pittsburgh. Takahashi Korekiyo and economic policy in Japan during the depres ion, 1931-1936 Anne Walthall, professor of hi tory, University of California, Irvine. Mat uo Ta eko and the Meiji Restoration David Wein tein, as i tant profe or of economics, Harvard Univer ity. The role of export in Japanese economic development Research Planning Grants

Eric Feldman, cholar in health policy research, In titution for Social and Policy Studie , Yale Univer ity, for a planning meeting on a comparative tudy of HIV, contaminated blood, and contlict in indu trialized countrie David Howell, a si tant profe sor of history, Princeton Univer ity, for a work hop on the state of We tern studie of early modern Japan Arthur Ro ett, profe or of law, University of California, Los Angeles, for a conference on teaching A ian law Gilbert Rozman, profes or of ociology, Princeton University, for a planning meeting on relation and mutual influence of Japan and Ru ia in the po twar era Leonard Schoppa, as istant profe or of government, Univer ity of Virginia, for a workshop on political reform in Japan, Europe, and the U.S. Haruo Shirane, profe or of literature, Columbia Univer ity, for a workshop on canon formation and Japane e literature Jonathan Zeitlin, as ociate profe or of hi tory, Univer ity of Wi consin, Madison, for a conference on a comparative study of re ponses to Americanization in European and Japanese indu tries in the postwar period Korea The following award were made by the Joint Committee on Korean Studie -Clark Sorensen (chair), Alice H.

JUNE/SEPTEMBER

1995

Am den, Robert Buswell, Jr., Hyoung Cho, Chae-Jin Lee, Young Ick Lew, David R. McCann, and Dae-Sook Suh-at it meeting on March 24-25, 1995. Mimi M. Kim and John X. Kim served as staff for this program. Advanced Research Grants

Anthony D'Co ta, assistant profe or of liberal tudie, Univer ity of Wa hington, Tacoma. Industrial maturity and the ca e of the South Korean steel indu try Michael Kalton, profe or of liberal tudie, University of Washington, Tacoma, Survey history of Neo-Confucian thought during the Cho on dynasty Jim Yong Kim, instructor of ocial medicine at Harvard Medical School. Pharmaceuticals and the political economy of meaning in South Korea Nancy Steinhardt, associate profe or of East Asian art, Univer ity of Penn ylvania. Koguryo funerary pace and its North Asian context Research PLanning Grants

JaHyun Kim Haboush, as ociate profes or of hi tory, University of IIIinoi , Urbana-Champaign; Ann Lee, lecturer in Korean literature, Univer ity of Southern California; and David McCann, as ociate profe or of literature, Cornell University, for a conference on gender and Korean literature Gi-Wook Shin, assi tant profe or of sociology, Univer ity of California, Lo Angele , for a conference on Japane e hegemony and modernity in colonial Korea Latin America Advanced Research Grants

The following awards were made by the Joint Committee on Latin American Studic -Barbara Stallings (chair), Jere Behrman, Victor Bulmer-Thomas, Ruth Cardo 0, Paul Drake, Bryan Roberts, Fernando Rojas, Hilda Sabato, and Cynthia Steele-at it meeting on March 17-18, 1995. Eric Her hberg, Alexandra Cordero, and Jennifer Ra kin crved as staff for thi program. Alice Am den, profe or of urban studies and planning, Mas achu etts In tiMe of Technology. Difference in the nature of ub idized lending condition applied by Brazilian development banks to firm in different indu trie John Burdick, a i tant profe or of anthropology, Syracuse lTEMsf79


University. The relationship between religion, color, and politics in Brazil Susan Deans-Smith, associate professor of history, University of Texas, Austin. The Royal Academy of San Carlos, its role in consolidating Spanish imperial hegemony in Mexico, and its impact on the population of Mexico City Jonathan Fox, associate profes or of political cience, Massachu etts Institute of Technology. The ocial impact of World Bank poverty reduction projects in Mexico, 1994-1995 Paul Gootenberg, associate profe or of history, State University of New York, Stony Brook. The relation hip between networks of coca and cocaine production and trade in the Andes and hifting attitudes toward drugs in the north, 185{}-1950 Sonia Labrador-Rodriguez, assistant profe sor of Spanish, University of Texas, Austin . The cultural production of writers of color in Cuba prior to the abolition of lavery Joseph Love, profes or of history, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign. The historical development of Structuralism, and its reception by neoclassical economists, governments and industriali ts in Latin America and other developing regions Enrique Mayer, profe sor of anthropology, Univer ity of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign. The impact of agrarian reform on Peruvian politics and social structure, I97{}-1994 Luiza Moreira, assistant profe sor of Spani hand Portugue e, University of California, Berkeley. The writing of Cas iano Ricardo and Leopoldo Marechal and their impact on the development of populi m in mid-20th century Brazil and Argentina Dianna Niebyl ki, associate profes or of Spanish, humanities, and comparative literature, Earlham College. The u e of humor as ocial commentary in the works of contemporary Latin American women writers Mariano Plotkin, assistant profe or of history, Colby College. The reception of psychoanalysi and its massive diffusion in Bueno Aires, Argentina, between the fall of Per6n in 1955 and the restoration of democracy in 1983 Donald Robbins, institute associate, Harvard In titute for International Affairs. The impact of Chilean trade liberalization on wage dispersion and labor productivity and demand for human capital Kenneth Serbin, assistant profe sor of history, University of San Diego. The practice and politics of abortion in Brazil,194{}-1995 Mark Thurner, assistant profe sor of history, University of Florida. The political significance of emantic hifts in SO\ITEMS

Peruvian historical discour e during the 19th century Allen Well ,profe or of history, Bowdoin College. Proce se of growth and development during the Latin American export boom of 185{}-1930 Carter Wil on, professor of community studie , Univer ity of California, Santa Cruz. The development of gender identification and exual object choice in Mayan men Deborah Ya har, as i tant professor of government, Harvard University. Comparative research on democracy and the ri e of indigenou organization over the past decade in Latin America

Near and Middle East The following advanced re earch grants were awarded by the Joint Committee on the Near and Middle Ea t-Joel Migdal (chair), Soraya Altorki, Kiren Chaudhry, Juan Cole, Leila Fawaz, Deniz Kandiyoti, Zachary Lockman, Ian Lustick, Fedwa Malti-Douglas, and Sevket Pamuk. The committee was as isted by a screening committee: Leila Fawaz (chair), Julia Clancy-Smith, Cemal Kafadar, Brinkley Me ick, and Shibley Telhami. Steven Heydemann and Sandra Fahy served as taff for this program.

Mid-Career Skills Enrichment Fellowships for Tenured Faculty Stephen Ben ch, associate profes or of history, Swarthmore College. Fatwa literature and early Chri tian-Muslim exchange in the Maghrib Marcie Patton, assi tant profes or of politics, Fairfield Univer ity. Bu ine s elite and the politics of economic reform in Morocco Kevin Reinhart, associate professor of religion, Dartmouth College. Survey of the legal thought of 19th-century Ottoman "Ulama"

Postdoctoral Fellowships in Underrepresented Disciplines Nejat Anbarci, assi tant profes or of economics, State University of New York, Buffalo. The coming "$60 billion" privatization wave in Turkey Lena Jayyu i, assi tant profe or of communication, University of Pennsylvania. Communications practices, identity, and territoriality: public space in a global age John Willoughby, associate profe or of economics, American University. An assessment of alternative in titutional methods of foreign aid delivery VOLUME

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Postdoctoral Fellowships in the Social Sciences and Humanities

Carol Bardenstein, assistant professor of Arabic language and literature, Dartmouth College. Trees and "rootedne s" in Palestinian and Israeli literary and political discourse Jill Crystal, assistant professor of political science, Auburn University. Authoritarianism and its adversaries in the Arab world Joel Gordon, assistant professor of history, Franklin and Marshall College. Revolutionary civics: the construction of Nas erist popular culture Stephania Pandolfo, assistant professor of anthropology, University of California, Berkeley. Magrebi modernities: a study of subjectivity at the interface of "traditional" therapies and psychiatry in contemporary Morocco Abdul-Karim Rafeq, professor of history, College of William and Mary. A history of modern Syria, 1516 to the present

South Asia Advanced Research Grants

The following awards were made by the Joint Committee on South Asia-James Boyce (chair), Amrita Basu, Radhika Coomaraswamy, Nicholas B. Dirks, Shelley Feldman, David Ludden, Jonathan Parry, Sheldon Pollock, Gyan Prakash, and Susie Tharu-at its meeting on March 17-19, 1995. Itty Abraham, Sandra Fahy, Dana Troetel, and Peter Szanton served as staff for this program. William Fisher, assistant profes or of anthropology and social studies, Harvard University. Old artificers in a new smithy: forging ethnicity and nationalism in contemporary Nepal Indira Peterson, associate professor and chair of Asian studies, Mount Holyoke College. The play of the fortuneteller and the birdcatcher: discourses of identity in an 18th-century Indian literary genre Sara Dickey, associate professor of anthropology and Asian studies, Bowdoin College. The intimate relation of class and power: domestic service in urban India

Southeast Asia Advanced Research Grants

The following awards were made by the Joint Committee on Southeast Asia-Barbara Andaya, Richard Doner,

JUNE/SEPTEMBER \ 995

Robert Hefner, Charles Hirschman, Jomo K.S., Hy Van Luong, Hendrik Maier, Vicente Rafael, Craig Reynolds, Teruo Sekimoto, and Anna Tsing. Itty Abraham and Julia Cole served as staff for this program. Hildred Geertz, profe or of anthropology, Princeton University. Social history and artistry in a Balinese temple Kenneth George, assistant professor of anthropology, Harvard University. The contemporary Muslim artist and art public in Indonesia Daniel Lev, professor of political science, University of Washington. Professionalism and change in Indonesia and Malaysia Sally Ness, as ociate professor of dance, cooperating faculty in anthropology, University of California, Riverside. Philippine tourism and post-independence identity

Soviet Union and Its Successor States The following postdoctoral fellowships were awarded by the Joint Committee on the Soviet Union and Its Succe or States-Reginald E. Zelnik (chair), Barbara Anderson, James Millar, Philip Roeder, Daniel Rowland, Stephanie Sandler, M. Nazif Shahrani, Jack Snyder, and Frank Sysyn-at its meeting on March 23-24, 1995. The committee was assisted by a screening committee: Laura Engelstein (chair), Donna Bahry, Kathleen PartM, Robert Sharlet, and Lewis Siegelbaum. Susan Bronson and Jill Finger served as staff for this program. Advanced Research Grants

M. Steven Fish, as istant professor of political science, University of Pennsylvania. The development of multipartism in Russia's unconsolidated democracy George Fowler, assistant professor of linguistics, Indiana University. The syntax of verbal prefixation and aspect in Russian Anne Gorsuch, assistant professor of history, the University of British Columbia. Enthusiasts, bohemians, and delinquents: Soviet youth culture, 1921-1928 Kathryn Hendley, as istant professor of political cience and law, Univer ity of Wi consin, Madison. The process of privatization and economic readjustment in Ru sia: the case of an indu trial enterpri e in Saratov Nadieszda Kizenko, assi tant professor of history, State University of New York, Albany. The career of loann of Kronstadt ITEMs/8\


Yanni Kotsonis, as i tant profe or of hi tory, New York University. Agricultural cooperative and the agrarian que tion in Ru ia, 1861-1914

Research and Development Awards Thoma Noonan, a ociate chair, Department of Hi tory, Univer ity of Minne ota, for a work hop entitled "A New Hi tory of Early Ru ia" Stanley Rabinowitz, director, Amher t Center for Ru ian Culture, for a collaborative re earch project with the Ru sian Academy of Science to arrange and de cribe the Alexej Remizov paper Gilbert Rozman, profe or of ociology, Princeton Univer ity, for a project entitled "Japan and Ru ia: Relation and Mutual Influence in the Po twar Era" Kathryn Stoner-Wei ,as i tant profe or of politics and international affairs, Princeton University, for a conference entitled "Hyper-Federali m: Ru ia' Decentralization in Comparative Context"

Faculty Professional Development and Retraining Grants Joyce Glea on, Department of Economics, Nebraska We leyan Univer ity, for a ummer language training program of intensive study of the Ukrainian language

Institutional Support Programs In it ixth annual competition of grants for first-year fellow hip in underrepre ented field , the Joint Committee on the Soviet Union and Its Succe or States was a i ted by a creening committee-Frank Sy yn (chair), Thomas Barfield, William Bielby, Robert Canfield, and Tim McDaniel. Su an Bron on and Li a Walker erved as taff for thi program. The following award were made: Anthropology: Indiana Univer ity and Univer ity of Michigan Sociology: University of Michigan In its eleventh national competition of grants to American in titute that offer inten ive training in the Ru sian and non-Rus ian languages of the former Soviet Union, the Joint Committee on the Soviet Union and its Succe sor State, as i ted by a creening committee-Stephanie Sandler (chair), Michael Aier, Victor Friedman, Frank Miller, and Azade-Ay e Rorlich-made the following award at its meeting on February 24, 1995. Su an Bron on and Jill Finger erved as tafT for the program.

82\lTEMS

Ru ian Language In titute in the United State: Beloit College, Center for Language Studie ; Bryn Mawr College, Ru ian Language In titute; Indiana University, Ru ian Institute; The John Hopkin University, School of Advanced International Studie ; Middlebury College, Ru sian School; Monterey In titute for International Studie , Rus ian Program; Norwich Univer ity, Ru ian School Ru ian Language In tiMe in Ru ia: Univer ity of Arizona; Council for International Educational Exchange; Indiana University; State University of New York, Albany Non-Ru ian Language In tiMe in the United State: Arizona State University, Tatar program; George Ma on Univer ity, Georgian program; Harvard Univer ity, Ukrainian program; Indiana Univer ity, Kazakh, Uzbek, and Turkmen program ; Univer ity of California, Lo Angele , Azeri and Uzbek program; Univer ityof Michigan, Armenian program; Univer ity of Wa hington, Kazakh, Kirghiz, Lithuanian, Tajik, and Uzbek program Non-Ru ian Language In titute in the former Soviet Union: Penn State Univer ity, Ukrainian program; University of Kan as, Ukrainian program

Other Programs Abe Fellow hip Program The following grants were awarded by the Abe Fellow hip Program Committee-Akihiko Tanaka, Takato hi Imada, Akira Kojima, Take hi Matsuda, Michio Muramat u, Thomas Rimer, Richard J. Samuel, and Gary R. Saxonhou e-at it meeting on October 15-16, 1994. Mary Byrne McDonnell, Sheri Rani ,Steven Wheatley, Mary-Lea Cox, and Jennifer Bourque erved a taff for thi program. Naoyuki Agawa, as ociate, Gib on, Dunn & Cruther. The law' re pon e to discrimination in the United State : a case tudy of the relation hip between law and ociety in America Mary Brinton, as ociate profe or, Department of Sociology, Univer ity of Chicago. The chool-work tranition: a comparative tudy of three industrial ector Laurie Freeman, advanced re earch fellow, Harvard University, and Department of Political Science, University of California, Berkeley. Comparative media In titution and the U.S.-Japan relation hip Tony Freyer, University Research Profe or of Hi tory and Law, History DepartmentlLaw School, University of Alabama. Regulatory harmonization, the world trade

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organization, and Japane e antitrust Andrew Horvat, vi iting cholar, Stanford Center for East Asian Studie , Stanford Univer ity. Will Japane e become an international language? Su an Long, as ociate profe or of anthropology, Department of Sociology, John Carroll University. Bioethic and culture: end-of-life deci ion-making in cultural context Michael Mastanduno, a ociate profes or and vice-chair, Department of Government, Dartmouth College. The United State, Japan, and the international ources of national economic competition Deborah Milly, as istant profe or, Department of Political Science, Virginia Polytechnic In titute and State Univer ity. The comparative development of policie toward foreign migrant labor in A ia: in titution and the impact of tran national and ubnational networks on tate policie Yutaka 0 ada, as ociate profes or, Law Faculty, Surugudai University. U.S. policy attitude to a regulatory framework of contemporary international civil aviation Susan Pharr, profe or of government and Edwin O. Rei chauer Profe or of Japane e Politics, Harvard University. Political ethic and public tru t Iwaaki Sato, a ociate profe or, Faculty of Law, Sophia Univer ity. Comparison of debtor-creditor law in the U.S. with that of Japan Tat ujiro Suzuki, re earch a sociate, Center for International Studie ,Ma achu ett In titute of Technology. Maintaining the plutonium technology option: reconciling non-proliferation and energy security concerns Steven Vogel, assistant profe or, Department of Politic and Society, University of California, Irvine. When dome tic politics meets international economics Hyuck-Soo Yoo, a ociate profes or, Graduate School of International and Bu inc Law, Yokohama National University. The viability of the coexi tence of ection 301 and the new WTO y tern Akihiro Yo hikawa, as ociate director, Comparative Health Care Policy Re carch Project, A ia/Pacific Re earch Center, Stanford Univer ity. How doe Japan do it? A quantitative analy is of the Japanese health care system Daizaburo Yui, profe or, Faculty of Social Studies, Hitotsubashi Univer ity. From exclu ion to integration: ocio-hi torical studie on the proce of repealing the anti-A ian immigration laws in the U.S.

Ju

ElSEPlCMBER

1995

Berlin Program for Advanced German and European Studies The following doctoral di ertation and po tdoctoral re earch fellowship for a re idential year at the Free University of Berlin, were awarded by the joint election committee of the Berlin Program for Advanced German and European Studie on March 29,1995. Member of the American committee are: Charles Maier (chair), Thoma Childers, Lily Gardner Feldman, Anton Kae ,Andrei Markovit , and Wolfgang Streeck. Kenton W. Worcester and Ju tin J.w. Powell erved as staff for this program. Elizabeth Boggs, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Harvard Univer ity. Law, economy and society in Hamburg and Berlin: a legal history of bu ines association in Germany, 1861-1914 Mark Cas ell, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Univer ity of Wi con in, Madison. Governance arrangements and the regulation of property rights: a study of the United States' re olution tru t corporation and the FRG' Treuhandan talt Rita Chin, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, University of California, Berkeley. The con truction of identities in the work of Turkish-German writers and film directors, 1969-1989 Philip Gor ki, Ph.D. candidate in ociology, Univer ity of California, Berkeley. Disciplinary revolution: Calvinism and the state Robin Hode ,Ph.D. candidate in International Relations, Cambridge University. Europe in the news: a comparative tudy of the role of the media in European integration in Britain and Germany, 1985-1991 Paul Lerner, Ph.D. candidate in history, Columbia University. Hy terical men: war, neuro is and German mental medicine, 1914-1932 Andrew Mendel ohn, Ph.D. candidate in history, Princeton Univer ity. Immunity: the Great War, 1870-1914 Kari Robin on, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Univer ity of Chicago. Coming to term : negotiating a new abortion law in unified Germany Despina Stratigako , Ph.D. candidate in art hi tory, Bryn Mawr College. Women architects in Germany, 1900-1945 Julie Stubb , Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Building the perfect woman: cience and ex reform in the Weimar Republic Patricia Szobar, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Rutgers Univer ity. Enforcing racial policy: the "race defilement" trials in Nazi Germany

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SSRC-M carthur Foundation Fellowships on Peace and Security in a Changing World The Committee on International Peace and SecurityLawrence Freedman (chair), Karen Dawi ha, Jean Bethke EI htain, Albert Fishlow, Takashi Inoguchi, Peter Katzentein, Atul Kohli, Samuel Nolut hungu, Su anne Rudolph, Philip Tetlock, and David Wright-voted to award the following SSRC-MacArthur Foundation Fellow hip on Peace and Security in a Changing World at its meeting on March 23-24, 1995. Steven Heydemann, Arun P. Elhance, Robert Latham, Paul Erickson, and Daniel Chiplock served as taff for this program. Dissertation Fellowships

The committee was as i ted by a creening subcommittee-Tad Homer-Dixon (chair), Hugh Gu terson, Nicole Ball, Jonathan Friedman, Edward Kolodziej, and Judith Ann Tickner- for the e award : Peter Andrea, Ph.D. candidate in government, Cornell Univer ity. State overeignty and tran national illegality Sumantra Bose, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Columbia University. Democracy and national self-determination: a comparative inquiry Amy Gurowitz, Ph.D. candidate in government. Cornell University. The expansion of intervention by international in titutions: the case of minority and ocial rights Eric Heginbotharn, Ph.D. candidate in political cience, Mas achu etts In titute of Technology. The East A ian naval arms race and the domestic sources of grand trategy Han -Peter Kohler, Ph.D. candidate in economic , Univer ity of California, Berkeley. A new understanding of regional economic growth to facilitate long-term peace and ecurity in Eastern Europe Colleen Lye, Ph.D. candidate in Engli h, Columbia University. Model modernity: narrating the Far East Jame Ron, Ph.D. candidate in ociology, University of California, Berkeley. Explaining and controlling repertoires of tate violence Ajantha Subramanian, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Duke University. New nationali m and Indian Chri tianity: a volatile relation hip Postdoctoral Fellowships

The committee was as i ted by a creening ubcommittee-Jeremiah Sullivan (chair), Fen Hamp on, Jean Comaroff, R. B. J. Walker, and Michael Watt - for the e award : 84\lTEMS

Kiren Chaudhry, as i tant profes or of political cience, Univer ity of California, Berkeley. Redrawing the border of economic community: price and prote t in the making and unmaking of the national market Achille Mbembe, a sociate profe or of history, Univer ity of Pennsylvania. Fi cality, arbitrary rule and private violence in outhern Cameroon Daniel Monk, a i tant profe or of architecture, State University of New York, Stony Brook. An architecture of counterin urgency: the Tegart Fortre and I rael' borders Ido Oren, a i tant profe or of political science, Univer ity of Minne ota. Hi toricizing the democratic peace: the evolution of the American perception of imperial Germany Ole Waever, enior re earch fellow, Centre for Peace and Contlict Research (Copenhagen, Denmark). Beyond federalism? Regional ecurity dynamic in North America and Europe Yong-Nian Zheng, lecturer in political cience, Princeton University. Identity tran ition and China' new nation ali m

International Peace and Security The Committee on International Peace and Security al made the following award in 1994-95:

0

Research Workshops

J. Samuel Barkin, Harvard Univer ity, and George Shambaugh, Georgetown University. "Managing Environmental Conflict: A Common Pool Re ource Approach" Elli Lieberman, University of Chicago. "The Rational Deterrence Theory Debate: Success and Failure in Enduring Rivalrie " Karen Litfin, Univer ity of Wa hington. "Rethinking Sovereignty and Environment" Visiting Scholar Fellowships

The committee was as i ted by a ubcommitteeCatherine Boone, Jeffrey Taylor Checkel, Peter M. Lewi , S. Neil MacFarlane, and Martha Brill Olcott-for the following awards: Brani lava Baranovic (Croatia), ociology, Univer ity of Zagreb. Ethnic nationali m and education for peace in po t- ociali m Mihai Gribincea (Moldova), international relation , Embas y of the Republic of Moldova (Mo cow). Ru ian military policy toward the near abroad VOLUME

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Atieno C.E. Mboya, (Kenya), law, The Public Law In titute, Nairobi. Law-related education a a tool for conflict resolution Silvia Mihalikova, (Slovakia), political cience, Comeniu University, Brati lava. Democratic political culture as a pre-condition for developing stable democracy in Ea tern Europe countrie (the ca e of Slovakia) Back on Muchini, (Zimbabwe), p ychology, University of Zimbabwe, Harare. War-affected children: the nature, cope and programmatic re pon e to the problem in Africa south of the Sahara Victor Perebene syuk, (Ukraine), political science and ociology, Ukrainian Re earch Institute for Youth Problem , Kiev. Internal a peets of international security: conflicts in po t-Soviet tran ition to democracy and market economy Temenuga Rakadjii ka, (Bulgaria), ociology, Institute of Sociology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. The high marginalization of East European societie as a threat to international peace and security Sanja Spoljar-Vrzina, (Croatia), medical anthropology, Institute for Anthropology, Zagreb. A heart sheltered by a roof and a roof without hearts to helter: refugee familie in Croatia

Public Policy Research on Contemporary Hispanic Issues The following grants were awarded by the Committee on Public Policy Research on Contemporary Hispanic I ueLi andro Perez (chair), Horten ia Amaro, Felipe G. Castro, Douglas T. Gurak, Vilma Ortiz, Nestor Rodrfguez, Carlo E. Santiago, and Ruth Zambrana-at its meeting on October 27-30, 1994. Ramon S. Torrecilha and Jaime A. Castaneda served as taff for thi program.

lAtina Junior Faculty Research Mentoring Grants Guadalupe Friaz, assistant profe or of American ethnic studies, Chicano Studie Program, University of Wa hington. Study of ea tern Washington rural Hispanic communitie Pierrette Hondagneu-Sotelo, as i tant profe or, Department of Sociology, University of Southern California. Structuring and negotiating paid work: Latina immigrant women and their employer

Ju ElSEPTEMBER 1995

Yolanda Padilla, as i tant profe sor, School of Social Work, Univer ity of Texa ,Austin. A quantitative analy i of the explanations for the poor labor market outcome of Mexican immigrants: implication for public policy E ter Shapiro, faculty, P ychology Department, Univer ity of Mas achu etts, Boston. Developmental outcome for Puerto Rican adole cents under different circum tance of migration: a risk and resilience developmental approach

Small Grants for Predoctoral Students Marfa Franquiz, Ph.D. candidate in language, culture, and literacy, University of California, Santa Barbara. In tructional innovation in bilingual classroom : undertanding opportunity to learn within the change proce Chri tina G6mez, Ph.D. candidate in ociology, Harvard Univer ity. Doe race matter? The meaning of race in the Latino community Mario Gonzales, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Washington State Univer ity. Mexican indigenous migrants in California: settlement and re i tance in Mexican-American communitie Francisca James-Hernandez, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Stanford University. Practicing development and literacy on the U.S.-Mexico border: NAFTA vs. gras roots trategies for change in Chicanalo-Mexicanalo communitie Gilda Ochoa, Ph.D. candidate in ociology, Univer ity of California, Lo Angele. Toward an understanding of native immigrant relations: the examination of La Puente, California Diane-Michele Prindeville, Ph.D. candidate in political science, University of New Mexico. On the treets and in the state hou e: Latinas and Native American women and environmental policymaking Fausto Ramo -G6mez, Ph.D. candidate in political science, University of Chicago. Latino and the politic of chool reform in Chicago Dolores Rodrfguez-Reimann, Ph.D. candidate in clinical p ychology, California School of Profes ional P ychology, San Diego. The effects of acculturation and gender on the health beliefs of Mexican American regarding tuberculo is Kristine Zentgraf, Ph.D. candidate in sociology, Univer ity of California, Los Angele . The ignificance of gender in Guatemalan and Salvadoran migration to Lo AngeJe

IlllMsl85


Grants Received by the Council in 1994-95 A summary of grants received during the year ending June 30, 1995* George Gund Foundation

Bank of Japan Project LINK (Committee on Economic and Stability and Growth)

European Commis ion, Directorate General XU: Science, Research and Development Support for the First Open Meeting of the Human Dimen ion of Global Environmental Change Community

Japan Foundation Di ertation conference (Joint Committee on Japanese Studies)

$3,500,000 $100,000 $110,000

Japan-United Stat

$2, I 88,256

Friendship Commis ion $78,528

Junta de Castilla y Leon (Spain) $56,000

$495,000

Project LINK meeting in Spain (Committee on Economic Stability and Growth)

$80,000

Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation Sexuality Re earch A e ment Project

$15,000

Korea Foundation $229,000

Program upport for the Joint Committee on Korean Studies

$246,675

Korea Research Foundation $18,575

Di sertation fellow hips (Joint Committee on Korean Studie )

$30,000

John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation

$26,840

$ I 0,000

â&#x20AC;˘ Does nol include "in kind" grants; thaI i , upport of travel, hotel, conference, 3Jld imilar expen received by Council comminees in the fonn of direct payments by other org3J1izalions.

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Abe Fellow hip Program in international multidi ciplinary research on global concern Grants for advanced re earch in Japan (Joint Committee on Japane e Studie )

William T. Grant Foundation Ethnopediatrics: Cultural Factors in Child Survival and Growth (Committee on Culture, Health, and Human Development)

$25,000

Japan Foundation Center for Global Partnership

Global Environment Facility Support for a workshop on the role of ocial group and me o-level in titutions in haping policy on global environmental i ue

$14,902

$14,000

German Marshall Fund of the United States Berlin Program for Advanced German and European Studie fellowship selection proce s

International Research and Exchange Board (lREX) SSRC' involvement in the Social Science Curriculum Development Fellowship Program

Ford Foundation Continued support for a graduate fellowship program de igned to encourage students in the ocial ciences to develop competence in an international or area tudie field Sexuality Research A es ment Project Workshop on social cience concepts and methodology in Vietnam Partial upport for a conference on 'The Political Economy of Water in South A ia: Rural and Urban Action and Interactions (Joint Committee on South Asia) Continued support for the Bangladesh Studie Fellow hip Program (Joint Committee on South Asia) Partial support for a eries of work hop on "Po t-Soviet Politics and Transition Economic " (Joint Committee on the Soviet Union and Its Succe or States)

$7,500

Sexuality Research A e ment Project $15,000

Partial upport for a conference entitled "Appropriating Gender: Women's Activism and the Politicization of Religion in South A ia" (Joint Committee on South Asia) Training work hop in Ru ia on po t-Soviet politic and tran ition economic (Joint Committee on the Soviet Union and Its Succes or States) Training and re earch program on peace and security in a changing world (SSRC-MacArthur Foundation Fellow hip for Peace and Security in a Changing World)

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$25,000

$155,009

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NUMBERS

2/3


Life Trends Incorporated of the Macarthur Foundation's Network on Midlife Development Working group on racial and ethnic diversity (Committee on Culture, Health, $310,000 and Human Development)

United Nations Project LINK Fall Meeting (Committee on Economic and Stability and Growth) Project LINK Spring Meeting (Committee on Economic and Stability and Growth)

National Science Foundation Support for a workshop, "Biodiversity in Africa's Human Landscape" (Joint Committee on African Studies) Support for the Committee for Re earch on Global Environmental Change

U.s. Department of State Russian, Eurasian, and East European Studies fellowship program for graduate training, dissertation completion, and postdoctoral research (Joint Committee on the Soviet Union and Its Successor States)

National Endowment for the Humanities International postdoctoral fellowship program NIS Regional Rule of Law Project Support for a summer workshop on post-Soviet politics (Joint Committee'on the Soviet Union and Its Succe or States) Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Sexuality Re earch Assessment Project Spencer Foundation Planning grant for local consortia of researchers on school reform Toyota Foundation Continued support for the participation of a Japanese researcher at meetings of the Joint Committee on Southeast Asia

JUNE/SEPTEMBER

1995

$39,920 $110,000

$592,396

$100,000 $15,000

$10,000

$7,980

U.S. Information Agency Near and Middle East Research and Training Program Fellowship in Pakistan, Nepal and Sri Lanka, (Joint Committee on South Asia) Predoctoral fellowship program, (Joint Committee on the Near and Middle East) Postdoctoral fellowship program, (Joint Committee on the Near and Middle East) United States Institute of Peace Project on political violence in India: state and community conflict (Joint Committee on South Asia) Project on political transitions in Africa (Joint Committee on African Studies) Total:

$110,000 $120,000

$1,785,980

$215,748

$350,000

$350,000

$10,000 $40,000 $18,088,860

ITEMs/87


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Dir~ctor;

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88\lTEMS

ISSN

0049-0903

VOLUME

49.

NUMBERS

2J3

Items Vol. 49 No. 2-3 (1995)  
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