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( SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH COUNCIL) Volume 48 / Numbers 2-3 / June-September 1994 •

Rethinking International Scholarship The challenge of transition from the cold war era by Stanley J. Heginbotham* Introduction

The end of the cold war has far more significant implications for international scholarship and exchange programs than is immediately apparent. This is a troubling reality for many of us as scholars and as members of scholarly institution because we seek to organize, promote, and conduct scholarship based on cholarly criteria, independent of the hifting tides of public and foreign policy and the changing priorities of federal agencies and private foundations. That goal i important and we need to hold fmn to principles of cholarly autonomy. At the same time, we need to be aware of the ways in which current patterns of organization for international scholarship have their roots in past public and foreign policy and funder priorities. Since many of those roots are as 0ciated with the cold war and were e tabli hed long before mo t of u began our profe sional careers, we are predisposed to accept them as organizational givens in the organization of international scholarship. Unless we become conscious of their origins, however, we are in danger of attributing those aspects of organization to "scholarly criteria" and closing our eyes to opportunities for change that will strengthen the funding bases, and hence the quality and independence, of international scholarship.

605 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10158

This essay begins with a very preliminary effort to characterize some aspects of the current organization of international scholarship in the United States that have roots in the cold war. It goes on to suggest some of the different kinds of public policy concerns and funder priori tie that I believe are already beginning to shape, and are likely to continue to shape for some years, the demand for international cholarship in this country. It then suggests a number of po sible implications of the demand that are likely to affect different types of institutions engaged in international scholarship. The purpo e of thi es ay is to stimulate di cussion and encourage a thoughtful reasse sment of the organizational and funding bases for international scholarship and exchange programs. If we are able to build and articulate some measure of common understanding of the new roles for international cholarship in a changed international and scholarly

• Stanley J. Heginbotham is vice pre ident of the Social Science Research Council.

• CONTENTS OF THIS ISSUE • Rethinking Intern tional ScholllShips: The Challenge of Tran ition from the Cold War Era, Stan/~y J . H~gin botham 33 The Middle East and the Political Economy of Development, Kirin Alil Chaudhry 41 First Open Meeting: Human Dimensions of Global Environmental Change Community, David C. Major SO

Current. Activities at the Council 51 New Directors and Officers New Staff Appointment 51 Human Migration and Global Environmental Change 52 Council Fellow hip and Grant

Programs, 1994-95 Recent Council Publication Awards offered in 1994 (Li t of Name ) Grants Received by the SSRC in 1993-94

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r environment, we will be better able to articulate a persuasive rationale for the support of uch programs among funder , and to collaborate in adapting old programs and developing new program that will be responsive to the new environment. The current challenge will require collaboration among institutions that may have competed or worked independently in the past, not only because we need to speak with a common sense of purpo e if we are to be heard in the funding world, but also because we will need to demonstrate a willingne s and ability to work together to generate programs that are more co t-effective than some we have carried out in the past. A practical consideration gives a certain urgency to this process. The major traditional U.S. funders of international scholarship and exchange - in the private, federal, and state sectors-are already reassessing their priorities and redirecting their resources in the wake of the end of the cold war. Many are doing so at a time when the resource available to them are significantly con trained. Clinton administration deficit reduction budgets put education and international exchange agencies under far more pres ure than did the budgets of the Reagan and Bush administrations. State univer ities are under severe budgetary pressure , and private foundations face program cutbacks resulting from current and projected decline in return on inve tments. The great danger is that individuals and institutions in the cholarly community who seek funds for international scholar hip will so focus on the need to protect existing programs in the face of declining resources, that they will largely ignore the challenge of adapting those programs in ways that reorient them from their cold war origins to the changing priorities of funders and the changing opportunities and challenges for international cholarship.

A. The Cold War, the National Interest, and the Shape of American International Scholarship There is widespread recognition that cold war goals were major incentive for federal programs in support of international cholarship, education, and exchanges. What is less widely recognized is that similar concerns motivated much of the private foundation grant-making in the arena of international scholar hip and educational exchange. Even less well understood is the extent to which such concerns shaped the kinds of programs that were developed 34\ ITEMS

and are till being sustained. A number of preliminary propo itions may be helpful in ensitizing us to the kind of is ue that need to be revi ited. 1. A primary motivation for the establishment and organization of many programs ha been to know the adversary.路 Several imperatives haped such program: a. Generate in-depth knowledge about "the Soviet bloc." b. Train cholars and practitioner to acquire in-depth knowledge about the Soviet y tern. c. Establi h training and re earch center that brought scholars from diver e di cipline together to upport in-depth, multidi ciplinary training and re earch. d. Focus attention within the Soviet bloc on Mo cow, Ru sian ociety, and the centralized in truments of power in the USSR since events and institutions in other areas and cultures of the USSR, and in the " atellite" countries, were 'dominated by and therefore peripheral to an understanding of the ba ic dynamics of the bloc. e. Induce scholars and practitioner from the Soviet bloc to visit the U. S., in part to expose them to the realities of this country; in part to modify their attitudes toward a range of social, economic, and political issues; and in part to promote opportunities to exchange access to the Soviet bloc. 2. A econdary cold war goal that haped many programs has been to know the contested areas of the world. This has been a shifting category of nations, beginning with the war-ravaged countries of Western Europe during the Marshall Plan era, hifting to the "developing area" of Asia, the Middle East, and Latin America during the 1950s and 1960s, and expanding to a more explicitly nonaligned, and eventually Third, World that included ub-Saharan Africa as well. The underlying concern that motivated the initial funding of such programs was to strengthen our I It hould be noted th t thi phenomenon was not new to the cold war. Indeed, as the Pacific phase of World War 0 evolved, it became clear that an understanding of Japanese hi tory. language. and culture would be e ntial to the ucce ful prosecution of the war effort. TIle current richne of American scholarship on Japan h been built on the impre ive basis of in-depth anthropological, cultural, hi torieal, and lingui tic research and training that developed before and during World WarD .

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capacity to mount program that would undermine Soviet ability to infiltrate and capture tho e countrie in behalf of the Soviet bloc. An important aspect of containment, however, was a more proactive effort to gain the adherence of uch countrie to the foreign and international security policy goal of the United State. In orne re pects, the e programs assumed characteristic imilar to tho e focu ing on the adversary, emphasizing in-depth and interdi ciplinary program that would generate y temic understanding of ocietie . In other re pect , however, they rather quickly diverged. Typically, acce to field research was much more exten ive, opportunitie for engagement with cholars in the region were greater, and the numbers of tudents from the region who came to American universities were dramatically higher. Far more nuanced approache to conte ted countrie developed as American cholars became increasingly able to reflect the world from the perspectives of such ocietie . Thi capacity and predi po ition was enhanced by the growing numbers of cholars from such ocietie who became integral to American cholarship. It was al 0 trengthened by the perception and writing of cholars who tudied conte ted countries and aw that American policy toward tho e countrie , when directed at undermining Soviet influence, frequently treated such countrie as pawn in a larger battle, often producing re ults that had very negative con equence for tho e ocietie . American policy not only upported dome tically repre ive regime that were friendly in the U.S.Soviet context, but al 0 pursued or abetted, in conte ted countrie , devastating wars that were prosecuted a a mean of containing Soviet expanion. 3. A central feature of the cold war wa the battle of idea and information. Both the Soviet Union and the United State inve ted large sum and mobilized exten ive bureaucracie to influence perception and attitude in their own ocietie , in the ocieties of their adversarie , and e pecially in the conte ted world. Much of that inve tment took the form of direct appeal through radio programming and exchange , but much wa inve ted a well in strengthening and influencing the cholarly and media re ource of the conte ted countrie . 4. Foreign tudents were important targets of thi battle and haped major training program in the Soviet Union a well a American exchange proJu ElSEPTEMBER 1994

grams. A primary purpo e of the American program was to promote an understanding of American ociety and culture among the scholarly communitie of conte ted and-when po ible-adversary countries. 5. American tudents and cholar operating internationally were inevitably caught up in the vortex of thi verbal and pictorial war. It challenged them to po ition them elve not only with respect to the foreign policy of ho t countrie , but also with re pect to the trength and inadequacie of their own ociety and the values it e pou ed. Some were predi po ed to upport government po ition and to defend the virtue of the United State ; others to di tance them elve to a greater or Ie er extent from government po ition and from defenders of American culture, ociety, and repre entative government; and still other to withdraw from engagement on contentiou topic. The point, however, i that alrno t all were forced to develop an adaptive trategy for coping with this battle. Such adaptive strategies, and the conflicts among tho e who cho e different trategie , die hard. They haped, and in orne measure continue to hape, tudent and cholarly di cour e on the conte ted world among tho e who were abroad and within our dome tic area tudie program a well. 6. Becau e in-depth knowledge of adver ary and conte ted area was central to programs of cholarhip haped by the needs of the cold war, funders were generally quite supportive of cholars who were beneficiaries of their resource but carried out re earch and teaching that had no identifiable relation hip to cold war concern . Univer ity in i tenee on academic freedom and a 100 ening of the end -means link between the promotion of in-depth international cholarship and cold war goal meant that much basic area tudie work came increa ingly to be conducted in an atmo phere that was not only remote from, but sometimes quite ho tile to, the u e of cholarly pur uits in behalf of national goal .

B. The Post-Cold War World, Emerging Funder Priorities, and Some Potential Implications for American International Scholarship The collap e of the Soviet bloc in 1989 and of the Soviet Union two years later effectively ended the cold war. Tho e coUap e left the United State and its allie a the preeminent voice in intellectual, ITEMs/35


policy, and cholarly discourse. Many of the value that the Soviets e pou ed have been discredited and generally rejected. Command economie and many of the elements of ociali m are in di repute; market principle, private property, and competition are hailed as the e ential of economic health. Communist Party monopoly of power and exten ive and intrusive state bureaucracie are rejected; elections, democratic governments, and civil ociety are widely seen as the hallmarks of good governance. Even among former communi ts who have regained power and influence in Central and Eastern Europe, the issue are not whether market and democratic mechani m are needed, but rather how to move toward them without exce sive di location and how to organize them with adequate concern for ocial value. The value and in titution as ociated with Western societies during the cold war do not, of course, provide panaceas. They will undoubtedly undergo serious challenge, modification and, in orne cases, rejection in countrie of the former Second and Third Worlds that experiment with them in coming years. International politic will continue to influence such choices, but will pre umably not dominate them to the degree that bipolar politic did during the past half-century. Scholarship will continue to hape and clarify social, political, and economic option, but should operate in an atmo phere of greater openness and flexibility. The collap es of the Soviet bloc and the Soviet Union have accelerated a reas es ment among federal, state, and private funders of their program priorities in a changed international environment. For those that have traditionally supported international scholarship and exchanges, the reasse ment typically extends to question of how important uch upport continues to be and what it should be de igned to achieve. The focu on in-depth understanding of specific adversary or contested countries no longer commands their attention. Rather, internationallyoriented funders are coming increasingly to focus their programs around theme or problems associated with the challenges of building more effective social, economic, and political systems out of what now seem to have been mi guided experiments with command economies and authoritarian political systems. Some of these problems are: • How to develop viable markets and market institutions 36\ ITEMS

• How to build workable and re ponsive electoral sy tern , parliamentary institutions, local government and political partie • How to fo ter independent and profe ional new papers, journals and televi ion outlets • How to develop and in titutionalize the rule of law, human right , legal in titution and the development of legal profe ion • How to build independent and merit-oriented educational in titution • How to promote and adapt technologie that will be re pon ive to public intere ts • How to generate and modify u e of natural re ource in ways that can be u tained over prolonged period . Funders are al 0 re haping their intere t in international cholar hip and exchange a they relate to the countrie and culture of the market democracies that were our natural allie in the cold war: Japan and the countrie of We tern Europe. Whereas scholarship on the e ocietie during the cold war wa embedded within a broader national goal of maintaining an alliance, the po t-cold war context i much more one of competitivene . Que tion of the performance-e pecially in the international economy-of the United States relative to the other advanced market democracie i a major public concern. Underlying this intere t in competitiveness, however, i the nagging concern that the boundaries of competition not be so enJarged that the relationships, e pecially with Japan, become adversarial. What are the implication for American international scholarship of the e hifts in funder intere ts during the po t-cold war era? The following are orne tentative sugge tion that emerge out of discu sions with a range of funders, cholars and in titutional leaders involved in international cholarship.

Shift in Focus: Country and Area to Theme and Context-Sensitivity 1. The shift in support for, and focus of, international cholarship i away from pecific countrieswhether formerly adversary, conte ted, or ally-and toward a range of theme , including tho e sketched out above. In one of the mo t striking manifestations of this trend, the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation recently announced a new program, "largely intended to replace the Foundation' upport for area studies, as they are traditionally defined," which calls for VOLUME

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eminar program "on uch themes a nationali m and the haping of national identitie , the re urgence of ethnic and religiou rivalrie, new varietie of democratization, the role of violence in ettling-or exacerbating-di agreements, the pread of rna culture and We tern economic value a well a countermovements empha izing tradition, fundamentalism, and de ecularization."2 2. Many of the themes that are emerging as concern in upport of cholarship relate directly to the challenge and impediment that ocietie face a they trive to achieve and adapt what are now widely accepted characteri tics of contemporary societie . Several example have already become noteworthy: First, as countrie try to move from authoritarian to repre entative sy tern ,politician eek out the mo t powerful foci for their appeals. The e frequently relate to fundamental feature of ocial tructure and differentiation. This phenomenon ha ari en mo t dramatically among plural ocietie of the former communi t world and ha focu ed cholarly attention on i ue of ethnicity, religion, and language, but the e are early manife tations of a broader and longer-term phenomenon. Second, a countrie attempt to di mantle the in titutions of command economie and replace them with tho e of market y tern , the persi tence of the old tructure in the face of the co t of their de truction become increasingly clear. Third, public attitude and values regarding markets, competitivene ,and equity, embedded not only in the culture of the communi t era but in preexi ting cultural institutions, become of increa ing intere t and importance in understanding pattern of change and re i tance to change. And fourth, a the complexity and unexpected con equence of transition become increa ingly apparent, the tudy of tran itional proce e becomes increasingly critical. 3. Specific countrie , cultures and language till matter, of course, becau e the challenges of acquiring the characteri tic of contemporary ociety, and the form tho e characteristics assume in different etting , are profoundly haped-or refracted-by the characteri tic of the ocietie that ab orb and adapt them. 4. The early po t-cold war period ha been 1 The language i from a February 17, 1994 letter sent to a number of university pre idents by Harriet Zuckennan, the foundation' vice pre ident.

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characterized by a ru h of thematic expert, cholars a well as practitioner , to analyze and participate in the efforts of po t-communi t ocietie to transform them elve . Increa ingly, the inadequacy of the experts' efforts, temming largely from their in ensitivity to the cultural and hi tori cal context in which they operated, is becoming clear and is emerging as a challenge to international cholar hip and to funders of uch cholar hip. 5. The emerging interest, then, i in international scholarship that is context-sensitive: that helps u understand how the globalizing a pect of contemporary society are haped, refracted, altered, and redefined as they encounter uccessions of local contexts. Implications for Area Programs and Disciplinary Departments

6. Area studie cholars and area studie centers will remain central to international cholarship, but their activitie will focu less than in the past on training cholars and practitioners to acquire in-depth understanding of the culture, hi tory and language of a single country or culture, and more than in the past on training scholars and practitioners who specialize within di ciplines to under tand how the culture, hi tory, and language of a local context hape its interaction with, for example, the evolution of market in titutions and engagement with international market force. 7. Oi ciplinary department in the humanitie and social ciences will increasingly engage with, and become fuller partners in, international cholar hip. The theme and problems they explore will increasingly be een as common to a wide range of global ettings, but will take very different forms. Many of tho e theme and problems will increa ingly be seen as having important tran national component . The boundarie between American, comparative, and international cholar hip will increa ingly be een as arbitrary and impediments to effective inquiry. The great challenge for the di ciplines-and e pecially for their doctoral training program - will be to facilitate and encourage ufficient knowledge and understanding of various local context , along with their di ciplinary requirements, to analyze effectively problems in comparative and international perspective. 8. The geographic scope of area studie program ITEMS/3?


will need to be broader and more highly diversified than in the past. Contexts will be defined les exclu ively by politicaVmilitaryl ecurity criteria and more by a mix that includes economic, trade, cultural, legal, educational, and communications criteria. We already see that the need for understanding "the former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe" has become highly differentiated, as "area" now distingui hes among a whole range of culture - uch as Abkhazi, Bashkir, Kirgizi, 0 etian, Tajik, and Tatar-that were virtually unknown in international scholarship five years ago. 9. The need for local knowledge, the province of area studie speciali ts, is likely to increase, not deteriorate, in a post-cold war era. More American will become involved in. interchanges involving trade and diplomacy, a well as a broad range of topics on which the United States is seen to have important experience and understanding. Increasingly, we are coming to recognize that sensitivity to context-based on some measure of understanding of local culture, language and history - is an e ential element in the success of engagements with individual and in titutions of other societies. 10. Since that knowledge will be needed much more than in the past by disciplinary scholars and practitioners who will not themselves become area specialists, the character of area studie program will need to be significantly modified. Core group of area specialists will ally with sub tantive speciali ts who have some familiarity with an area to provide instruction and support research that is specialized and targeted on particular topics. The students who draw on uch resources will be even more sub tantively focused than in the past and will be more selective in drawing on area program offerings. Those offerings will need to sacrifice some scope in general courses for intensive specialized offerings that will make it possible for groups of specialists on law and legal in titutions, for example, who need sufficient acquisition of a language and knowledge of aspects of a country's culture and history to make a contribution to the change in, or understanding of, the legal institutions of that country. 11. We will need greater diversity of area expertise, a capacity to serve a larger and more diverse student population, and a limited supply of scholars and teachers who define themselves in terms of their geocultural specialty. This suggests a growing need for more extended consortial arrangements. 38\ITEMS

Such arrangements have developed impres ively among institution that are in ufficiently clo e proximity that tudents can travel between campu e in the cour e of a normal eme ter. If it becomes co t-effective to maintain only two or three centers that focus, for example, on Hungarian studie , and students in joumali m at a number of in titution acro s the country want to acquire ufficient experti e on Hungary to tudy or work in that country' communications media, we will need con ortial arrangements that make it po ible for students from dozen of univer itie to pursue intensive, full-time work on communications-related aspects of Hungary for several month at a time. Our institution of higher education will need to expand their cooperative trategie, and our federal funding in titutions will need to create tronger incentive to promote such trategie.

Implications for Exchange Programs 12. The training needs of undergraduate American abroad will continue to include the kind of immersion in a foreign culture that ensitize individual to the di tinctivene of their own ociety and the diversity of human experience. 13. The needs of graduate training and re earch abroad, however, will more often be focu ed on acquiring sufficient language, cultural, and historical knowledge to understand a set of political, ocial, cultural, or economic dynamics within a local context. Increasingly, graduate students will build their careers from the base of an in-depth field experience into a capacity for comparative scholarship on a particular characteristic of contemporary society. 14. American institution of higher learning will be even more attractive to foreign students and scholars than in the past. Their interests, and the interests of those who fund them, will focus less on acquiring an understanding and appreciation of American society, and more on acquiring a set of skills in some aspect of contemporary society, with particular attention to acquiring an understanding of distinctions between American society and their own society. Their educational goals will be to understand the difference between how a globalizing force is refracted in the United State and in their own ociety so that they can better manage change at home. 15. American society will need to be seen less VOLUME

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often as a beacon that is promoted as an ideal-typical contrast to the threat of the Soviet system and more often a one-albeit a very important-ca e among many that illu trate how different contexts refract common phenomena.

convergence that will facilitate the management of international conflict.

Implications for American Centers Overseas

18. The interests of funders will be less directed at building a community of U.S. scholars who can represent and reflect American society in contrast to that of the Soviets, and more at playing a leading role in promoting international scholarship that has shared norms, standards, problem definitions, and methodologies. This does not argue for intellectual homogenization, but rather for continued contestation in which the lines of cleavage increasingly cut across, not along, national boundaries. By virtue of the size and excellence of our educational institutions, U.S. scholarship will undoubtedly play a strong influential role in the building of an international scholarship. Given the challenges that we face in our own society, it should be clear, however, that we will benefit from, as well as shape, the internationalization of scholarship.

16. The utility of American outposts of higher education abroad will grow, but their role will have to be adapted to a new set of needs. Scholar and tudent who have only limited familiarity with a local context will find such centers of much greater utility than did scholars of the past who typically acquired in-depth expertise on a culture. American scholars specializing on particular themes will also be seeking out local counterparts with whom to collaborate. Moreover, scholars will need greater opportunitie to explore comparisons between the local context of, for example, urban administration in Cairo and Chicago. Since an increasing number of the scholars who are working on such issues will al 0 have had comparative experience elsewhere, opportunities for more extensive comparative collaborations will be pre ented to such outposts. Finally, the numbers of local cholars who have had American training will continue to grow, providing important opportunities for uch outpo ts to serve as networking node . The implications, however, are clear: Centers of American scholarship abroad will need increasingly to develop a broad range of thematic programs, reaching out to a diverse clientele of cholars with opportunities for di cour e that illuminate the impact of local context on tho e issues.

Implications for Scholarship on Advanced Market Democracies 17. The need for understanding the conte ted aspects of variant in contemporary ociety among advanced market democracie will be great. In contra t to the cold war era, however, the goal of uch understanding need not be to promote one alternative at the expen e of another. Rather, the goal need to include identifying opportunitie for cro -ca e learning (how, for example, the U.S. can trengthen it economic performance or improve its health-care institution ), clarifying ources of conflict in bilateral and international interactions, and evolving trategie , conventions, and objectives for Ju

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Implications for the Internationalization of Scholarship

C. Conclusion International cholarship in the United States strives for independence, integrity, and the setting of agendas in response to scholarly criteria. We are, consequently, chary of seeming to change our modes of organization and the characteristics of our research and training in re pon e to the shifting interests and prioritie of funders. It is es ential to recognize, however, that our current modes of organization and the characteristics of our re earch and training are, in no mall measure, the products of a half-century of respon es to a cold war environment. That is not to imply that individual cholars or cholarly institution have been instruments of cold war policies, for many have gone to great length to avoid compromising their independence and integrity. Rather, it is to point out that the overall structure within which we have worked, and the way in which our inquiries have been framed, have been shaped by a cold war-dominated world. It may be premature to characterize the world of the next decade, let alone the next half-century. We must, however, make the best preliminary characterization that we can in order to engage our colleague ITEMS/39


in di cu ion about the emerging hape of international cholarship. In retro pect it eems clear that tho e who haped emerging in titution of international cholarship in the early years of the cold war hould have been more attentive to a range of is ue involving the autonomy and integrity of cholar and cholarly institution . It will be important to understand tho e is ues as we adju t to a new environment for international cholar hip. Unle s we under tand clearly the difference between the old and new environments, however, we will be doomed to protect again t the wrong threat and re pond to the wrong challenge and opportunities. The concerns rai ed in thi e ay are of more than academic intere t. Leaders in the government and not-for-profit ectors are truggling to understand and characterize the po t-cold war world and to hape new program and new budgets to re pond to what they under tand of new rea1itie . The world of

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American international cholarship ha an important contribution to make if it choo e to engage with uch in titution in a common earch for under tanding and in ight. An important a pect of that engagement can and hould be to work with the leader of uch in titutions to under tand the role that cholarhip can play-through both re earch and teaching-in preparing tudent, practitioners, and a new generation of cholars for the po t-cold war world. We hould be clear, however, that government and not-for-profit leader will undertake their review, reach their conclu ion , revi e their priori tie , and re hape their budget and program , with or without the participation of the community of international scholarship. Unle we organize to engage with them, the debate will be Ie rich than it could be, and the organization of-and funding for-international cholarship will be iII- uited and inadequate to take on the new challenge and opportunitie of a • new era in re earch and training.

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The Middle East and the Political Economy of Development by Kiren Aziz Chaudhry* The New Culturalism and the Old What "late developers" did in industrialization, Middle Ea t tudie achieved in method: it "skipped" tage . In the 1970 , as diver e lines of inquiry emerged in other area tudie , producing a variety of approache , scholarship on the Middle Ea t remained predominantly descriptive. Then, in the 1980 and 1990 , Middle Ea t tudies charted a spartan path from the Oriental ism of the 1960 , to the po tmodemi m of the 1990 . One culturalist tradition replaced another. In the process, political economy approaches were decon tructed before they took shape. The tran ition from the old to the new culturalism was not a particularly wrenching one. Notwith tanding their opposition to Orientalist claims to "objectivity," the new culturalists actually hare a number of their predeces or ' as umptions, including a valorization of the particular, a su picion of generalization, and a rejection of the epistemological value of y tematic compari on. Working on a region where ba ic economic data are treated with the arne care as tate ecret -and more often than not with good reason-the attractions of cultural studies are self-evident. In a region tom by violence, civil strife, economic crisi and ocial conflict, it wa left to the new culturali t to update the tudy of cultural practice in an oppositional vein, often through the raw power of linguistic playfulness. l Di ecting the politics and political con equences of this intellectual trajectory is an important and • Kiren Aziz Chaudhry teache political science at the University of California, Berkeley, and i a member of the Joint Committee on the Near and Middle East (JCNME). With JCNME member Sevket Pamuk, the help of committee taff, and the i tance of the Middle East Center of the University of California, Berkeley, he de igned and organized the 1994 Political Economy Workshop. The uthor gratefully acknowledge the help of Peter Barsoom, Ruth Berins Collier, David Collier, Ken Dubin. Robin Einhorn. Steven Heydemann , and Bob Vitali, who made commen on an earlier draft. Thanks also to David Laitin and Joel Migdal for their encouragement. Neither they nor the members of the JCNME hare any re ponsibility for the content of !hi e y. I Joel Beinin make the same point in " Manti m and P t-moderni m," Middle East Report, March-June 1994, p. 52. JUNE/SEPTEMBER

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eriou enterpri e, be t pursued el ewhere. Written after an SSRC- ponsored training workshop for graduate students specializing in the political economy of the Middle East and North Africa, thi es ay has the aim of highlighting the potential for comparative political economy work in the Middle Ea t and North Africa. 2 The Political Economy Workshop reflected the ongoing concern of the SSRC-ACLS Joint Committee on the Near and Middle East with field development, e pecially in underrepre ented method and di cipline . Focusing on memoranda and dis ertation chapters written by tudent participants, the meetings were de igned to encourage tudents to link their projects with case out ide the region and to fo ter methodological rigor. A ub idiary goal was to provide a forum in which a community of young cholars with similar intere t might make contacts with each other for future collaboration. Faculty participant repre ented different regional specialization and methodological preference , giving students the benefit of a wide spectrum of view . Although in pired by the workshop in its timing, this e ay doe not pretend to be a summary of the proceedings. In tead, it offers an a e sment of the past problem and future scope of political economy re earch on the Middle East and North Africa. In presenting the region as an important locus for key debates in the political economy of development, I advocate methodological pluralism in Middle East studie and hope to promote a wider recognition of the region' importance for the broader field of political economy. 2 The workshop w hosted by the Center for Middle East Studie at the University of California, Berkeley, February 10-12, 1994 and funded by the SSRC's Joint Committee on the Near and Middle East and the International Predi rtation Fellow hip Program (lPFP). Graduate tudent participants included Chri topher Alexander, Duke University; Ellen Lu t, University of Michigan; Hsain lIahiane, University of Arizona; Tariq Tell, Oxford University; Jeffrey Coupe, Michigan State University; Meliha Benli A1tuni it, B ton University; Peter Barsoom and Samer Shehata, Princeton University; Bob King , Emory University; and Deborah Harrold, University of Chicago. Two lPFP predoctoral fellow working on other world regions, Charle Gitomer, University of Minnesota, Twin Citie ; and Brian Folk, University of California, Berkeley, also ttended. In addition to the author, workshop faculty included Carole Evans, Univerity of California, Berkeley; Stephan Haggard, University of California, San Diego; Sevket Parnuk , Bosphoru University; and John Waterbury, Princeton University. Steven Heydemann represented Council taff. David Collier and Gregory Noble of the Department of Political Science. University of California, Berkeley, presented two lecture to the group. focusing on comparative method and bu ine -government relations, re pectively.

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Building the Island: The Isolation of Middle East Studies In the 1960s and 1970s Latin Americanist defined most debate in the political economy of development. By the 1980 and 1990 , this was no longer true. Twice in the la t decade, world regions have reinvented the political economy of development, jo tling, if not altogether undoing, the divide between area speciali ts and "theori ts." As fir t East A ia and then the "Second World" moved center- tage as testing ground for general theory, they al 0 redefined the contours of debate, shaping the analytic agendas of academic and practitioners. Yet, a the example of Middle East studies how , the expansion of cross-regional comparative tudies has done little to expo e the my teriou alchemy through which world regions escape the confine of area studie and achieve legitimate tatus in general debates about development and underdevelopment. The vexing issue of the Middle East's past underrepre entation in the political economy field might be an appropriate point of departure. The causes are well known: In the economi t's horthand, cholars of the region have higher "start-up co ts" and less certain "returns." The difficulty of mo t Middle Ea tern languages and dialects, the virtual ab ence of local research infrastructure , and the pernicious effects of the Arab-Israeli conflict on American cholarship of the region are widely recognized as contributing factors. In stark contrast to Latin American tudie, for example, where at least one generation of We tern re earchers benefited from a creative interaction with Latin American scholars, established scholarly communities exist only in three Middle Ea tern countries and, even then, in the uneasy company of watchful, ometimes repre sive regimes. Where African and Latin American studies in the United States elf-consciously maintained a critical distance from state agencies at home, the Arab-Israeli conflict and U.S. economic intere ts in the Middle East bequeathed Middle Eastern studies a conservative, policy-oriented political culture that legitimated close links between scholarship and national security. Important as geopolitical status has been in molding Middle East area tudies, the region's isolation cannot be understood without reference to the reluctance of comparativists to incorporate Middle Eastern material in general di cuss ions of political 42\ ITEMS

economy. In fact, many Middle Ea tern countries experienced and responded to the global economic hocks of the 1930 , 1940 , 1970 and 1980 in way that are broadly imilar to other late developers (LOC' ). The genealogy of thi common experience, broadly writ, i a familiar one. Like Latin American and A ian countrie , the majority of Middle Eastern countrie underwent a period of spontaneou import ub titution (IS) during the Great Depre ion . Between 1940 and 1962, a they gained independence, mo t countrie adopted full-blown IS policie , embarking on a period of tati t development designed to unify the national market and promote local indu try. In the 1970 , the same changes in oil price that unleashed unprecedented capital flows, fueling LOC borrowing on the international market, provided the Middle Ea t and North Africa with ample foreign exchange in the form of oil revenue and labor remittance . In the 1980 , when oil price fell, several countrie in the region were deeply in debt, while others experienced balance of payments problem induced by the decline of aid and labor remittance . In tandem with identical trends in mo t other parts of the developing world, the decline of the capital flow of the 1970 created evere fi cal cri es in all but a handful of the region's twenty countries. Combined with international pres ures and efforts to attract direct foreign investment, the crises of the 1980s led to the adoption of economic liberalization policies. In varying mixes, which had as much to do with the dome tic coalitional bases of regimes as with the severity of the economic crisis, countrie of the region pursued combinations of privatization, exchange rate reform, price deregulation and trade liberalization. Apparently, parallel experience i an insufficient inducement to cro s-regional analysis. Even in the domain of typology and framing - projects requiring far lower levels of intere t and energy than full-blown compari on-the Middle East has been largely ignored. In a major edited volume on structural adjustment publi hed in 1992, for example, the two well-worn divisions of borrowing and direct foreign investment were presented as encompassing categories for capital flows to LOC's.) Oil revenues and 3 See Barbara Stalling , "International Influence and Economic Policy: Debt, Stabilization, and Structural Refonn" and Stephan Haggard and Robert Kaufman, "In titulions and Economic Adju tmenl" both in Haggard and Kaufman, cds., The Politics of EcoflO/ftic AlIi" tmenl

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labor remittances-the dominant form of capital flows in the Middle Ea t-were not even mentioned, despite the existence of a substantial literature on the ubject. Similarly, the robu t literature on debt and economic liberalization in the Middle East failed to in pire cro -regional compari on of the sort routinely made between East Asian, Latin American, and Eastern European ca es. The region' ab ence from political economy debate ha important implications for the way the Middle East i often repre ented in overarching discussion of democracy and international relations, for few member of the academy have enough general information to correct inaccurate characterization . The new culturali m's celebration of subjectivi m, born of efforts at inclusion, often has the unintended effect of crediting the intuitions of welle tabli hed academics who have no knowledge of the region with unwarranted authority. In erting the Middle East and North Africa into the political economy fray may not fore tall all, or even the majority of the e speculative effort , but a pa sing familiarity with the region's hi tory and economy would prevent the most egregious of misrepre entation from taking hold in the academy, policy circle , and the popular media. A elective review of what the region has to offer alert u to the analytical connection that can be made and expo es the region' potential for contributing to critical issue of contemporary concern to political economi t .

The interaction between international and domestic economic change i an important nexu for debate in both international and comparative politics. In the past two decade , the topic has generated a u tained dialogue that cuts acro conventional divi ion between developed and developing countrie , world region ,and cholarly discipline . Middle Eastern case are clearly important to the e debate . First, it i no exaggeration to ay that the effect of international capital flow have nowhere been more dramatic than in the oil and labor exporter of the Middle East and North Africa. Far exceeding private lending or

direct foreign investment (DFI) in the 1970s and early 1980s,4 oil revenues and labor remittances made up a much larger proportion of the GNP in Middle Eastern exporter than did capital flows to Latin America, Africa, and Asia. Middle Ea t cases thus represent extreme forms of dependence on external capital flows. Second, capital flows to the Middle East have certain unique characteristics that make them important loci of comparison. Unlike borrowing and DFI, oil revenues and labor remittances are highly volatile capital flows mediated, in the international realm, exclusively by market force. Dome tically, however, oil revenue and labor remittances are controlled by tates and millions of private actors, respectively, opening up the po sibility of comparing the effects of capital flows along a public-private dimension. If the oil boom altered the organization of international financial markets, it al 0 marked a critical juncture in the evolution of virtually aU countries of the region, creating a tightly linked, if informal, regional economy characterized by rna sive flows of capital and labor acro borders. Oil revenues, aid, trade, remittances, and borrowing grew in tandem in the 1970 and early 1980s, radically tran forming the dome tic economies of each country in the region. High level of reliance on external capital flows had important effect on dome tic political economies that shaped sub equent developments. Studies of Middle Eastern labor and oil exporters add much to the debates that inform the cro sregional literature on debt and DFI. Where explanations of A ian " uccess" and Latin American "failure" in managing capital inflow have largely cited variation in" tate autonomy" and "institutional capacity," few have ventured further to examine the origin of institutional divergence. In thi re pect, the experiences of major oil exporters pre ent circum tances where tate-controlled capital flow directly hape dome tic bureaucracies, opening up question of the autonomy of dome tic in titutions from the international arena and their tatus a independent variable . Direct links between international economic force and dome tic institutions confirm the existence of dependency-like in titutional outcome even where no "powerful third actor" i involved in manipulating dome tic decision .

(Princeton: Princeton University Pre ,1993), pp. 41-88 and 3-40, pectively.

4 In 1981, when oil revenue reached a high of S220 billion, net commercial lending to LOC's w only one-seventh that amount.

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Oil and labor exporters are thu ideal testing ground for examining the in titutional and political effects of publicly and privately controlled capital inflows. Analyse of the effects of different kind of capital inflow , the importance of tate or private control for both efficiency and political outcomes, and the in titutional characteri tic of purely di tributive states link up with ongoing debate about the management and effects of direct foreign inve tment, international borrowing, and aid. Purely di tributive tate uch as Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Libya, the United Arab Emirates, and Qatar are, in fact, example of an entirely new form of political organization that doe not re emble either Weberian or Marxi t definition of the tate. Both organizationally and functionally, the e bureaucracies differ radically from others: they do not tax and to the extent that they regulate, they do 0 exclusively through distribution. The ability of purely di tributive states to literally create or de troy entire dome tic c1as e through the deployment of oil revenue , moreover, belie ocial cientific conceptions of class formation, regard Ie of whether they hail from the Marxist, neo-Marxi t or Weberian perspectives. Analy e u ing the deductive tool of methodological individualism pre ent exciting new re earch possibilitie for examining the impact of relative international price change on dome tic politic . Despite their similarities, major oil exporters have pur ued radically different sectoral development strategies that condition their respon es to international price changes. To the extent that past sectoral strategies generate variations in the assets of dome tic groups, they have direct implications for coalitional strategie and dome tic political contests in an increasingly interdependent world.' Similarly, frameworks drawn from the literature on the Dutch Disease, offer unique opportunities for cross-regional comparison. 6

, One useful framework for uch tudies i provided in Jeffry Frieden. Klnve ted Interests: 'The Politics of National Economic Policie in a World of Global Finance." Int~rnalional Organization . vol. 45. no. 4 . pp. 425-452. 6 'The term "Dutch Disease" refers to a variety of economic changes that re ult from capital windfall . M t important among these i the sharp relative rise of non-tradable and the decline of tradable in recipient economies. 44\ITEMS

The 19805: Creating Markets Anew If the oil boom created the opportunity to examine the effect of high levels of capital inflow and to tudy economic policy in the context of capital abundance, the evere reces ion experienced by oil producers tarting in 1983 opened up the po ibility of charting the effect of evere economic crie on tate in titution , political coalition , and economic policy_ In tep with the majority of LOC' , almo t all countrie in the Middle Ea t and North Africa adopted economic liberalization program in the 1980 _ Yet, preci ely becau e of the dramatic nature of both the boom and the bu t, the Middle Ea t and North Africa are exceptionally fertile te ting ground for evaluating general theorie of political and in titutional re pon e to exogenou hock , particularly when the e hocks ari e exclu ively from international price change rather than the more typical confluence of change in dome tic production and the international political economy. The fact that the etati me of the 1970 wa based on external capital flow had important in titutional and political effects on the countrie of the region that determined outcome in the 1980 and 1990 _ Fir t, in contrast to tax-based pending, tate pending ba ed on external ource of finance generated large di tributive and productive bureaucracie that, de pite their ize, had negligible regulatory and extractive capacitie _ During the oil boom, when governments protected dome tic constituencies from international prices through a number of distributive program , their institutional capacities to extract resources from society and regulate the economy teadily eroded. Direct state intervention in production, price setting, and employment were institutionally and politically convenient ub titutes for extraction and regulation. In the rece sion, these institutional frailties accentuated the politically disruptive character of economic liberalization, adding a stark ocial dimension to the already difficult process of creating regulatory and extractive in titutions to govern the po t-boom economy. Di tribution and production, made po sible through acce s to international capital flows. created way of governing the political economy which were highly dependent on the continued flow of these external resources to tate coffers. The simultaneous expansion of state interventionism and the contraction of institutional VOLUME

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capacities tightly circum cribed government capacitie to implement the regulatory and extractive policie as ociated with economic liberalization in the rece ion of the 1980 . What was bred in the boom came out in the bu t. State pending in the 1970 had generated large entitlement group in ociety, haping the form and content of ocial demands in the 1980 and 1990s. The compo ition and organizational trength of group varied immen ely, however, depending on historically constituted pattern of tate-building and industrialization. Ideology was largely irrelevant in determining the size of state intervention, but it had an important influence on the compo ition and ize of entitlement group. Where the o-called "lais ezfaire" regime created large, dependent, and protected private ectors, the so-called" ociali t" regimes cultivated large bases of support in ociety by directly etting prices and wage while systematically de troying the traditional private ector. In mo t countrie with ocialist or national-populi t regimes, large egment of the national capital-owning clas e had departed at orne earlier populist juncture. In some case , political power was monopolized by minority ectarian or regional groups that used tate policy to recreate a national bourgeoisie in their own image. For a variety of rea ons, state spending not only created economic entitlement groups, it also generated or accentuated regional, religiou , and ethnic cleavages in ociety, with the result that tate-building and national integration began anew in the lean years of the 1980 . Within the region, a el ewhere, liberalization effort varied along a number of dimen ion . Dome tically, pattern of indu trialization determined the ize and trength of both organized labor and the state-sector managerial class, thereby affecting privatization strategie . Private ector efficacy in shaping reform outcomes varied, depending on e tablished pattern of busine s-government relation . These divergent outcome form an important nexu of intra-regional and cross-regional compari on that is an immediately feasible enterpri e, not least becau e descriptive ca e material on economic liberalization in the Middle Ea t and North Africa is already relatively well developed. Ju

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Ideational Landscapes of Economic Deprivation: The Destruction of the Etatiste "Commons" and the Rise of "Moral" Protest' As el ewhere, the marketization project largely failed in the Middle East: Egypt's de cent into violence, Iraq' s military aggression, Yemen's impending fragmentation, and Algeria's civil war illustrate the depth of the struggles that attend the reorganization of the etatiste construct. Even in the "succes stories," Turkey, Morocco, and Tunisia, hort-term gain appear to have been bought at the cost of ocial polarization and enormous pain for tho e who, in the inimitable parlance of workshop participant H ain Ilahiane, can only be de cribed as "the freely ridden upon." The explanations of "political coalitions" and "in titutional trength" generated by nearly a decade of research on liberalization barely capture the nature of the conflicts underway in liberalizers . Like neo-liberal economi ts appropriately humbled by the immen e difficulties involved in creating the institutions that govern functioning market economies, and in tandem with the spreading recognition of the deeply political nature of economic in titutions, Middle Eastern liberalizers them elves are now illustrating with particular clarity the conflicting proce es of state and market creation in late, late developer . Indeed, the global liberalization, deregulation, and decentralization of the 1980s pre ents an opportunity to compare the national re pon es of both advanced and developing countrie . The e different reaction promi e insight into fundamental alterations in the relation hip between economic and political organization, between governments and citizens. One way to approach this et of i sues is to begin with a shared macro-history. At the end of World War n, etatisme, in its welfare, ociali t, or patrimonial gui es created a relatively stable et of collectively shared economic entitlements-a new "Commons" that embodied representation of the collective (national) good. Unlike the old Commons, this new national con truct coexisted with, and wa created in respon e to, national industrialization processes. The 7 This section draws heavily on ideas the author presented in a project proposal. " From the Global to the Local: Liberal Economics. Illiberal Politic ." funded by the SSRC Comparative and Tran national Competition. The first meeting for the project was held in December 1993 at Berkeley. A second meeting to plan an edited volume i scheduled for the fall of 1994.

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undoing of this Commons, through administrative decentralization and economic liberalization in the 1980s and 1990s, was arguably caused by, but incontestably coincided with, rapidly increasing levels of economic interdependence. In the process, the institutions, organizations , and ideational constructs that had characterized the construction and maintenance of the national market were jostled with varying degrees of severity. The academy recognized that something was afoot. Particularly with the end of the cold war, these di junctures were described , variously, as the "end of history," "the clash of civilizations," or the "new dark ages."8 What Kenneth Jowitt calls today's "genesis moment" is marked by contemporaneous constructive and destructive currents in which, contrary to the premature claims of modernization theorists, the globalization of markets and the ascent of economic liberalism as a dominant international ideology did not foster liberal democracies . Ethnic and racial violence and nationalism in Europe and Africa, religious fundamentalism in the Middle East and North Africa, and the rise of race and identity politics in the United States belie the link between economic liberali m and liberal politics. Tellingly, the empirical content of Huntington's contribution to the study of the post-cold war world is actually a description of a politics being reconstructed not on the grand scale of civilizations but on a localized, sub-nationalleve1. 9 The liberalization and decentralization drive of the 1980s initiated processes of institutional atrophy at the national level that appear to have culminated in a dramatic redrawing of politics, producing intense conflicts over the elements of political identity and the composition of political community. The responses-economic, political, social, institutional and psychological-to these pressures will undoubtedly vary dramatically across countries and localities. Depending on the nature of their links to the global economy and the historical constitution of dominant coalitions, these pressures have produced different responses that invite comparative study. Recent events in Europe, Africa, Asia, and Latin America vividly demonstrate the complex links between economic and political organization. Even in

• I refer, re pectively, to the recent ideas of Fukuyama, Huntington, and Jowitt. 9 Samuel P. Huntington, "The Clash of Civilizations," Forti," Affairs, vol. 72, no. 3, ( ummer 1993), pp. 22- 49. 46\ ITEMS

established states, economic change has triggered conflicts along ascriptive cleavages, undoing prior gains in state-building and national integration. 10 The New Federalism, the fragmentation of the labor market, and the institutionalization of urban- uburban splits in the United States are ome well-researched example of the phenomenon. Increasingly localized taxing and spending, born of earlier liberalization and decentralization drives can change incentive tructures for participation in the broader political economy and generate contests over the borders of the economic community. The burning question is not, as Huntington sugge ts, "What are you?" but, rather, "Who are we?"; and the definition doe not match "civilizational fault-lines" 0 much as it reflects local economic and political intere t expressed in the language of region and identity. A student of Karl Polanyi might observe that in its collapse, as in it construction, the juridical basis and in titutional reach of political authority is tightly connected to the economic organization of ociety. The creation of the national market, as Polanyi argued, was linked to the industrialization project. The post-industrial project, to the extent that it will inevitably involve de-industrialization in some regions, similarly can be expected to evoke a profound reworking of the institutional and ideational expression of political community. The undoing of the classical form of the "national market," wrought by changes in technology and high levels of interdependence, opens up the ideational realm of citizenship to contestation. The destruction of the national Commons ignites conflicts about the boundaries of the new commons, including who will define it, and for whose benefit. Middle Eastern cases help to clarify the links between economic interdependence, economic liberalization, the diminished economic role of the state, and the rise of politics constituted along ethnic, regional, tribal, and identity lines. In the Middle East and North Africa, the legacy of decentralization under 10 I use the term " ascriptive" to refer to social and political divisions based on, or articulated with reference to, language, region , religion , sect, tribe, race. ethnicity. gender. and sexual preference. Although movements based on the politics of ascription are commonly called " nationali m," it is my view that this i a mi leading category. The politics of ascription emerge most often at the ub-national level and sometimes (as in the case of Pan-Arabi m) at. upra-national level.

Although the politics of ascription may coincide with (and are usually

born of) economic conflicts. the term is used here to describe politics noc articulated in the language of class or of individual self-interest.


the Ottoman Empire and sub equent colonial policies re ulted in the creation of overlapping ascriptive and profe ional categorie that have linked the proces of tate and market building to conflicts between ethnic, regional, lingui tic, and religiou group living in highly heterogeneou ocietie. In the po t-independence period, the intersection of ascriptive and economic categorie created basic conflict between the economic and political goals of elites. Under the dual pre ure of pan-Arab nationalism and workingelas mobilization, minority group fmnly in control of bureaucratic and military in titution in Iraq and Syria formed brutal authoritarian regimes with the aim of centralizing economic and political power. The creation of a unified national market, under highly interventioni t economic program , occurred at the expen e of national integration and, pecifically, at the expen e of the traditional bourgeoi ie. The common en hrined, in orne cases, sectarian, religiou or regional minoritie that already had achieved, or ub equently gained, ascendance over others. In others, bu ine elite were a religiou minority in a Mu lim majority tate, thu giving a communal flavor to the en uing truggle between political and economic elite after the departure of colonial admini trations. In the Middle Ea t, as in many late developers, international integration during the liberalization epoch of the 1980 and 1990 coincided with an ongoing proce of con tructing national economic institution that began later and wa quite different from early indu trializers. Through economic liberalization, dome tic con tituencie long protected from international price experienced the genuine itie of their heretofore protected ocieties. Meanwhile, attending admini trative reform tripped regime of e tabli hed in titutional mechani m for aoveming the economy, and decentralization created Imaller juri diction corre ponding to different ec:ooornic endowment , different ethnic, religiou , or liDpi tic group ,or orne combination thereof. The ecooornic retreat of the tate-the tripping of the DIlional Common "-generated a reevaluation of authority, giving ri e to divergent and ometime ly exclu ive vi ion of the economic and ocial Many of the gra root prote t movement that aaerged in the wake of the e reforms couch their tWlOSiltion to liberalizing government in the language a moral economy, be it the moral economy of ""a1Sl~PTI:"An

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Islam, the tribe, the region, or a mythological past. Islamici t movement acro North Africa, Egypt, and even Saudi Arabia uniformly condemn "rent eeking," urban poverty and corruption. In Algeria and Egypt, in particular, the housing cri i make personal code of familial behavior and religious regimentation a practical way of living twenty to a room; and the rapid deterioration of urban infrastructure, education, welfare, and acces to credit draw the de titute to local community organizations funded by the Islamici ts. The national common does not nece arily turn local with the dizzying freedoms envi aged by libertarian . Small government doe not automatically fo ter the politics of ela ical liberalism. The organizational, economic, and political power of Islamici t movement , in turn, generates other culturali t reaction . Secular intellectuals, the military, religious and ethnic minoritie , under threats irnilar to tho e experienced by non-Sunni Arab and religiou minorities in the heyday of Na eri m, have pursued rapid counter-mobilization, valorizing particular hi torie and upholding alternative, ometime exelu ive, future . The e vi ions diverge on is ue ranging from regional alignments and language to the statu of women. Ethnic and lingui tic divi ion have prung up even in countries like Algeria, where the revolutionary heritage was widely believed to have obliterated ethnic and regional di tinction . Exploring the economic basi of the e movements in general, and their elo e connection to rising level of international interdependence in an increa ingly unregulated national context, demarcate an important line of future re earch. The truggle in the two countrie ripe for revolution, Algeria and Egypt, may have begun as a re pon e to economic di location and the atrophy of national in titutions, but it i today a palpably cultural conflict. The e connection between the material and the cultural remain my teriou . Occurring, as they do, in what Huntington would broad-bru h "Islamic civilization," examining the e change merits elo e tudy to reveal the fallacy at the heart of the "civilizational" con truct. They give u in ight into lived experience made opaque and threatening by his exce ively general framework. The moral economie that appear to re ult from the decon truction of the national economy will not, of course, be identical to Jame Scott' pre-capitali t farming communi tie or the earlier ocietie de cribed ITEMs/47


in the anthropological work of Karl Polanyi, but the e are certainly starting points for comparative research. Recent work published by Jean En minger, using conceptual tools modified from the new institutional economics, exemplifies the rewards of cro ing disciplines to examine the proces through which the boundarie of economic community change. II Only research that charts and closely examines the e difference, however, can fully in ert the contours of economic recon truction in a decaying national economy into the larger framework of international capitalism. The local i a window to the global.

The Coalitional Basis of Supra-national Trading Blocs The rise of illiberal politic and local challenge to the nation-state as the guarantor of ocial welfare have been accompanied by what appears to be a counter-trend, repre ented by a flurry of activity to fonn or augment supra-national trading block uch as NAFTA, ASEAN, the European Market, the Maghreb Union and the Gulf Cooperative Council (GeC). To the extent that they shift regulatory function and political deci ion away from the tate and generate economic di location to which dome tic groups react, the e efforts can be viewed alternatively as contributing to the growing di juncture between the political and economic pheres, or as making the phere of political deci ion-making more con onant with an increa ingly international economic arena. Choosing between the e explanation does not change the fact that, at present, internationally organized finance and domestically organized politics are in increasing tension. As influenced as the political economy of the Middle East and North Africa has been by international economic changes, the region does not, as a whole, belong to any of the emerging economic blocks. Still, the GeC and the Maghreb Union are an important part of national reorganization and are, therefore, deeply political. The GeC, initially conceived as a united military front of Gulf oil exporters against the Islamic Republic of Iran, recently implemented law allowing GeC nationals to invest in each other's economie . The new investment law adds an important dimension to the deconstrucII Jean Ensminger, Making a Marut: The Institutional Transformation of an African Society (New York: Cambridge University Pre ,1992).

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tion of the national common in the oil-rich Gulf tate : GeC national will hare in each other' governments' sub idy program . These trend not only rai e en itive di tributive i sue , they al 0 ugge t an ongoing proce of economic con olidation by a region-wide group of private sector elite . In contra t, the Maghreb Union, created in 1989 to facilitate economic exchange between North African economie and the EEC, ha increa ingly fragmented at the official level, with Morocco and Tunisia e tabli hing bilateral agreement with EEC countrie . The Maghreb Union' initial aim- trengthening the Maghreb's bargaining po ition with the newly integrated European market-had, by the late 1980 , collap ed into a competitive liberalization drive to attract EEC inve tment, largely at the expen e of dome tic labor. In contrast to the EEC and NAFTA, where organized labor has prote ted the potential effects of unification on dome tic inve tments and wage , the North African labor unions have recently emerged as the champion of the Union. The destruction of the national Common , the emergence of sub-national economies and political movements, and effort to con truct a new upranational commons are linked proce es, all of which offer enonnou potential for cro s-regional comparion. Studying the coalitional ba es of group favoring or oppo ing the creation of trading block offers new theoretical acces to the i ue of the ectoral reorganization of labor and capital. The politic of creating trading block provide important empirical loci for testing hypothe e about local, national, and regional responses to high levels of economic interdependence.

Conclusion Thi cursory review attempted to how the potential for Middle East scholars to contribute to broader debates on the political economy of development. In some instance , case material drawn from the region directly contradicts theories built on the experiences of Asia and Latin America. In others, Middle Eastern cases sharpen analytical distinctions or add nuance. Judging from the 1994 Political Economy Workshop, students of the Middle East and North Africa are increasingly engaging the debates on the interaction between international and domestic political economies and on the causes and consequences of economic liberalization. The politics of VOLUME 48, NUMBERS

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ascriptive or "moral economy" responses to economic dislocation and deprivation will, hopefully, be topics for the future-studies that will combine Middle East tudie trength in cultural analysis with micro-level political and economic analy es. The health of political economy cholarship in the Middle Ea t field depend not only on changes in area studie but al 0 on the willingne of established comparativi ts to include the region in their analytical forays. A con cious effort of inclusion, combined with the tran formation of the development field over the past two decades, pre ents new opportunities for both development theory and Middle East studies. Part of this opportunity ari es from the growing methodological heterogeneity of the development field itself. In contrast to the binary oppo ition between modernization and dependency theory, the development field today expo e past declarations of emerging con en us as premature, if not altogether unfounded. Through an incremental proce of shifting di ciplinary boundarie , at least ix relatively distinct methodological approaches have emerged, none of which is clearly a cendant. The labels that proponent (and in orne cases opponents) have chosen for these perspectives suggest not 0 much their recent origins as their efforts to collapse conventional barriers between the social sciences. Consider, for example, "the new international political economy," the "new in titutional economics," new growth theory, neo-liberal economics and neo-modernization theory. The countrie of the Middle East and North Africa, irrelevant in identifying the elusive secret of economic success, speak volumes about the material conditions and ideational expressions that attend

JUNE/SEPTEMBER 1994

economic and political collapse. Genuinely innovative work in economics, centered on the social construction of rationality, the institutional and ideational creation of collective futures, the relationship between formal and informal market , and informal networks as alternatives to formal organization , find ample empirical referents here. Examining the links between changes in economic organization and new ways of thinking about power, community, and the value of collective as ociation defines the true comparative advantage of Middle East studies, but pursuing these topics also requires erious training in a variety of disciplines. While not promising to generate a su tained conversation of the ort inspired by dependency and modernization perspectives, methodological heterogeneity nevertheless legitimates a variety of substantive research strategies that bridge the divide between area tudies and theory-building. As the political economy of development, particularly in its institutionalist guises, increasingly spans world region, drawing in cases with different levels of economic development, the possibilitie for comparison will no doubt increase. Promoting political economy approaches in Middle East studies promises substantial rewards for regional scholars and the broader field of political economy. This promise justifies sustained institutional support for the training of a new cadre of Middle East scholars in the broadest and boldest traditions of substantive political economy. A the received wisdom in economic ,political cience, sociology, and anthropology is opened up for scrutiny, the Middle East-once de cribed as a "collection of absences" -could well emerge as an important piece of the development puzzle. •

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First Open Meeting: Human Dimensions of Global Environmental Change Community by David C. Major* The field of the human dimen ions of global environmental change ha developed because of a wide pread recognition of the importance of the i ue raised for our global future, and a recognition of the importance of interdisciplinary ocial science in dealing with these issues. "Human dimensions" in this context encompasses both the impact of humans on the global environment and the effect of the environment on humans, as well as the adjustments made by ocieties to global environmental change. In the last few years, social scientists working together with natural scientists, engineers, lawyers, and others have developed an agenda for work in this field, and substantial re earch projects are underway.' Moreover, there is a nascent community of scholars with a shared vision of progre s in this area and its importance to our global future. The SSRC's Committee for Research on Global Environmental Change (GEC) has played a pivotal multidi ciplinary role in this advance, by identifying critical re earch problems, developing consortia to investigate them, orga• David C. Major is an economi t and natural resources planner. He is program director for the Committee for Research on Global Environmental Change and also serve as taff to the Joint Advi ry Committee for International Program (JACIP). I Among the most important agenda-setting documents are Harold K. Jacobson and Martin F. Price. A Framework/or R~s~arch on tM Human Dimensions o/Global EnvirOfllMntal Chang~ (pari , 1990), for the Human Dimensions Programme of the International Social Science Council (ISSC), and Paul C. Stern, Oran R. Young, and Daniel Druckman, eds., Global Environmental Chang~ (W hington, D.C., 1992), for the National Research Council's Committee on the Human Dimensions of Global Change; see also Roberta Balstad MiUer and Harold K. Jacobson, MResearch on the Human Components of Global Change: Next Steps," Global Environmental Change, September 1992, 170-182. A comprehen ive overview of humannature relationships in global environmental change in recent centuries is B. L. Turner n and others, eds., The Earth as TransfDn7U'd by Human Action: Global and R~gional Chong~s in the Biosphere ~r the Past 300 Years (Cambridge University Press, 1990). The important natura1 science research needs are identified in International Geosphere-Bi phere Pr0gramme, The Initial Core Projects, Global Change Report No. 12 (Stockholm, 1990). United States global change research priorities are presented annually: see, for example, U.S. National Science and Technology Council, Committee on Environment and Natural Resources Research, Our Changing Planet: The FY /995 U.S. Global Change Research Program (Washington, D.C.) 50 \ ITEMS

nizing re earch workshops, and formulating training and fellowship programs. In association with the Human Dimensions Programme of the International Social Science Council, the Duke University School of the Environment, and the Consortium for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN), the GEC committee is pon oring the ftrst open meeting of the human dimenions community at Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (USA) on Thursday-Saturday, June 1-3, 1995, to foster the development of the community of scholars concerned with global environmental change and the formation of a cohesive body of scholatship. 2 The purpo e of the meeting is to bring together the growing human dimensions community to promote exchanges of information on current re earch, teaching, and outreach, to encourage networking in this new field, and to attract social cientists, humanists, and other not previously involved in human dimen ions work. There will be special plenary e ions on leading issue in the human dimen ions of global environmental change including international in titutions and global environmental change; scientific analysis, perceptions, and deci ionmaking; property rights and global environmental change; indu trial restructuring and su tainable development; land use/cover modeling and analysi ; and human migration and global environmental change. The meeting will include additional roundtable discussions on human dimension re earch and teaching, and modeling and publication di plays. Those wi hing to organize multi-paper e ions for the conference on the plenary topics or other topic at local, regional, and global scales are urged to communicate with the organizers. Final propo al for such sessions are due by December 1, 1994. For further information, please see the box, below. 1 The National Science Foundation h provided tart-up funding for organizing the meeting. The U.S. National Research Council's Committee on the Human Ditnen ion of Global Change has also endorsed the meeting.

To receive conference information via e-mail, send the following reque t message to: ftpmail@,cie in.org (no subject is necessary), with the commands on separate lines: open ftp.cie in.org (enter) cd kiosk (enter) get hdmeeting (enter) quit (enter). For additional information, contact GEe Program, Social Science Research Council, 605 Third Avenue, New York, NY USA 10158; telephone (212) 661'{)280 or fax (212) 370-7896; internet gordon@'acfcluster.nyu.edu or majord@acfclu ter.nyu.edu.


Current Activities at the Council ew Directors and Officers At its meeting on June 7, 1994, the Council's board of directors elected two new members: Susan Tuft Fi ke, University of Mas achu etts, Amherst, representing the American Psychological A ociation; and MichelJe J. White, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, representing the American Economics Association. Both will serve three-year term , effective July 1, 1994. The Council's officers for 1993-94 were also elected or re-elected by the board. David L. Featherman and Ronald J. Peleck, both of the Social Science Research Council, were re-elected as president and as istant treasurer respectively. Burton J. Singer, Princeton University, was newly elected as chair of the board of directors; Barbara Heyns, New York University, was elected vice-chair; Su an Han on, Clark University, wa elected secretary; and Annette Weiner, New York Univer ity, was elected treasurer. Albert Fi hlow, University of California, Berkeley, was named as the new chair of the Executive Committee; Robert Bates, Harvard University, was appointed as a new member of that committee. They will serve one-year terms, effective July 1,

1994. William Cronon, Univer ity of Wiscon in, Madi on, is the new chair of the Committee on Problem and Policy (P&P). Susan Tuft Fiske and Michelle J. White, who were newly elected to the board, were al 0 appointed to P&P. All will erve on the JUNE/SEPTEMBER

1994

committee for one-year terms, effective July 1, 1994.

New Staff Appointment A new program on international migration has been established at the Council under a $1.3 million grant from the Andrew W. MelJon Foundation, and Adrian (Jo h) DeWind has been appointed to serve as the first program director, effective September 1, 1994. Mr. DeWind will be on leave from Hunter College, City University of New York, where he i as ociate profes or in the Department of Anthropology, as well as director of the Latin American and Caribbean Studies Program, and the Human Rights Internship Program, at 0 at Hunter. Mr. DeWind attended Antioch College and Columbia University, from which he received a Ph.D. in anthropology in 1977. Long active in the field of immigration re earch and policy, he ha served a a con ultant for various organization including the Rockefeller Foundation, New York Community Tru t, the U.S. Department of Labor, the New York City Mayor's office, and a number of nongovernmental community-ba ed organization . He is currently a member of the Chancellor's Committee on Immigrant Affairs of the New York City Public School . A recipient of the 1989 Be t Book of the Year Award from the New England Council for Latin American Studies for the book, Aiding Migration: The Impact of International Development

Assistance on Haiti (with D. Kinley; Boulder, Colorado: Westview, 1988), which examines the impact of export-oriented development strategies on the political and economic forces that motivate emigration, Mr. DeWind has published on both domestic and international migration i sues. He is al 0 the author of Peasants Become Miners: The Evolution of Industrial Mining Systems in Peru: 1902-1974 (New York: Garland, 1987), which is a study of the relation of rural-urban migration and industrialization in Peru, as well as numerous articles and monographs. Mr. DeWind's current research focu es on the educational achievements of immigrant children from different nationality backgrounds in the New York City public chools, in comparion with tho e of native students of various racial and ethnic identities. Within Hunter ColJege and the City University of New York, he ha been investigating methods of incorporating an interdi ciplinary approach to migration i sues into the undergraduate curriculum. In addition to hi cholarship, Mr. DeWind brings a per pective of human rights advocacy to migration studies. During the 1980 , he was co-founder and chair of the board of the Center for Immigrant Rights and a founding member of the National Immigration, Refugee, and Citizen hip forum. He currently erves as a member of the executive committee of the National Coalition for Haitian Refugees. ITEMS/51


The Council's international migration program will not be supporting applied policy research; however, public and government policy debates about immigration to the United States raise fundamental re earch questions about the origins and processes of international migration that will be addressed by the Council's program.

Human Migration and Global Environmental Change The Committee for Research on Global Environmental Change (GEC) held one of its series of seminars during its meeting on April 21-22, 1994, at the Council. The seminar, on the subject of human migration and global environmental change, was arranged by committee member John F. Richards, Duke University. Invited participants included Nancy Foner, State University of New York, Purchase; Karen Jacobsen, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; and Aristide Zolberg, New School for Social Research.

52\ ITEMS

Mr. Richards, as moderator, prefaced the presentations by describing the GEC committee's interest in migration a an essential element in the human dimensions of global environmental change. Mr. Zolberg began with an overview of migration on a global scale. He aid that it might be thought of as a system in the soft ense of that word, characterized by interconnectedness and regulation. He then provided a hi torical overview of the causes of migration and the transportation technology that made it po ible. In thi century, there has been an enlargement of the pool of potential migrants, further technological change in terms of air tran port, and decolonization. A very recent change has been the elimination of formerly stringent exit controls over emigration (e.g., in the former Soviet Union), so that the burden of regulation now falls almost entirely on recipient countries. Ms. Jacobsen discussed the possible impacts of migrants in the third world, primarily in Africa. Burdens of migration

include po ible deforestation, land degradation, and stre son water system . It is often assumed that such impacts are large, but this may not be the ca e; studies are needed to assess thi . Ms. Jacobsen pointed out that some preconception fail to take into account local re pon e and adju tments to migration. It is difficult to develop appropriate policies (e.g., camp vs. local ettlement of migrants) without a better understanding of the impacts. Ms. Foner de cribed her research on Jamaican immigrants in London and New York, with a focus on why Jamaicans emigrate and what the impacts of this are on Jamaican society and the recipient cities. She noted that, for many, emigration is part of a normal life course; the impacts on Jamaican society include remittances, but also include the loss of educated members of society; and the impacts on New York include an energetic Caribbean press and political activity.


Council Fellowships and Grants for Training and Research 1994-95 Joint International Programs for Area and Comparative Training and Research (1)

Predissertation Awards International Predlssertation Fellowship Program: Support for graduate tudent at selected universitie - in the field of economic. political science. p ychology. and sociology. and other social science. de igned to increase the flow of talented graduate tudent in the social science into research and teaching careers oriented to the developing world and to encourage the pursuit of context-sen itive social science. Deadline: Contact SSRC or the American Council of Learned Societie • 228 East 45th Street. New York, NY 10017. Africa: Predi sertation Fellow hip for hort-term field trip to ub-Saharan Africa for graduate tudents in the social science and the humanitie . Deadline: November 1. 1994. Eastern Europe: Fellow hip for Advanced Graduate Training for tudents who need an academic year of extra training before beginning the di sertation. Deadline: December I, 1994.-Eastern Europe: Predi sertation Travel Grants for travel to Eastern Europe to help tudents define their di sertation programs. Deadline: February I, 1995.-ear and Middle East: Predi sertation Fellow hip for upport of one seme ter to a full academic year engaged in direct preparation for di sertation research through training and tudy in the Middle East. Deadline: November I, 1994. South AsIa (Bangladesh): Predi sertation Fellow hip for hort-term field trip to 8anglade h for graduate tudents in the social science and the humanitie . Deadline: November I, 1994. Southeast Asia: Predi sertation Fellow hip for hort-term field trip to Southeast A ia for the purpo of inve tigating potential research ite and material, training in Southeast A ian language not available in the U.S .• and e tabli hing local research contacts. Deadline: November I, 1994. Soviet Union and Its Successor States: Graduate Training Fellow hip for 12 month of upport to tudents in their third, founh. or fifth year of graduate tudy. Deadline: December I, 1994.

(2) Dissertation Awards Nine to 18 month of upport for doctoral di sertation research abroad in the social science and the humanitie

Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean, ear and Middle East, South Asia (Bangladesh, Bhutan, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, India), Southeast Asia, Western Europe. t Deadline: November I, 1994. Chlna,-- Eastern Europe,-- Soviet Union and Its Successor States. Deadline: December 1. 1994.

Japan (fellow hip for di sertation write-up) and Korea. DeadJine: January I, 1995.

(3) Other Predoctoral Awards in Area Research Berlin Program for Advanced German and European Studies. Nine to 12 month of upport for comparative and interdi ciplinary tudy of the economic, political, and social pect of modem German and European affairs. Open to applicants who have completed all requirements (except the di sertation) for the Ph.D. in germane social science and cultural tudie field. and postdoctoral scholars who have received the Ph.D. degree or it equivalent in the last two years. Deadline: February I. 1995.

East European Language Training Grants. Summer training in any East European language (except those of the Commonwealth of Independent State ) in the United State or Eastern Europe. Advanced undergraduate ,graduate tudents. and postdoctoral scholars may apply. Deadline: February I. 1995.-• University of California. Berkeley; University of California. Lo Angele; University of California. San Diego; University of Chicago; Columbia University; Cornell University; Duke University; Harvard University; University of lIIinoi • Urbana-Champaign; Indiana University, Bloomington; M sachusetts In titute of Technology; Michigan State Univer..ity; University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. University of Minnesota. Twin Citie Campu ; University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; Northwe tern University; University of Penn ylvania; Princeton University; Stanford Unive ity; University of Texas. Au tin; Univer..ity of W hington; University of Wi. on in, Madi n; and Yale University . •• For detail and in lrUction on how to apply for the. fellow. hips and grants. addre the American Council of Learned Societie , 228 East 45th Street. ew York. NY 10017. For all others. addre the pecific program at the Social Science Research Council. t Succe ful applican to the di rtation fellow hip competition for We tern Europe become aut matically eligible for the Lu American Development Foundation Fellow hip if their projects relate to Portugue tudie.

.luNEiSEPTEMBER 1994

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Near ud Middle EMt: Dissertation Research Fellowships for Underrepresented Disciplines in Middle East Studie . One semester to one full academic year of upport for di senation research requiring field work in the Middle East. Open to applicants who have completed all the requirements (except the di senation) for the Ph.D. in economic • sociology. psychology. linguistics. demography. geography. philosophy. and the fine arts. Deadline: November I. 1994. Near ud Middle EMt: Ibn Khaldun Prize. An international competition for outstanding papers in the social sciences and humanities open to all graduate students working on topic relating to the contemporary Middle East and North Africa. or on historical topic in that region since the begiMing of I lam. Theoretically informed and/or comparative tudie incorporating the Middle East and other regions of the world are encouraged. Applicants hould have completed at least one year of graduate school. Deadline: September I. 1994. Soviet Union ud .ts Succesaor States. Summer workshops in (a) Post-Soviet Dome tics Politic and Society. and (b) Sociology and Anthropology. Workshops are designed to counteract the isolation of graduate tudents and junior scholars by providing an opponunity to interact with peers. e tabli h contact. and promote innovative research. Open to students enrolled in Ph.D. programs and junior scholars who received their Ph.D.' after June 1989. Deadline: Contact the program on the Soviet Union and It Succe sor State .

• Sp«iIIl AwmI: Loui Dupree Prize for Research on Central Asia. A S2.SOO prize will be awarded for the most promi ing dissenation involving field research in Central Asia. a region broadly defined to include Afghanistan. Azerbaijan. Kirghizia. Mongolia. Turkmenistan. Tajiki tan. Uzbeki tan. and culturally-related contiguou areas of Iran. Paki tan. Kazakh tan. and China. Candidates who receive a di sertation research fellowship under competition administered through a relevant program (China. Near and Middle East. South A ia. Soviet Union and Its Succe sor States. and SSRC-MacArthur Foundation Fellowships on Peace and Security in a Changing World) will be eligible to apply.

(4) Advanced Research Grants Up to one year of upport to scholars in the social science and the humanities for advanced area and comparative research projects

Africa, China,· Eutern Europe,. Japan, Korea, LadD America ud the Caribbean, SoutbeMt Alia, Soviet Union ud .ts Succesaor States. Deadline: December I. 1994.

ear ud Middle EMt, South Alia,

(5) Other Awards to Advanced Scholars in Area Research BerlIn Prop'am for Advanced German ud Europan Studies. Nine to 12 month of upport for comparative and interdisciplinary study of the economic. political. and social aspects of modem German and European affairs. Open to applicants who have completed all requirements (except the dissertation) for the Ph.D. in germane social science and cultural studies fields. and postdoctoral scholars who have received the Ph.D. degree or its equivalent in the last two years. Deadline: February I. I99S.

EMt Europan Lanpap TraInlna Gnats. Summer training in any East European language (except those of the Commonwealth of Independent State > in the United State or Eastern Europe. Advanced undergraduates. graduate students. and postdoctoral scholars may apply. Deadline: February I. 1995.*

Japan. Grants for Research Planning Activities. Seed grants intended to advance research concerning Japan in the social sciences and humanities. IMovative projects at the planning stage which promote comparative or interdisciplinary perspectives are particularly encouraged. Deadline: Contact the program on Japanese studie .

Korea. Grants for Research Planning Activities. Seed grants intended to advance research concerning Korea in the social sciences and humanities. The program seeks to identify new topics that will advance the state of theory or methodology and those where substantial new research i under way. Deadline: Contact the program on Korean tudies.

Near ud Middle EMt • Pu.tdoctGnI FeIIcnnbi.. for Unclerrepraentecl Dildplines In Middle EMt Studies. Intended to promote the integration of area expertise into disciplines currently underrepresented in Middle East studies. Fellowships are for field work in the Middle East for two months to one academic year. Applicants must be scholars in the disciplines of economics. sociology. psychology. linguistics. demography. geography. philosophy. and the fine arts. Deadline: December I. 1994. • MId-Career SIdUs EnrIdunent Prop'am for Tenured Faculty. Two months to a full academic year of support to associate and full professors for research in a Middle Eastern country in which they have not previou Iy tudied. and/or for training in a new field. discipline. or method. to enhance their ability to conduct research in geographic areas with which they are already familiar. Deadline: December I. 1994.

SovIet Union ud .ts Sacctaor States • Saauner WorksbopI in (a> Post-Soviet Domestic Politics and Society. and (b) Sociology and Anthropology. Workshops are designed to counteract the isolation of graduate tudents and junior scholars by providing an opportunity to interact with peers. establish contact. and promote innovative research. Open to students enrolled in Ph.D. programs and junior scholars who received their Ph.D.·s after June 1989. Deadline: Contact the program on the Soviet Union and Its Successor States. • Contact the American Council of Learned Societies. 228 East 45th Street. New YorIt. NY 10017.

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• Research and Development Grants. For upport of meeting , workshop , and pilot projects devoted to initiative and innovation in the theorie , method , and approache applied to the study of the former Soviet Union. or to pre-Soviet period in a manner which how knowledge about the ucce sor tate of the former Soviet Union. Deadline: September 15, 1994 and March I, 1995. • Faculty Proresslonal Development and Retraining Grants. For formal course of in truction in the U.S. de igned to usi t in acquiring: (a) additional language capability in Ru ian or a language of a ucce sor tate of the Soviet Union; (b) additional competence in quantitative andlor other research methodologie ; and (c) kill in comparative and non-traditional disciplinary approache . Deadline: March I. 1995 for training in the ummer of 1995.

(6) Institutional Awards in Area Research and Training African Archives and Museums Project. Grant in upport of activitie that will help trengthen and invigorate the work of archive and museum in Africa. The program particularly encourage projects that draw on local expertise and community resource and bring together different in titution in cooperative venture . Deadline: June 17, 1994. Eastern Europe. In titutional grants to upport in truction in Albanian. Bulgarian, Czech, Hungarian, Macedonian, Poli h, Romanian, Serbo-Croatian, Slovak, or Siovenian. Deadline: February I, 1995.· Soviet Union and Its Successor States • First-year Fellowships in Underrepresented Fields in Soviet Studies. Award to university departments in discipline which are underrepresented in po t-Soviet tudie . For 1994-95, awards will be in sociology and anthropology. Deadline: December I, 1994. • Summer Language Institutes ror Russian and Soviet Languages. Awards provide fellow hip to tudents enrolled in language training program for the ummer of 1995; provide financial as i tance to teachers enrolled in uch programs; upport cultural activitie to enhance the language curriculum; and upport improvement of exi ting program of ummer language institute .

Additional Award Programs at the SSRC Abe Fellow hip Program. Award to Japanese and American research profe ional or other national based in Japan or the U.S., for the purpose of encouraging international multidisciplinary research on topic of pre ing global concern, and fostering development of a new generation of researchers intere ted in long-range policy-relevant topic . Deadline: September I, 1994. SSRC-MacArthur Foundatloa Fellow hips on Peace and Security in a Changing World. The program anticipate offering two-year di sertation and two-year po tdoctoral fellow hip intended to upport innovative and interdisciplinary research on the implication for security i ue of worldwide cultural, social. economic. and political change. Fellow are required to undertake training that add a new competence to their exi ting disciplinary kill; training must permit a ignificant departure from previou work. Deadline: December I, 1994. imematlonal Peace and Security • Research Workshop Competition. Grants to upport mall work hop on topic that te t e tabli bed as umption about

peace and security. Workshop mu t be initiated by recipients of SSRC-MacArthur Foundation Fellow hip in International Puce and Security (p t and present), MacArthur Foundation Grants for Research and Writing, MacArthur Collaborative Studie Grants, or any other direct or indirect grant from the MacArthur Program on Peace and International Cooperation. Deadline : September 15, 1994 and February 15, 1995. • 1994 Visiting Scholar Fellow hip Competition. Three- to ix-month fellow hips allow scholars, joumali ts, public servants, lawyers, and others to pursue research on innovative topic in international peace and security tudie at universitie and major research centers outside their home region. The 1994 fellow hips are offered to scholars and researchers from sub-Saharan Africa, Central and Eastern Europe, and the non-Ru ian ucce sor tate of the Soviet Union. Deadline: July 15, 1994.

Public Policy Research on Contemporary Hispanic Issues • Summer Workshop on Statistical Research Methods. De igned to provide Hi panic faculty, researchers, and graduate scudents with the opportunity to develop knowledge of national data sets relevant to the tudy of the Hi panic population and swi tical research method . Workshop take place at the Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research (ICPSR) II the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Deadline: April 22, 1994. • Small Grants ror Predoctoral Students. Grants are intended to pay for di sertation expense not u ually covered by universitie or outside fellow hips. Open to doctoral tudents who are working in the social science on a di rtation topic rellled to Latino in the U.S. and have completed all their graduate coursework. Deadline: September 15, 1994. • Latina Junior Faculty Research/Mentoring Grants. Awards to upport projects that how the building of mentor reillion hips between nior and junior faculty and tudents; also propo al for pilot tudie or seed money for future larger projects. Untenured Latina faculty at higher education in titution (including two-year college ) are eligible to apply. Deadline: September 15, 1994. • Contact the American Council of Learned Societie , 228 East 45th Street. New York. NY 10017.

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Recent Council Publications Asian Visions of Authority: Religion and the Modern States of East and Southeast Asia, edited by Charle F. Keyes, Laurel Kendall, and Helen Hardacre. Spon ored by the Joint Committee on Southea t A ia, the Joint Committee on Korean Studies, and the Joint Committee on Japane e Studie . Honolulu: Univer ity of Hawaii Pre s, 1994. ix + 366 page . Since the Meiji Re toration in 1868 initiated a new era in A ian hi tory, the rulers of variou A ian tate have ought to control, marginalize, or uppre religiou communitie within their territorie to ensure that the e communi tie do not promote vi ions in conflict with tho e of the tate. It i now apparent that the modernization and nationbuilding projects of A ian tate in that era have not only failed to ubordinate religiou authority to that of the tate, but have created a crisis of authority that has led many people in the e countrie to turn to religiou vi ion of authority other than tho e anctioned by their tates. The es ay in thi volume make an important tatement about the nature of Asian religions and ocieties in the late 20th century, and demon trate that, de pite the modernization of Ea t and Southeast A ia, religiou activity has remained resilient and pervasive. Contributors examine orne of the tension and conflicts between states and religiou communi tie over the scope of religious view of the communitie , the con e56\ ITEMS

quence of state-impo ed definition of religion, and the religiou basi for re i tance to tate authority. The tudie focu on Japan, Korea, China, Taiwan, Indone ia, Malay ia, and Cambodia. Charle F. Keye i profe or of anthropology and director of Southeast A ian tudie at the Univer ity of Wa hington. Laurel Kendall i a ociate curator in charge of A ian ethnographic collection at the American Mu eum of Natural Hi tory and an adjunct a ociate profe or at Columbia University. Helen Hardacre i a Rei chauer In titute profe or of Japane e religion and ociety at Harvard University.

uch topic a emerging cla e, hi torical ource of political cleavage , in titutional ba e of development policie , the ri e of the minjung movement, the hegemony problem of the new bourgeoi ie, and conflict over cultural con truction. A chapter on the "hermit kingdom" of North Korea round out the book' coverage of ocietyand politic on the Korean perimeter. By placing the tudy of Korean tate and ociety in a broader, richer hi tori cal and cultural context, the book promote a more olid under tanding of the deeper a pect of Korea' indu trial tran formation. Hagen Koo i profe or of sociology at the University of Hawaii, Manoa.

State and Society in Contemporary Korea, edited by Hagen Koo. Spon ored by the Joint Committee on Korean Studies. Ithaca, New York: Cornell Univer ity Pre ,1993. viii + 258 page. Seven Korea peciali ts examine the evolution of stateociety relation in Korea ince the end of World War ll. They portray Korea' tran ition to a modem industrial ociety as a proce far more complex and conflict-ridden than previous writer have suggested. This volume moves beyond narrow economic concern to explore pheres of civil society which have been neglected in literature on economic development. Each chapter highlights a distinct pattern of Korean modernization. The book covers

Latin America in the 19405: War and Postwar Transitions, edited by David Rock. Sponsored by the Joint Committee on Latin American Studies, with uppon from the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation. xiv + 302 page . The impact of World War II and of the cold war on the political development of Latin America form the subject of this work. During the mid-1940 , many Latin American countries turned from authoritarian regimes toward democracy and the rapid growth of labor union . By the end of the decade, however, the fledgling democracie had collap ed, the unions were in shambles, and authoritariani m as erted it elf once more. Thi collection of e ay by an VOLUME

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international group of hi tori an , political cienti t , economi t , and ociologi t confront a central debate in Latin American tudie : Were the e event the immediate re ult of external force -that i , of the war-or the culmination of internal movement that originated in the 1930 ? While reinterpreting the brief re urgence of democracy in Latin America in the 1940 , the book offer a comparative foundation from which to judge the renewed trend toward democracy that began in the 1980s and continue into the early 1990 . David Rock i profe or of hi tory at the University of California, Santa Barbara.

Southeast Asia in the Early Modern Era, edited by Anthony Reid. Spon ored by the Joint Committee on Southea t Asia, in a ociation with the New Univer ity of Li bon, and upported by Fonda~au Oriente. A ia Ea t by South eries. Ithaca, New York: Cornell Univer ity pre s, 1993. xiii + 286 pages. This volume grew out of a conviction that the early modem period marks a watershed for Southeast A ia in various respects, but has remained curiously blurred in modem hi toriography. Moving away from the familiar as ociation of the advent of European colonial hegemony and the on et of modernity, this collection of e ay affirms the important of the 16th and 17th centurie in what we call Southeast Asia today. This "early modem" period JUNFlSEPTEMBER 1994

wa one of considerable flux: new technologie , e pecially of war and hipping; increa ed numbers of economic actor from South A ia the Middle Ea t, and Europe; and the consolidation of di tinct world-religiou orthodoxie -I lam, Theravada Buddhi m, and Catholici m, in particularadded to the ongoing tran formation of exi ting princely tate and dyna tie in complex way . The ta k of the hi torian i complicated by the changing tech nologie of hi torical evidence, due to the declining u e of bronze in cription and the increasing u e of impermanent paper record . Thi tendency make a recontruction of the period difficult and tend to di tort the importance of the few record that remain. The book i divided into four part : "Forming New State ," "Commerce and the Southea t A ian State," "Religiou Change," and "Key Problem of the 17th-Century Tran ition." Anthony Reid is profe or of Sou thea t A ian hi tory at Australian National Univer ity.

Everyday Forms of State Formation: Revolution and the Negotiation of Rule in Modern Mexico, edited by Gilbert M. Jo eph and Daniel Nugent. Spon ored by the Joint Committee on Latin American Studie , with funds from the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation and the National Endowment for the Humanitie , and in cooperation with the Center for U.S. Mexican Studies, University of California, San Diego. Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Pres , 1994. xix + 432 page.

The relation hip between emergent popular culture and tate formation in revolutionary and po t-revolutionary Mexico i y tematically examined in thi volume. While mo t account have empha ized either the role of peasant and peasant rebellion or that of tate formation in Mexico' pa t, the e e ay reveal the tate' day-to-day engagement with gra roots ociety by examining popular culture and form of the state imultaneou ly and in relation to one another. The work rea e e past analy e of the Mexican revolution and ugge ts new direction for future tudy. It al 0 addre se the manner in which local ocietie and elf-proclaimed "revolutionary" tates are articulated hi torically. The re ult is a collection of e ays that bridge 0cial hi tory, anthropology, hi torical ociology, and cultural tudies. In 0 doing, it formulate new approache for rethinking the multifaceted relation hip between power, culture, and re istance. Gilbert M. Jo eph is professor of hi tory and chair of the Council on Latin American Studie at Yale Univer ity. Daniel Nugent teaches anthropology and Latin American studies at the University of Arizona.

Also Noted: Voices of the Song Lyric in China, edited by Pauline Yu. Studie on China 18. Spon ored by the Joint Committee on Chinese Studies. Berkeley: University of California Pre , 1994. xxi + 410 pages. ITEMS/57


Awards Offered in 1994 Following are the name , affiliation , and topic of the individual who were offered fellow hip or grants by Council committee in the mo t recent annual competition for research in the ocial cience and humanities. The area tudie research awards were made by the committee jointly p<>nsored by the Council and the American Council of Learned Societie (ACLS). They are upported by grant from the Ford Foundation, the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, and the National Endowment for the Humanitie . Additional funding for individual program i provided by the Chiang Ching-kuo Foundation for International Cultural Exchange, the Ford Foundation, the French-American Foundation, the German Marsha)) Fund of the United State , the Japan-United State Friend hip Commi ion, the Henry Luce Foundation, the LusoAmerican Development Foundation, the Christopher Reynold Foundation, the Rockefeller Foundation, and the U.S. Department of State through the Ru ian, Eurasian, and East European Research and Training Program of the Soviet-Eastern European Research and Training Act of 1983 (Title VIll). Fellow hip in international peace and security are upported by a grant from the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation. Grants from the Ford Foundation upport fellow hip for public policy research on contemporary Hi panic i ue. The Ford Foundation al 0 upports the joint ACLS/SSRC International Predi sertation Fellow hip Program. The Abe Fellow hip program i upported by the Japan Foundation Center for Global Partnership. Award for research on the urban underc1as are upported by the Rockefeller Foundation and the Foundation for Child Development. Unle it i pecifically noted that a program i adminitered by the ACLS , the programs Ii ted are admini tered by the Council. The Council doe not discriminate on the basi of age, color, race, gender, or any other characteri tic protected by applicable law . The program change omewhat every year, and intere ted cholars hould write to the Council for a copy of the current general brochure. Individual program also publi h brochure , with more complete description of their aim and procedure, at various time during the year. See al 0 the ummary of all current fellow hip and grant program on page 53-55 .

58\ ITEMS

Predissertation and Dissertation FeUowships for Area and Comparative Training and Research International Predissertation Fellow hip ProgramThe following graduate training fellow hip were awarded by the program committee of the International Predi sertation Fellow hip Program-Li a Anderson (chair), Keletso Atkin, Robert H. Bate, Stephen G. Bunker, Daniel Doeppers, Jonathan Fox, Denni Hogan, Dwight H. Perkin, Michael J. Piore, Robert Weller-at it meeting March 17-18, 1994. The committee was as i ted by a screening panel: Benedict Anderson, Thomas Bassett, William Beeman, Jere Behrman, Laurie Brand, Daniel Chirot, Dale Eickelman, Joseph Esherick, Jeffrey Frieden, Harriet Friedman, Alma Gottlieb, Franci , Hagopian, Robert Harm , Sylvia Maxfield, Jane Menken, Laura Nader, Barry Naughton, Emilio Pantojas-Garcia, Ann Pebley, Ronald Rogow ki, Nazif Shahrani, John Shepherd, Lance Taylor, William Turley, Daniel Wagner, Michael Watts, Lawrence We tphal, and Crawford Young. ElIen Perecman, Amy Chazkel, and Mark Ed trom served as taff for thi program. Katherine J. Allen, graduate tudent in economic, University of Washington: non-market natural resources in Co ta Rica and Mexico Jo hua D. Barker, graduate tudent in anthropology, Cornell University: the hi tory of cience and technology in Indone ia Stephen Boucher, graduate tudent in agricultural economic , University of Wiscon in, Madi on: the economic implication of informal markets in Peru Sonia A. Ca taneda, graduate tudent in sociology, University of Texas, Austin: the role of the media in change in fertility rate in Brazil Siddarth Chandra, graduate tudent in economic , Cornell University: the impact on the Indone ian economy of deregulation of the banking sector Sharad Chari, graduate tudent in geography, University of California, Berkeley: indu trial re tructuring in the wake of economic liberalization in South A ia Tracy B. Citeroni , graduate student in ociology, Univerity of Texas, Au tin: the economic and ocial impact of an aging population in Mexico Shan a R. Cohen, graduate tudent in ociology, University of California, Berkeley: c1as formation and economic and cultural globalization in Morocco Brett E. Coleman, graduate tudent in economic, Univerity of California, Berkeley: village bank in Thailand Peter Cuasay, graduate tudent in anthropology, University of Washington: the interaction between environmental

â&#x20AC;˘ Thi program i de igned to prepare tudents to conduct research in the developing world. VOLUME

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I

movements and ethnographic reality in Surin Province, Thailand Katherine M. Czuka ,graduate tudent in economic , Northwe tern University: rural household deci ionmaking in Zimbabwe Ronald A. Edward ,graduate tudent in economic , Univer ity of Minnesota: the cultural and in titutional aspect of current economic development in China Raymond B. Familu i, graduate tudent in ociology, Michigan State University: tran nationality and communal identity formation in diaspora communitie in Sierra Leone and Nigeria Timothy P. Fitzpatrick, graduate tudent in political science, University of California, San Diego: the impact of international economic foree on the political regime in China Eri Fujieda, graduate tudent in ociology, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign: the impact of returned female international migrant workers on gender relation in the Philippine Lei Guang, graduate tudent in political cience, University of Minne ota: the interconnection between peasant political activi m and democracy in India Douglas J. Guthrie, graduate tudent in sociology, University of California, Berkeley: the social problem which accompany the tran formation from a planned economy to a free market economy in China Charle S. Haine ,graduate tudent in anthropology, University of Wi con in, Madison: national integration in northern Paid tan a a performative proce Seth M. Harter, graduate tudent in hi tory, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor: the interaction of politic , economic , and culture in the labor hi tory of outh China Catherine E. Jack on, graduate tudent in anthropological lingui tic , University of Texas, Au tin: the relation hip between informal peech genre and the formation and expre ion of identity among Quechua peaker in Bolivia Oren Ko an ky, graduate tudent in anthropology, Univerity of Michigan, Ann Arbor: language as a con tituent of Moroccan Jewi h cultural practice, ideology, and identity S. Patrick Larvie, graduate tudent in p ychology, University of Chicago: the links between ideologie of nationali m and culturally con tructed concept of sexuality, health, illne ,ri k, and prevention in Brazil Ann Marie Le hkowich, graduate tudent in anthropology, Harvard University: the effect of market-oriented reform in Vietnam on gendered divi ion of labor at the household level Elizabeth L. MacGonagle, graduate tudent in hi tory, Michigan State University: the hi torical tran formation in ethnicity among the Ndau- peaking Eastern Shona in Mozambique and Zimbabwe during the pre-colonial and early colonial period Masaki Matsumura, graduate tudent in ociology, Cornell University: conservation and u tainable development in Thailand Mu tafa K. Mirzeler, graduate student in anthropology, JUNE/SEPTEMBER

1994

University of Wi con in, Madi on: the implication of gender for ethnic identity in Elmolo village in Kenya Theodore D. Mouw, graduate tudent in ociology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor: the way that ocial organization both cause and adapt to environmental change through comparative demographic analy i of Vietnam and Indone ia Amy R. Poteete, graduate tudent in political science, Duke University: the effects of political competition on change in property rights in Bot wana A hok S. Rai, graduate tudent in economic, University of Chicago: the effectivene of rural credit in alleviating poverty in the context of the Grameen Bank in Banglade h Shi K. Roh, graduate tudent in political cience, Columbia University: modem tate-building, nationali m, and ethnicity in China Hanna-Andrea Rother, graduate tudent in ociology, Michigan State University: the ocio-cultural dynamic concerning the use of pe ticide by mall-scale farmer in Zimbabwe Patricia J. Sandler, graduate tudent in ethnomu icology, University of lllinoi , Urbana-Champaign: the role of mu ic in the con truction of cultural and political identitie in the Africa dia pora communitie of Salvador, Brazil Apurva Sanghi, graduate tudent in economic, Univer ity of Chicago: lending trategie pursued by formal and informal credit in titution in Thailand Mark J. Schafer, graduate tudent in ociology, Indiana University: the local re ponse to decline in tate educational funding in Kenya and Malawi Thomas O. Sikor, graduate tudent in energy and reource , University of California, Berkeley: the effect of economic liberalization on ecological u tainability of re ouree-use trategie in Vietnam D. Geoffrey S.D. Stafford, graduate tudent in political science, University of Wiscon in, Madi on: regional integration zone in Malay ia Tere a A. Swezey, graduate tudent in ociology, Michigan State University: ociological explanation of the ri k of AIDS in Uganda Daniel B. Thomas, graduate tudent in political cience, University of California, San Diego: the effect of local political in titution on the action of local government official in China Eric Thun, graduate tudent in political cience, Harvard University: the role of political culture and value in the U.S.-China relation hip

Africa Predissertation Fellowships

The folJowing predi sertation felJow hips were awarded by the Joint Committee on African Studie -Kwame A. Appiah (chair), Paul Collier, Mamadou Diouf, Paula Girshick, Bogumil Jew iewicki Ko s, Peter Little, Catharine Newbury, Paul Richard, and Pearl RobinITEMS/59


on-at its meeting on March 18-19, 1994. The committee was as i ted by a creening committee-Jame McCann (chair), Jean M. Allman, Adam Ashforth, Kate Crehan, Chri tine Jone ,Charle Piot, Richard Waller, and Chri topher Waterman. M. Pri cilia Stone, Barbara Bianco, and Michael Johngren served as taff for thi program. Tavy D. Aherne, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory of art , Indiana Univer ity, Bloomington, for travel to Guinea for preliminary research on the trade in indigo-dyed textile Angela C. Davie, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of California, Berkeley, for travel to Zimbabwe for preliminary re earch on white identity in Africa Cheryl R. Do ,Ph.D. candidate in agricultural and applied economic , University of Minne ota, for travel to Cote d'Ivoire for preliminary re earch on the allocation of re ource within household Parfait M. Eloundou-Enyegue, Ph.D. candidate in rural ociology, Penn ylvania State University, for travel to Cameroon for preliminary research on demographic adju tment in re ponse to economic rece ion Maneli i Genge, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Michigan State University, for travel to Swaziland for preliminary re earch on the reign of Queen-Regent Labot ibeni, 1899-1924 Heidi Glaesel, Ph.D. candidate in geography, University of Wi con in, for travel to Kenya for preliminary research on conflict over marine re ource Con tance M. Mik it , Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, New School for Social Research, for travel to Swaziland for preliminary research on the relation hip between contract farming, gender, and land tenure Beth A. Pratt, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Bo ton University, for travel to Tanzania for preliminary research on children' work in farming economie Jennifer L. Price, Ph.D. candidate in medical anthropology, Joint-Univer itie of California, Berkeley and San Franci co, for travel to Malawi for preliminary research on blindne Jennifer A. Seif, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Bo ton University, for travel to South Africa for preliminary research on women of the "Zioni ttt religiou movement from 1850 to the present

Hopkin University, for a tudy of colonial re ponse to treponemal disea e in Zambia and Zimbabwe Heidi Gengenbach, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, University of Minne ota, for research on the hi tory of rural women ' communitie in Mozambique from 1800 to the present Robert E. Moise, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, New York University, for a tudy of the relation of BaAka fore t group to the wider ociety in the Central African Republic Charle H. Morrill, Ph.D. candidate in Iinqui tic , Indiana University, for re earch on the development of the new language of Sango in the Central African Republic Kenda Mutongi, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, University of Virginia, for a tudy of widowhood in western Kenya from 1895 to the present Laurel D. Puchner, Ph.D. candidate in human development, Univer ity of Penn ylvania, for a tudy of the effects of literacy program participation on women in Mali Jan B. Shetler, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Univer ity of Florida, for a tudy of the historical development of ociety in the Mara region of Tanzania during the 18th and 19th centurie Lynn M. Thoma, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, for re earch on the hi tory of reproductive policy in Kenya from 1900-1970 Mary E. Zuppan, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, State University of New York, Binghamton, for a tudyof farmer-herder interethnic relation in Burkina Faso

China The China Fellow hip Selection Committee (admini tered by the American Council of Learned Societie )Peter K. Bol (chair), Park M. Coble, Shu-min Huang, Joseph S. M. Lau, Lawrence J. Lau, Thoma H. C. Lee, Steven I. Levine, Victor H. Mair, and William L. Pari h-at it meeting on February 26, 1994, awarded di ertation re earch fellow hip to the following individual . Jason H. Parker and Ruth Waters erved as taff for thi program. All recipients are Chiang Ching-kuo Foundation!ACLS Fellow upported by funding received from the Chiang Ching-kuo Foundation.

Dissertation Fellowships The following di sertation fellow hip were al 0 awarded at the committee' meeting on March 18-19, 1994, with the a i tance of the creening committee and a election committee-Edmond Keller (chair), Iri Berger, Denni D. Cordell, Norma Kriger, Enid Schildkrout, and Aliko Songolo. Thoma J. Bikale , Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, New York Univer ity, for a tudy of the "Fe tival Panafricain du Cin~ma A Ouagadougou" and the emergence of an African cinema Bryan T. Callahan, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, The John 6O\lTEMS

Yen-Kuei Chuang, Ph.D. candidate in counseling p ychology, Stanford University, for research in Taiwan on interpreting culture, identity and change: the ca e tudy of a Chine e family lineage in Taiwan and the U.S. Amy D. Dooling, Ph.D. candidate in East A ian language and culture, Columbia University, for re earch in Taiwan on modem Chinese women' writing and narrative practice Martin W. Frazier, Ph.D. candidate in political cience, University of California, Berkeley, for research in Hong Kong and Taiwan on policing the factory floor: the tran formation of indu trial relation in China, 19451958 VOLUME

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Diane J. Haring. Ph.D. candidate in hi tory. Yale Univerity. for research in Japan on light and death in the Zoroastrian. Manichaean. and Ne torian tradition in T'ang China Elizabeth C. Henderson. Ph.D. candidate in political science. University of Michigan. Ann Arbor. for research in Taiwan on the relation hip between mall bu ine and the tate: a crucial component of the democratizing East A ian model- the case of Taiwan H ien-huei Liao. Ph.D. candidate in hi tory. University of California. Lo Angele • for research in Japan on popular religion and the religiou belief of the Song elite. 960-1276 Adam M. McKeown. Ph.D. candidate in hi tory. Univer. ity of Chicago. for research in Peru on Chinese settlement in Peru. Hawaii . and the midwe t of the United State Andrew S. Meyer. Ph.D. candidate in East A ian language and civilization. Harvard University. for research in Japan on the "Correct Meaning of the Five Clas ic " (WU jing zhen yi) and the search to define value in medieval China Tobie S. Meyer. Ph.D. candidate in hi tory. Stanford University. for research in Japan and Taiwan on the culture of travel in 18th-century Yangzhou Qiang Ning. Ph.D. candidate in fine arts. Harvard University. for research in Japan. Korea. and India on the origin and e tabli hment of Chinese Buddhi t art: from cave 28 to cave 220 at Dunhuang Steven L. Riep. Ph.D. candidate in literature. University of California. Lo Angele. for research in Taiwan on moderni m in Taiwan literature. 1950-1975 Brook A. Ziporyn. Ph.D. candidate in A ian language and culture. University of Michigan. Ann Arbor. for research in Taiwan on value and anti-value in Tiantai thought and its antecedent

Eastern Europe Dissertation Fellowships

The Joint Committee on Eastern Europe (administered by the American Council of Learned Societies)-Norman M. Naimark (chair). Ivo Banac. Josef C. Brada. David A. Frick. Victor A. Friedman. Susan Gal. Elemer Hankiss. Ve na Pu ic. and Kazimierz Slomczyn lei-at its meeting on March 4-5. 1994. voted to award di sertation fellowhip to the following individual. Jason H. Parker and Ruth Waters served as taff for thi program. Ellen C. Anderson. Ph.D. candidate. Department of German Studie • Stanford University. From Marx to "Meladur": the evolution of the ociali t con umer and the con titution of cultural identity in the GDR. 1949-71 Jacek Dalecki. Ph.D. candidate. Department of Political Science. Indiana University. From Marxi m to Iiberali m: the political evolution of Poli h di ident Adam Michnik Raj M. De ai. Ph.D. candidate. Department of GovernJUNE/SEPTEMBER

1994

ment. Harvard University. Government relation and the politic of privatized bu ine in the Czech Republic. Slovakia. Poland. and Hungary David Dornisch. Ph.D. candidate. Department of Sociology. Cornell University. Indu trial evolution as interactive learning: network-based re tructuring in Poli h localitie Pauline Gianoplu • Ph.D. candidate. Department of Sociology. University of Michigan. Ann Arbor. Creating power: bu ine elite and the making of the bourgeoi public phere in Poland. 1989-1993 Tomasz Grabow kit Ph.D. candidate. Department of Political Science. University of California. Berkeley. From civic movements to partie : a comparative tudy of the Poli h Solidarity and the Czech Civic Forum Lisa Anne Gurr. Ph.D. candidate. Department of Anthropology. Northwe tern University. The relation hip between Poli hindu trial labor and the po t-communi t tate in the context of current economic reform Lynne A. Haney. Ph.D. candidate. Department of Sociology. University of California. Berkeley. The con truction of gender in the communi t and po tcommuni t political regimes in Hungary Joanna V. Inglot. Ph.D. candidate. Department of Art Hi tory. University of Wiscon in. Madison. Scolpture of Magdalena Abakanowicz: myth and realitie of Poli h art under communi m lzabela Kalinow lea-Blackwood. Ph.D. candidate. Department of Slavic Language and Literature • Yale University. Between East and We t: Poli hand Ru ian 19th-century travel to the Orient Laurie S. Kolo kit Ph.D. candidate. Department of Hi tory. Stanford University. Art. audience. and ideologue : the meaning and use of culture in Krakow. 1945-1949 Anita Poletti-Anderson. Ph.D. candidate. Department of Architectural Hi tory. University of Virginia. Vernacular sources in Hungarian art nouveau architecture: a study of the Fiatalok' work from 1906-1918 Marko Prelec. Ph.D. candidate. Department of Hi tory. Yale University. The Nationali t Youth of the South Slavs. 1908-1914 Timothy D. Snyder. Ph.D. candidate. Department of Modem History. Balliol College. University of Oxford. An intellectual and political biography of Kazimierz Kelles-Krauz (1872-1905) Milada A. Vachudova. Ph.D. candidate. Faculty of International Relation • University of Oxford. Regional cooperation in the po t-cold war world: the case of East Central Europe Elizabeth R. Vann. Ph.D. candidate. Department of Anthropology. University of Chicago. Ethnicity as historical consciou ne s: the case of Opole Silesia Lisa Wolverton. Ph.D. candidate. Medieval In titute. University of Notre Dame. Ducal power in the Czech land. 1004-1198 Graduate Training Fellowships

The following advanced graduate training fellow hip were also awarded by the committee: ITEMS/61


Zsuzsa Csergo, graduate tudent, Department of Political Science, George Wa hington University. Additional tudy of anthropological and sociological approache to problem of identity and the language of identity politic Elizabeth A. 0 born, graduate tudent, Department of Sociology, Ohio State University. Courseworr in Eastern European hi tory and economics; language study

Predissenation Summer Travel Grants The following predi sertation ummer travel grant were approved by pecial ubcommittee on April 7, 1994: Hilary B. Appel, graduate tudent, Department of Political Science, University of Penn ylvania Elizabeth M. Clark, graduate tudent, Department of Hi tory, University of Kan as Thalia Gray, graduate tudent, Department of Anthropology, New York University Andrea D. Lanoux, graduate tudent, Department of Slavic Language and Literature , University of California, Lo Angele Katherine S. Layton, graduate tudent, Program in Educational Foundation and Policy Studie , Florida State University Anna D. Socrate ,graduate tudent, Department of Comparative Hi tory, Brandei University Patrick M. Turner, graduate tudent, Department of Government and Politic , University of Maryland, College Park Elizabeth Umbanhowar Zidek, graduate tudent, Department of Hi tory of Art, Indiana University, Bloomington Peter A. Zu i, graduate tudent, Committee on Social Thought and Comparative Literature, University of Chicago

Language Training Grants The East European Language Grant Committee of the Joint Committee on Eastern Europe (admini tered by the American Council of Learned Societie )-Ronelle Alexander, Howard I. Aron on, Grace E. Fielder, Michael H. Heim, Madeline Levine, Robert A. Roth tein, and Erne t A. Scatton-at its meeting on March 12, 1994, voted to award language training grants to the following individual . Ja on H. Parker and Ruth Waters served as taff for thi program. Kathleen Macfie Ahem, graduate tudent in Slavic tudie, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (Poli h) Peter T. Alter, graduate tudent in hi tory, University of Arizona (Serbo-Croatian) Timothy A. Beasley, graduate tudent in Slavic language, University of California, Lo Angele (Czech) Peter W. Bixby, graduate tudent in comparative literature, Indiana University (Czech) Jame E. Bjork, graduate tudent in hi tory, University of Chicago (Poli h) 62\ITEMS

Jennifer L. Blecha, graduate tudent in anthropology, University of Oregon (Bulgarian) David B. Blunck, graduate tudent in political science, Indiana Univer ity (Hungarian) Daniel Bogdan, graduate tudent in hi tory, Bo ton College (Poli h) Paulina Bren, graduate tudent in East European tudies, University of Washington (Hungarian) Kathryn Brown, graduate tudent in hi tory, University of Washington (Poli h) Joan Fine Chevalier, graduate tudent in Slavic languages and literature , University of California, Lo Angele (Czech) Donna Dvorak, graduate in anthropology, University of Illinoi , Urbana-Champaign (Czech) Melis a D. Feinberg, graduate tudent in hi tory, Univerity of Chicago (Czech) David Figiel, graduate tudent in art hi tory, University of Virginia (Czech) Natalie Fo hko, graduate tudent in Slavic languages, Brown University (Poli h) David P. Freedel, graduate student in Slavic language and literature , Princeton University (Czech) Glen T. Furnas, graduate tudent in hi tory, University of Washington (Hungarian) Jane E. Garnett, graduate tudent in accounting, University of Texas, Au tin (Poli h) Jaclyn J. Gier, a istant profe or of hi tory, Alverno College (Hungarian) Mary C. Gruber, graduate tudent in Slavic language and literatures, Ohio State Univer ity (Czech) Paul A. Hanebrink, graduate tudent in hi tory, Columbia University (Hungarian) Michael R. Hanna, graduate tudent in p ychology, We ley an University (Croatian) Julie Ann Hansen, graduate tudent in Slavic language and literature , University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (Czech) Mary E. Kelly, graduate tudent in sociology, University of Kan as (Lithuanian) David R. Korfhage, graduate tudent in Ru ian and East European tudie, Indiana University (Hungarian) Virgil Krapau kas, graduate student in hi tory, University of Illinoi , Chicago (poli h) Andrea D. Lanoux, graduate tudent in Slavic language and literature , University of California, Lo Angele (Poli h) Danielle M. Lu ier, graduate tudent in mu ic, University of California, Berkeley (Hungarian) Debra L. Man field, graduate tudent in Slavic language and literature, State University of New York, Albany (Romanian) Brendan A. Martin, graduate tudent in Ru ian literature, University of Virginia (Poli h) Ali a G. Mayor, graduate tudent in Slavic language and literature , Brown University (Czech) Marian Mazzone, graduate tudent in hi tory of art, Ohio State University (Hungarian) Mark N. McConnell, graduate tudent in Ru ian and East European tudie, University of Washington (Czech) VOLUME

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Diana Morlang, graduate tudent in political cience, . Duke University (Hungarian) Gregory B. Moynahan, graduate tudent in hi tory, University of California, Berkeley (Czech) Elizabeth A. Murphy, graduate tudent in hi tory, Cornell University (Czech) Jana Orac, graduate tudent in geography, McGill Univerity (Poli h) Andrea Orzoff, graduate tudent in hi tory, Stanford University (Czech) Ellen L. Paul, graduate tudent in hi tory, University of Kan a (Poli h) Gianni F. Paz, graduate tude!lt in public and international affair , George Ma on University (Romanian) Peter D. Pham, graduate tudent in film tudie, University of California, Irvine (Hungarian) Paula M. Pickering, graduate tudent in international relation , Stanford University (Serbo-Croatian) Kimberly J. Purinton, graduate tudent in Slavic language , University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (Poli h) Karen E. Robblee, as i tant profe or of Slavic and Ea t European language, Penn ylvania State University, University Park (Poli h) Albert E. Schmidt, graduate tudent in comparative hi tory, Brandei University (Czech) . Frank Sellin, graduate student in government and foreIgn affairs, University of Virginia (Romanian) Li a E. Shiff, graduate tudent in political cience, Northwe tern University (Poli h) Marci Shore, graduate tudent in international relation , Stanford University (Czech) Anna D. Socrate ,graduate tudent in comparative hi tory, Brandei University (Czech) Gary H. Toop , as ociate profe or of modem and cia ical language and literature , Wichita State University (Upper Sorbian) Caroline R. Wei h, graduate tudent in anthropology, University of Mas achusett , Amherst (Slovak) Trevor L. Wy ong, graduate tudent in government and politics, University of Maryland, College Park (Romanian) Deborah K. Zaccaro, graduate tudent in Slavic language and literatures, Indiana University, Bloomington (Hungarian; Romanian)

Institutional Support Programs

The Eastern European Language Grant Committee of the Joint Committee on Eastern Europe voted to award grants to the following institutions in support of East European language in truction: Beloit College, for the teaching of Hungarian, summer 1994 Harvard University, for the teaching of Czech, summer 1994 Indiana University, for the teaching of Bulgarian, Czech, Hungarian, Poli h, Romanian and Slovene, summer 1994 JUNE/SEPTEMBER

1994

Japan The following di sertation write-up fellow hip were awarded by the Joint Committee on Japanese Studie Jame W. White (chair), Theodore C. Be tor, Mary Brinton. Andrew Gordon. Irmela Hijiya-Kirschnereit. Hideo Otake, Mark Ramseyer. and Henry Smith-at its April 23-24, 1994 meeting in Chicago. The committee was as i ted by a fellow hip selection ubcommittee: Henry Smith (chair), Karen Brazell, Mark Ramseyer, and T.J. Pempel. Mary B. McDonnell, Mimi M. Kim, John X. Kim, and Dee L. Warren served a staff for thi program. Kenneth Anderson, Ph.D. candidate in literature, Cornell University, for the di sertation, "Framing Tradition: The Meiji Period Con truction of National Community in Art and Literary Hi tory" Ro emarie Bernard, Ph.D candidate in anthropology, Harvard University, for the di ertation, "Hi torical Metaphor and Notion of the Sacred in the Ritual Sy tern of the Shikinen Sengu of Ise Jingu, Japan". David Bialock, Ph.D. candidate in literature, ColumbIa University, for the di sertation, "Heike: A Study in a Medieval Japanese Narrative Tradition" David Lane, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Harvard University. for the di sertation. "Toward a Political Explanation for Market Structure: Financing Small lndu try and the Developmental State" Saadia Mazhar, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Harvard University, for the di sertation, "Picking Winners? Tip from Po twar Japan" Gregory Pflugfelder, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory. Stanford University, for the di sertation, "Cartographie of De ire: Same-Sex Sexualitie in Japanese Di course, 1600-1950" Yuki Terazawa, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of California, Lo Angele, for the dissertation, "Medicalization, Di course on the Body, and the Creation of the Modem State Nation: Race and Gender in Eighteenth and Nineteenth Century Medical Discourse in Japan" Tomiko Yoda, Ph.D. candidate in literature, Stanford University, for the dissertation, "Gendered Intervention: The Construction of Female Discursive Agency in Heian Narrative" Marcia Yonemoto, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of California, Berkeley. for the dissertation, "Mapping Culture in Eighteenth-Century Japan"

Korea The following dissertations fellowships were awarded by the Joint Committee on Korean Studies-Clark Sorensen (chair), Alice Amsden, Robert E. Buswell, Jr., Hyoung Cho, Carter Eckert, Uchang Kim, Chae-jin Lee, and Dae-Sook Suh-at its February 25-26, 1994 meeting in Honolulu. Mimi M. Kim and John X. Kim served as taff for thi program. ITEMS/63


Seong Jin An, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Pittsburgh, for an ethnographic tudy of pattern of peasant re i tance in modem Korea Jin-Kyung Lee, Ph.D. candidate in comparative literature, University of California, Lo Angeles, for a tudy of the con truction of Japanese imperiali m and Korean nationalist movements in Japanese and Korean literature , 1905-1945 Hyung-Gu Lynn, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Harvard University, for research on the role of the Central Korea A ociation in the policy formulation proce of the Japanese colonial rule of Korea

Latin America and the Caribbean The following di sertation fellow hip were awarded by the Joint Committee on Latin American Studie - Barbara Stalling (chair), Jere Behrman, Jo56 Joaqufn Brunner, Ruth Cardo 0, Fernando Rojas Hurtado, Hilda S~bato, Rodolfo Stavenhagen, Laurence Whitehead, George Yudice-at its meeting on March 1~16, 1994. The committee was as i ted by a screening committee: Bryan Roberts (chair) Heloi a Buarque de Holanda, Hector Lindo, Karen Remmer, Thomas Skidmore, and John Watanabe. Eric Hershberg, Knut Walter, Jennifer Raskin, and Alexandra Cordero served as taff for thi program. Edward Beatty, Ph.D. candidate in history, Stanford University, for research on the tate, property rights and bu ine in Porftrian Mexico Delia Boylan, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Stanford University, for research in Mexico on central bank autonomie in new democracie Claudia Brione , Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Texas, Au tin, for re earch on the politic of development projects in Argentina Christopher Edmond, Ph.D. candidate in agricultural economics, University of California, Berkeley, for research on income generating trategies and market access in Chile, 1986-1994 Kimberley Gauderman, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, University of California, Lo Angele, for research on colonial Quito's market places of good and ideas Aurora Gomez, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Harvard University, for research on Mexican cotton textile and industrialization Jessica Gregg, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Emory University, for research on poverty, cancer, and coping among women in Recife, Brazil Kristin Johnson, Ph.D. candidate in political cience, Stanford University, for research on NAFTA and bu ine s-govemment relation in Mexico Matthew Karu h, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, University of Chicago, for research on the political formation of the working clas in Ro ario, Argentina, 1905-1930 James Kiracofe, Ph.D. candidate in architectural hi tory, Virginia Polytechnic In titute, for research on early colonial urbanization in Teoscolula, Oaxaca, Mexico, 1535-1585 64\ ITEMS

Ann Mische, Ph.D. candidate in ociology, New School for Social Research, for research on youth organization and the recon truction of civic culture in Brazil Eugenia Rodrfguez Saenz, Ph.D. candidate in history, Indiana University, for research on women, marriage and conjugal conflict in the Central Valley of Co ta Rica Nicholas Shorr, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Indiana University, for research on the relation between inten ification theory and Tikuna experience and knowledge in Brazil Pamela Voekel, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, University of Texas, Au tin, for research on clas formation in late colonial Mexico City Chri topher Welna, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Duke University, for research on nongovernmental organization , information, and political reform in Mexico

Near and Middle East The following predoctoral fellow hip were awarded by the Joint Committee on the Near and Middle East-Joel S. Migdal (chair), Soraya Altorki, Kiren Chaudhry, Juan Cole, Deniz Kandiyoti, Mary Layoun, Zachary Lockman, Fedwa Matti-Douglas, Timothy Mitchell, Sevket Pamuk-at its meeting on March 19-20, 1994. The committee was assi ted by a screening ubcomrnittee: Fedwa Malti-Douglas (chair), Fatma Muge Gocek, Robert Vitali , and Leila Fawaz. Steven Heydemann and Sandra Fahy served as taff for thi program. Predissertation Fellowships

Jamila Bargach, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Rice University, for research on Maghrebi intellectual women' re ponse to religiou fundamentali m Charles Hirschkind, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, New School for Social Research, for research on media technologies and the tran formation of I lam in Egypt Beth Kangas, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Arizona, for research on the oral history of health service in Yemen, focu ing on practitioner and community perspective Josef Meri, Ph.D. candidate in Judeo-I lamic hi tory, State University of New York, Binghamton, for research on the figure of al-Khadir in I lamic tradition and its parallels in Near Eastern sources Jillian Schwedler, Ph.D. candidate in Middle East tudies, New York Unive ity, for research on the tran formation of Islamist group in Yemen and Jordan Jeff Shalan, Ph.D. candidate in Maghrebian literature and culture , University of Wiscon in, Madison, for research on the role of popular culture in the Maghrebian oppo ition to the Gulf War Jonathan Shannon, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, City University of New York, Graduate Center, for research on political and religiou expre ion of Islam and their relation hip to everyday urban experience VOLUME

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, Dissertation Fellowships in Underrepresented Disciplines David Bartram, Ph.D. candidate in ociology, University of Wi con in, Madi on, for re earch on tate development politie , ethnic labor market tratification, and indu trialization in I rael Jeremy Foltz, Ph.D. candidate in agricultural economic, University of Wi con in, Madi on, for re earch on de igning u tainable agricultural production, focu ing on the economic of irrigation in Tuni ia Michael Fri hkopf, Ph.D. candidate in ethnomu icology, University of California, Lo Angele , for re earch on the mu ic, meaning, and emotion in the Sufi Dhikr of Egypt

Dissertation Fellowships in the Social Sciences and Humanities Avram Born tein, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Columbia University, for research on the commemoration of c1as and nation in two Pale tinian village M. Laetitia Cairoli, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Columbia University, Teachers College, for research on indu trial wage labor and gender, focu ing on Moroccan factory workers Ellen Lu t-Okar, Ph.D. candidate in comparative politic , University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, for re earch on economic and political liberalization in the Middle East Cynthia Metcalf, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Univer ity of Virginia, for re earch on Rose al-Yu uf: the theater, nationali m, and femini m in Egypt, 1910-50 Yael Navaro, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Princeton University, for research on Turki h I lami t reading and u e of We tern ocial theory Bruce Rutherford, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Yale University, for research on understanding the contribution of legal in titution to civil ociety, focu ing on the case of judicial review in Egypt Mohammad Shabazi, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Wa hington University, St. Loui , for research on formal education and Qashqa'i nomadic pastorali ts of outhern Iran, analyzing the role of choolteachers Samer Shehata, Ph.D. candidate in comparative politic, Princeton Univer ity, for research on working-c1as politics and culture in Egypt Feza Tan ug, Ph.D. candidate in ethnomu icology, University of Maryland, Baltimore, for research on national identity and popular mu ic in Turkey

Laura Bear, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology and hi tory, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, for research on the haping of Anglo-Indian identity in colonial and po t-colonial India, focu ing on the railway colony at Kharagpur, India, from 1850-1994 Clea Finkle, Ph.D. candidate in political cience, Univerity of Washington, for re earch on the tate, community, and police in Kanpur City Lauren Leve, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Princeton University, for re earch on the ri e of Theravada Buddhi m in Nepal Caitrin Lynch, Ph .D. candidate in anthropology, University of Chicago, for research on the effect of tran nationali m and gender on national identity formation, focu ing on export-oriented garment factorie in Sri Lanka

Bangladesh Fellowship Program, Predissertation Awards The following predi sertation fellow hip were awarded by the Banglade h Fellow hip Selection Committee of the Joint Committee on South A ia-Jame Boyce, Shelley Feldman, and Paul Greenough. Toby Alice Volkman, Itty Abraham , and Sandra Fahy erved a taff for thi program. Atiya Mahmood, Ph.D. candidate in architecture, Univerity of Wi con in, Milwaukee, for re earch on the implication of gender role in the workplace and in the home Rahnuma Shehabuddin, Ph.D. candidate in political cience, Princeton University, for research on women' re i tance, prote t, and ubsequent change in rural South A ia Le lie Steinfeld, Ph.D. candidate in South A ian language and civilization , University of Chicago, for a comparative tudy on the Bengali language almanac or "Panjika " in Banglade h and We t Bengal Hugh Urban, Jr., Ph.D. candidate in religion, University of Chicago, for research on the role of the creative imagination in the meditative practice and rituals of the Vi nava-Sahajiya sect

Bangladesh Fellowship Program, Dissertation Awards The following di sertation fellow hip were al 0 awarded by the Banglade h Fellow hip Selection Committee:

South Asia The following di sertation fellow hip were awarded by the Joint Committee on South A ia-Jame Boyce (chair), Amrita Basu, Radhika Coomaraswamy, Nicholas Dirks, Paul Greenough, Patricia Jeffery, David Ludden, Jonathan Parry, and Sheldon Pollock - at its meeting on February 18-20, 1994. Toby Alice Volkman, Itty Abraham, and Sandra Fahy served as taff for thi program. JUNE/SEPTEMBER

1994

Jude Fernando, Ph.D. candidate in South Asian tudies, University of Penn ylvania, for a comparative tudy on nongovernmental organization as in titutional actors in economic development in Sri Lanka and Banglade h Aminur Rahman, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Manitoba, for re earch on gender relation and empowerment for women in rural Banglade h

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Southeast Asia

Predissertation Fellowships The following predi sertation fellow hip were awarded by the Joint Committee on Southeast A ia-Jane Monnig Atkin on (chair), Barbara Andaya, Richard Doner, Robert Hefner, Charle Hirschman, Jomo Kwame Sundaram, Hendrilc Maier, Chetana Nagavajara, Yicente Rafael, Teruo Sekimoto, and Hue-Tam Ho Tai. Toby Alice Yollcman, Itty Abraham, and Erika Solberg served as taff for thi program. Caroline Cleave, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Chicago, for preliminary research on Filipino migrants and Philippine modernity in overseas labor and cultural tran formation Lene Cro by, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Southern California, for preliminary research in Indone ia on water, king hip, and power Eleanor Jaluague, Ph.D. candidate in literature, University of California, San Diego, for preliminary research on political agency in the context of modem, neocolonial tate formation in the Philippine Kathryn Poethig, Ph.D. candidate in religion and ociety, Graduate Theological Union, for preliminary research on Khmer American in Phnom Penh, aiming toward a tran national reading of citizen hip There a Lynn Selfa, Ph.D. candidate in ruraI ociology, Cornell University, for preliminary research in the Philippine and Brazil on the ocial and environmental dynamic of resource di tribution in newly democratizing Third World tate

Dissertation Fellowships The following di sertation fellow hip were al 0 awarded by the Joint Committee on Southeast A ia: Ratana Boonmathya, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Washington, for re earch on local concept of development in rural Thailand Dominique Caouette, Ph.D. candidate in government, Cornell University, for research in the Philippine on the impact of international and dome tic change on the struggle for democratic reform Barbara Gaerlan, Ph.D. candidate in education, University of California, Lo Angele , for research on the challenge to Engli h as the medium on in truction in Philippine higher education Jeffrey Hadler, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Cornell University, for research on identity, no talgia, and Minanglcabau familie in Sumatra, 1860-1942 Alexander Hinton, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Emory University, for research on py cho ocial origin of violence in cultural model for Cambodian behavior Tamara Loo , Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Cornell University, for research in Thailand on gender, law, and the tate in Siam, 1865-1935 Melanie McDermott, Ph.D. candidate in environmental 66\ ITEMS

science, policy, and management, University of California, Berkeley, for research on conservation, indigenou communitie, and the Philippine tate Michael Malley, Ph.D. candidate in political science, University of Wi con in, Madi on, for research on tran national and ubnational model of development in Indone ia Bartholomew Ryan, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Harvard University, for research on the con truction and understanding of national identity in Indone ia John Schoenfelder, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of California, Lo Angele , for archeological research on the irrigation sy tem of Bali Neferti Xina Tadiar, Ph.D. candidate in literature, Dulce University, for research on developing ubjects in contemporary Philippine literature, 1973-93 Nancy Yogt, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Wi con in, Madi on, for research in Indone ia on gender, work, and community in three tran migrant settlement

Soviet Union and Its Successor States

Dissertation Fellowships The following di sertation fellow hip were awarded by the Joint Committee on the Soviet Union and Its Succe sor State -Reginald Zelnik (chair), Barbara Anderson, Nancy Lubin, Jame Millar, Philip Roeder, Daniel Rowland, Stephanie Sandler, M. Nazif Shahrani, Jack Snyder, and Roman Szporlulc-at it meeting on April 22-23, 1994. The committee was a i ted by a creening committee: Philip Roeder (chair), Daniel Berkowitz, Diane Koenlcer, Cathy Popkin, M. Nazif Shahrani, and Carol Steven. Su an Bron on, Scott Bruckner, Jill Finger, and Chri topher Tarrow served as taff for thi program. Golfo Alexopolou , Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, University of Chicago, for a di sertation on Soviet Iishentsy, 1926-36, the making and unmaking of outcasts Laurie Es ig, Ph.D. candidate in ociology, Columbia University, for a di sertation on objects of knowledge/ ubjects of de ire: conte ting the meaning of sexual minoritie in Ru ia, 1989-94 Timothy Frye, Ph.D. candidate in political cience, Columbia University, for a di sertation on in titution and credible commitment: case from Ru ia Julie He ler, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, University of Chicago, for a di sertation on a culture of hortage : exchange practice and material value in Soviet Ru ia,

1917-53 Le ter Jacob on, Ph.D. candidate in Iingui tic, University of Pittsburgh, for a di sertation on case theory and the diachronic semantic of the Ru ian in trumental Chri tina Kiaer, Ph.D. candidate in art hi tory, University of California, Berkeley, for a di sertation on Ru ian con tructivi m and the revolutionizing of everyday life,

1921-32 Robert Moser, Ph.D. candidate in political cience, VOLUME

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University of Wi con in, Madi on, for a di sertation on the emergence of political partie in po t-Soviet Ru ia Chri topher Nevitt, Ph.D. candidate in political science, University of California, San Diego, for a di sertation on democracy and markets in tran forming Lenini t y tern Kerry Pannell, Ph.D. candidate in economic, Stanford University, for a di sertation on the liberalization of trade in the former Soviet Union Stephanie Platz, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Univerity of Chicago, for a di ertation on ocial pace and time in cri i : peace, hi tory, and the Annenian national imagination Darlene Reddaway, Ph.D. candidate in literature, Stanford University, for a di sertation on Rus ian literary manife to , 1910-14: poetic theory, presentation, politics, and practice D'Ann Rook, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, University of California, Berkeley, for a di sertation on pride, power, and pitchfork : a tudy of farmer-party interaction on the Don, 1920-34 Willard Sunderland, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Indiana University, for a di sertation on communitie and empire: Ru ian pea ant settlement and inter-ethnic relation in the Ru ian imperial borderlands, 1780-1850 A trid Tuminez, Ph.D. candidate in political cience, Mas achusetts In titute of Technology, for a di sertation on Ru ian nationali m: content, empowerment, and impact on foreign policy Sally We t, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Illinois, for a di sertation on adverti ing and ociety in pre-revolutionary Rus ia Graduate Training Fellowships The following graduate training fellow hip were al 0 awarded by the Joint Committee on the Soviet Union and Its Succe sor State : Kathryn Brown, graduate tudent in hi tory, University of Washington, to tudy ethnicity, nationali m, and the development of diasporas Heather L. Carli Ie, graduate tudent in geography, University of California, Berkeley, to tudy geopolitical aspects of water in po t-Soviet central Asia Sascha Goluboff, graduate student in cultural anthropology, University of lllinois, Urbana-Champaign, to tudy Ru sian Jewi h identity Katherine E. Graney, graduate tudent in political science, University of Wiscon in, Madison, to tudy the formation of national identity: the Volga Tatars Jennifer Senick-Gold tein, graduate tudent in political science, University of California, Lo Angeles, to study industrial labor in transition: employment, income security, and privatization

(chair), Barry Eichengreen, Go ta E ping-Andersen, Mary Fulbrook, Peter A. Hall, Gerhard Haupt, Philip Nord, Marino Regini, and Su an Carol Rogers-at it meeting on April 21-22, 1994. The screening committee members that evaluated application thi year were: Jeffrey Anderson, Nancy Bermeo, Judith Coffin, Patricia Craig, Sarah Farmer, Jame Herbert, Patrick Ireland, Gary McDonogh, Su an Parman, Abigail Soloman-Godeau, and David Strang. Kenton W. Worce ter and Ju tin J.W. Powell served as taff for this program. Diamantoula Anagno tou, Ph.D. candidate in government, Cornell Univer ity: "The European Community and the Re tructuring of Regional Political Economy in Greece: Consequence of the Changing Work Pattern and Identitie of Women and Ethnic Minoritie " Eli a Camiscioli, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, University of Chicago: "Inventing Identity: The Italian Community of Pari , 1919-1940" Beth S. Ep tein, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, New York University: "Con tructing Community: The Uses of Difference in a State-Planned City in France" Oz Frankel, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, University of California, Berkeley: "The Politic and Culture of Public Inve tigation in Early Nineteenth-Century Britain" Kimberly A. Holton, Ph.D. candidate in performance tudie , Northwe tern University: "Rancho Folclorico: An Ethnography of Portuguese Performance" Daniel M. Klerman, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, University of Chicago: "Criminal Ju tice and Private Settlement: Appeal, Presentment, and Tre pas in ThirteenthCentury England" Andrea N. Maier, Ph.D. candidate in art hi tory, Univerity of California, Berkeley: "Figurative Art in Paris after World War II" Su annah R. Ottaway, Ph.D. candidate in history, Brown University: " Aging in the Eighteenth Century" Lee Ann S. Patterson, Ph.D. candidate in international affairs, University of Pittsburgh: "Regulating Competitivene s: A Comparative Study of Biotechnology Policy in the EC and the U.S." Elizabeth A. Schott, Ph.D. candidate in art history, University of California, Berkeley: "Con idering Representation of the Nude in their Social-Hi torical Context: The Case of Rembrandt and the Netherland " Andrea L. Smith, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Arizona: "Colonial Lirninality: Social Memory and Identity of Maltese-Origin Pieds-Noirs" Gary M. Wilder, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Chicago: "Subjects or Citizens? Negritude, Colonialism, and the Nation-State in France, 19281960"

Advanced Grants for Area and Comparative Research and Training

Western Europe

Africa

The following dissertation fellowship were awarded by the Joint Committee on We tern Europe-Peter Lange

The following advanced research grants were awarded by the Joint Committee on African Studies-Kwame A.

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Appiah (chair), Paul Collier, Mamadou Diouf, Paula Girshick, Bogumil Jew iewicki Ko ,Peter Little, Catharine Newbury, Paul Richard , and Pearl Robinon-at its meeting on March 18-19, 1994. M. Pri cilla Stone, Barbara Bianco, and Michael Johngren served as taff for this program. Donald L. Donham, as ociate profe or of anthropology, Emory Univer ity, to examine relation among racial and ethnic group working at a gold mine in South Africa Beverly C. Grier, as i tant profe or of government, Clark University, to inve tigate child labor in colonial Zimbabwe from 1890 to 1965 Karen T. Hansen, as ociate profe or of anthropology, Northwe tern Univer ity, to examine the trade in and con umption of u ed clothing imported from the We t to Zambia Angelique Haugerud, a ociate profe or of anthropology, Yale Univer ity, to inve tigate political culture in Kenya in relation to ocial differentiation and the flow of ideas and good between town and country ide Maxwell K. Owu u, profe or of anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, to examine the tran ition from military to con titutional rule in Ghana Su an J. Ra mu sen, as i tant profe or of anthropology, University of Hou ton , to tudy the cultural and ymbolic role of female healing peciali ts in Niger Jame F. Searing, as i tant profe or of hi tory, University of Illinoi , Chicago, to examine the relation hip between conflict and ocial change in Senegal from 1860 to 1934 Chri tine Sylve ter, a ociate profe or of political cience, Northern Arizona University. to examine political discour e in Zimbabwe China The China Fellow hip Selection Committee (admini tered by the American Council of Learned Societie )Peter K. Bol (chair), Parks M. Coble, Shu-min Huang , Joseph S. M. Lau, Lawrence J. Lau, Thomas H. C. Lee, Steven I. Levine, Victor H. Mair, and William L. Pari h-at its meeting on February 26, 1994, awarded po tdoctoral fellowship to the following individuals. Jason H. Parker and Ruth Waters served as taff for thi program. All recipient are Chiang Ching-kuo Foundation/ACLS Fellow upported by funding received from the Chiang Ching-kuo Foundation . William C. Kirby, profe or of modem Chine e history, Harvard University. State and economy ill'Republican China Kenneth G. Lieberthal , profe or of political cience, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. A first tep toward understanding the ource and limit of in titutional durability in China Julia Killin Murray, as ociate profe or of Chinese art history, University of Wi consin, Madison. Chine e 68 \ ITEMS

narrative illu tration and the projection of Confucian value in art William H. Nienhauser, profe sor of Chinese literature, University of Wi con in, Madi on. Intertextuality and early Chinese narrative: the Grand Scribe' record , precursors and legacy Stephen Owen, profe sor of Chinese and comparative literature, Harvard University. E ay in early Chinese literature Anne P. Underhill, vi iting a i tant profe or of anthropology/archeology, McGill University. The development of ocial complexity during the late Neolithic period of China, circa 2600-1900 B.C.

Eastern Europe The Joint Committee on Eastern Europe (admini tered by the American Council of Learned Societie )-Norman M. Naimark (chair), Ivo Banac, Josef C. Brada, David A. Frick, Victor A. Friedman , Su an Gal , Elemer Hankiss, Ve na Pu ie, and Kazimierz Slomczyn ki-at its meeting on March 4-5 , 1994, voted to award po tdoctoral fellowship to the following individuals. Jason H. Parker and Ruth Waters served as taff for this program. Valerie J. Bunce, profe sor of government, Cornell University. Regional cooperation in Eastern Europe: the Visegrad Group Grzegorz Ekiert, assi tant profe or of government, Harvard University. Strategie of collective prote t in democratizing ocietie Judit Frigye i, as i tant profe or of mu ic, Princeton University. The birth of the Hungarian avant-garde: Bela Bartok and tum-of-the-century Budape t Beth Holmgren, a i tant profe or of Slavic language , University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. Icon and fashionplate : the writer con umed in fin-de- iecle Poland and Ru ia John J. Kulczycki , as ociate profe or of hi tory, University of Illinoi , Chicago. The development of Poli h national identity under communi t rule Anna Seleny, a i tant profe or of political cience, Princeton Univer ity. The in titution and culture of work and enterprise in po t- ociali t mixed economie Michael K. Silber, lecturer in Jewi h hi tory, Hebrew University. Joseph n and Hab burg Jewry, 1780-1790: a tudy in enlightened ab oluti m in Ea tern Europe Vladimir Ti maneanu , as ociate profe or of political science, University of Maryland, College Park. Political mythologie of po t-communi m

Japan The following advanced research grant were awarded by the Joint Committee on Japanese Studie -Jame W. White (chair), Theodore C. Be tor, Mary Brinton, Andrew Gordon , Irmela Hijiya-Kirschnereit, Hideo Otake, Mark Ramseyer, and Henry Smith-at its April 23-24, 1994 VOLUME

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meeting in Chicago. The committee wa as i ted by a fellow hip selection ubcommittee: Henry Smith (chair), Karen Brazell, Mark Ramseyer, and TJ. Pempel. Mary B. McDonnell, Mimi M. Kim, John X. Kim, and Dee L. Warren served a taff for thi program.

Advanced Research Grams David Ara ,lecturer, School of Oriental and African Studie , University of London, for research on Japan' promotion of East A ian regionali m David Campbell, lecturer in economic, University of Essex, Colche ter, for re arch on the relative proportion of life-cycle wealth in the total wealth accumulated by Japane e household between 1974-1984 H. Richard Friman, a ociate profe or of political ience, Marquette University, for re arch on immigration and drug control policy in contemporary Japan Bai Gao, as i tant profe or of ociology, Duke University, for research on anti-tru t policy and the development of Keiretsu in po twar Japan Suzanne Gay, as ociate profe or of hi tory, Oberlin College, for a tudy of the medieval Japanese emperor T uyo hi Hasegawa, profe or of hi tory, University of California, Santa Barbara, for re earch on SovietlRu 0Japane e relation in the pere troika and po t-pere troika period Hosea Hirata, a i tant profe or of literature, Princeton University, for tudy of interiority and exteriority in modem Japanese literature Keiko Ikeda, as i tant profe or of anthropology, Barnard College, for re earch on changing gender relation hip among Japanese couple of retirement age Kimberly Jone ,a i tant profe or of lingui tic , Univerity of Arizona, for research on how Japanese and American women direct the action of others in the workplace Jacqueline Stone, a i tant profe or of religion, Princeton Unversity, for a tudy of deathbed ritual in medieval Japan Stephen Vlasto ,profe or of hi tory, University of Iowa, for research on Japanese agrarian political movements and ocial thought during the inter-war period Research Planning Grants Theodore C. Be tor, as ociate profe or of anthropology, Cornell University, for a planning meeting to compile a guide to field re earch in Japan Mary C. Brinton, profe r of ociology, University of Chicago, for a planning meeting on gender and work in East A ian indu trialization Steven Rosefielde, profe or of economic , University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, for a planning meeting on denuclearization of North Pacific Rim and the U.S.Japan Security Treaty Stephen Vlasto ,profe or of hi tory, University of Iowa, for a conference on invention of Japane tradition JUNeJSEPTEMBER

1994

Korea The following advanced research grant were awarded by the Joint Committee on Korean Studie -Clark Sorensen (chair), Alice Amsden, Robert E. Bu well, Jr., Hyoung Cho, Carter Eckert, Uchang Kim, Chae-jin Lee, and Dae-Sook Suh-at its February 25-26, 1994 meeting in Honolulu. Mimi M. Kim and John X. Kim erved as taff for thi program. Nancy Abelmann, a i tant profe or of anthropology, University of Illinoi , Urbana-Champaign, for research on women' narrative of ocial mobility and clas di tinction in South Korea Chung- hin Park, as i tant profe or of hi tory, Oklahoma State University, for re earch on Prote tant Chri tianity and politic in late Confucian and colonial Korea Kathryn Weathersby, as i tant profe or of hi tory, Florida State University, for re earch on Soviet policy toward Korea, 1945-53 Yun-Ae Yi, independent cholar, for a tudy of deci ion to abort female fetuse in South Korea and their consequence Research Planning Grants Nancy Abelmann, as i tant profe or of anthropology, and John Lie, as i tant profe or of ociology, both at University of Illinoi , Urbana-Champaign, for a conference on tran nationali m and diaspora of modem Korea Robert E. Bu well, Jr., as ociate profe or of religion, University of California, Lo Angele, for a conference on Korea' pia e within the East A ian Buddhi t tradition Hyoung Cho, profe or of ociology, Ewha Women's University, for a planning meeting on women and development in Korea Latin America and the Caribbean The following advanced research grants were awarded by the Joint Committee on Latin American Studie Barbara Stalling (chair), Jere Behrman, Jose Joaqufn Brunner, Ruth Cardo 0, Fernando Rojas, Rodolfo Stavenhagen, Hilda S~bato, Laurence Whitehead, and George Yudice-at its meeting on May 14-15, 1994. Eric Hershberg, Knut Walter, Jennifer Raskin and Alexandra Cordero served as taff for thi program. Philip Brenner, profe or and chair of international politic and foreign policy, American University, for research on pattern of U.S.-Cuban relation ince 1959 Charle Brigg, profe sor of anthropology, Vas ar College, for research on narrative response to the 1992-93 cholera epidemic among the Warao population of Venezuela Michael Foley, as ociate profe or of politic, Catholic ITEMS/69


University, for research on the recent trajectory and future pro peets of the Mexican peasant movement Ricardo Godoy, research as ociate, Harvard Institute for International Development, and lecturer of anthropology, Harvard University, for research on household-level determinant of encroachment into rainfore t reserve of Honduras Lourde Martfnez-Echwbal, as ociate profe or of Latin American literature , University of California, Santa Cruz, for research on the articulation of African and Portugue e culture and their performative role in the cultural and political arenas from 1822 to the present Francine Masiello, profe or of Spani h and chair of comparative literature, University of California, Berkeley, for research on 19th-century cultural exchange between intellectual of North and South America Jani Nuckoll, as i tant profe or of anthropology, University of Alabama, Birmingham, for research on the ound ymbolic discourse of the Quechua- peaking Ecuadoran village of Sara Yaku Eduardo Silva, as i tant profe or of political science, University of Mi souri, St. Loui , for research on the politic of fore t conservation and u tainable development in Chile, Venezuela, Co ta Rica, and Mexico Peter Singelmann, as ociate profe or of ociology, University of Mi ouri, Kan a City, for re earch on the impact of the recent political and con titutional change in Mexico on peasants and farmers in the ugar cane sector

Near and Middle East The following advanced research grants were awarded by the Joint Committee on the Near and Middle East-Joel S. Migdal (chair), Soraya Altorki, Kiren Chaudhry, Juan Cole, Deniz Kandiyoti, Mary Layoun, Zachary Lockman, Fedwa Malti-Douglas , Timothy Mitchell, Sevket Pamule-at its meeting on March 19-20, 1994. The committee was as i ted by a creening ubcommittee: Juan Cole (chair), Nathan Brown, Donna Lee Bowen, Mary Wit on, and Re at Kasaba. Steven Heydemann and Sandra Fahy served as taff for thi program.

Mid-Career Skills Enrichment Fellowships for Tenured Faculty Scott Bollen , as ociate profe or of urban and regional planning, University of California, Irvine, for research on urban policy in ethnically polarized citie , focu ing on I rael Laurie Brand, as i tant profe or of international relation, University of Southern California, for research on Arab women and political liberalization, focu ing on Jordan and Tuni ia Robert Mortimer, profe or of political cience, Haverford College, for research on I lam and democratization in Algeria Af aneh Najmabadi, as ociate profe or of women' 70\ITEMS

tudie , Barnard College, for research on the gendered trope of Iranian modernity Djavad Salehi-I fahani, as ociate profe or of economic, Virginia Polytecnic In titule and State University, for a microeconomic analy i of fertility in Iran Gershon Shafir, as ociate profe or of ociology, Univerity of California, San Diego, for research on ethnicity, coloniali m and democracy: the multiple face of citizen hip in I rael Postdoctoral Fellowships in Underrepre ented Disciplines Nezar AI-Sayyad, as ociate profe or of architecture, University of California, Berkeley, for research on the representation of the nation- tate in the Arab Middle East: public hou ing policy and public hou ing form in Egypt, Bahrain, and Tuni ia Mohsen Bahmani-O kooee, profe or of economic , University of Wi con in, Milwaukee, for research on the macroeconomic effect of the depreciation of the Iranian rial during the po t revolutionary period Nora Colton, as i tant profe or of economic , Drew University, for re earch on labor markets in the Middle East ince the Gulf cri i , focu ing on Egypt, Jordan, and Yemen Benjamin Hary, as i tant profe sor of Iingui tic , Emory University, for tudie of Egyptian Judeo-Arabic religiou tran lation Ahmad Karimi-Hakkak, profe or of literature, University of Washington, for research on the literary culture of Iran ince the I lamic revolution Dale Lightfoot, as i tant profe or of geography, Old Dominion University, for research on the Foggara irrigation in the Middle East: ancient technology in a modem world Postdoctoral Fellowships in the Social Sciences and Humanities Sibel Bozdogan, as i tant profe or of architecture, Mas achusetts In titule of Technology, for research on the culture and politic of architecture in the making of modem Turkey Michael Chamberlain, as i tant profe or of hi tory, University of Wi con in, Madi on, for re earch on the politic of here y in the Mamluk Empire, 1250-1501 Suad Jo eph, profe or of anthropology, University of California, Davi , for research on elf, gender, patriarchy, and tate in Lebanon. Julie Peteet, as i tant profe or of anthropology, University of Loui ville, for research on the con truction of pace, place, and identity: narrative and praxi in a refugee community

South Asia The following advanced re arch grants were awarded by the Joint Committee on South A ia-Jame Boyce (chair), Amrita Basu, Radhika Coomaraswamy, Nicholas VOLUME

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Dirk, Paul Greenough, Patricia Jeffery, David Ludden, Jonathan Parry, and Sheldon Pollock-at its meeting on February 18-20, 1994. Toby Alice Volkman, Itty Abraham, and Sandra Fahy served a taff for thi program. Arun Agarwal, a i tant profe sor in political science, University of Aorida, for research on local, microin titutional,and indigenou olution to the problem of resource carcitie Anne Feldhau , profe sor of religion, Arizona State University, Tempe, for research on the religiou geography and regional consciou ne in Maharashtra Aye ha Jalal, a sociate profe sor of hi tory, Columbia University, for research on the theorie and hi torical evolution of monolithic and layered overeigntie in South A ia William Pinch, as i tant profe or of hi tory, We ley an University, for re earch on acetic, bandits, and oldiers in northern India, 1700-1850 Paula Richman, as ociate profe or in South A ian religion , Oberlin College, for research on the Tamil "Ramayana" discourse in Madras, India, 1918-1956 Shanaz Rou ,as ociate profe or in ociology, Sarah Lawrence College, for research on women' truggle in the Mu lim world in reaction to nationali m, cultural identity, imperiali m, and the up urge in I lamic militance Stanley Steven, a i tant profe or of geography, Loui iana State Univer ity, Baton Rouge, for research on economic and environmental change in eastern Nepal

The following advanced research grants were awarded by the Joint Committee on Southeast A ia-Jane Monnig Atkin on (chair), Barbara Andaya, Richard Doner, Robert Hefner, Charle Hirschman, Jomo Kwame Sundaram, Hendrik Maier, Chetana Nagavajara, Vicente Rafael, Teruo Sekimoto, and Hue-Tam Ho Tai-at its March 20-22, 1994 meeting in Rockport, MA. Toby Alice Volkman, Iny Abraham, and Erika Solberg served as staff for thi program. Warwick Anderson, as i tant profe or of the history of science, Harvard University, and adjunct as i tant profe or of social medicine, Harvard Medical School, for research on public health and social change in the Philippine, 1898-1930 John .Bowen, associate profe or of anthropology, Washington University, for research on the dynamic of legal pluraJi m in relation to inheritance, religious reasoning, and pecial change in an [ndone ian ociety May Ebihara, profe sor of anthropology, City University of New York, for research on revolution, tran formation, and tradition in a Cambodian village Audrey Kahin, editor, Indonesia, Cornell Southeast A ia Program, for research in rebellion and integration in We t Sumatra under coloniali m and independence JUNE/SEPTEMBER

1994

Joel Kuipers, associate profe or of anthropology and international affairs, George Washington University, for research on peech, pectatorship, and the formation of public culture in Sumba, [ndone ia Geraldine Moreno-Black, as ociate profe or of anthropology, University of Oregon, for research on female farming practice a environmental activi m in northeast Thailand Marina Ro eman, a i tant profe or of mu ic, University of Penn ylvania, for research in Malay ia on dream , ong , and other encounters of a Southeast A ian rainfore t people Soviet Union and Its Successor States The following advanced research grant were awarded by the Joint Committee on the Soviet Union and It Succe or State -Reginald Zelnik (chair), Barbara Anderson, Nancy Lubin, Jame Millar, Philip Roeder, Daniel Rowland, Stephanie Sandler, M. Nazif Shahrani, Jack Snyder, and Roman Szporluk-at its meeting on April 22-23, 1994. The committee was as i ted by a screening committee: Jack Snyder (chair), Su an Amert, Linda Cook, Laura Engel tein, and Michael Kennedy. Su an Bronson, Scott Bruckner, Jill Finger, and Chri topher Tarrow served as taff for thi program. Postdoctoral Fellowships

Cynthia Buckley, as i tant profe or of sociology, Univerity of Texas, Au tin, for research on the rural Ru ian elderly Catherine Ciepiela, as i tant profe sor of Ru ian literature, Amherst College, for a comparative study of T vetaeva, Mayakov ky, and Pasternak Stephen Fitzgerald Crowley, as i tant profe sor of political science, Columbia University, for research on workers' re ponse to the tran formation of the former Soviet Union Jehanne M. Gheith, as i tant profe or of Ru ian literature, Duke University, for research on women writers in 19th-century Ru ia Beth Mitchneck, as i tant profe sor of geography, Univerity of Arizona, for research on how centrally initiated in titutional change influence the economic role of local government Stephen Moeller-Sally, as i tant profe sor of literature, Stanford University, for research on a socio-hi tori cal tudy of Ru ian literary and cultural critici m of the late 19th and early 20th centurie Nancy Rie , as i tant profe sor of anthropology, Colgate University, for research on narrative transformation in a changing Ru sia John Samuel Schoeberlein-Engel, as i tant profe sor of anthropology, Harvard University, for research on would-be nation : counter-national forms of identity in central A ia Steven Solnick, as i tant profe sor of political science, Columbia University, for research on路 how in titution ITEMS171


emerge acro s ethnic, territorial, and political boundarie in the post-Soviet space Theodore R. Weeks, assi tant profes or of history, Southern l\1inoi University, for re earch on social, economic, political, and ethnic change in Ru ia's western provinces, 1855-1914 Research and Development Awards Marjorie Balzer, Department of Sociology, Georgetown University, for re earch on ethnic con ciou ne and nationali m in the Sakha Republic Elizabeth Hatchen, Department of Hi tory, University of Wi con in, Whitewater, for a conference on regionalism, local intere t ,and cience: the historical legacy for the Baltics, Ru ia, and Ukraine Alexander Motyl, Harriman In titute, Columbia University, for seminars on ocial cience theory and po t-Soviet realitie Karen Ryan-Hayes, Department of Ru ian, University of Virginia, for a three-day ympo ium on Ru ian language methodology and second language acquisition Steven Yates, Museum of New Mexico, Univer ity of New Mexico, for an exhibit on cultural parallels and interaction : the new internationalism in photographic art Faculty Professional Development and Retraining Grants Rogers Brubaker, Department of Sociology, University of California, Lo Angele, for a summer program of inten ive study of the Ru sian language Gaye Chri toffersen, Program on International Economics and Politics, East-We t Center, Honolulu, for a ummer program of inten ive study of the Ru sian language at Pushkin kii Dom in St. Petersburg Linda Cook, Department of Political Science, Brown University, for a summer program in economics at Harvard University William Gleason, Department of History, University of Nebraska, for a summer program of inten ive study of the Ukrainian language at Harvard University Roger Kangas, Department of Political Science, University of Mi si ippi, for a ummer program in quantitative methods at the University of Michigan Vernon Schubel, Department of Religion, Kenyon College, for a ummer program of inten ive tudy of the Uzbek language Institutional Support Programs In its fifth national competition of grants for first-year fellow hip in underrepresented fields, the Joint Committee on the Soviet Union and It Succe or State was a sisted by a screening committee-Marjorie Balzer (chair), William Bielby, Paul Friedrich, Michael Fi her, and Roman Szporluk. Su an Bron on, Scott Bruckner, Jill Finger, and Chri topher Tarrow erved a taff for thi program. The following award were made: 72\ITEMS

Anthropology: Indiana University; University of Michigan Sociology: Univer ity of California, Lo Angeles; Univerity of Michigan; Princeton University In its tenth national competition of grants to American in titute that offer inten ive training in Ru ian and the non-Ru ian language of the former Soviet Union, the Joint Committee on the Soviet Union and It Successor States, assisted by a creening committee-Stephanie Sandler (chair), Michael Flier, Victor Friedman, Frank Miller, and A ade-Ayse Rorlich-made the following award at its meeting on March 12, 1994. Su an Bron on and Jill Finger served as taff for thi program. Ru ian Language In titute in the United State : Beloit College; Bryn Mawr College; Indiana University; The Johns Hopkins Univer ity, School of Advanced International Studie ; Middlebury College; Monterey Institute of International Studie ; Norwich University Ru ian Language Institute in Ru ia: Univer ity of Arizona; Council on International Educational Exchange; State University of New York, Albany Non-Ru ian Language Institutes in the United States: University of California, Lo Angeles, Azeri and Uzbek program; Indiana University, E tonian, Georgian, Kazakh, Kirghiz, Turkmen, and Uzbek programs; Harvard University, Ukrainian program; University of Kentucky, Kazakh program; Univer ity of Washington, Kazakh (2nd year only), Kirghiz, Lithuanian, and Tajik program ; University of Wisconsin, Kazan Tatar and Tajik program Non-Ru ian Language In titute in the former Soviet Union: University of Michigan, Armenian program; University of Kan as, Ukrainian program; Penn State University, Ukrainian program

Other Programs Abe Fellowship Program The following grant were awarded by the Abe Fellowhip Program Committee-Akira Kojima, Edward Lincoln, Take hi Matsuda, Thomas Rimer, Akihilco Tanaka, Ken'ichi Tominaga, James White-at its meeting on October 16-17, 1993. Mary Byrne McDonnell, Steven Wheatley, Mary Lea Cox, and Jenni Bourque served as taff for thi program. Kiyo hi Adachi, as ociate profe or, Department of Social Welfare, Japan College of Social Work. "U.S.-Japan Comparative Study of Community Network and Volunteer Community Activity A i ting the Elderly" Yuko A akura, researcher, Department of Health Sociology, Tokyo Metropolitan In titute of Health Gerontology. "Supportive Sy tern Which Promote Elderly VOLUME

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Per on ' Independence: A Study of Their Structure and Pro pect " Su umu Awanohara, Wa hington Bureau Chief, Far Eastern Economic Review. "U.S. Congre and A ia" Theodore C. Be tor, a ociate profe or, Department of Anthropology, Cornell University. "Atlantic Bluefin Tuna: A Case Study of Tran national Trade and Global Marine Re ource " Ruth Campbell, as ociate director, Social Work and Community Program , Univer ity of Michigan Geriatric Center. "Japan' Aging Society: At Home and in the Community" Robert Evan, Jr., Atran Profe or of Labor Economic, Department of Economic, Brandei University. "Fairne and Unity of Treatment in Japanese Labor Market" Kathryn Graven, taff reporter, The Wall Street Journal. "The Rice Triangle: The Cause and Consequence of Japane e Rice Liberalization" Nobuhiro Hiwatari, as ociate profe or, University of Tokyo. "Explaining the Persi tence of Trade Friction in U.S.-Japan Relation: A Que t for a Comparative International Political Economy Approach" Su umu Kurokawa, as ociate profe sor, Department of Economic, Shiga University. "Technological Innovation Strategie in the U.S. and Japan" Jame Marsh, profe or and chair, Department of Economic , Univer ity of Hawaii, Manoa. "Japanese-American Marine Re ource : Environmental Leadership on the North Pacific" Aurelia George Mulgan, a ociate, Center for International Affairs, Harvard University. "International Peacekeeping and Japan' Re ponse to the Challenge of Collective Security" Ulrike Schaede, a i tant profe or, Graduate School of International Relation and Pacific Studie , University of California, San Diego. "Mini try of FinanceBureaucrat, Regulation, and Economic Policy in Japan" Jame A. Schear, policy con ultant, Office of the U.N. Secretary General' Special Representative for Cambodia. "Multilateral Peace-Building Operation: Role , Limitation and Performance in the Field" Spencer Sherman, executive producer, Look East Production . "View Acro the Pond: How American Broadcast Joumali ts View Japan and How Japanese Broadcast Joumali t View the U.S." Jomo Kwame Sundaram, vi iting profe or, Cornell University. "Direct Foreign Inve tment, Late Indu trialization and Ethnic Relation : Malay ia, South Africa, and Brazil" Yu Takeda, as ociate profe or, Nara University of Education. "Workers' Control, Skill Dilution, and AFL Unioni m in the Early 20th Century" Mamoru T uda, associate profe or, 0 aka University of Foreign Studie . "A Cro -Cultural Study of the Criminal Ju tice Sy tem with Reference to Foreign Population in Japan, the United State , and Italy" Shin Watanabe, associate profe or, Department of Sociology, Sophia University. "A Comparative Study of Job-Matching Proce in the United State and Japan" Alison Wetherfield, vi iting profe or, Faculty of Law, JUNE/SEPTEMBER

1994

University of Tokyo. "Sexual Hara ment of Working Women in Japan: Policy Option and Emerging Solution "

Berlin Program for Advanced German and European Studies The following doctoral di sertation and po tdoctoral research fellow hip for a re idential year at the Free University of Berlin, were awarded by the joint selection committee of the Berlin Program for Advanced German and European Studie on April 5, 1994. Members of the American committee are Charle S. Maier (chair), Thomas Childers, Lily Gardner Feldman, Anton Kae , Andrei Markovit , and Wolfgang Streeck. Martin Kohli i chair of the German committee. Kenton W. Worce ter and Ju tin J.W. Powell served a taff for thi program. Michael T. Allen, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory of science, University of Penn ylvania: "Engineering and Modem Management in the Nazi SS: The Winschaftsverwaltungamt" Alexander S. Arguelle , Ph.D. in hi tory of religion, University of Chicago: "Re urrecting Myth and Religion of the Teutonic Past: The Neo-Teutonic Societie in Late Nineteenth-Century Germany" Jefferson S. Chase, Ph.D. in German literature, University of Virginia: "Moritz Saphir and the Politic of Humor in Nineteenth-Century German Culture" Cecilia Che a, Ph.D. candidate in political science, University of Washington: "Democratic Con olidation in East Germany and Poland: Civil Society as the Basi for a Comparative Approach" Alexandra Cole, Ph.D. candidate in political cience, University of California, Irvine: "The New Right in the New Europe: I It?" Li a J. Conant, Ph.D. candidate in political science, University of Washington: "Judicial Contribution to Integration: Member State Reaction to Policy-making of the European Court of Ju tice" Adam R. Daniel, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, University of Chicago: "The Social Politic of Mas Spectacle: Discourse and Practice of Cinema Cen orship in Germany before 1933" Berit E. Dencker, Ph.D. candidate in ociology, University of California, San Diego: "Culture, Clas , and Politic in German Popular Nationali m: 1850-1892" Hannah E. Kettler, Ph.D. candidate in economic, University of Notre Dame: "The Impact of Central Planning Legacie on the Tran formation of East German Enterprise " Diane Lakein, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor: "Discursive Practice of Germanne and Race: A Comparative Look at an Eastern and We tern Berlin Di trict" David J. Levin, as i tant profe or of German, Columbia University: "From Der Golem to Jud SO : A P ychological Hi tory of the Strange Alliance between Outsiders, Jew, and Cinema in Weimar Film" ITEMS 173


S. Jonathan Wiesen. Ph.D. candidate in hi tory. Brown University: "Recon truction and Recollection: Gennan Industrial Elite and the Challenge of Memory. 1945-

1965" SSRC-MacArthur Foundation FeUowships on Peace and Security in a Changing World The Committee on International Peace and SecurityLawrence Freedman (chair). Karen Dawi hat Albert Fi hlow. Peter J. Katzen tein. Paul M. Kennedy. Atul Kohli. Samuel C. Nolut hungu. Su anne H. Rudolph. Philip E. Tetlock. David C. Wright-voted to award the following SSRC-MacArthur Foundation Fellow hip on Peace and Security in a Changing World at it March 24-25. 1994 meeting. Steven Heydemann. Arun P. Elhance. Robert Latham. Paul Erick on. and Tracy Newman erved a taff for thi program.

Dissertation Fellowships The committee was a i ted by a creening ubcommittee- Michael MccGwire (chair). John Borneman. Seyom Brown. Raymond Duvall. Judith Gold tein. and Michael Watt -for the e award: Pamela L. Ballinger. Ph.D. candidate in anthropology. The John Hopkin University. for research on "The Identity Politic of I trian Regionali m: Force for Collective Security or Na cent Nationali m?" Marc Becker. Ph.D. candidate in hi tory. Univer ity of Kan a • for re earch on "Ethnic Ideologie and Nationali t Thought in Twentieth-Century Ecuador" Ann Frechette. Ph.D. candidate in anthropology. Harvard University. for re earch on "Legal Definition and Life Choice among Tibetan in Nepal" Korina Kagan. Ph.D. candidate in international relation. Hebrew Univer ity of Jeru alem. for re earch on "A ymmetrical Dyad : A Theoretical Framework for Analy ing Great Power-Small State Relation in International Politic " Vickie Langohr. Ph.D. candidate in political cience. Columbia University. for research on "The Survival Strategie of Civil Societie facing Repre ive State The Capitali t and Mu lim Brotherhood in Egypt.

1940-1965" Ram Manikkalingam. Ph.D. candidate in phy ic • Ma achusett In titute of Technology. for re earch on "Democracy and Cultural Difference: The U.S .• Colombia and Sri Lanka" Elaine R. Thoma. Ph.D. candidate in political cience. University of California. Berkeley. for re earch on "Economic Globalization and the Shifting Ground of National Citizen hip: Where do Peace and Security Stand?" Carolyn Tri t. Ph.D. candidate in geography. University of California. Berkeley. for re earch on "Environmental 74\1TEMS

Security? International Conservation Intervention and Environmental Entitlement in the Eastern Caribbean"

Postdoctoral Fellowships The committee wa a i ted by a creening ubcommittee-Dan Little (chair). Fen Hamp on. Richard Immennan. Lynn H. Miller. Lloyd Rudolph. and Martin Shaw-for these award :

Li Bin. a i tant research fellow in phy ic • In titute of Applied Phy ic and Computational Mathematic • Beijing. "The On-Site In pection of a Comprehensive Te t Ban" Ya heng Huang. as i tant profe sor of political cience. University of Michigan. Ann Arbor. "China' Integration to the Economie of Taiwan and Southeast A ia and the Impact on Security Preference of Chinese Regional Official" Radha Kumar. director. Helsinki Citizen A sembly. "Contemporary Conflict and Democratic Intervention: A Comparative Study of Ea t Europe and South A ia" Jonathan Mercer. po tdoctoral fellow in political cience. Stanford Univer ity. "Hate and International Politic" Movindri Reddy. Pre ident' Fellow in political cience. Princeton Univer ity. "The Cauldron Bubble: Ethnicity. Violence and the State-South Africa. Sri Lanka and Punjab" Nikolai Ruden ky. senior research fellow in hi tory and political cience. In titute for the Economy in Tran ition. Mo cow. "Ethno-Political Conflict in Po tcommuni t Societie : Pro pect for Interpretation and Re olution within the Framework of International Law" Le lie Thiele. a istant profe sor of political cience. University of Rorida. "The Political Rationality of New Social Movement : Peace. Ecology and Global Politic "

International Peace and Security The Committee on International Peace and Security al made the following award in 1993-94:

Research

0

~orkshops

Mohammed A. Bamyeh. University of Mas achu ett . "Multiculturali m and Tran nationali m" Oleg Bukharin. Center for Energy and Environmental Studie • Princeton University. "Fi i1e Material Cutoff" Claire;: Marie Ce areo and Steven Ruben tein. Columbia University. "Terror. In ecurity, and Political Action" Hugh Gu ter on, Mas achu etl In titute of Technology, and Jutta Weide, Kent State Univer ity. "Culture, Power, and the Con truction of Security in the International Sy tern" Sohail Hashmi, Harvard University. and Beatrice Heu er. King' College London. "Conte ting Sovereignty: The State and International Security in the Twenty-Fir t Century" Juliu O. Ihonvbere. Univer ity of Texa • Au tin . "Democratization and Global Security in the 1990 : The Case of Africa" Kavita R. Khory, Mount Holyoke College. "Rethinking South A ian Security Studie " VOLUME

48.

NUMBER

2/3


Chetan Kumar, University of IlIinoi , Urbana-Champaign, and Lt. Col. Collin Shackleford, U.S. Air Force. "When Might Could be Right: Civil Conflict Re olution and International Intervention in the Po t-Cold War Era" Peter Trubowitz, University of Texas, Au tin. "The Politic of Strategic Adju tment: Idea , In titution , and lntere ts" Jianwei Wang, Ea t-We t Center, Honolulu. "The Modernization of China' Diplomacy" Visiting Scholar Fellowships The committee was as i ted by a ubcommitteeCatherine Boone, Jeffrey Taylor Checkel, Peter M. Lewi , S. Neil MacFarlane, and Martha Brill Olcott-for the following award : Sabo I. Bako (Nigeria), political cience, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. "Toward Re olving the Ince ant Religiou Conflict in Nigeria" Jovance Donev (Macedonia), hi tory, In titute for National History, Skopje. "Macedonia and the Balkan in American Foreign Policy in the Po t-Cold War Era"

JUNE/SEPTEMBER

1994

Merera Gudina (Ethiopia), political science and international relation ,Addi Ababa University. "Authoritarian Populi m and Ethiopia' Pas age to Democracy" Algi Krupaviciu (Lithuania), political cience, Kaunas Technological University, Marijampole. "Model of Po tcommuni t Political Elite in Central Europe: Comparative Analy is" Michael Okema (Uganda), political science, University of Dar e Salaam. "Multiparty Reform with Stability: The Case of Tanzania" Ajamu O. Owolabi (Nigeria), political cience, Obafemi Awolowo University. "Nigeria' Foreign Policy in a Changing International Environment: A Pro pective Analy is" Todor A. Tanev (Bulgaria), political science, University of Sofia, St. Kliment Ohrid ki. "A New Methodological Approach to Re earch on Cultural Ri ks to Political Security in Eastern Europe" Gani J. Yorom (Nigeria), political cience and international relation , Centre for Democratic Studies, Abuja. "Regional Conflict and Confidence Building in the Economic Community of We t African States (ECOWAS): The Liberian Civil War and the Problem of Political In tability in We t Africa"

ITEMS/15


Grants Received by the Council in 1993-94 A Summary of grants received during the year ending June 20, 1994*

A summary of grants received during the year ending June 30, 1994* ia Securiti

Industry Association

Project LINK (Committee on Economic Stability and Groth)

19,985

Bank of Japan Project LINK (Committee on Economic Stability and Growth)

$15,000

Ford Foundation Workshop on "Urban Poverty and Regional Integration for Social Scienti t from Central America and the Caribbean" (Joint Committee on Latin American Studie ) Supplemental upport for the Committee for Public Policy Re earch on Contemporary Hi panic I ue Comparative tudy on "Land Ownership and Management Right and Implication for Su tainable Development Policie and Program " (Committee for Research on Global Environmental Change) Serie of urban research roundtable (Committee for Research on the Urban Undercla ) Guide to Native American tudie re earch re ource Supplemental funding for program to upport pre ervation of collection and training of taff at African archive and museum (Joint Committee on African Studie ) Work hop on "Po t-Soviet Dome tic Politic and Society" (Joint Committee on the Soviet Union and It Succe or State ) Conference on political economy of water in South A ia (Joint Committee on South A ia)

250,000

$19,505

Japan Foundation Center for Global Partnership Abe Fellow hip Program in international multidisciplinary re earch on global concern

$2,188,256

Program upport for the Joint Committee on Korean Studie

143,750

Korea Research Foundation $557 ,500

$75 ,000

93,100 69,000

Support for a program to promote and expand the field of Korean tudie in the United State (Joint Committee on Korean Studie )

29,985

John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation Continued upport for the Committee on Culture, Health, and Human Development Conference entitled "Appropriating Gender: Women' Activi m and the Politicization of Religion in South A ia" (Joint Committee on South A ia)

$33,000

25,000

Andrew W. Mellon Foundation S430,OOO

Research and training on international migration and its impact on American ociety

$1 ,300,000

ational Endowment for the Humaniti 75 ,000

$56,000

175,000

â&#x20AC;˘ Doe not include " in kind " gran ; that i . uppon of travel . hotel . conference. and imilar expense received by Council committee in the fonn of direct payments by other organization .

76\ITEM

Support for the selection proce for the Berlin Program for Advanced German and European Studie (Joint Committee on We tern Europe)

Korea Foundation

German-American Academic Council Support for young scienti ts' in titute (Joint Committee on We tern Europe)

German Marshall Fund of the United States

Po tdoctoral fellow hip in international area tudie Project entitled "Development Knowledge and the Social Science " (Joint Committee on African Studie )

566,257

$100,000

ational Science Foundation Continued upport for research on global environmental change (Committee for Research on Global Environmental Change)

VOLUME

48 ,

$110,000

NUMBERS

2/3


Rockefeller Foundation Comparative ethnographic case tudie on difference and imilaritie of health and mental health problem in developing countrie (Committee on Culture, Health, and Human Development) Toyota Foundation Continued upport for the participation of a Japane e researcher at the meeting of the Joint Committee on Southeast A ia United Nations Support for Project LINK (Committee on Economic Stability and Growth) U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development Series of urban research roundtable (Committee for Research on the Urban Underclas )

JUNE/SEPTEMBER

1994

$65 ,500

$7,980

SIII ,500

$24,953

U.S. Department of State Continued program upport for the Joint Committee on the Soviet Union and Its Succe or State S1,785,980 United States Information Agency Predoctoral Fellow hip Program, Near and Middle East Research and Training Program (Joint Committee on the Near and Middle East) S500,OOO Po tdoctoral Fellow hip Program, Near and Middle Ea t Re earch and Training Program (Joint Committee on the Near and Middle Ea t) S500,OOO University of Pennsylvania Project LINK (Committee on Economic Stability and Growth) S8,OOO Total

9,335,251

ITEMS177


SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH COUNCIL 60S THIRD AVENUE, NEW YORK, NY 10lS8

(212)

661~280

FAX (212) 310-1896

Th~ Council was incorporat~d in th~ Stat~ of Illinois, D~c~~r 27, 1924, for th~ purpos~ of advancing rtuarch in th~ social sci~nus. Nongov~mmtntal and intudiscipJinary in natur~, th~ Council appoints commillus of scholars which suk to achi~v~ th~ Council's purpos~ through th~ gtnuation of n~w id~as and tht training of scholars. Th~ activitits of th~ Council ar~ support~d primarily by grants from privat~ foundations and gov~mm~nt agtncits.

Dirutors, 1993-94: PAUL B. BALTES, Max Planck In titute for Human Development and Education (Berlin); ROBERT H. BATES, Harvard University; LAwu CE D. B080, University of California, Los Angeles; WILLIAM CRo 0 ,University of Wiscon in, Madison; DAVID L. FEATHEItMA ,Social Science Research Council; ALBERT FI HLOW, University of California, Berkeley; SUSAN TuFTS FI KE, University of Massachu tts, Amherst; SUSAN HANSO ,Clark University; BAItBARA HEYNS, New York University; NAOAYO HOMMA, Tokyo Woman's Chri tian University; JOEL SHEItZER, University of Texas, Au tin; BURTON H. SI OER, Princeton University; KENNETH W. WACHTER, University of California, Berkeley; ANNETTE B. WEI ER, New York University; MICHELLE J. WHITE, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Officus and Staff: DAVID L . FEATHEItMA ,Pr~sid~nt; STANLEY J. HEOI BOTHAM, Viu Pr~sid~nt; RONALD J. PELECK, Viu Pr~sid~nt for Financ~; GLOItlA KIRCHHEJMU, Editor; DoRJE SI OCCHI, Human R~sourc~s Dir~ctor; ITTY ABRAHAM, BAItBAllA A. BIA CO, SUSAN BRONSON, ADRJAN (JOSH) DEWIND, ARUN P. ELHA CE, Eltlc HUSHIIERO, STEVE HEYDEMAN , FRA K KESsEL, MIMI M. KIM, ROBERT LATHAM, DAVID C. MAJOR, F~L1x V. MATOS RODRfOUEZ, MAlty BYRNE McDoN ELL, ELLEN PEItECMAN, RICHARD R. PETEJ.SON, SHERJ H. RANIS, M. PRJ ILLA STONE, TOBY AUCE VOLKMAN, KNUT WALTER, KENTO W. WORCESTER.

1lIc: Social Science Research Council upports the program of the Commi ion on Preservation and Acce and is represented on the National Advisory Council on Preservation. 1lIc: paper used in thi publication meets the minimum requirements of American National Standard for Information Sciences-Pennanence of Paper for Printed Library Materials. ANSI Z39.48-1984. 1lIc: infinity ymbol placed in a circle indicates compliance with thi

tandard.

AU isslUS of IttmS art availablt an Microform. niversity 1icToftlrn International 300 Nonh Zeeb Road, Dept. PR, Ann Arbor, 11 4 106

NONPROFIT

ORG. U. S. POSTAGE

Social Science Research Council 605 Third Avenue New York, NY 10158

PA 10 ALBANY, N. Y. Permit No. 31

ADDRESS CORRECTION REQUESTED

80\ ITEMS

ISSN

0049.{)9()3

VOLUME

48,

NUMBER

2/3

Items Vol. 48 No. 2-3 (1994)  
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