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( SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH COUNCIL) Volume 47/ Numbers 2-3 / June-September 1993 •

Social and Natural Science Conjoined: The View from the Program on Mricanstudies by M. Priscilla Stone and Paul Richards· Pessimists might argue that the integration and articulation of natural and social science perspectives will require paradigmatic shifts and institutional realignments of a magnitude unlikely to occur anytime soon. Disciplinary barriers can be formidable even within the social sciences, they would note, and familiarity with the "hard" sciences is rarely rewarded. The same skeptics might point out that social scientists who profess an interest in bio cientific issues are often motivated by a desire to mine the natural sciences for material that might lend itself to cultural critique. These social scientists would tend to examine the marginal cases, where the bio cientific problem was framed in an unprofitable way - the excesses of colonial agricultural planning, sayleaving unexamined the central issues where their own contribution might reshape the way the bioscience problem is posed. The pessimists would likewise note that biological scientists still tend to presume that the chief role of the social sciences is to facilitate technology transfer at a late stage in programs of applied research (in crop improvement research, population control, and 0 on) or to as ist in the evaluation of failed development projects. The optimists among us continue to pursue collaboration between the social and natural ciences,

605 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10158

despite these sometimes monumental challenges and resistances. The stakes, after all, are high. The developing world is facing a daunting set of problems equipped with few usable models of how to trigger and su tain equitable development. In our own field of African studies, socially and intellectually responsive scholarship can hardly ignore the accelerating deterioration of the conditions of existence for much of the continent's population. This has many dimensions, but the difficulties in sustaining agricultural production, in protecting natural resources, and in safeguarding public health are particularly impor• M. Priscilla Stone. an anthropologi t. is program director of the Joint Committee on African Studies. Paul Richards is a professor in the Department of Irrigation and Soil and Water Conservation at Wageningen Agricultura1 University in the Netherlands and a member of the Joint Committee on African Studies. The authors are particularly grateful to the SSRC taff who contributed to the development and management of these programs-Martha Gephart. Tom Lodge. Tom Painter. Evalyn Tennant. and Martha 8aker- well as to the many committee members. too numerous to Ii t. who gave so much of their time and energies to these projects.

• CONTENTS OF TIDS ISSUE • Social and Natural Science Conjoined. M . Priscilla StOM

and Paul Richards

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Research-Doctorate Programs in the United States. PatMla ~rt

Flanau

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Pre idential Items: What Does Society Need from Higher Education? David L. F~ath~rnuJII

Council Personnel New Directors and Officers Staff Change New Staff Appointment Program Director Honored

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Current Activities at the Council Comparative and Transnational Seed Grants Land Use in Global Environmental Change Culture. Health. and Human Development Council Fellow hip and Grant Programs. 1993-94 Awards Offered in 1993 (Li t of Names) Grants Received by the SSRC in 1992- 93

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tant features of Africa's material crisis. New and more inclusive theories of material development must increasingly be grounded, we would argue, in a more informed perception of the constraints imposed by natural resources and biological processes and the way these are affected by human agency. The research of social scientists working in these areas can be substantially enriched by knowledge drawn from the technical and natural sciences, and vice versa. For the investigation of these problems, the combined theoretical insights and methods of the social and natural sciences would indeed be essential. The Joint Committee on African Studies (lCAS) has experimented with a variety of strategies to help articulate a new research agenda for African studies based on integrating social and natural science perspectives. We briefly describe three such programs below, two virtually complete, the third only beginning.

Project on African Agriculture: Crisis and Transformation This project was initiated in 1986, with funding from the Ford and Rockefeller foundations, to strengthen the knowledge base needed to design effective strategies for alleviating the persistent crisis in African agriculture and to enhance African research capabilities for contributing to that knowledge. Through a program of training and research activities organized around strategically selected substantive issues, the project sought to develop new concepts and methods to analyze the biological, social, and historical processes which affect agricultural performance in Africa. The project was particularly committed to developing the skills and resources necessary for a new generation of African scholars to contribute to their continent's future development. A fellowship program became the principal mechanism for promoting these goals. The first theme of access, control, and use of resources was selected on the assumption that the transformation of African agriculture would depend on a better understanding of conditions of differential access to land and the other factors of production, mechanisms of control, and their effects on patterns of resource use. A number of interdisciplinary projects were supported under this theme, ranging from a study by a team (which included an anthropologist, an environmental 3O\ITEMS

scientist, a geographer, and a nematologist) on the politics of information transfer affecting the agricultural performance of Shona peasant farmers in Zimbabwe, to a study of the effects of structural adjustment on irrigated food farming in the Senegal River Valley by an agronomist and an economist. A subsequent theme of resource conservation in vulnerable ecological areas encouraged research on the degradation of the natural resources upon which African agriculture depends, and specifically directed social and natural scientists to do collaborative studies not only on resource conservation but also on the perceptions and rehabilitation of ecological vulnerability by both smallholders and agricultural planners. This theme stimulated a number of interdisciplinary teams to study such issues as indigenous farming practices and land degradation in Sierra Leone, conservation and agriculture, and natural resource management and the dilemmas of land-use planning in Zimbabwe. One interesting example was a study conducted collaboratively by a soil scientist and a sociologist. 1 They began with the proposition that modem planners and natural scientists concerned with environmental monitoring in Africa are often confronted with existing engineering or technical interventions in the landscape, yet lack longitudinal data on the nature or effect of these projects. Noting that future activity will necessarily be set in the social and environmental context of these experience , the researchers proposed adding an historical component to standard environmental impact assessment methodology. This new protocol-Historical Environmental Impact Analysis-will also help technical and social scientists to present their knowledge to each other in useful ways. Studying Lesotho's national soil conservation program in the mid-1930 and 194Os, Showers and Malahleha concluded that the environmental knowledge of elderly farmers (often called indigenous technical knowledge), which they elicited through oral historical methods, contained much useful historical detail on environmental degradation. When integrated with the sorts of data collected for environmental impact assessments-quantitative data on climate, precipitation, geomorphic features, natural vegetation, soils-this perspective offers not I Kate Showers. a soil scientist. and Gwendolyn Malahleba. boCh then of the Institute of Southern African Studies at the National University of Lesotho.

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only a more realistic approach to project evaluation, but al 0 a tronger footing for future sociallycontextualized project design. We believe that by aggressively encouraging the fonnation of interdisciplinary research teams-a total of 38 projects involving 65 scholars were funded, 10 of which included natural scientists-the cumulative contribution of this program will be significant. The project is currently developing a new intellectual and programmatic plan under the au pices of CODESRIA (the Council for the Development of Economic and Social Research in Africa). We must continue, nevertbele s, to be imaginative about how best to engineer collaboration between natural and ocial scienti ts, given the different languages, research protocols, and research expectation they often hold. Despite choosing themes that emerged from extended conversations with all relevant disciplines, in the main we found that the standard research agenda within institutions and of most scholars is rarely as flexible as this sort of collaboration requires. Our greatest succe ses were probably with individuals already receptive to the advantages of such mergers, and our greater relative contribution is probably to African social-and not natural- ciences.

Fellowships for Training and Dissertation Research (FTDR) 1987-1992 This fellowship program provided scientific training for ocial cientists of any nationality enrolled in a U.S. Ph.D. program propo ing re earch in Africa on agricultural or health-related topics. What the Project on African Agriculture had encouraged in teams, the FTDR program encouraged in individuals. With support from the Rockefeller Foundation, the FTDR grants encouraged a level of competency in scientific and technical concerns that could enable social scientists to ask new question and to relate their own skills and finding to the preoccupations of the profe sional communities concerned with the problems of sustaining agriCUltural production and enhancing public health. The longertenn aim was to create nonns within the academic community that encourage interdisciplinary research and collaboration. The rationale for this program was similar in many ways to the Project on African Agriculture. It was the contention of the planners on the JCAS that some JUNEISEPTEMBEJl

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research in the social sciences can only be done with a certain level of competence in technical or natural sciences. An interesting example can be drawn from historical studie undertaken over the last 10-15 years which have tried to link changing patterns of disease and health care at the local level in Africa with transfonnations in the social relations of production resulting from both colonial and po t-colonial patterns of economic and political development. While many of these tudies have highlighted the failings of earlier efforts to understand health and disease from a narrowly biomedical paradigm, they have often failed to support their arguments with epidemiological data. This problem reflects the fact that many historians and anthropologists who tudy health and disease lack training in epidemiology and are hampered in their attempts either to evaluate existing health data or to collect new data which will enable them to test their arguments. Similar problems exist for physicians and epidemiologists who are concerned with the wider context of health in Africa, but lack the training in economic, political science, etc. that would be needed to analyze that context. The FTDR fellowships supported up to a full year of natural science and technical science training individually tailored to each fellow's needs, 12-18 months of field research, and up to six months of write-up. Twenty-one projects were funded over the 1988-1992 period, 12 focusing on agriculture broadly defined, and nine on health. Many of these projects are only now nearing completion, but they are already exhibiting the sorts of enriched and nuanced approach to their field research and analysis we envisioned. One of the fellows 2 proposed a study of policy planning and fisheries development in Cote d'lvoire. She received training in marine biology and fisheries monitoring and modeling in Abidjan. In evaluating her experience and the program, she wrote: From my own We t African research experiences in fi beries and food security is ue I can reconfmn the need for interdisciplinary perspective . Policy and management of either area can hardly be effective from the narrow confine of biotic tock reproduction curves or consumer indifference curves. The on- ite training that I received in fi beries data collection and modeling, laboratory techniques and artisanallindustrial fi bing tecbnologies enabled me, in combination with my social 1 Karen Weber, a Ph.D. candidate in law, policy, and society at Northeastern University. The quotation which follows was drawn from a report she ubmitted following a 1992 workshop.

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science background, to understand interlocking debates in resource exploitation. In addition, I gained a wealth of knowledge and a sense of resourcefulness from daily contact with African fisher folk, market vendors, researchers, administrators, scientists, entrepreneurs, and others. This could only be acquired by living and working in Africa.

The goals of this program-to produce a new kind of scholarship and knowledge strengthened by the combination of skills and perspectives from two very different intellectual cultures-will only be fully realized in the individual careers of these fellows . These kinds of returns, however, are not immediate and the impact that 21 individual scholars can make is uncertain. These fellows may fmd, furthermore, that their initial careers within their own disciplines may be detoured by undertaking this training and delaying completion of their degrees. The institutional structures in higher education often inhibit the development of interdisciplinary research and place obstacles in the way of students who are interested in crossing disciplinary boundaries. These resistances were frequently mentioned to us in workshops designed to promote the interaction among fellows and between fellows and the committee. Clearly, if the benefits of this sort of research are to be fully realized, we need to collectively encourage the development of an institutional culture within universities in which interdisciplinary work will be nurtured at an early stage of graduate education and sustained in academic disciplines.

Cultural Values in Conservation: the African Contribution to Preservation of Biodiversity We are now working on a new program on biological diversity. Conservation of Africa's biodiversity is a timely issue of great international concern. It also happens to be an area where social and biological perspectives are both clearly necessary and where there is some likelihood of real intellectual convergence on problems of common interest. At the same time, "biodiversity" is also an institutional project of some time depth in Africa, with a problematic intellectual history of concern and considerable practical relevance to both social and biological scientists within and outside of Africa. Here, then, we see considerable potential to further the original aims of the two programs described above in a new and potentially very important context. An initial planning meeting was held at the 32\ ITEMS

Smithsonian Institution in October of 1992 to consider five basic objectives: (1) to review what the biologists see as important in African biodiversity conservation; (2) to review what the social scientists are doing; (3) to pay special attention to African viewpoints and initiatives in both fields; (4) to discuss areas of mutual interest, complementarity, and potential cooperation between the biological and social sciences in work on biodiversity; and (5) to discuss gaps in the field and priorities for collaborative work. That meeting involved biological scientists, including forest ecologists, wildlife and plant specialists, and taxonomists; social scientists, including anthropologists, economists, and science educators; and those working in conservation policy and planning, including lawyers and staff of major international conservation agencies. We took as a central goal of this meeting the framing of potential research issues in such a way as to be equally compelling to both social and biological scientists. Conservationists are agreed that habitat loss is the main threat to biodiversity. Commonly, this is thought of in terms of a naturally occurring habitat that has to be protected against human mismanagement and overuse. Conservation thinking tends to be dominated by a simple oppositional mode in which "society" and "nature" are counterposed. However, many, if not all, habitats are in significant respects "created" by humans-anthropogenic if you will. This is undoubtely the case in Africa, a continent with some very old human landscapes indeed. A characteristic error is to imagine that surviving areas of tropical forest, for example, are beyond the frontier of settlement, whereas in reality they are often today only forests because they were highly contested human landscapes at an earlier period in African history. Deep within the Gola Forest Reserve of Sierra Leone, forest botanists have found domestic fruit trees around old settlement sites. The forest, it appears, is of more significance as a paradigm case of the process of the reversion from bush to forest than as a high forest reserve. Until these anthropogenic factors, and their roles in the creation, maintenance, and modification of African habitats have been researched and brought into relationship with other dynamic factors affecting biodiversity (e.g., naturallyoccurring waves of species invasion and extinction), it will remain difficult to assess the status of any potential biodiversity reserve. If we assume that human factors and social VOLUME

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proce se are integral elements in the maintenance of the habitat upon which biodiversity depends, surely we can provide a better framework for understanding when and why such maintenance breaks down. Presumably, conservationists concerned to decide the relative merits of different biodiversity reserves have a great deal to gain from this kind of regionalhistorical-ethnographic reconstruction. Likewise, anthropologists and historians of African boundary wildernesses have much to gain from the kind of data that conservation biologists are likely to produce when carrying out inventories of such old human landscapes returned to nature. Finally, linking scholars and scientists working in African institutions with a long-term on-the-ground commitment to complex landscapes shaped by perspectives from their own communities will also be of great benefit. A portfolio of case studies, drawing on researchers from the networks of the SSRC, the Smithsonian, the African Academy of Sciences, and beyond, is planned to examine landscape historylhistorical geography of some of these boundary wildernesses in selected locales in Africa. In full awareness of the methodological and definitional challenges such research poses, including those challenges that loom in reconstructing habitat histories in African conditions, our frrst proposed activity is a workshop that brings together researchers to explore these issues. The second major area the Joint Committee on African Studies proposes to investigate is biodiversity conservation as a human project. This will have two principal components: the frrst a review of human and institutional biodiversity conservation capacities in Africa, and how to support them; the second a reflexive study of the growth and character of ideas, debates, discourse, and action concerning biodiversity in Africa from the pre-colonial period to the present. With the model of the JCAS African Archives and Museums Project, which funds cultural institutions in Africa, the JCAS hopes to collaborate with the Smithsonian Institution to establish a parallel program on behalf of Africa's herbaria, botanic gardens, forest reserves, university departments of plant and animal taxonomy, and so forth. The inspiration for this work is principally to produce a proposal for rehabilitation, support, and development of these institutions and their staffs, but we are also curious to learn more about the endogenous professional discourse about biodiversity in Africa, and the extent to which this discourse articulates with wider societal concerns and JUNFiSEPTEMBER 1993

with changing availability of natural resources. We know little, for example, about local attitudes to, and ideas about, threatened species and ecosystems. The second part of this agenda would be to study the history and philosophy of biodiversity conservation in Africa as a socially-constituted and contested body of knowledge and practice. This will be extremely important in helping to contextualize some of the moral, ethical, and political dilemmas now facing conservation initiatives in Africa, including those concerning intellectual property rights, and the voices and interests to be considered when biodiversity conservation priorities are established. It would be fascinating, for example, to attempt to record and interpret the way in which particular "images of Africa" have helped constitute and shape, and have been shaped by, debates within the field of biodiversity conservation (" Mrica as a workshop for human evolution," "Africa, the reserve continent, ill-fitted for human habitation," etc.). This is an intellectual exercise consonant with some existing JCAS initiatives (such as an ongoing project on the intellectual history of concepts of development) and would build on ongoing research concerning conservation issues in Africa being pursued by the environmental historians. However, work along these lines has tended, so far, to address those conservation issues most strongly linked to debates about colonial and post-colonial political economy such as game parks and soil and water protection. We believe the intellectual and cultural history of biodiversity conservation has been neglected as a topic by these new historians of Africa. The overall aim of these projects collectively, which will unfold over the next several years, will be to provide a much stronger sense of the cultural and historical contexts from which the modem concern with African biodiversity has emerged, and into which conservation practice has to insert itself.

Conclusions Although each of these projects has focused its attention on different aspects of the interdisciplinary research enterprise, targeting different audiences with different programs, they have all shared a consistent goal of promoting a collaboration across the disciplinary divides of the natural and social sciences. Although our experiences certainly accumulate into models of what activities "work" better than others, the basic mes age is that no ingle approach is ITEMS/ 33


necessarily better than any other. Rather, multiple attempts and overlapping approaches are sugge ted which may also, over the long term, help to soften disciplinary barriers and reward interdisciplinary approaches. One area which certainly deserves closer scrunity is the institutional and profe ional settings within which our fellows and grant holders work. If these settings do not lend themselves to the integration of biological and social science perspectives, as we suspect, then only the occasional maverick will risk being seen - in terms of research and publications-in the " wrong" company. It may be profitable to fund some research on these institutional settings

themselves. How, where, if at all, and for what purposes do biological and social scientists come together to pool their ideas in African institutions? A ftrst guess might be: perhaps not at all in universities, only rarely in agricultura1 research institutions, and mainly in the context of special development projects. Although through these projects we have funded some work on institutional factors as an element in the African agrarian and public health crise , much additional research is needed. Institutions are, after all, the principal context within which the desired • intellectual bridge-building will occur.

New Fellowship Programs on the Middle East The SSRC i pleased to announce new programs in upport of research and training on the Near and Middle East in the social sciences and the humanitie at the graduate and postgraduate levels. With upport from the U.S. Infonnation Agency Bureau of Cultural and Educational Exchange, through the newly established Near and Middle East Research and Training Act (NMERTA), the SSRC and the American Council of Learned Societie (ACLS) anticipate offering several new fellow hip and training programs in the coming academic year. These programs will be admini tered by the SSRClACLS Joint Committee on the Near and Middle East, with the support of the Council of American Overseas Research Centers, based in Washington. Pending fonnal notification from USIA, the Joint Committee on the Near and Middle East plan to offer the following : • Predi sertation fellowships for graduate students in the social science and the humanitie • Oi sertation fellow hips for graduate tudents in discipline underrepresented in Middle East studie • Oi sertation research fellowships for graduate tudents in the social sciences and the humanities • Postdoctoral grants for scholars in discipline underrepresented in Middle East tudies • A program of mid-career kill enrichment fellow hips for tenured faculty In addition, graduate tudents funded by these programs will be required to participate in the NMERTA Fellows' Conference, which will be held in pring 1995. Graduate rodents funded by these programs will also be eligible to apply to take part in an annual di sertation workshop on research methods and research design. These fellowship programs are expected to have application deadline date of December I, 1993. Application material will be available from the SSRC by early fall. Graduate tudents and scholars who receive support through NMERTA-funded programs will be expected to affiliate with an American Overseas Research Center during the tenure of the fellowship. Application material and additional information should be reque ted from:

Jolat Committee OD the Near aacl MidcIIe East Fellowship 0fIIce SodaI Sdeace Rnearch Couadl 605 1binl Aveaue New York, NY 10158

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Research-Doctorate Programs in the United States by Pamela Ebert Flattau* U.S. universities continue to play an important role in the preparation of doctoral level personnel for the nation and the world. In 1991 alone, over 30,000 Ph.D.'s or related research doctorates were awarded by nearly 350 U.S. institutions, about one-third of which were awarded to non-U.S. citizens.' It is clear that the output of these programs directly affects the skiUed personnel available to research organizations, colleges and universities, elementary and secondary schools, industry, and the arts, whether at home or abroad. As William Bowen2 has written, those who earn graduate degrees contribute not only their own ideas to society, "but also a capacity to educate and prepare those who will exercise leadership on a broad scale. " The pressures on graduate education programs have been considerable in recent years as the demand for doctoral preparation remains unabated and as shifting economic, demographic, and political factors influence the context in which doctoral education occurs. Concern about changes in the environment for graduate education has led in the past to studies which attempt to monitor the "quality" of the graduate education enterprise-a construct variously defined by researchers, but which largely embraces the idea that an institution attracts and maintains the resources necessary to provide an optimal graduate training opportunity in a field relative to program goals. • Pamela Ebert Flattau is director of the Studies and Surveys Unit, Office of Scientific and Engineering Personnel, National Research Council. She is serving as the chief taff officer for the NRC's Committee for the Study of Research-Doctorate Programs in the United States. I Swrunary R~port 1991 , P. Ries and D. H. Thurgood, Washington, D.C.: National Academy Pre , 1993. This annual report ummarizes the re ults of the Survey of Earned Doctorates which has been conducted each year since 1958 by the National Research Council'S Office of Scientific and Engineering Personnel. The annual survey and the maintenance of the re ulllnt Doctorate Records File are upported with funds from the National Science Foundation, the National Institutes of Health, the National Endowment for the Humanities, the U.S. Department of Education, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture. 1 See Pr~sid~nt 's R~port, January I , 1989 through December 31,1989, The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, New York, 1990. JUNE/SEPTEMBER

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Historically, universities and affiliated organizations have taken the lead in the review of their programs in graduate education. 3 However, selfassessments do not provide the information needed for a "national overview" of graduate programs. Thus in the 1960s and 1970s, several attempts were made to create national comparisons of doctoral programs at U.S. universities. The most widely known studies include work by H. Keniston (1959), A. M. Cartter (1966), and K. D. Roose and C. J. Andersen (1970)," which involved "reputational" ratings of programs by academic administrators and/or faculty. The reputational rating is a subjective measure which, in the case of these studies, involves asking faculty and administrators their opinion about important dimensions of doctoral education at other institutions, most notably: the scholarly quality of program faculty and the effectiveness of those programs in educating research scholars and scientists. As C. Turner and E. Martin (1984)5 point out, "subjective phenomena" are those that, in principle, can be directly known, if at all, only by the persons themselves. Thu , if an individual is asked to name a favorite author, to state whether the draft sy tern is fair, to indicate how many children he wants to have . . . the information sought is ubjective . ..

To ask an individual whether a program is "extremely effective," "reasonably effective," or "minimally effective" in educating research scholars and scientists is to elicit a subjective report. The reputational method developed by the authors of these earlier studies has been open to criticism. Nonetheless, when surveys are conducted using informed ) In 1980, for example, the Educational Te ting Service, under the ponsorship of the Council of Graduate School in the United States and the Graduate Record Examination Board, developed a set of procedures to i t institutions in evaluating their own graduate programs. See M. J. Clark, Graduat~ Program &If-Ass~ss_nt &rvic~: Handbook/or Usus, Princeton, NJ: ETS. 4 H. Keni ton urveyed the department chairmen at 25 leading institutions and reported the results in Graduat~ Study in Ru~arch in the Arts and Sci~nus at the Univtrsity of P~nn.sylvania (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, 1959). A. M. Cartter (An AsSWrMnt of Quality in Graduatt Education) and K. D. Roose and C. J. Andersen (A Rating 0/ Graduat~ Programs) released by the American Council on Education in 1966 and 1970, respectively, compiled ratings from much latger groups of faculty peers. See also David Webster and Sherri Ward Massey, "The Complete Rankings," Chang~, NovemberlDecember, 1992. , C. Turner and E. Martin (eds.), Surv~ing Subjectiv~ Ph~no_na, New York: Ru 11 Sage Foundation, 1984.

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respondents who have up-to-date knowledge about doctoral programs, the results are thought to be similar to those yielded by other methods. As Bradbum6 points out: While no method i perfect [in asse ing the quality of doctoral programs] and each has its own source of bias, it is noteworthy that different methods produce fairly consi tent rankings and there are not a great many urprises in terms of vastly changed rankings on the basi of different methods.

In the late 1970s, several attempts were made to go beyond reputational measures to characterize the status of doctoral education at U.S. universities, including studies by Clark, Hartnett and Baird (1976), Glower (1980), and House and Yeager (1978).7 A key feature of these later studies was the identification and use of measures other than reputation as a means of assessing "program quality," including, for example, the publication patterns of faculty who provide doctoral training. Thus by the end of the 1970s, the field of higher education research was poised to make improvements in assessments of doctoral program quality. In 1976, the Conference Board of As ociated Research Councils' convened a tbree-day meeting to consider whether a comprehensive study of programs in graduate education should be undertaken, and the decision was made subsequently to establish a committee within the National Research Council (NRC) which would be charged with conducting an assessment of research-doctorate programs while improving upon the methodologies utilized in earlier studies. In 1982 the NRC, under the aegis of the Conference Board of Associated Research Councils, released a series of reports summarizing the results of a multi-dimensional assessment of research-doctorate

6 N. BI1Idbum. "The Ranking of Universities in the United States and Its Effect on Their Achievement." FrtiMit tltr WisstflScha/t. August 1987. 1 See M. J. Clartt. R. T. Har1nett. and L. L. Baird. Asstssing DifMnsioflS of Quality in Doctoral Education: A Ttchnical Rtport of a National Study in Thrtt Fitlds which identif!ed IS many IS 30 measures ignificant for ing the quality of graduate education; D. D. Glower. "A Rational Method for Ranking Engineering Programs." in Enginttring Education. May 1980; and D. R. House and J. H. Yeager. Jr .• "The Distribution of Publication Success Within and Among Top Economics Departments." Economic Inquiry. 16(4). October 1978. pp. 593-598. • The Conference Board of Associated Research Councils includes the American Council on Education. the American Council of Learned Societie • the National Research Council. and the Social Science Research Council.

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programs.9 The 1982 assessment introduced a number of innovative analytic approaches to counteract criticisms leveled at the methodologies of earlier studies. For example, information was provided to faculty about the size and make-up of each graduate program, as they were asked to "rate" each program relative to its effectiveness in producing research scholars and scientists. Because of the continuing demand for information about the character of doctoral programs, the Conference Board of Associated Research Councils determined in the late 1980s that an update of the 1982 assessment would be timely and productive. Thus in 1991, the National Research Council established the Committee for the Study of ResearchDoctorate Programs in the United States to undertake a three-year tudy of doctoral programs which have as their goal the preparation of research scholars and scientists. The Committee predicates its work on the fmdings of the 1982 NRC assessment committee and-through a combination of survey work and review of available descriptive statistics-plans to assemble a wider selection of descriptive statistics which characterizes key features of research-doctorate programs. The present study involves 41 disciplines comprising the biological sciences, the physical sciences and mathematics, the social and behavioral sciences,lo engineering, and the humanities. In May 1993, the Committee launched the National Survey of Graduate Faculty involving over 16,000 faculty drawn from 6,000 doctoral programs in about 285 U.S. universities. The survey is an update of the 1982 NRC assessment, and the results will be linked as they were in 1982 with data sets which describe program characteristics such as information about the faculty who provide the educational and research leadership in these programs; the institutional resources brought to bear in creating an environment for preparing research scholars and scientists; and the demographic characteristics and career outcomes of students participating in graduate preparation at these 9 See L. Jones. O. Lindzey. and P. Coggeshall (cds.). An AsStSSfMnt of Rtstarch-Doctoratt Programs in 1M Unittd Statts. Washington. D.C.: National Academy Press. 10 The social and behavioral sciences include: anthropology. economics. geography. hi tory. political science. psychology. and sociology. For a complete list of fIClds. contact D. L. Satterwhite. National Research Council. OSEP-Studies and Surveys. 2101 Constitution Avenue. N.W .• W hington. D.C. 20418. for a project urnmary.

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in titution . The reputational measure utilized in the 1982 NRC urvey will be utilized again in order to permit "change" analyse as de cribed below. The Committee will finalize its data collection plan in 1993, as it looks toward completing its work in 1994. The Committee is al 0 con idering, for example, a survey of industrial employers to develop a set of parallel rating of research-doctorate program in selected field by tapping the opinion of individual employed in indu try who hire and/or direct the research of Ph.D. 'so Perhap of mo t intere t to the SSRC community is that the Committee will focu its attention in 1994 on two critical areas of analysis. The first task will be the development of "change" measures using the re ult of the 1982 and the 1993 as e ment of research-doctorate programs. Through carefully crafted tati tical de ign, the Committee hope to ummarize the change that have occurred in doctoral preparation since 1982 by broad field. Que tion that might be addre ed include change in the pattern of Ph.D. production (by program rating, in titutional type, and region); change in the characteristic of graduate faculty (by program rating and demographic characteri tics); and trends in in titutional re ources for doctoral education between 1982 and 1993. The data collected by the National Re earch Council in 1982 will serve as an important baseline for making these compari ons. An effort will al 0 be made to compare the reputational rating of program for 1982 and 1993 by field to as e that dimen ion of change, although the way in which the e analyses will be carried out requires the careful consideration of our expert committee. In addition, should time and re ource permit, a formal analysis will be made of the "validity" of reputational rating . Thi will be accompli hed in part

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by a review of the pattern of employment and productivity of a ample of students who completed their doctoral work around 1982 relative to the ratings of tho e doctoral program by the earlier study committee. The Committee will be seeking evidence for the relation hip between the perceived "quality" of doctoral programs and the career outcome of graduates of those program . Space does not permit a detailed description of the variou quantitative analyse that the Committee has explored and will continue to explore in 1993 and 1994. Suffice it to ay that academic admini trators, tudents, and intere ted re earchers can expect a fully informative report (or a series of separate reports) to be available through the National Academy Pre s orne time in 1994. We are confident that the work of thi group of experts ll will contribute to our undertanding of the status of graduate education in the United State in the 1990s, and the change that have • occurred in the pa t decade. II Committee for the Study of Research¡Doctorate Programs in the United State : Marvin Goldberger (cochair), Department of Phy ic , University of California, San Diego; Brendan Maher (cochair), Edward C. Henderson Profe $Or of Psychology, Harvard University; Richard Atkinson, Chancellor, University of California, San Diego; Nonnan Bradburn, Director, National Opinion Research Center; Joseph Cerny, Prov t for Research, Dean, Gradu te Divi ion, University of California, Berkeley; Jonathan Cole, Prov t, Columbia University; Thomas Cole, Jr., Pre ident, Clark Atlanta University; John D'Anns, Vice Provost for Academic Affairs, University of Michigan; Jane de Hart, Department of History, University of California, Santa Barbara; Elsa Gannire, Director, Center for Laser Studies, University of Southern California; Phillip Griffiths, Director, Institute for Advanced Study; Gardner Lindzey, Director Emeritu , Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Science ; Pamela Mellon, Department of Reproductive Medicine and Neuro Science, University of California, San Diego; Lincoln Mose , Stati tic Department, Stanford University; Ernest Srnerdon, Dean of Engineering, University of Arizona; Debra Steward, Dean of the Graduate School, North Carolina State University; Stephen Stigler, Department of Statistics, University of Chicago; Jame Wyche, Associate Prov t, Brown Univerity.

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Presidential Items What Does Society Need from Higher Education?¡ In his newest book, Preparing for the Twenty-First Century,l Paul Kennedy documents his understanding of massive transfonnations underway in international relations and speculates about their implications for global security and for the human and economic welfare of the developed and the developing world regions. The theme running through Kennedy's analysis is that a complex skein of interrelated transnational influences-changes in population dynamics, in biotechnology of food production, in manufacturing technologies, and in world trade-is rapidly re haping the scheme of international affairs. The world Kennedy portrays is a transnational one in which the sovereignty of nation states-even the United States-is challenged if not undermined, and where the driving forces of change for any nation often lie well outside its own borders. Nations appear to possess diminished powers to guarantee the welfare and security of their citizens. Multinational corporations, fundamentalist religious movements and diasporas, non-governmental interest groups, as well as national governments, each contribute to defining the focus and issues of global and national affairs. The unfolding po t-cold war world possesses new, subtle, and perbap even volatile interdependencies: between humankind and its environment, and between the developed North and the developing South. For example, population pre sures on global land resources and uneven benefits of new agricultural biotechnologies-often developed in American university laboratories-potentially open wider cleavages between South and North. Adopting new technologies into developing nations of Africa, for instance, could actually accelerate the outmigration of displaced agriculturalists and other manual laborers into the lands of the "rich," even as food production capacity is rising in the "poor" regions. And the resolution of such complex dilemmas of human existence in these regions seems feasible only by the

• From an essay conttibuted by David L. Feathennan to an initi tive about the future of bigher education, chaired by former U.S. Senator and Secretary of Labor, William E. Brock, and poosored by the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, the Johnson Foundation, the Lilly Endowment, Inc., and the Pew Owitable Trusts. I

New York: Random House, 1993.

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most creative approach to collective, cooperative problem solving on a global scale. In such a vision of the 21st century, it seems to me that we cannot presume that progress is an inevitable handmaiden of more education, per se. So what does society need from higher education in the context of America's place in an increasingly transnational world?

Expectations Our college and universities must prepare us-as a nation and as individuals-for a new form of international citizenship in which neither progre s nor our own national leadership is guaranteed. This is a challenge that our nation's universities may be hard pre sed to realize as they are now tructured. Why? One reason is that we may already ask our universities and colleges to do too much; we have come to expect too much from them. Historically, the founding of American higher education drew its justification from two objectives: to offer liberal education to generations of future leaders of a democratic nation, and somewhat later, to offer a pathway of upward social mobility to intellectually talented and motivated sons (and even later, daughters) from humble e tate. In contrast to Europe, where higher education was justified as intrinsically worthwhile and ennobling, Americans emphasized utilitarian and instrumental value in founding public colleges and universities and many private ones as well. If public education was the cornerstone of this bold experiment in nation-building, then higher education was the keystone of our national progress-it was a bridge to individual advancement, and it buttressed the nation economically and politically through path-setting scholarship and technical and scientific innovation. These goals are no less compelling or worthy for the 21 st century than they were in the 18th century. But the capacity of colleges and universities to attain these goals may have gotten worse. At least their current performance is far from laudable, judging from appearances. With regard to the liberal education of future leaders, one is shocked and baffled by all too common incidents of racial and ethnic VOLUME

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intolerance-even violence-on even the most "liberal" and pre tigious of our campuse . And while matriculation into orne form of higher education is typical for about half of our high school graduates, rate of matriculation for youth from Ie economically and culturally advantaged backgrounds are not relatively better than a decade or more ago. Indeed, in some case they are even worse. Educators and employers alike are appalled by what students - even baccalaureates in the Ivy League-do not know. Students and parents alike are astonished by the rising co ts of higher education and agonized by the declining guarantee of full employment and premium wage that once came with the diploma. But are colleges and universitie to blame? Insofar as they exerci e some control, they must stand accountable. And therein lies the rub. To exercise control one must have both understanding of cause and po sess agency to alter the tatu quo. The fact is, higher education lacks both in many instance where it is held to account. Take racial violence and in ulting verbal abuse. Is this a failing of higher education to develop capacitie for deeper moral or ethical self-insight as a basi of community and the toleration of differences? Or, i it a consequence of more pervasive anxieties in the wider society about racial and ethnic competition, inequities, or even alleged unworthiness? Or, does the basis lie in till other factors? If any ocial scientist or educator ventured forward to offer the definitive explanation for these incivilities, that person would be tepping well beyond available research and data. And suppo e we had more data? Would college and university administrators and faculty po se agency to change? Probably in orne case , but in many, not. Sociologists and economists have tudied enrollment and graduation tatistics for decades, de pite the limitations of these data. Only a few tudie and federal data series are based on large enough sample to characterize the educational opportunitie of "minority" youth or to as e the degree of limitation of opportunity by economic background, race, gender, and region. Indeed, this nation hould be ashamed at the in ufficiency of its data on educational matriculation. Other nations do much better than we. Notwithstanding these limitation , however, the social science about attendance, matriculation and the contributing influences of ocial, economic, and cultural factors is sub tantial. But what agency is JUNElSEPTEMBEIl

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available to higher education per se to stem the high dropout rate from secondary schools-indeed, the often tragic 10 s of youthful talent into lives of crime or drugs? And what can or should universities and colleges do to overcome the disequilibria of supply and demand for college graduates, even Ph.D. 's, that have driven down their relative wage and employment pro pects? Can they or should they limit their enrollment levels-or the ratio of "foreign" to "native" students in high enrollment fields-and thereby restrict supply? Can they influence the marketplace for their graduates, even in this country, as some industries and firms recruit from an international labor pool? Perbap we do expect too much from our college and universities. And perbaps, as well, American higher education-and its counterpart institutions of higher education throughout the world-may be Ie s well po itioned to be the engines of individual and national progres in the 21st century than up to the recent past. If Paul Kennedy is right in concluding that nations are Ie s sovereign today than in midcentury, and that the 21st century will see even further erosion in nation ' capacities to guarantee the ecurity and the economic and social welfare of their peoples, does it not follow that national institutions, like ystems of higher education, might al 0 be affected by globalization, by various transnational influence , and by the weakened sovereignty of the surrounding nation tate? Could it not be that the deficiencie of our colleges and universities are a sign of that very loss of effective agency in America as a nation state?

Preliminary approaches If our college and universities are to prepare us and our children for a transnational world in the 21st century, what would they do differently? • First, we must reexamine the sufficiency of di cipline-based training and the concept of disciplines as the basic building blocks of knowledge. In both the cience and humanitie -and even to a considerable extent in the arts, we continue to rely upon "disciplines" for our fundamental knowledge, a practice well e tablished by the 17th century. (At an earlier time, knowledge about human, social, and natural phenomena was less divided and was integrated under the general rubric of philo ophy.) We can expect no less specialization of narrowly ITEMS/ 39


focused expertise in the 21st century, as the existing discipline further subdivide and, in orne instances, recombine at their boundaries with second di cipline into third-order hybrids. (A good example of thi sttuctural recombination and hyper-specialization are the ubfields of biology, which over the past decade have vastly reconfigured what once was a unified field in most research universities. The hift are so profound that a current tudy of changes in the quality and output of graduate re earch programs in the United States since the early 1980s, carried out by the National Research Council, may not be able to include the fields of biology, owing to the lack of comparable departmental entitie in the 1990 .) And yet, intensification of di cipline-based specialization leads to a balkanization of knowledge and to great difficultie of communication, even in ome cases between specialists in subfields of their own nominal discipline. While no ensible scholar would recommend a reunification of all of today's or tomorrow's knowledge under a single rubric, we academics and academic administrators need to addre the many divisions in our expert knowledge systems that far exceed the two cultures of C.P. Snow's concem. 2 And in doing 0, we may want to examine the knowledge sy terns of other culture . David Easton and Corinne S. Schelling, in reporting on a series of exchanges between the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and the Chinese Academy of Science, describe a certain bemusement of the Chinese with our Western penchant for atomized specializations. Easton quotes one Chinese cientist as ugge ting we are "looking at the ky from the bottom of the well."3 How do we take advantage of our capacity for specialized knowledge while retaining the expertise for reassembling the pieces into whole ? Our current institutional practices at the most prolific research universities militate again t cro -departmental, cro s-di cipline, cross-college synthesis. At a moment when many of the most pre sing 1 "Literary intellectual at one pole-at the other scienti , and the most representative. the phy ical scienti ts. Between the two a gulf of mutual incomprehension-sometimes (particularly among the young) hostility and di like, but most of all lack of understanding." C.P. Snow, 11t~ Two Cultur~s and a Suond Look (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Pre ,19.59, p. 4. CilCd in David L. Sills and Roben K. Menon, cds., Social Sci~nc~ Quotations. New York: Macmillan, 1991). 1 David Easton and Corinne S. Schelling, cds., Divid~d Know/~dg~: Across Disciplinu. Across Cultur~s (Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publication , 1991).

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problems of our tran national era call for a "skydown" view and comprehen ion, how will our universities prepare u to ascend from the "bottom of the well?" The answer mu t entail orne rethinking about the sttucture of univer itie and of academic research careers as we prepare for the 21 t century. • Second, we mu t develop-as early in the educational careers of tudents as feasible-an appreciation for multi- and interdi ciplinary analy is, together with the skills that will enable them to engage in it. One promising strategy for combining pecialized expertise with capacity for synthesi i the interdi ciplinary approach. For the past 70 years, the Social Science Research Council has promoted interdisciplinary research among the ocial science and between them and the humanities and natural sciences. Each year we award hundreds of predoctoral, doctoral, and po tdoctoral fellow hip and eed grants for projects that addre s topics from a multiand interdisciplinary vantage. We organize workshop and conference on thematic topic, e.g., the human dimen ions of global environmental change, and on methodological approaches that expand the technical repertoire and conceptual boundarie of economists, political cientists, geographers, and others. Some ee this work as subversive, as undermining the integrity of the tanding disciplines. We are held to account, as the Council always hould be, for enticing the next generation of cholars to practice a craft for which there may not be jobs in the current scheme of tenure-track, di cipline-centered as istant profes orhip. We at the Council-indeed, all of us in higher education-face a fundamental dilemma. How do we in till the capacity to analyze and to recommend tractable solutions for the complex problems of the 21 st century if the mo t important tep i problem finding? As early as 1971, a report in Science magazine concluded that the most intellectually path-breaking and practically useful re earch wa most frequently based on a pooling of di ciplinary knowledge. 4 This research more typically rejected the tendencies of individual di cipline to define olutions for a problem in term of extant di ciplinary para4 K.W. Deutsch, J. Platt, and D. Sengbaas, "Conditions Favoring Major Advances in the Social Science," Sc,~nc~. 171 (1971), pp. 4.50-4.59. The utbors concluded that in the period 1900-1929, nearly one-balf of the "major advance in social science" bad their source in interdisciplinary work, and in subsequent years, two-thirds were interdi ciplinary contributions.

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digms, i.e., conventional theoretical and methodological frame of reference. Instead, the pooling of discipline pennitted-indeed, required-a first step of finding the problem, an iterative phase of problem redefinition from a variety of perspectives, that set tbe tone for a series of broadly conceived solutions. Within our di cipline-based departments and laboratorie , how do we make it po sible for our graduate students, even our po tdoctoral fellows and scienti ts, to learn this rather novel approach to problem finding and problem solving? How should we de ign our universitie and our curricula in higher education in order to bring the skills of analysis, problem finding, and problem solving more in alignment with the problems and olution strategies that will be encountered and required in an increasingly tran national world? • Third, we should expand the opportunities for collaborative analysi and the recognition of teamconducted research. One po ible new approach to scholarship, ever more common in several of the science , is team re earch. In keeping with the view that problem fmding and solving capacities should align optimally with the presumed nature of a phenomena' complexity, I ugge t that these teams be multidi ciplinary and inten ely collaborative. Our universitie till celebrate the model of the individual scholar pursuing his or her curio itie ; a peer-review proce regulate and sanctions the quality and direction of individuals' work. There is nothing inherently wrong or unproductive about that model, but when it excludes or diminishes the flouri hing of other approaches to organizing inquiry, we need to ask if we are getting the most from it. In a tran national world, it is unlikely that any discipline, anyone university, or the cholars from any ingle nation will be able to make great headway again t the problems of the 21 t century by going it alone. We need to ask if, as a flfSt step, we might need to rethink the training of our graduate students in kill of research collaboration, team organization, and cro -di ciplinary cooperation. Perhaps another model of re earch that should be explored-in addition to the current individual Ph.D. dissertation that "test" for individual research capacity within a "peer" (doctoral faculty) sy tern of review-i one that embeds individual cholars within a team with some cro -disciplinary diversity. • Fourth, and perhaps mo t important, we should facilitate and encourage wider cro s-cultural training, JUNE/SEPTEMBER

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research, and team-based international collaboration in testing our collective academic knowledge against the practical realities, challenge and dilemmas of a transnational world. Knowledge and communication increasingly are globalized. But as with many features of a transnational world, from the beneficial impacts of multinational corporations on rates of economic activity to the limiting effects of rapid population growth on human flourishing, the depths of knowledge and the flow of information are unevenly distributed. Scientific knowledge and scholarship in the 20th century have been globalized, but the domination of the We t is clear. Engli h, for example, is the international language of science, accounting for about 80 percent of all citations in electronic retrieval sy tern .' And in the social science , some have e timated that at least two-thirds of publi hed research originate in the West. In the social ciences and humanitie , as well as the natural science, America, e pecially, has exported the major theoretical frameworks, methods of research design and analysis, and with them, our disciplinary form of codifying and organizing scientific knowledge systems. Global diffusion of intellectual and scientific information from the We tal 0 has put forward the view that "it is both natural and desirable for knowledge to accumulate, as it were, into one international [dominated by We tern; American] pool of ideas and methods that is freely acce sible to all. "6 (Insert is mine.) America's universitie and re earch centers hould be rightly proud of their role in fo tering this globalization of advanced and technical knowledge. By the end of the 18th century, migration of European cientists and intellectual to the United States e tabli hed the human foundations for unparalleled techoologicalleadership and accomplishments. Higher educational institution in America still receive orne of the be t and mo t productive of the graduate tudents from abroad. By the late 1980s, Asian-born students-mainly from China, Taiwan, Japan, India and Korea-compri ed about half of all foreign tudent , and contributed even larger fractions in doctoral program in natural cience and engineering. Many of the e foreign tudents, more than five out of

, Joel Kotkin , "Enrolling Foreign Students Will Strengthen America's Place in the Global Economy," Chronicle of Higher Education, February

24,1993. 6 Easton and Schelling, cds., Dividtd Know/edge, p. 2S. ITEM

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every ten, choose to remain in the United State and contribute productively to our economic competitiveness worldwide. Those who return to their homelands, of course, also accelerate the global diffusion of U.S. scientific and intellectual knowledge. We need to make more effective use of the large and intellectually rich influx of talented foreign graduate students and research scholars to our universitie and research laboratories. They are more than simply a reserve of technical labor to fill the gaps and deficiencies in our own national labor pool. They bring insights and novel constructions about their worlds and ours.

A Negative Imp ct? Higher education and advanced knowledge may be one of our best export products in the global economy of the 21st century. And without gainsaying that possibility, I suggest that as we approach the next century we should ask our universities to heed the po sible unintended negative impacts of the globalization of American scientific and technical knowledge. One potential downside of Western and especially American domination is that our ways of knowing, learning, analyzing, and of storing and organizing knowledge (e.g., conceptually, into di ciplines; and institutionally, into their corre ponding university units) are likely to reflect con iderable cultural bias. Easton and Schelling, for example, conclude from their American Academy workshops with the Chinese that non-We tern cultures have not been particularly well served by the globalization of intellectual knowledge systems arising from the West. NonWestern scholars have not been prompted to develop their own conceptual and philosophical foundations for cultural, historical and societal analysis and interpretation, for seeing themselves through their own eyes rather than through lenses provided by Western epistemology, as it were. And we in the West, in turn, have constructed various formulations of "the Other" (e.g., as critiqued in Edward Said's Orientalism1). Comparing the long history of Confucian-inspired scholarship in China, which emphasizes a more holistic construction of knowledge systems, with the Cartesian, atomistic approaches in the West, Easton and Schelling ask whether the globalization and dominance of Western intellectual

epistemology fosters considerable historical and cultural blindness worldwide: It pose the qu tion as to whether our conceptions of method they have evolved and of the re ulting knowledge itself, over the last two thousand years in the We t, are not, after all, ju t that, namely, products of I unique hi torical experience. In the extreme view, may they not be the ingular outcome of one kind of cultural sequence? Why houJd we believe, except out of some cultural pride, blindness, or hubris, that our experience in the West leads to universal criteria for the production of reliable knowledge but that the divergent experience of other culture fall hort of offering the same? May not this imply be what it i often seen to be ou ide the We t, an arrogance or imperiaJi m of the idea that has taken the place of (or, in the past, h accompli hed) an imperiali m of power?'

Another negative consequence is associated with the domination of English as the language of science and international scholarship. This fact is not likely to motivate American teachers or their tudents to learn foreign languages. Currently, about 15 percent of our high chool students learn a foreign language and only two percent pursue it for more than two years. 9 And imposing English-language facility as a "thre hold" for the participation of foreign scientists and scholars in the flows and exchange of ideas worldwide is a very limiting condition. Among its unfortunate side effects, this practice can lead to an unwarranted discounting of ideas-and an arbitrary dismis al of their proponents-when rendered without sophistication in academic English.

A Reeducation One conclusion I draw from these observations is that knowledge systems have deep hi torical, cultural, and in titutional roots. That is an asset in a transnational world. Ironically, we must have detailed and nuanced localized knowledge if we are to penetrate the complexities of a transnational world. The emphasis in the past has presumed that the "other" has more to learn and gain than we do. But if Kennedy is right, then we need to refocus our appreciation on what we can learn, and, on how we can promote the development of strong indigenous scholarship as a counterpart or counterpoint to that which we can offer in exchange. In his concluding chapter, Paul Kennedy calls for a • Easton and Schelling, cds., DivUkd Knowl~dg~, p. 27. Jonathan Korol, Illitua/e A1Mrica (New York: New American librai)', 1986, p. 212, cited in Kennedy). 9

, New York: Random House, 1978.

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radical "reeducation of humankind." When he elaborates on that educational regimen, he notes in preamble that each nation's dilemmas are unique and will require a different set of strategies in adapting to and coping with a new world order. Moreover, each nation must develop considerable empathy and understanding with the dilemmas of other nations. As to reeducation, in these circumstances, Kennedy suggests that education in the larger sense means more than technical "retooling" the work force, or the emergence of profe ional cI ses, or even the encouragement of a manufacturing culture in the schools and colleges in order to preserve a productive base. It also implie a deep understanding of why our world is changing, of how other people and cultures feel about those change, of what we all have in common-as well as what divides cultures, classes, and nations ... Because we are all members of a world citizenry, we also need to equip ourselves with a sy tern of ethic , a sense of faime ,and a sense of proportion as we con ider the variou ways in which, collectively or individually, we can better prepare for the twenty-fU'St century.l째

Again, problem finding is an important first step in problem solving, and that step in itself requires active 10

Kennedy,

Pr~paring for

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1M T....~nty-Firsl

C~ntury.

p. 341.

engagement across national, regio,nal and cultural settings to "see" the problem in its various manifestations and representations. America's universities, together with research institutions with international reach such as the Social Science Research Council, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and the National Academy of Science, must take the lead in promoting a more truly collaborative, co-constructed science than we have achieved hitherto. One way is to foster greater international exchanges of scholars, as well as mutual education and training projects with counterpart foreign institutions. The attendant tasks are not easy, and they will run counter to our well-honed tendencies to export our own institutional and national expertise and to act on behalf of our own best interests. We shall have to overcome considerable cultural and intellectual "hubris," as David Easton puts it, if we are to rise to Kennedy's challenge for a radical reeducation of ourselves, our students and future leaders, and of higher education in preparation for the 21st century. - David L. Featherman

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Counell Personnel New Directors and Officers At its meeting on June 5, 1993, the Council's board of directors elected two new members: Annette B. Weiner, New York University, representing the American Anthropological Association; and Kenneth W. Wachter, University of California, Berkeley, representing the American Statistical Association. Burton H. Singer, Yale University, who was the fonner representative of the American Statistical Association, was appointed as a director-at-Iarge. All will serve three-year terms, effective July 1, 1993. The Council's officers for 1993-94 were also elected or re-elected by the board. The following were re-elected: Robert M. Coen, Northwestern University, chair of the board of directors; Albert Fishlow, University of California, Berkeley, vice-chair; David L. Featherman, Social Science Research Council, president; Marta Tienda, University of Chicago, secretary; Ronald J. Peleck, Social Science Research Council, assistant treasurer. Newly elected to the post of treasurer: Barbara Heyns, New York University. Annette B. Weiner was newly appointed to the Executive Committee. Two new members were appointed to the Committee on Problems and Policy (P&P): Elizabeth Jelfn, Centro de Estudio de Estado y Sociedad (CEDES), Argentina; and Brackette F. Williams, University

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of Arizona. All will serve one-year tenns, effective July 1, 1993.

Staff Change Kenton W. Worcester, fonnerly the program officer to the Joint Committee on Western Europe, has been promoted to the po ition of program director. Mr. Worcester, a political scientist, joined the Council in 1991. His mo t recent articles appeared in the National

Political Science Review, New Politics, and Popular Culture Review. Mr. Worcester's research interests include the emergence and con olidation of new political and economic institutions in Europe, and the politics of race and class in advanced industrial societie .

New Staff Appointment Knut Walter has joined the Council taft as program officer to the Committee on Latin American Studies, effective July 1, 1993. A graduate of Cornell University, Mr. Walter received his M.A. (1977) and Ph.D. (1987) in history at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. Prior to coming to the Council, he was professor of history at the Universidad Centroamericana Jos6 Sime6n Cafias, in San Salvador. Mr. Walter's graduate study was supported by a Ford Foundation Fellowship, and he was awarded SSRC re earch grants at both the doctoral and posdoctorallevels.

He has taught and lectured extensively in both Central America and the United States, and was a Fulbright Visiting Professor at Millikin University in 1988. His recent publication include

The Regime of Anastasio Somoza (University of North Carolina Press, 1993) and "Nicaragua: The Limits of Intervention," with Joseph Tu1chin, in Abraham F. Lowenthal, editor, Exporting

Democracy: The United States and Latin America (The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1991). In addition, Mr. Walter is coordinating editor of Historia de EI Salvador, to be publi hed by the Ministry of Education of EI Salvador in 1994 as the centerpiece of a major effort to revise high school curricula in that country.

Program Director Honored W10dzimierz Okrasa, program director to the Committee on Economic Stability and Growth and the Committee on Confidentiality and Data Access, was awarded the Golden Badge of Merit on July 12, 1993 by the Polish Central Statistical Office. The award is given to distinguished scientists and experts who have contributed to the practical and theoretical development of Polish statistics. The award was presented during the official ceremony commemorating the 75th anniversary of the Central Statistical Office and the 200th anniversary of the establishment of Polish statistics as a field.

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Current Activities at the Council Comparative and Transnational Seed Grants Nine seed grants for comparative and tran national research projects were awarded for 1992-93 in response to a reque t for propo als i ued in the June/September 1992 i ue of Items. The competition was open to members of Council committees and working group and to recent recipients of postdoctoral fellow hip administered by the SSRC and the American Council of Learned Societies (ACLS). Thirty-four propo als were ubmitted. The nine winning projects were elected by SSRC president David L. Featherman and ACLS pre ident Stanley N. Katz, with the as istance of an advi ory panel of cholars and the profe sional staffs of the two Councils. The intent of the grants i to promote cro -area collaboration in the initiation of promising new comparative and/or tran national re earch projects. These awards were made po ible by grants from the Ford Foundation, in upport of the development of the Council ' joint international program , and by the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation through its support of the SSRC Program on International Peace and Security (IPS). The source of funding i indicated in parenthese . • Planning Workshop for Global Land Use/Cover Model (FordlIPS): Changes in the global environment will have profound consequence for human society in the decades ahead. Economic development trategies, human JUNPlSEPTEMBER

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population flows, and relations among state will all be affected by the way societies confront proce ses of environmental change. Environmental i ue are certain to become increasingly central to concepts of national and international ecurity. In order to understand-and to manage-the cope and consequence of global environmental change, natural and ocial scientists need a clearer grasp of the exi ting attribute of the earth's resources and the purposes for which humans exploit land and natural re ources. This research project aims to develop a global land use/cover model which will enable ocial and natural cienti ts to analyze pre ent global land use/cover and to project changes over time. A workshop was held in July 1993 to discus numerou aspects of the propo ed model, including it mathematical tructure, and cale and time dimension , as well as the possibility of designing it in uch a way as to facilitate modification in respon e to evolving computational technology. Succe ful completion of the project will as i t in developing effective re pon e to environmental change in ocial cience re earch and policy planning on both regional and global cales. Project organizer: Billie Lee Turner D, Clark University. Project staff: David C. Major, SSRC. • The Impact and Dynamics of Transnational Environment and Development Alliances (Ford): In developing countries, tradeoff between development and the environment are mo t harply felt

at the community level, but gras roots organizations often have little voice in a policymaking proces dominated by national governments and multilateral development banks. In the last decade, however, transnational alliances of grassroots group from the developing nations have emerged as active participants in policy debates. The project will bring together cholars and practitioners to analyze the internal dynamics of these tran national environmental and development alliances and to asse s their impact on policy proce e in both developed and underdeveloped nation . A workshop will be held in the fall of 1993 in Cambridge, Mas achusetts, to develop a re earch trategy on this topic and to refme a et of working hypothe es about the characteri tics and performance of tran national environmental and development alliances in different setting. Project organizer: Jonathan Fox, Mas achu etts In titute of Technology. Project staff: Eric Hershberg, SSRC. • Situating Fertility: Global Visions and Local Values (Ford): A demographers and family planning experts are adapting their models of reproductive deci ion-making to allow for culture and hi tory, anthropologi ts and hi torian are examining the national and international bureaucracie that affect the mo t intimate aspect of people' daily lives, no matter where they live. At the heart of the e complementary endeavors is a growing ITEM

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recognition that the global and local languages used to assess the value of life and lives both overlap and diverge. Researchers will explore the transnational flow of languages, knowledge, and practices that shape the reproductive lives of individuals and groups in both the developed and the developing world. Project organizers: Gillian Feeley-Harnik, The Johns Hopkins University, and Caroline H. Bledsoe, Northwestern University. Project staff: M. Pricilla Stone and Barbara Bianco, SSRC. • Ethnopediatrics: Concepts and Practices Related to Health and Illness in Children (Ford): How do beliefs and customs relating to children's illness and well-being vary across local cultural, and sub-cultural, settings? How, for example, do parents who are migrant workers in California, or rural fanners in Kenya, or village fisherman in New Guinea, think about and relate to a child who has a physical 'abnormality' or who appears particularly listless? And how do conventional medical practices and policy relate to such local beliefs and practices? At a time of increased recognition that adult health and illness are tied to varying cultural factors, this workshop will address questions such as these and, in the process, attempt to create a coherent framework Oabeled "ethnopediatric") for comparative analysis, research, and planning. Drawing on concepts and methods from disciplines such as anthropology, psychology, and epidemiology, and involving international researchers in health 46\ITEMS

and child development, this framework would focus on issues such as how (sub)cultures differ in their customary etiologies and taxonomies of children's diseases, in notions of developmental progression and how it occurs, and how individual differences in children's well-being and growth are explained. Project organizers: Carol M. Worthman, Emory University, and Jacqueline Goodnow, Macquarie University. Project staff: Frank Kessel, SSRC. • Political Dynamics of Economic Reforms (Ford): The economic reforms currently pursued across much of the globe induce temporary unemployment of labor and capital, bankruptcies of firms, and an immediate decline of consumption among large segments of the population. Not surprisingly, these policies evoke widespread political resistance. This project investigates how this opposition affects the continuation and eventual success or failure of reforms. A May 1993 workshop at the University of Chicago was held to address the conceptual and methodological challenges of devising a larger research project devoted to enriching social scientific understanding of the dynamic relation hip between public opinion and policy choice in different setting . Project organizers: Adam Przeworski, University of Chicago, and Susan Stokes, University of Chicago. Project staff: Jason Parker, ACLS. • Violence. Political Agency. and the Construction of the Self: Comparative Ethnographies (IPS): Violence in a variety of forms is a prominent feature of many

contemporary societies. Whatever the particular form it takes in particular settings, violence adversely affects the lives and well-being of many individuals and communities across the globe and has direct implications for peace and security both regionally and internationally. This project will develop a comparative analysis of communities and regions where violence is, or has been, chronic and often takes overtly political form, in order to gain greater understanding of the similarities and differences of various forms of violence, and of their roots and manifestations in different social and cultural settings. The researchers will also analyze how some societies fmd ways to end violence and bring about reconciliation, peace, and security. (Northern Ireland and Sri Lanka are two illustrative cases in point.) Project organizers: Veena Das, University of Delhi, and Arthur Kleinman, Harvard University. Project staff: Frank Kessel, SSRC. • Culture. Identity and Conflict (IPS): The dissolution of the Soviet Union has not brought with it the world free of conflict that some had (naively) expected. Instead, culture in its many forms has only become obvious as a fundamental source of intra-state and inter-state conflict. Ethnic and religious conflicts are occurring on every continent, some of them accompanied by massive loss of life. Some of these conflicts date back centuries, while others are the products of the periods of colonialism and imperialism of the last hundred years. These researchers will explore how cultural identity is VOLUME

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defined and perceived, the roots of conflict in cultural differences, and the desiderata for averting or resolving such conflicts. Project organizer: Hazel Markus, University of Michigan. Project staff: Frank Kessel, SSRC. • Market Cultures: Entrepreneurial Precedents and Ethical Dilemmas in East and Southeast Asia (Ford): The past two decades have witnessed a generalization and intensification of market activities in the nations of East and Southeast Asia. These processes are not simply a result of new policies, but a consequence of broad shifts in government regulations, social relationships, and cultural values. Within and across national borders, local populations have reacted in different ways to market expansion. What do the cultural variation in attitudes toward the market reveal about the culture and ethical reality of the market? Does the culture of gender, kinship, ethnicity, and religion affect entrepreneurial performance? These and other related questions are central to an understanding of the ongoing process of marketization in the region. This project will bring together scholars working to explore how these developments not only affect the distribution of economic resources, but also reshape politics, social hierarchies, and culture. It is hoped that an initial conference may galvanize a long-term working group on "market cultures." Project organizers: Hlle Tam Ho Tai, Harvard University, and Robert Hefner, Boston University. Project staff: Toby Volkman and Itty Abraham, SSRC. JUNE/SEPTEMBER

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• From the Global to the Local: Liberal Economies, Illiberal Politics (IPS): Over the past decade, economic liberalism-the belief in markets as the means for achieving economic development, has become a dominant international ideology. The rise of economic liberalism, however, has not coincided with the emergence of liberal democracies. The diminishing role of state-level institutions as a by-product of economic liberalization has cut away at existing social coalitions, prompting conflict over the composition of political community and the nature of political identity and association. Economic liberalization has changed the balance of federal versus local power, fragmenting longstanding areas of political action and fostering political alignments based on the divisive attributes of race, ethnicity, region, or religion. In many locations, "illiberal" political movements have been a prominent result of policies aimed at "liberalizing" economies. This project will explore whether processes of economic reform support or undermine processes of political reform, and whether economic liberalization has increased or diminished prospects for social conflict and instability in a wide range of cases, including the former Soviet Union, South Asia, the Middle East, and the United States. Project organizer: Kiren Chaudhry, University of California, Berkeley. Project staff: Steven Heydemann, SSRC.

Land Use in Global Environmental Change At each of its meetings, the Committee for Research on

Global Environmental Change (GEC) includes a substantive seminar, arranged by a committee member, on a topic relating to the committee's work. At the GEC's May 3-4, 1993 meeting in Alexandria, Virginia, Billie Lee Turner n of Clark University organized a seminar on land use in global environmental change. Participants included Rik Leemans, National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection, the Netherlands; Steven Sanderson, University of Florida; and Frank Southworth, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Mr. Turner moderated. Mr. Leemans presented the most recent results of the IMAGE 2 (Integrated Model to Assess the Greenhouse Effect) model. This model includes land cover modeling, using a range of environmental variables to assess potential patterns of future vegetation on a high resolution grid. Mr. Sanderson described his work in developing an innovative conceptual approach to land use/cover classification. He noted the significant qualitative shifts over time in human driving forces, the degree of heterogeneity of land use, and increasing internationalization as among the most challenging aspects of the analysis. Last, Mr. Southworth described the application of a modeling system that integrates human colonization and ecological interactions to estimate patterns and rates of deforestation under different immigration and land management scenarios. An application of this model to central Rondonia in Brazil was described and evaluated. ITEMS 147


Culture, Health, and Human Development As the frrst major activity of its Program on Cultural Constructions of Human Development, the Committee on Culture, Health, and Human Development held a workshop on "Participation in Practices" in New Orleans on March 28-29, organized by Jacqueline Goodnow, Macquarie University, and Peggy Miller, University of Illinois. Supported by a grant from the William T. Grant Foundation and involving both committee members and other scholars, the meeting was designed to analyze the state and potential of a "cultural practice " framework and to explore the extension of the framework and allied research to practice related to health, well-being, and afety. A monograph drawing on the

48 \ ITEMS

presentations and discu sions will be publi hed as part of the New Directions in Child Development series by Jo sey-Bas . In terms of both proces and content the workshop illu trate how the committee is attempting to broaden and sharpen comparative, ero s-disciplinary discu ion of human development and health. In a similar pirit the committee is planning a conference on "Local Biology" to be held in conjunction with its meeting at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences, September 30-0ctober 3. The committee has also been notified by the Rockefeller Foundation that the Council will receive a grant-in-aid award for the committee's Program on Health, Suffering, and Social Transformations. The funds will

be used for the organization of a series of activities, primarily a workshop and research institute, aimed at laying the groundwork for studies of differential community respon e to social change and social suffering. The e activitie , involving senior and junior scholars from both the North and South, will take place during 1994. SSRC Major Recipient

of Fundiog Of the 1,000 nonprofit organizations, including college and universitie , that reported receiving foundation money in 1991, the SSRC ranked thirteenth in tenns of total dollars receiVed. Thi information i contained in a new publication i ued by the Foundation Center, Who Gets Grants! Who Gives Grants: Nonprofit Organizations and the Foundation Grants (New York, April 1993).

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Council Fellowships and Grants for Training and Research 1993-94 Joint International Programs for Area and Comparative Training and Research (1) Predissertation Awards InternatioDal Predissertatioo Fellowship Program: Twelve months of upport for graduate students at selected universities. in the fields of economics, political science, psychology, sociology, and other social sciences, designed to enrich their disciplinary tudies with area and language k.iUs focused on the developing world. Deadline: Contact SSRC or the American Council of Learned Societie ,228 East 45th Street, New York, NY 10017.

Africa: Predissertation FeUow hips for short-term field trips to sub-Saharan Africa for graduate tudents in the social sciences and the humanitie . Deadline: November I, 1993. Eastern Europe: FeUow hips for Advanced Graduate Training for tudents who need an academic year of extra training before beginning the di sertation. Deadline: December I, 1993.··

Eastern Europe: Predissertation Travel Grants for travel to Eastern Europe to help students defme their dissertation programs. Deadline: March I, 1994··

South Asia (lbngl.....): Predi sertation FeUowships for short-term field trips to Bangladesh for graduate students in the social science and the humanities. Deadline: November I, 1993.

Southeast Asia: Predi seriation FeUow hips for short-term field trips to Southeast Asia to investigate potential research ite and materials, for training in Southeast Asian languages not available in the U.S., and e tablishing local research contacts. Deadline: November I, 1993.

Soviet Union and Its Successor States: Graduate Training FeUowships for 12 month of upport to students in their third, fourth, or fifth year of graduate tudy. Deadline: December I, 1993.

(2) Dissertation Awards Nine to 18 months of support for doctoral di sertation research abroad in the social science and the humanities

Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean, Near and Middle Eat, South Asia (Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, India, 8ang1ac1ab), Southeast Asia, Western EUI'Ope.t Deadline: November I, 1993. China,·· Eastern Europe,·· Soviet Union and Its Succ:asor States. Deadline: December I, 1993.

Japan (fellowship for di sertation write-up) and Korea. Deadline: January I, 1994.

(3) Other Predoctoral Awards in Area Research AfricaD Humanities Fellowships. Yearlong residential seminar at the In titute for Advanced Study and Research in the African Humanities, Northwestern University, for advanced predoctoral tudents and postdoctoral scholars. Deadline: December 17, 1993.

Berlin Program ror Advanced German and European Studies. Nine to 24 month of upport for comparative and interdisciplinary study of the economic, political, and social aspects of modem German and European affairs. Open to applicants who have completed all requirements (except the di sertation) for the Ph.D., and to anthropologi ts, economi ts, political scienti ts, sociologi ts, and all scholars in germane social science and cultural tudies fields. Deadline: February I, 1994. East European Language Training Grants. Summer training in any East European language (except those of the Common-

-University of California, Berkeley; University of California, Los Angele ; University of California, San Diego; University of Chicago; Columbia University; ComeU University; Duke University; Harvard University; University of lllinoi , Urbana-Champaign; Indiana University, Bloomington; Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Michigan State University; University of Michigan, Ann Arbor; University of Minnesota, Twin Citie Campus; University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; Northwe tern University; University of Pennsylvania; Princeton University; Stanford University; University of Texas. Au tin; University of Washington; University of Wiscon in, Madison; and Yale University. --For detail and instruction on how to apply for these fellow hips and grants. addre the American Council of Learned Societies, 228 East 4Sth Street. New York. NY 10017. For all others. addre the specific program at the Social Science Research Council. tSuccessful applicants to the di sertation feUow hip competition for We tern Europe become automatically eligible for the Luso-American Development Foundation Fellowship if their projects relate to Portuguese studie . They also become eligible for the Tocqueville Fellow hip if their projects relate to French studies.

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wealth of Independent States) in the United States or Eastern Europe. Advanced undergraduates, graduate tudents, and postdoctoral scholars may apply. Deadline: March I, 1994.Soviet Union and Its Successor States. Summer workshops in (a) Soviet Dome tic Politic and Society; (b) Sociology and Anthropology; and (c) Imperial Rus ian History. Workshops are designed to counteract the isolation of graduate students and junior scholars by providing an opportunity to interact with peers, e tabli h contact, and promote innovative research. Open to tudents eoroUed in Ph.D. programs and junior scholars who received their Ph.D. 's after June 1988. Deadline: Contact the program on the Soviet Union and Its Successor State . • SJHcial Award: Louis Dupree Prize for Research on Mghani tao and/or Central Asia. A $2,500 prize will be awarded for the

mo t promi ing di sertation involving field research in Mghani tao and/or Central A ia, including Azerbaijan, Kirghizia, Mongolia, Turkmeni tan, Tajiki tao, and Uzbeki tan. Candidate who receive a di sertation research fellow hip under competitions administered through a relevant program (China, Near and Middle East, South A ia, Soviet Union and Its Succe sor State, and SSRC-MacArthur Foundation FeUow hips on Peace and Security in a Changing World) will be eligible to apply.

(4) Advanced Research Grants Up to one year of upport to scholars in the social science and the humanitie for advanced area and comparative research projects

AfrIca, China,- Eastern Europe,- Japan, Korea, Latin America and the Caribbean, Near aDd MJddIe East, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Soviet Union and Its Successor States. Deadline: December I, 1993.

(5) Other Awards to Advanced Scholars in Area Research African Humanities Fellowships. Yearlong re idential seminar at the Institute for Advanced Study and Research in the Mrican Humanitie , Northwe tern University. Advanced predoctoral tudents and po tdoctoral scholars may apply. Deadline: December 17, 1993.

BerUn Program for Advanced German and Europeaa Studies. Nine to 24 months of upport for comparative and interdisciplinary tudy of the economic, political, and social pects of modem German and European affairs. Open to applicants who have completed all requirements (except the di sertation) for the Ph.D., and to anthropologi ts, economi ts, political scienti ts, sociologi ts, and all scholars in germane social science and cultural tudie fields. Deadline: February I, 1994. East Europeaa Language Training Grants. Summer training in any East European language (except those of the Commonwealth of Independent States) in the United State or Eastern Europe. Advanced undergraduate • graduate rodents, and postdoctoral scholars may apply. Deadline: March I, 1994.-

Japan. Grants for Research Planning Activities. Seed grants intended to advance research concerning Japan in the social science and humaoitie . Innovative projects at the planning stage which promote comparative or interdisciplinary perspective are particularly encouraged. Deadline : Contact the program on Japanese tudie . Korea. Grants for Research Planning Activities. Seed grants intended to advance research concerning Korea in the social sciences and humaoitie . The program seeks to identify new topic that wiU advance the tate of theory or methodology and those where ubstantial new research i under way. Deadline : November I, 1993 and February I, 1994. Soviet Union and Its Successor States Summer Workshops in (a) Soviet Dome tic Politic and Society; (b) Sociology and Anthropology; and (c) Imperial Russian Hi tory. Workshops are de igoed to counteract the isolation of graduate students and junior scholars by providing an opportunity to interact with peers, e tabli h contact, and promote innovative research. Open to tudents eoroUed in Ph.D. programs and junior scholars who received their Ph.D. 's after June 1988. Deadline: Contact the program on the Soviet Union and Its Successor States. Research and Developmeat Grants. For support of meeting , workshops, and pilot projects devoted to initiative and innovation in the theorie , methods, and approaches applied to the rudy of the former Soviet Union, or to pre-Soviet period in a manner which shows knowledge about the ucce sor tales of the former Soviet Union. Deadline: September IS, 1993 and March I, 1994.

Summer PostdodoraI Retrainina Grants. For formal course of in truction in the U.S. de igoed to it in acquiring: (a) additional language capability (other than Ru ian); (b) additional competence in quantitative and/or other research methodologie ; and (c) kill in comparative and non-traditional disciplinary approaches. Deadline: March I, 1994 for training in the summer of 1994.

(6) Institutional Awards in Area Research and Training African An:bives and M\IIeUIIII Project. Grants in support of activitie that wiU help strengthen and invigorate the work of

*Contact the American Council of Leamed Societies, 228 East 45th Street, New York, NY 10017.

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archives and museums in Africa. The program particularly encourages projects that draw on local expertise and community resource and bring together different institutions in cooperative venture. Deadline: June 18, 1993.

Eastern Europe. Institutional grants to upport instruction in Albanian, Bulgarian, Czech, Hungarian, Macedonian, Poli h, Romanian, Serbo-Croation, Slovak, or Siovenian. Deadline : January 15, 1994.Soviet Union and Its Successor States First-year Fellow hips in Underrepresented Fields in Soviet Studies. Awards to university departments in discipline which are underrepresented in po t-Soviet tudies. For 1993-94, awards will be in sociology and anthropology. Deadline: December I, 1993. Summer Language institutes for Russian and Soviet Languages (other than Russian). Award provide fellow hip to students enrolled in language training program for the summer of 1994; provide [mancial as i lance to teachers enrolled in uch programs; upport cultural activities to enhance the language curriculum; and upport improvement of exi ting programs of ummer language institute . Deadline: December I, 1993.

Other Award Programs at the SSRC Abe Fellowship Program. Awards to Japanese and American research profe ional or third-country national affiliated with an American or Japanese institution for the purpose of conducting research on anyone or combination of the following: global is ues, problems common to advanced indu trial societie , and i ues that relate to improving U.S.-Japanese relation. Deadline: September I, 1993. Public Policy Research on Contemporary Hispanic Issues. Summer Workshop on Stati tical Research Methods. De igned to provide Hi panic faculty, researchers, and graduate tudents with the opportunity to develop knowledge of national data sets relevant to the tudy of the Hi panic population and tati tical research methods. Workshops take place at the Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research (ICPSR) at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Deadline: To be announced. SSRC-MKArtbur FOUDdation Fellowships on Peace and Security in • Changing World. The program offers two-year di sertation and two-year postdoctoral fellow hips intended to upport research on the implication for security is ue of worldwide cultural, social, economic, and political change . Fellow are required to undertake training that adds a new competence to their exi ting disciplinary kills; training rou t permit a ignificant departure from previou work. Deadline: December I, 1993. International Peace and Security Research Workshop Compeddon. Grants to support small workshops on topics that te t e tabli hed as umptions about peace and security. Workshops must be initiated by recipients of SSRC-MacArthur Foundation Fellow hips in International Peace and Security (past and present), MacArthur Foundation Grants for Research and Writing, MacArthur Collaborative Studie Grants, or any other direct or indirect grant from the MacArthur Program on Peace and Security. Deadline September 15, 1993 and February 15, 1994. 1993-94 Visiting Scholar Fellowship Compedtion. Three-month fellow hip allow scholars, journalis ,public servants, lawyers, and others to pursue research on innovative topics in international peace and security tudie at universitie and major research centers outside their home regions. The 1993-94 fellow hip are offered to African, Eastern European, and Central European scholars and researchers. Deadline: September 15, 1993. -Contact the American Council of Learned Societies, 228 East 4Sth Street, New York, NY 10017.

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Awards Offered in 1993 Following are the names, affiliations, and topics of the individuals who were offered fellow hip or grants by Council committees in the mo t recent annual competition for research in the social sciences and humanities. The area studies research awards were made by the committees jointly sponsored by the Council and the American Council of Learned Societie (ACLS). They are supported by grants from the Ford Foundation, the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, and the National Endowment for the Humanities. Additional funding for individual programs is provided by the Chiang Cbing-kuo Foundation for International Cultural Exchange, the Ford Foundation, the French-American Foundation, the German Marshall Fund of the United States, the Japan-United States Friend hip Commission, the Henry Luce Foundation, the LusoAmerican Development Foundation, the Christopher Reynolds Foundation, the Rockefeller Foundation, and the U.S. Department of State through the Russian, Eurasian, and East European Research and Training Program of the Soviet-Eastern European Research and Training Act of 1983 (Title VIll). Fellowships in international peace and security are supported by a grant from the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation. Grants from the Ford Foundation support fellowship for public policy research on contemporary Hispanic issues. The Ford Foundation also supports the joint ACLS/SSRC International Predissertation Fellowship Program. The Abe Fellow hip program is supported by the Japan Foundation Center for Global Partnership. Awards for research on the urban underclass are supported by the Rockefeller Foundation and the Foundation for Child Development. Unless it is specifically noted that a program is administered by the ACLS, the programs listed are administered by the Council. The Council does not discriminate on the basis of age, color, race, gender, or any other characteristic protected by applicable laws. The programs change somewhat every year, and intere ted scholars should write to the Council for a copy of the current general brochure. Individual program also publish brochures, with more complete descriptions of their aims and procedures, at various times during the year. See also the summary of all current fellow hips and grant programs on pages 49-51. S2\ITEMS

PREDISSERTATION AND DISSERTATION FELLOWSHIPS FOR AREA AND COMPARATIVE TRAINING AND RESEARCH International Predissertation FeUowsbip Program (lPFP)* The following graduate training fellow hip were awarded by the program committee of the International Predi sertation Fellow hip Program-Lisa Anderson (chair), Keletso Atkins, Robert H. Bate, Stephen G. Bunker, Daniel Doeppers, Jonathan Fox, Dennis Hogan, Dwight H. Perkins, Michael J. Piore, Robert Weller-at its meeting March 18-19, 1993. The committee was as isted by a screening panel: Benedict Anderson, Thomas Bassett, William Beeman, Jere Behrman, Leonard Berry, Thomas Biersteker, Daniel Cbirot, Jill Cry tal, Dale Eickelman, Frances Hagopian, Charle Hirschman, Germaine Ho ton, Charlotte Ikel , Philip Kuhn, David Laitin, David Marr, Sylvia Maxfield, Jane Menken, Laura Nader, Barry Naughton, Gayl Ness, Anne Pebley, Samuel Preston, Francisco Scarano, Dorothy Solinger, Shibley Telhami, Judith Tendler, Peter van der Veer, and Lawrence Westphal. Ellen Perecman, Katherine Hoffman, and Amy Cbazkel served as staff for this program. Regina M. Abrami, graduate tudent in political cience, University of California, Berkeley: "illegal" internal migration in Vietnam Robert J. Andolina, graduate tudent in political science, University of Minnesota: indigenous peoples' movements in Bolivia and Ecuador Sarah L. Babb, graduate student in sociology, Northwe tern University: economic change and democratic opening in Mexico Daniel U. Brakewood, graduate student in sociology, Indiana University: the impact of foreign inve tment on social services in Thailand David W. Brown, graduate tudent in political science, University of Washington: the political economy of development and the environment in Indonesia Susan D. Burgerman, graduate student in political science, Columbia University: the influence of international and dome tic pre sures on human rights policies in Guatemala, EI Salvador, and Co ta Rica Timothy D. Carmichael, graduate student in history, Michigan State University: hegemony in the history of Harar, Ethiopia Stacie A. Colwell, graduate student in hi tory, University

• Thi program is designed to prepare tudents to conduct research in the developing world. VOLUME

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of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign: the con truction of gender role through African medical practice Daniel K. Cooper, graduate tudent in sociology, Columbia University: the role of po t-colonial African tate in national development Humphrey J. Co tello, graduate tudent in political science, Duke University: economically prominent A ian in Uganda Karen S. Crehore, graduate student in ociology, Indiana University: health care and development in Kenya Jay Dautcher, graduate tudent in anthropology, University of California, Berkeley: economic reform and minority people in China John U. Davi ,graduate tudent in political science, Michigan State University: civil society, democratization, and "urban bias" through an examination of rural organizations in We tern Africa Catherine J. Elkin, graduate tudent in political science, Duke University: ethnicity and behavior in Senegal Thamora V. Fi hel, graduate tudent in anthropology, Cornell University: democratization, religion, and gender in Thailand Chege Githiora, graduate tudent in lingui tic and language , Michigan State University: language as a reflection of ethnicity and ocial tratification in Mexico Gregory J. Grandin, graduate tudent in hi tory, Yale University: ethnicity, community, and identity formation of indigenou population in Guatemala Le lie C. Gray, graduate tudent in geography, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign: social proce se and local environmental degradation in Burkina Faso Jennifer A. Hoover, graduate tudent in anthropology, University of Wi con in, Madison: the tate economy and female gender con truction in Chile Kri tine L. Hopkin, graduate student in ociology, University of Texas, Au tin: the sociocultural and in titutional context of Brazilian women' contraceptive choice John W. Humphries, graduate student in agricultural economic , Cornell University: the effects of decentralization of land control on local Vietnamese economie Susan A. Joyce, graduate tudent in rural sociology, Cornell University: the re ponse to changing economic condition in Bolivia William A. Kandel, graduate tudent in ociology, University of Chicago: economic re tructuring and Mexican migration Eugenia C. Katsigri ,graduate tudent in energy and resource , University of California, Berkeley: the political and economic impact of technology tran fer to and within China Philip Kretsedemas, graduate tudent in sociology, University of Minnesota: national identity and social interaction through mas media acce in Jamaica Kathryn R. Libal, graduate tudent in anthropology, University of Washington: ethnic identity among Kazakh children in China and Turkey Morgan Y. Liu, graduate tudent in anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor: multiple base of group identity in po t-Soviet Kyrgyzstan JUNPISEPTEMBER

1993

Marc Lynch, graduate tudent in government, Cornell University: changing conceptions of overeignty in Jordan Kimberly D. Nettle, graduate tudent in sociology, University of California, Lo Angele: Caribbean women' political, social and cultural involvement at the gras -roots level in Jamaica and Guyana Alexander S. Pfaff, graduate tudent in economic , Mas achusetts In titute of Technology: government policie concerning defore tation in Brazil Daniel N. Po ner, graduate student in government, Harvard University: democratization, identity change, and ethnic conflict in Zambia Andrea L. Roble ,graduate tudent in sociology, Univerity of Wiscon in, Madison: the ocial and economic impact of mining in Africa Michael L. Ro ,graduate tudent in politic , Princeton University: the influence of international in titution on policymakers in Malay ia and Indone ia Michael A. Sadler, graduate tudent in economic, University of Texas, Au tin: In titutional aspects of job training in Mexico David A. Smilde, graduate tudent in ociology, University of Chicago: religiou collective action in Venezuela Keiko Tanaka, graduate tudent in sociology, Michigan State University: the social proce of agricultural scientific development in China Eva T. Thome, graduate tudent in political science, Mas achusetts In titute of Technology: tate-society relation and rural social movements in Brazil Gina Uly se, graduate tudent in anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor: Caribbean women' participation in informal economic actlvitie Barbara L. Walker, graduate tudent in geography, University of California, Berkeley: acce s and control of African agrarian resources Peter A. Walker, graduate student in geography, University of California, Berkeley: u tainable natural resource management in African agrarian societie Jurgen Wie mann, graduate student in economic , University of Illinoi , Urbana-Champaign: environmental regulation in China Africa

Predissertation Fellowships The following predi sertation fellow hip were awarded by the Joint Committee on African Studies-Kwame A. Appiah (chair), Charle M. Becker, Mamadou Diouf, Gillian Feeley-Hamik, Paula Girshick, Peter Little, Catharine Newbury, Paul Richard , and Pearl Robinson-at its meeting on April 2-3, 1993. The committee was as i ted by a screening committee-Jame McCann (chair), Jean M. Allman, Adam A hforth, Kate Crehan, Katherine Demuth, Margaret Thomp n Drewal, Chri tine Jone , and Parker Shipton-and a selection committeeEdri Makward (chair), Dennis D. Cordell, John Higginson, Edmond Keller, Catharine Newbury, and Enid Schildkrout. M. Priscilla Stone, Barbara Bianco, and Michael Jobngren served as taff for thi program. ITEMS/53


Tracy A. Brunette, Ph.D. candidate in demography, University of California, Berkeley, for travel to The Gambia for preliminary research on the relation hip between child mortality and female autonomy Jeffrey D. Carter, Ph.D. candidate in religion, University of Chicago Divinity School, for travel to Nigeria for preliminary research on a new religious movement Timothy J. Dalton, Ph.D. candidate in economics, Purdue University, for travel to Zimbabwe for preliminary research on child malnutrition Le lie C. Gray, Ph.D. candidate in geography, University of lllinois, Urbana-Champaign, for travel to Burkina Faso for preliminary research on land degradation Zara K. Kinnunen, Ph.D. candidate in literature, University of Minnesota, for travel to The Gambia for preliminary research on human rights discourse Brian Larkin, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, New York University, for travel to Nigeria for preliminary research on the effects and use of television William C. McFarland, Ph.D. candidate in epidemiology, University of California, Berkeley, for travel to Zimbabwe for preliminary research on the relation hip between HIV and infant mortality and child urvival Dana L. Ru h, Ph.D. candidate in art hi tory, University of Iowa, for travel to Benin for preliminary research on the effects on popular culture of the repatriation of Afro-Brazilian back to Africa Zeric K. Smith, Ph.D. candidate in political science, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, for travel to Mali for preliminary research on political culture and concepts of democracy Lynn M. Thomas, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Northwe tern University, for travel to Kenya for preliminary research on changes in reproductive practice since 1908 Barbara L. Walker, Ph.D. candidate in geography, University of California, Berkeley, for travel to Sierra Leone for preliminary research on a women' religiou society

Dissertation Fellowships The following di sertation fellow hip were al 0 awarded at the committee's meeting on April 2-3, 1993, with the as istance of the screening committee. Chri topher B. Barrett, Ph.D. candidate in economic, University of Wisconsin, Madison, for a tudy of peasant markets and the effects of agriCUltural liberalization policie in central Madagascar Ro a De Jorio, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, for a tudy of women's labor among the urban Bambara in Segou, Mali Catherine S. Dolan, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, State University of New York, Binghamton, for a tudyof gender and labor dynamics in horticultural contracting in Meru, Kenya Kaim A. Klieman, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of California, Lo Angele, for a tudy of the ocial and economic hi tory of fore t region in Congo, Gabon, and Cameroon S4\ITEMS

Lisa Lindsay, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, for a hi tory of labor policie and dome tic life in Lago and Ibadan, Nigeria, from 1935 to 1965 Kalala Ngalamulume, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Michigan State University, for a history of the economy and society of colonial St. Louis, Senegal Andrew J. No ,Ph.D. candidate in geography, University of Florida, Gaine ville, for a study of wildlife conservation efforts in Bayanga, Central African Republic Patricia A. Opondo, Ph.D. candidate in ethnornu icology, University of Pittsburgh, for a tudy of ongs of a women's as ociation in the We tern Province of Kenya Keith S. Shear, Ph.D. candidate in history, Northwe tern University, for a study of state formation and its effects on the communities of early 2Oth-century South Africa

China The Joint Committee on Chinese Studie (admini tered by the American Council of Learned Societies)-Robert Hyme (chair), Peter K. Bol, Yi-tsi M. Feuerwerker, John Hay, Su an Mann, Barry Naughton, William L. Pari h, Elizabeth J. Perry, P. Steven Sangren, and Pauline R. Yu-at its meeting on March~, 1993, awarded fellowhip to the following individuals. Jason H. Parker and Beata Tiko served as staff for thi program. All recipients are Chiang Ching-kuo Foundation Fellows upported by funding received from the Chiang Ching-kuo Foundation. Martha F. Chang, graduate tudent, Department of Government, Harvard University, for research in Japan and Hong Kong on an easement in Pacifica: SinoJapanese relation and the politic of regional cooperation Yengning (Antonia) Chao, graduate student, Department of Anthropology, Cornell University, for research in Taiwan on an ethnographical and historical study of cultural and self-con tructions of female homosexuality in a Chine e society Alan R. Cole, graduate student, Department of Asian Languages and Cultures, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, for research in England and France on milk debts and the production of a Buddhi t discourse on mothers in medieval China Kathryn Anne Lowry, graduate student, Department of East Asian Language and Civilization , Harvard University, for re earch in Japan and Taiwan on the transmis ion of current popular airs ( hi hang xiaoling) or .. hidiao" in late Ming Leo K. Shin, graduate tudent, Department of East A ian Studie , Princeton University, for re earch in Taiwan, Japan, and Hong Kong on ethnicity and tate: southwe tern expan ion in Ming China Sau-chu Ali on Young, graduate tudent, Department of Hi tory, University of California, Lo Angele , for research in Hong Kong and Taiwan on female criminalVOLUME

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ity and women's tran gression in Qing China: perspec· tive of legal culture and popular culture

Eastern Europe Dissertation Fellowships The Joint Committee on Eastern Europe (administered by the American Council of Learned Societies)-Norman M. Naimark (chair), Ivo Banae, Josef C. Brada, Victor A. Friedman, Susan Gal, Elemer Hankiss, Deborah MiJenko. vitch, Adam Przeworski, Vesna Pusic, and Kazimierz Slomczyn ki-at its meeting on March 7-8, 1993, voted to award dissertation fellowship to the following individuals. Jason H. Parker and Beata Tiko served as staff for this program. Bradley F. Abrams, Ph.D. candidate, Department of History, Stanford University. The struggle for the oulof the nation: Czech communist and non.communi t intellectual in conflict, 1945-1948 Shari J. Cohen, Ph.D. candidate, Department of Political Science, University of California, Berkeley. The legaey of two totalitarianisms in post·communist struggles over national identity John F. Connelly, Ph.D. candidate, Department of History, Harvard University. A comparison of the higher education policies of communist leadership in Czecho. lovakia, East Germany, and Poland, 1945-1956 Li a A. Gurr, Ph.D. candidate, Department of Anthropol· ogy, Northwestern University. The relation hip between Polish industrial workers and the post.communist state in the context of economic reform Dorothea C. Hanson, Ph.D. candidate, Department of History, Yale University. The Yugo lavarmy in politics and society, 1918-1941 Paul I. Jukic, Ph.D. candidate, Department of History, Yale University. The Soviet Union and the war in Yugo lavia, 1941-1945 Laurie S. Kolo ki, Ph.D. candidate, Department of History, Stanford University. Between war and confor· mity: society and mass culture in Krakow, 1945-1949 Gerald A. McDermott, Ph.D. candidate, Department of Political Science, Mas achusetts In titute of Technology. The reformulation of property rights and the reconstruc· tion of finns in the Czech and Slovak republic James R. Palrnites a, Ph.D. candidate, Department of History, New York University. Territoriality in the early modem central European city: the old and new cities of Prague, 1547-1611, a case tudy Robert M. Ponichtera, Ph.D. candidate, Department of History, Yale University. The role of the Poli h army in the proce of statebuilding, 1918-1921 Elizabeth R. Vann, Ph.D. candidate, Department of Anthropology, University of Chicago. Social practice, particularly linguistic, and ascription to ethnic national group

Graduate Training Fellowships The following graduate training fellow hip were also awarded by the committee. JUNE/SEPTEMBER

1993

Tamar Gutner, graduate student, Department of Political Science, Massachusetts In titute of Technology. Coursework in East European politics, economic growth, and environmental management; language training in Czech Marian Mazzone, graduate student, Department of History of An, Ohio State University. Study of Hungarian history, literature, and language at Indiana University Mitchell A. Orenstein, graduate student, Department of Political Science, Yale University. Coursework in history, economics, ociology, and political anthropology of Eastern Europe; language training in Czech and Poli h Charity Snider, graduate tudent, Department of Slavic Languages, Columbia University. Coursework in European critical theory and intellectual history as background to work in Polish Literature

Predissertation Summer Travel Grants The following predissertation summer travel grants were approved by special subcommittee on May 4, 1993. David S. Altshuler, graduate student, Department of Anthropology, University of Chicago Christopher A. Blackburn, graduate student, Department of History, Auburn University Johanna K. Bockman, graduate student, Department of Sociology, University of California, San Diego Maria Bucur, graduate tudent, Department of History, University of Dlinois, Urbana·Champaign Eniko Z. Csergo, graduate student, Department of Political Science, George Washington University Elizabeth C. Dunn, graduate student, Department of Anthropology, University of Chicago John K. Glenn, graduate student, Department of Sociol· ogy, Harvard University Carey P. Pieratt, graduate student, Department of Sociol· ogy, Duke University

lAnguage Training Grants The East European Language Grant Committee of the Joint Committee on Eastern Europe (administered by the American Council of Learned Societies)-Howard I. Aron on, Grace E. Fielder, Irena Grudzinska Gross, Michael H. Heim, Madeline Levine, and Ernest A. Scatton-at its meeting on May I, 1993, voted to award language training grants to the following individuals. Jason H. Parker and Beata Tiko served as staff for this program. Phineas Baxandall, graduate student in political science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (Hungarian) Timothy A. Beasley, graduate student in Slavic languages and literatures, University of California. Lo Angeles (Czech) Johanna K. Bockman, graduate student in ociology. University of California, San Diego (Hungarian) Deborah J. Cahalen, graduate student in anthropology, University of California, Davis (polish) ITEMS/ 55


Angela Cannon, graduate student in Slavic language , University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (Czech) Timothy J. Cooley, graduate tudent in mu ic, Brown University (poli h) John K. Cox, graduate tudent in hi tory, Indiana Univerity (Slovene) Margaret M. Crawford, graduate tudent in anthropology, University of California, Berkeley (Hungarian) Charles A. Dunbar, graduate tudent in anthropology, University of Pittsburgh (Slovalc) Meli a D. Feinberg, graduate tudent in hi tory, Stanford University (Poli h) David S. Frey, graduate tudent in history, Dartmouth College (Hungarian) John M. Hajda, graduate tudent in ethnomu icology and y tematic mu icology, University of California, Lo Angele (Czech) Maureen Healy, graduate tudent in hi tory, University of Chicago (Czech) Jame W. Keith, graduate tudent in economic , In titute for Urban and Regional Studie , Vienna (Poli h) Roger D. Kelemen, graduate in sociology, University of California, Berkeley (Hungarian) Matthew J. Kelly, graduate student in anthropology, University of Chicago (Czech) Gregor A. Koso, graduate student in sociology, Purdue University (Poli h) Mark E. Kuzmack, graduate student in Engli h and comparative literature, Columbia University (Czech) Joanna Miller, graduate tudent in ociology, Yale University (Czech) Virginia R. Mitchell, graduate tudent in hi tory, Univerity of Roche ter (Poli h) Mary Neuburger, graduate tudent in geography, Univerity of Washington (Bulgarian) Anita Poletti-Anderson, graduate tudent in architectural hi tory, University of Virginia (Hungarian) Chri topher M. Riser, graduate tudent in Slavic language , University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (Macedonian) Karen A. Ronde tvedt, librarian m, University of Pittsburgh (Poli h) Steven D. Roper, graduate student in political cience, University of Mi ouri, Columbia (Romanian) Chri topher T. Scanlan, graduate tudent in Slavic language and literatures, University of Chicago (Bulgarian) Anna D. Socrate ,graduate tudent in comparative hi tory, Brandei University (Czech) Allison K. Stanger, as i tant profe sor of political science, Middlebury College (Czech) Masalco Ueda, as i tant profe sor of Slavic language , Brown University (Czech) Eric M. Wargo, graduate tudent in anthropology, Emory University (Czech) Jame D. Wilets, graduate tudent in international relation , Yale University (Romanian) Peter A. Zu i, graduate tudent in the Committee on Social Thought, University of Chicago (Czech) 56\ITEMS

Institutional Support Programs The East European Language Grant Committee of the Joint Committee on Eastern Europe voted to award grants to the following in titution in upport of East European language in truction. Arizona State University, Department of Foreign Language , for the teaching of Macedonian; summer 1993 Beloit College, Center for Language Studie , for the teaching of Hungarian; ummer 1993 Columbia University, In titute on East Central Europe, for the teaching of Hungarian; summer 1993 Columbia University, In titute on East Central Europe, for the teaching of Poli h; umrner 1993 Indiana University, Summer Workshop in Slavic and East European Languages, for the teaching of Czech; ummer 1993

Japan The following di sertation write-up grants were awarded by the Joint Committee on Japanese Studie -Jame W. White (chair), Mary Brinton, Irrnela Hijiya-Kirschnereit, Margaret Lock, Hideo Otalce, Richard Samuel , Henry Smith, Frank K. Upham-at its March 25-26, 1993 meeting in Lo Angele , California. The committee was as i ted by a gran selection ubcommittee: Jame W. White (chair), Mary Brinton, J. Victor Koschrnan, and William LaAeur. Mary Byrne McDonnell, Mimi M. Kim, and Dee L. Warren served as taff for thi program. Amy Beth Borovoy, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Stanford University, for research on Japanese women' use of "medicalization" in the formulation of social critique Li beth Kim Brandt, Ph.D. candidate in history, Columbia University, for research on crafting a common tradition: the folk art movement in Japan, 1930-1960 Hirohiko Izushi, Ph.D. candidate in economic , University of California, Berkeley, for research on suppliercu tomer relation hip in technological adaptation: a case tudy of the Japanese high-technology ceramic indu try Saori N. Katada, Ph.D. candidate in political science, University of North Carolina, for research on Japan, the U.S., and Latin America, 1973-1990: triad relations and the nature of private and public financial flow Azumi Ann Talcata, Ph.D. candidate in sociology, Stanford University, for research on an organizational approach to the development of the modem corporate form in Japan, 1853-1912 Julie A. Wald, Ph.D. candidate in engineering, Stanford University, for research on diffu ion of con truction ite technologie Andrew M. Watsky, Ph.D. candidate in art hi tory, Princeton University, for research on the main hall of the T ukubu uma Jinja: decoration and patronage of a Momoyama building VOLUME 47. NUMBERS

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Korea The following di sertation fellow hip were awarded by the Joint Committee on Korean Studie -Clark Sorensen (chair), Alice Amsden, Hyoung Cho, Carter Eckert, Stephan Haggard, Uchang Kim, and Chae-jin Lee-at its February 27-28, 1993 meeting in Cambridge, Mas achusells. Mary McDonnell, Mimi M. Kim, and Patricia Dwyer served as staff for thi program. Seung-og Kim, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Univerity of Michigan, Ann Arbor, for an archeological examination of ocial tran formation in prehistoric Korea Sunjoo Kim, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Washington, for an examination of the Hong Kyongnae Rebellion Kenneth R. Robinson, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, University of Hawaii, for a study of the regulation of foreign contact and trade in 15-16th century Cho on

of Michigan, Ann Arbor, for research on AIDS and sociopolitical mobilization in Brazil Mona Lyne, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Univerity of California, San Diego, for research on trade policy as a developmental or di tributional tool in Brazil and South Korea Daniela Peluso, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Columbia University, for research on medical knowledge, re ource utilization, and the negotiation of gender role in Amazonian health care ystems Kathryn Sampeck, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Tulane University, for archeological research of conque ts and coloniali m in the Izalco region of We tern EI Salvador Sergio Esteban Serulnikov, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, State University of New York, Stony Brook, for research on Aymara peasant politics and colonial domination in Northern Poto i, 1750-1800 William Summerhill, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Stanford University, for research on the impact of railway on Brazilian economic development, 1852-1915

Latin America and the Caribbean

Near and Middle East The following di sertation fellow hip were awarded by the Joint Committee on Latin American Studies-Barbara Stalling (chair), Brooke Larson, Laurence Whitehead, George Ylldice, Rodolfo Stavenhagen, Ruth Cardoso, Jere Behrman, Fernando Rojas, and Jo~ Joaquin Brunner-at its meeting on April 6-8, 1993. The committee was as i ted by a screening committee: Bryan Roberts (chair), Manuel Pastor, Karen Remmer, Stuart Schwartz, Irene Silverblatt, Thomas Skidmore, Cynthia Steele, and John Watanabe. Eric Hershberg, Jennifer Raskin, and Patricia Murillo served as staff for thi program. Deena Abu Lughod, Ph.D. candidate in political cience, New School for Social Research, for research on land reform in po t-war Nicaragua and El Salvador Nancy Appelbaum, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, University of Wiscon in, Madison, for research on gender, elas , and ethnicity in We tern Colombia, 1850-1930 David Garrett, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Columbia University, for research on ocial stratification in Indian Cu co, 1698-1825 Anne Gill, Ph.D. candidate in literature, University of Iowa, for research on representation of internal migration, and citizen hip in Brazil, 1964-1985 Chri topher Gill, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, for research on gender, clas , and ethnicity in the Hennequen Plantation ociety of the Yucatan, 1860-1940 Soren Hauge, Ph.D. candidate in economic, University of Wiscon in, Madison, for research on group lending to mall farmers in Chile Nigel David Key, Ph.D. candidate in agriculture and re ource economics, University of California, Berkeley, for research on social and economic differentiation and the Mexican ejido reform Charles Klein, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University JUNE/SEPTEMBER

1993

The following di sertation fellow hip were awarded by the Joint Committee on the Near and Middle East-Joel S. Migdal (chair), Soraya Altorki, Kiren Chaudhry, Huricihan i IAmo~lu-inan, Mary Layoun, Zachary Lockman, Eli abeth Longuene se, Timothy Mitchell, and Sevket Pamuk-at its meeting on March 19-21, 1993. The committee was as i ted by a screening ubcommittee: Huricihan islamo~lu-inan and Sevket Pamuk. Steven Heydemann and Ben Zimmer served as taff for thi program. Paula Baig, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory and Middle East tudie , Center for Middle East Studie , Harvard University, for re earch on the legal modernization and urban life in Cairo and Istanbul, 1860-1880 Mine Ener, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, for research on managing the poor in 19th- and early 2Oth-century Cairo: 1811-1922 Eng Seng Ho, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Chicago, for research on cultural organization of diaspora and the reproduction of Sayyid tatu in the homeland (Hadramawt, Yemen) Karen Pinto, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Columbia University, for research on the world in the medieval Mu lim cartographical imagination

South

fa

Dissertation Fellowships The following di sertation fellow hips were awarded by the Joint Committee on South A ia-Paul Greenough (chair), Amrita Basu, Jame Boyce, E. Valentine Daniel, Patricia Jeffrey, David Ludden, Jonathan Parry, Sheldon ITEMS/57


Pollock, and Regula Qure hi. Toby Volkman, Itty Abraham, and Ben Zimmer served as taft for thi program. K. Sivaramakri hnan, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Yale University, for research on changing peasant· tate relation in the fore ts of Bengal Cecil Thangarajah, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Roche ter, for research on violence and the new discursive fonnation in Eastern Sri Lanka Maggi Wynne, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Emory University, for research on women' worlds among the Kalasha of Northwe tern Paki tan: subordination, empowennent, and the menstrual house

Bangladesh Fellowship Program, Predissertation Awards The following predi sertation fellow hip were awarded by the Banglade h Fellow hip Selection Committee of the Joint Committee on South A ia-Jame Boyce, Shelley Feldman, and Paul Greenough. Toby Volkman, Itty Abraham, and Ben Zimmer served as taft for thi program. Ian Barrow, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, University of Chicago, for Bengali language tudy in preparation for research on relation between landlord and the Briti h in 19th· and 2Oth.century Bengal Tatjana Haque, Ph.D. candidate in geography, University College, London, for preliminary research on gender and development planning in Banglade h Regan C. Mitchell, Ph.D. candidate in South Asian language and civilization , University of Chicago, for preliminary research on Bengali women' autobiographi· cal writing

Bangladesh Fellowship Program, Dissertation Awards The following di sertation fellow hip were also awarded by the Banglade h Fellow hip Selection Commit· tee of the Joint Committee on South A ia. Firoz Mahmud, Ph.D. candidate in folklore, Indiana University, Bloomington, for research on metalwork of Banglade h Munir Mahmud, Ph.D. candidate in economic , University of Illinois, Urbana·Champaign, for research on market tructure, product quality and perfonnance in the Banglade h textile industry Gitiara Nasreen, Ph.D. candidate in political science, University of Hawaii, Manoa, for research on the changing con tructions of gender and work concerning women workers of the garment indu try in Banglade h Southeast Asia

Predissertation Fellowships The following predi sertation fellow hip were awarded by the Joint Committee on Southeast Asia-Jane Monnig 58\ITEMS

Atkin on (chair), Richard Doner, Robert Hefner, Hendrik Maier, Chetana Nagavajara, Vicente Rafael, Anthony Reid, Hue·Tam Ho Tai, and Robert Taylor. Toby Alice Volkman, Itty Abraham, and Erika Solberg served as taft for thi program.

Tamara Loo , Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Cornell Univer· ity, for preliminary research on the hi tory of extra· governmental group operating on the political and geographic fringe of Cambodia in the 1940 R. Scott Morgensen, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of California, Santa Cruz, for preliminary research on the cultural negotiation of " u tainability" in Indone ian NOO's Rachael Safman, Ph.D. candidate in sociology, Cornell University, for preliminary research on the secondary impact of the AIDS epidemic in rural northern Thailand Ellen Scott, Ph.D. candidate in sociology, University of California, Davi , for preliminary research on the role of the tate in sexual exploitation in the Philippine Jacqueline Siapno, Ph.D. candidate in South and Southeast Asian tudie, University of California, Berkeley, for preliminary research on relations between Aceh and Sulu since the 1Sth century

Dissertation Fellowships The following di sertation fellow hip were also awarded by the Joint Committee on Southeast Asia.

Clifford Bob, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Mas achusetts In titute of Technology, for research on Malay ia' indigenou peoples in national and interna· tional perspective Charle Causey, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Univer· ity of Texas, Au tin for research on tourism, "authen· ticity," and connoi seurship in North Sumatra, Indone ia Andrew Cohen, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Yale University, for research on shadow puppet theater in Cirebon, We t Java, Indone ia Gwen Evan, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Chicago, for research on the cultural and hi torical con titution of Catholic identity in Flore , Indone ia Douglas Kammen, Ph.D. candidate in government, Cornell University, for research on the relation hip between working.clas citizen and indu trial labor, capital, and the tate in Jakarta and Surabaya, Indone ia Sarah Murray, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of California, Berkeley, for research on the social life of modem art in urban Indone ia Ashley Pettu , Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of California, Berkeley, for research on educational refonn and cultural change in po twar Vietnam Ashley Thomp n, Ph.D. candidate in women' tudies, VOLUME

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de Pari vrn, for research on the transmi sion of traditional Cambodian literary practice in modem Cambodia C. Michele Thomp on, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, University of Washington, for research on the theoretical foundation of public health policy in Vietnam, 17001850 Universit~

Soviet Union and its Suc

r States

Wallace Sherlock, Ph.D. candidate in language and literature, Cornell University, for a di sertation on A. P. Chekbov's poetic of nature Kenneth Slepyan, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, for a dissertation on political culture of the Soviet partisan movement in World War n Adam Weiner, Ph.D. candidate in language and literature, University of Wiscon in, Madison, for a dissertation on the petty demon and the Ru ian noveli tic tradition

Dissertation Fellowships

The following di sertation fellow hip were awarded by the Joint Committee on the Soviet Union and Its Succe or States-Brian Silver (chair), Barbara Anderson, Jane Burbank, Caryl Emerson, Nancy Lubin, Jame Millar, Daniel Rowland, Jack Snyder, Roman Szporluk, and Reginald Zelnik-at its meeting on April 23-24, 1993. The committee was as i ted by a screening committee: Daniel Rowland (chair), Mark Bei inger, Diane Koenker, John Litwack, Kathleen Parthe, and Nazif Shahrani. Susan Bronson, Scott Bruckner, Jill Finger, and Chri topher Tarrow served as staff for thi program. Roann Barri , Ph.D. candidate in art hi tory, University of lllinois, Urbana-Champaign, for a di sertation on the reification of utopia Todd Foglesong, Ph.D. candidate in political cience, University of Toronto, for a di sertation on the politic of Soviet criminal ju tice, 1977-1992 Michael Gorham, Ph.D. candidate in language and literature, Stanford University, for a di sertation on imaginative literature and language of tate in early Soviet Ru ia, 1921-1929 Robert Herman, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Cornell University, for a di sertation on the hift in Soviet foreign and security policy accompanying Gorbachev' ascen ion to power Daniel Kahn, Ph.D. candidate in economic, Columbia University, for a di sertation on the welfare impact of price liberalization on individual con umers Alaina Lemon, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Univerity of Chicago, for a di sertation on Roma (Gyp ie ) in Ru ia: performance, cultural currencie , and "civilization' " reversal Laurie Manche ter, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Columbia University, for a di sertation on the children of the clergy in the secular world: a tudy of Popovichi in mid-19th century Ru ia Michelle Marrese, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Northwe tern University, for a di sertation on women and the control of property in Ru ia, 1700-1861 Jonathan Mogul, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, University of Michigan, for a di sertation on alternative to the factory: Ru ian peasant manufacturing and the Ku tar' que tion, 1851-1914 Judith Sedaiti , Ph.D. candidate in sociology, Columbia University, for a di sertation on re tructuring in titution : the development of po t-Soviet commodity exchange markets JUNE/SEPTEMBER

1993

Graduate Training Fellowships

The following graduate training fellow hip were also awarded by the Joint Committee on the Soviet Union and Its Succe sor States. Gail Buy ke, graduate tudent in political science, Columbia University, to tudy development of the financial sector in the changing economie of Eastern Europe and the former USSR Jennifer Cahn, graduate tudent in art hi tory, University of Southern California, for a program of art and museum tudie Chri topher Ely, graduate tudent in history, Brown University, to tudy cultural conceptions of nature in modem Ru ia: art history, literature, and environmental hi tory Juliet John on, graduate tudent in political science, Princeton University, to tudy the United States role in helping Ru ia to build political and economic in titution David Kuenzi, graduate student in political science, Columbia University, to tudy the politics of indu trial reorganization and privatization in the transition to capitali m in Ru ia Morgan Liu, graduate tudent in anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, to tudy ethnicity, expre ive culture, and Islam in po t-Soviet Central A ia Adriana Petryna, graduate tudent in architectural hi tory, University of California, Berkeley, to tudy cultural re ponse to the Chernobyl di aster and the con truction of worker town Peter Quimby, graduate tudent in political science, University of Wiscon in, Madison, to tudy in titutional approache to political science in the tudy of comparative religion and politic Guita Ranjbaran, graduate tudent in anthropology, City University of New York, to tudy the politics of identity and ethnographic representation of Muslims in the former Soviet Union Delia Rosenblatt, graduate tudent in geography, Univerity of Washington, to tudy emerging relation hip between the Ru ian oil indu try, international agencie , and private We tern oil companies A trid Tuminez, graduate tudent in political science, Mas achusetts In titute of Technology, to tudy comparative Ukrainian and Russian politics David Tyson, graduate student in central Asian tudie, ITEMS/59


Indiana University, to tudy the role of unofficial media in contemporary Uzbeki tan Sharon Werning, graduate tudent in political science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, to tudyeconomic elite organization for collective political action in po t-authoritarian regime

Western Europe The foIIowing dissertation feIIow hip were awarded by the Joint Committee on We tern Europe-Peter A. Hall (chair), Barry Eichengreen, Go ta E ping-Andersen, Mary Fulbrook, Gerhard Haupt, Peter Lange, Philip Nord, Marino Regini, Su an Carol Rogers and Debora L. Silverman-at its meeting on April 1-2, 1993. The committee was as i ted by a screening committee: Jani Bergman-Carton, Nancy Bermeo, Ann Bermingham, Judith Coffin, Patricia Craig, Robert Fi hman, Caroline Ford, Geoffrey Garrett, Carla He ,Patrick Ireland, Su an Parman, and Jackie Urla. Kenton W. Worce ter and David Terrien served as taff for this program. Becky E. Conem, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, "'The Autobiography of a Nation': The Fe tival of Britain, 1951, and the Remaking of Briti h National Identity in the Po twar Era" Brigid Doherty, Ph.D. candidate in art hi tory, University of California, Berkeley. "Gender, Modernity, and Arti tic Identity in Berlin Dada, 1918-25" Kathryn A. Duys, Ph.D. candidate in comparative literature, New York University. "Books Shaped by Song: Early Literary Literacy in the Lyric Collection of Gautier de Coinci, Alfonso the Wise, and Guiraut Riquier" Caroline M. Fohlin, Ph.D. candidate in economics, University of California, Berkeley. "The Role of Financial In titution in German Economic Growth: A Theoretical and Historical Approach" Daniel V. Friedheim, Ph.D. candidate in political cience, Yale University. "Mid-Level and Regional Official in Regime Collapse: The Peaceful East German Revolution of 1989-1990" Stacy W. Garfinkel, Ph.D. candidate in art history, University of California, Berkeley. "~ricault' Legacy: Arti tic Identity and Practice in 1820 Pari " Wade A. Jacoby, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Massachusetts In titute of Technology. "Two Po twar Recon truction : A Compari on of In titutional Tran fer in Germany, 1945-1994" Amy J. Lyford, Ph.D. candidate in art hi tory, University of California, Berkeley. "Men Before the Mirror: Surreali m, the Body, and the Con truction of Masculinity" Ricardo E. Ovalle-Baham6n, Ph.D. candidate in ocial relation , University of California, Irvine. "Nation From Empire: Ambiguitie of National Identitie in Po t-Colonial Portugal and Angola" (Lu o-American Development Foundation FeIIow) An~ H. Reggiani, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, State 6O\ITEMS

University of New York, Stony Brook. "State Policy and Public Health in Wartime France" (FrenchAmerican Foundation Tocqueville Fellow) Elizabeth C. Rudd, Ph.D. candidate in sociology, Univerity of California, Berkeley. "The Impact of German Reunification on East German Women" Ann J. Ru ,Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Cornell University. "Good DeathlBad Death: Ho pice Ideology and AIDS" Jennifer G. Tucker, Ph.D. candidate in the hi tory of science, The John Hopkin University. "Creating a Photographic Language of Science: The Camera in Briti h Scientific and Medical Theory and Practice, 1870-1910"

ADVANCED GRANTS FOR AREA AND COMPARATIVE RESEARCH AND TRAINING Africa The foIIowing grants for advanced area research were awarded by the Joint Committee on African Studie Kwame A. Appiah (chair), Charle M. Becker, Mamadou Diouf, Gillian Feeley-Hamik, Paula Girshick, Peter Little, Catharine Newbury, Paul Richard , and Pearl Robinon-at its meeting on April 2-3, 1993. M. Pri cilla Stone, Barbara Bianco, and Michael Johngren served as taff for this program. Barbara W. Blackman, profe sor of art hi tory, San Diego Me a College, to examine the development of ivory carving produced in the kingdom of Benin from the 1500 to the 1900 Gracia C. Clark, as i tant profe or of anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, to examine economic view through the life hi torie of market women in Ghana Elizabeth A. Eldredge, as i tant profe or of hi tory, Michigan State University, to tudy the factors that haped politic and power dynamic in southeastern Africa between 1720 and 1830 Janet MacGaffey, as ociate profe or of anthropology, BuclrneII University, to examine the networks of Zairian traders engaged in underground trade between Zaire and Europe Abdi I. Samatar, as i tant profe sor of geography, University of Mione ota, to inve tigate the dynamic of capitaIi t development and democracy in Botswana and Somalia Le ley Sharp, as i tant profe sor of anthropology, Butler University, to inve tigate migration by adole cent youth in Madagascar Gebru Tareke, profe sor of hi tory, Hobart & William Smith CoIIege , to examine the ociological and political profile of the modem Ethiopian military and the intersection between army, war, and revolution Larry W. Yarak, a sociate profe or of hi tory, Texas A&M University, for a hi tory of Dutch military recruitment in We t Africa during the 19th century VOLUME

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China

The Joint Committee on Chinese Studie (admini tered by the American Council of Learned Societies)-Robert Hyrne (chair), Peter K. Bol, Yi-tsi M. Feuerwerker, John Hay, Su an Mann , Barry Naughton, William L. Pari h, Elizabeth J. Perry, P. Steven Sangren, and Pauline R. Yu-at it meeting on March 5--6, 1993, awarded fellowhips to the following individuals. Jason H. Parker and Beata Tiko served as taff for thi program. All recipients are Chiang Ching-kuo Foundation Fellow upported by funding received from the Chiang Ching-kuo Foundation. Bettine Birge, as i tant profe or of Chinese thought and civilization, University of Southern California. Women and property in Sung and Yuan China (960--136~) Katherine Carlitz, adjunct assistant profe or of Chme e literature and culture, University of Pittsburgh. The social life of virtue: Gui Youguang and Zhang Yu'e Xiangming Chen, as i tant profe or of ociology, University of D1inois, Chicago. The tate, markets, and citie in China: explaining change in an era of economic reform Christopher L. Connery, as i tant profe or of Chinese literature, University of California, Santa Cruz. Late Han and Wei dynasty literati as a ocial formation, and the social and ideological character of their literary output Helen Dun tan, vi iting as i tant profe or in Chinese hi tory, Mas achusetts In titute of Technology. State and environment in North China, 1400-1900 Jame L. Hevia, as i tant profe or of Chinese history, North Carolina A&T. Cheri hing men from afar (Huairou yuanren): Qing guest ritual and the Macartney Ernbas y of 1793 Yasheng Huang, as i tant profe or of political cience, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. The politic of inflation control in China during the reform era: provincial re ponse and inve tment behavior, 19771991 David G. John on, profe or of Chine e hi tory, University of California, Berkeley. A tudy of" ai," the great ritual-dream complexe of outheastern Shan i Paul J. Smith, as ociate profe or of East A ian hi tory, Haverford College. Fear, uncertainty, and opportunity in local Chinese ociety under the Mongols, 1279-1368 Dorothy J. Solinger, Profe or of Chinese politic , University of California, Irvine. China' urban tran ients and the collapse of the communist ocial order Eastern Europe The Joint Committee on Eastern Europe (administered by the American Council of Learned Societie )-Norman M. Naimark (chair), Ivo Banac, Josef C. Brada, Victor A. Friedman, Su an Gal, Elemer Hanki ,Deborah Milenkovitch, Adam Przeworski, Ve na Pusic, and Kazimierz JUNE/SEPTEMBER

1993

Slomczynski-at its meeting on March 7-8, 1993, voted to award fellow hip to the following individuals. Jason H. Parker and Beata Tiko served as taff for this program. Ronelle Alexander, profe or of Slavic language and literature , Univer ity of California, Berkeley. Pro ody and clitic in Balkan Slavic Clare A. Cavanagh, as i tant profe sor of Slavic language , University of Wi con in, Madison. Unacknowledged legislators: poetry and politics in modem Eastern Europe .. or 0 f poI路ItlC 路 a1. 路 . Ellen T. COInt. 0, proles clence. UDIversity of California, San Diego. Legislating ju tice: the Compen ation Act and privatization in Hungary Brian D. Joseph, profe or of lingui tic, Ohio State University, Columbus. Grammatical convergences among language of Southeast Europe: Albanian, Bulgarian, Greek, Macedonian, Romanian, SerboCroatian David 0 t, as i tant profes or of political science, Hobart and William Smith Colleges. Socio-political con equence of economic transformation in heavy industrial region of po t-communi t Poland Dorothy J. Rosenberg, vi iting assi tant profe or of women's studies, Mount Holyoke College. Women in transition in Eastern Germany and Central Eastern Europe Joseph Roth child, profe or of political cience, C?lumbia University. The political history of po t-commuDlst East Central Europe since the rejection and coUap e of communi m in 1989

Japan The following po tdoctoral grant were awarded by the Joint Committee on Japanese Studies-James W. White (chair), Mary Brinton, Irmela Hijiya-Kirschnereit, Margaret Lock, Hideo Otake, Richard Samuels, Henry Smith, Frank K. Upham-at it March 25-26, 1993 meeting in Lo Angele , California. The committee was as i ted by a grants selection subcommittee: Jame W. White (chair), Mary Brinton, J. Victor Ko chman, and William LaFleur. Mary Byrne McDonnell, Mimi M. Kim, and Dee L. Warren served as taff for this program.

Advanced Research Grants

Philip C. Brown, as i tant profe or of hi tory, Ohio State University, for research on public control and private choice: corporate land tenure and redistribution y tern (Warichi) in early modem Echigo Linda H. Chance, as istant profes or of literature, Univerity of Penn ylvania, for research on the feminine ambivalent: tracing the "female hand" in the Japanese literary canon Tetsu hi Fujimoto, Ph.D. candidate in ociology, Univerity of Notre Dame, for research on culture, gender, and autonomy in work: a U.S .-Japan compari on ITEMS / 61


Jeffrey E. Hanes, as i tant profe sor of hi tory, University of llJinoi , Urbana-Champaign, for research on Modan Raifu in interwar Japan: the making of a mas culture Mark E. Lincicome, as i tant profe or of hi tory, College of the Holy Cro ,for research on nationalism, internationalization, and the dilemmas of educational reform in modem Japan Robert C. Marshall, associate profe sor of anthropology, We tern Washington University, for research on the culture of cooperation and worker cooperative in Japan Jay Rubin, profe or of literature, University of Washington, for research on the life and work of Murakami Haruki Hitomi Tonomura, as i tant profe sor of hi tory, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, for research on un godde and torm god: gender and sexuality in Japan' creation myth

Michael Robinson, profe or of history, University of Southern California, for a tudy of popular culture in 1930 Korea

Research Planning Grants Ja-Hyun Kim Habou h, associate profe or of Korean hi tory and culture, University of llJinoi , UrbanaChampaign, for a workshop on gender and narrative in Korea Gi-Wook Shin, as i tant profe or of sociology, University of Iowa, for research planning workshop on popular discourse and conte t of po it ion in colonial Korea, 1930--45 Jame We t, foreign legal con ultant, Seoul, Korea, for a workshop on law and social change in Korea

Research Planning Grants

Latin America and the Caribbean

Stephan Haggard, Graduate School of International Relations and Pacific Studies, University of California, San Diego, for a planning meeting on ecurity in the North Pacific region Fumilco Ikawa-Smith, profe sor of anthropology, McGill University, for a tate-of-the-field e ay on Japanese archeology Linda D. Quander, as ociate profe or, Graduate School of Busine and Division of Communications, Clark Atlanta University, for a planning meeting on the role of culture in communication between the Japanese and African American Glenda S. Roberts, associate director, Center for Japanese Studies, University of Hawaii, Manoa, for a seminar on foreign workers in Japan: gender, civil rights, and community re ponse Naoki Sakai, associate profe sor, Department of Asian tudie , Cornell University, for a research planning meeting on the problems of oralitylliteracy and text! image Barbara Stallings, director, Global Studie Program, University of Wiscon in, Madi on, for a planning meeting on Japan, the United State , and We tern Europe: impact on development prospects

The following advanced research grants were awarded by the Joint Committee on Latin American Studie Barbara Stalling (chair), Brooke Larson, Laurence Whitehead, George Yudice, Rodolfo Stavenhagen, Ruth Cardo 0, Jere Behnnan, Fernando Rojas and Jo~ Brunner-at its meeting on April 6-8, 1993. Eric Hershberg, Jennifer Raskin, and Patricia Murillo served as taff for this program.

Korea The following po tdoctoral grants were awarded by the Joint Committee on Korean Studie -Clark Sorensen (chair), Alice Amsden, Hyoung Cho, Carter Eckert, Stephan Haggard, Uchang Kim, and Chae-jin Lee-at its February 27-28, 1993 meeting in Cambridge, Mas achusetts. Mary Byrne McDonnell, Mimi M. Kim, and Patricia Dwyer served as staff for this program.

Advanced Research Grants Roy Richard Grinker, as i tant profe sor of anthropology, George Washington University, for research on local con truction of nationhood in South Korea 62\ITEMS

Jeffrey Bortz, as i tant profe sor of hi tory, Appalachian State University, for research on the development of a labor relation sy tern in the Mexican cotton textile indu try, 1910-1950 Edward Funkhouser, as i tant profe sor of economic , University of California, Santa Barbara, for research on economic integration and the tructure of earning and employment in Central America Piero Gleijese , as i tant profe sor of American foreign policy and Latin American tudies, School of Advanced International Studie (SAlS), The Johns Hopkin University, for a comparative tudy of the United States re ponse to crise in Latin America and Africa from the 1950 through the 19805 Roberto Patricio Korzeniewicz, as i tant profe sor of sociology, Albion College, for research on export growth in Mexico and Uruguay Leigh A. Payne, as i tant profe or of political cience, University of Wisconsin, Madison, for research on authoritarian movements in the new Latin American democracie Karen Powers, as i tant profe or of history, Northern Arizona University, for a comparative tudy of Indian re ponses to Spani h colonization in the Ande Mario A. Rivera, research associate at the Field Museum of Natural Hi tory, Chicago. for archeological research at the Plaza Complex in Ramaditas, Atacama De ert of Northern Chile Julio Ramos, as ociate profes or of Spani h and Portuguese, University of California, Berkeley, for research on laves' testimony in 19th-century Cuba VOLUME

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Caroline Suzanne Tauxe, vi iting scholar in anthropology, Cornell University, for research on economic role and the maintenance of middle-clas identity in Brazil' chronic high inflation Gary Urton, profe or of anthropology, Colgate University, for research on Quechua ethnomathematics and the language of numbers Near and Middle East The following advanced research grants were awarded by Joint Committee on the Near and Middle East-Joel S. Migdal (chair), Soraya Altorki, Kiren Chaudhry, Hurichihan islarno!lu-inan, Mary Layoun, Zachary Lockman, Eli abeth Longuene se, Timothy Mitchell, and Sevket Pamuk-at its meeting on March 19-21, 1993. The committee was as isted by a screening ubcommittee: Mary Layoun and Eli abeth Longuene se. Steven Heydemann and Ben Zimmer served as staff for this program. Yerach Gover, research fellow, Center for Social Research, The Graduate Center, City University of New York, for research on I raeli culture, Zioni t nationali m, and Jewish identity Jane Hathaway, as istant profe or of history, Ohio State University, for research on AI-Hajj Bashir Agha, Chief Black Eunuch of the Ottoman Empire, 1717-1746 Victoria Holbrook, as i tant profe sor of Turki h and Ottoman literary and cultural tudie , Ohio State University, for research on Turki h literary moderni m Cernal Kafadar, as ociate profe or of hi tory, Harvard University, for research on Jani arie and their role in Ottoman urban society and its commercial life Karen Pfeifer, associate profe sor of economic , Smith College, for research on I lamic economic as a viable path for socioeconomic development in the Arab world South Asia The following advanced research grants were awarded by the Joint Committee on South A ia-Paul Greenough (chair), Arnrita Basu, Jame Boyce, E. Valentine Daniel, Patricia Jeffery, David Ludden, Jonathan Parry, Sheldon Pollock, and Regula Qure hi. 'Toby Volkman, Itty Abraham, and Ben Zimmer served as taff for thi program. Rafiuddin Ahmed, vi iting profe sor of hi tory, Cornell University, for research on Islam and social change in a "tran itional" society: the Bengali Mu lim in the 20th century Kirin Narayan, as istant profe sor of anthropology, University of Wiscon in, Madison, for research on women' songs and cultural change in Kangra, Northwe t India John Rogers, vi iting research fellow, Center of South Asian and Indian Ocean Studie , Tufts Univer ity, for JUNPlSEPTEMBER

1993

research on hi tory, politic, and identity formation in Sri Lanka Southeast Asia The following advanced research grants were awarded by the Joint Committee on Southeast Asia-Jane Monnig Atkin on (chair), Richard Doner, Robert Hefner, Hendrik Maier, Chetana Nagavajara, Vicente Rafael, Anthony Reid, Hue-Tam Ho Tai, and Robert Taylor-at its March 5-7, 1993 meeting. Toby Alice Volkman, Itty Abraham, and Erika Solberg served as taff for thi program. Katharine Bowie, as i tant profe sor of anthropology, University of Wiscon in, Madison, for research on the political and economic importance of fore t u age by lord and peasants in 19th-century northern Thailand Rudolf Mrazek, as i tant profe sor of hi tory, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, for research on technology and nationali m in late colonial Netherlands East Indie Juliane Schober, as i tant profe sor of religious tudie, Arizona State University, for research on fundarnentali m and the truggle for modernity in contemporary Burmese Theravada Buddhi m Mary Steedly, assistant profe sor of anthropology, Harvard University, for research on Karo women in Indone ian national history, 1945-50 University of Georgia Research Foundation, Inc., on behalf of J. Peter Bro ius, as i tant professor of anthropology, University of Georgia, for research on the conte ted meaning of conservation and development in Sarawak, East Malay ia

Soviet Union and Its Successor States The following advanced research grants were awarded by the Joint Committee on the Soviet Union and Its Succe sor State -Brian Silver (chair), Barbara Anderson, Jane Burbank, Caryl Emerson, Nancy Lubin, James Millar, Daniel Rowland, Jack Snyder, Roman Szporluk, Reginald Zelnik-at its meeting on April 23-24, 1993. The committee was as i ted by a screening committee: Jack Snyder (chair), Valerie Bunce, Barry IckIes, Sarah Pratt, and William Wagner. Susan Bronson, Scott Bruckner, Jill Finger, and Chri topher Tarrow served as taff for thi program. Clare Cavanaugh, associate profe sor of language and literature, University of Wisconsin, Madison, for research on unacknowledged legislators: poetry and politics in modem Eastern Europe David Gasperetti, associate profe sor of literature, University of Notre Dame, for research on the 18thcentury Ru ian novel: the beginning of a tradition Joel Hellman, associate professor of political science, Harvard University, for research on vertical di integraITEMs/63


tion: the development of new fonn of economic organization in po t-command economie Robert Kaiser, as ociate profe sor of geography, University of Mi souri, Columbia, for re earch on the geography of nationali m in the Soviet ucce or tate Su an Lehmann, as ociate profe or of ociology, Columbia University, for research on family fonnation in the late Soviet period Theodore Levin, associate profe or of mu ic, Dartmouth College, for research on a mu ical ethnography of tran oxiana Michael Spagat, as ociate profe sor of economics, Brown University, for research on removing indu trial ub idie in Ru ia: re tructuring, bankruptcy, and unemployment Roy Robson, associate profe or of hi tory, Bo ton College, for research on religion and modernity in the case of Ru ian orthodox old believers, 1905-1917 Jane Sharp, as i tant profe sor of art hi tory, Vas ar College, for research on the hi tory of Rus ian art and its critical reception, 1900-1917 Isolde Thyret, as ociate profe sor of hi tory, University of California, Chico, for research on patrone se of the holy, ve sel of the divine, the religiou life of women in Muscovite Ru ia David Wolff, assi tant profe sor of sociology, Princeton University, for research on regional development and international conflict in Northeast A ia, 1905-1931 Institutional Support Programs In its fourth national competition of grants for first-year fellow hip in underrepresented fields, the Joint Committee on the Soviet Union and Its Succe or State was as i ted by a screening committee-Reginald Zelnik (chair), Marjorie Balzer, William Bielby, and Michael Fi her. Su an Bron on, Scott Bruckner, and Chri topher Tarrow served as taff for thi program. The following award were made: Anthropology: Univer ity of Chicago, Indiana University, University of Michigan, University of Pittsburgh Sociology: University of Michigan, Ann Arbor In its ninth national competition of grants to American in titute that offer inten ive training in the Ru ian and non-Ru ian language of the fonner Soviet Union, the Joint Committee on the Soviet Union and Its Succe sor State , as i ted by a screening committee-Caryl Emerson (chair), David Bethea, Michael Aier, Victor Friedman, and Azade-Ayse Rorlich-made the following award at its meeting on January 30, 1993. Su an Bron on and Jill Finger served as staff for the program. Ru ian Language Competition: Beloit College, Center for Language Studie ; Bryn Mawr College, Ru ian Language In titute; Indiana University, Ru ian In titute; The John Hopkin University, School of Advanced International Studie ; Middlebury College, Ru ian 64\ ITEMS

School; Monterey In titute for International Affairs, Ru ian Program; Norwich University, Ru ian School; and University of Wiscon in, Madi on, Ru ian Department Non-Ru ian Language Competition: Harvard University, Ukrainian program; Indiana University, Azeri, Georgian, Estonian, Kazakh, and Uzbek program; University of California, Lo Angele, Azeri program; University of Pittsburgh, Ukrainian program; University of Washington, Kirghiz and Tajik program; University of Wisconin, Madi on, Tajik, Kazan Tatar, and Kazakh program In its second national competition for the program to alleviate backlogs in Ru ian, Eurasian, and East European collection in the United State , the Joint Committee on the Soviet Union and Its Succe or State , as i ted by a screening committee-Blair Ruble (chair), Janet Crayne, June Pachuta Farri , Keith Hitchin , Patricia Polan ky, and Leena Siegelbaum-made several awards at its meeting on February 12, 1993. Su an Bronson, Scott Bruckner, and Jill Finger served as taff for the program. Awards were made to the Columbia University librarie , the Indiana University librarie , St. Vladimir' Seminary, the University of California (Lo Angele) librarie , the University of Ulinoi librarie, the University of Kan as librarie , the University of Minne ota librarie , and the University of Pitt burgh librarie .

OTHER PROGRAMS Abe Fellow hip Program The following grants were awarded by the Abe Fellowhip Program Committee-Charle Hirschman, Sumiko Iwao, Akira Kojima, Edward Lincoln, Take hi Matsuda, Thomas Rimer, Akihiko Tanaka, Ken'ichi Tominaga, and Jame White-at its meeting on November 7-8, 1992 in Tokyo. Mary Byrne McDonnell, Sheila Smith, and Vane a Vinarub served as taff for the program. David Angel, as i tant profe sor, Graduate School of Geography, Clark University. "International Collaboration in Technology Development" Michael Blaker, vi iting scholar, advanced research fellow, Program on U.S .-Japan Relation, Harvard University. "Back Door to Power: Japan' Rise to Global Prominence and the U.S.-Japan Alliance" Denni Encamation, associate profe or, Graduate School of Bu ine Admini tration, Harvard University. "An Emerging Yen Bloc? A Study of National Governments and Multinational Corporation in East A ia" Hiro hi I hida, associate profe or, Department of Sociology, Columbia University. "A Comparative Study of Career Dynamic in a Japanese and American Organization" Junji Nakagawa, associate profe sor, Center for Humanitie and Social Science , Tokyo In titute of Technology. VOLUME

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"Linking the Official Development As i lance (ODA) with Democracy and Human Rights: Study of the U.S. Experience " Fumiko Ni hizaki, as ociate profe or, Faculty of Law, Seikei University. "The United State and World Order: From the League of Nations to the United Nation " Machiko 0 awa, associate profe sor, Department of Economic , Asia University. "New Technology and Women Workers in Japan and the U.S ." Yo hitaka Sasaki, as ociate editor, Asahi Shimbun. Japan Access. "Security in Po t-Cold War East A ia-Pacific and Japan' Non-Military Role" Leonard Schoppa, Jr., as istant profe sor, Department of Government and Foreign Affairs, University of Virginia. "Gaiatsu and the Japanese Policy Proce : Explaining the Results of the Structural Impediments Initiative" Yo hihide Soeya, as ociate profes or, Department of Political Science, Keio University. "Indochina in the U.S.-Japan-ASEAN Triangle: Implications for U.S.Japan Relation in the Po t-Cold War Era" Edith Terry, journali t-in-re idence, East-West Center, reporter, The Globe and Mail Newspaper. "Looking East-Japan's Search for a Regional Role in Asia After the Cold War" Nathaniel Thayer, Yasohiro Nakasone Profe sor of Japanese Studies, director of A ian tudie, SAISfl'he Johns Hopkins University. "Japanese Politics in Comparative Perspective" Frank Upham, professor of law, Bo ton College. "Comparative Economic Regulation: France, Japan, and the United States" Brian Woodall, assi tant profe sor, Department of Government, Harvard University. "Japan' s Foreign Policy Elite: Changing Attribute , Perceptions, and Capabilitie " Keiko Yamanaka, advanced research fellow, Program on U.S.-Japan Relation, Harvard University. "Immigrant Resettlement and Local Communities: Japan and the United State " BerUn Program for Advanced German and European Studies The following doctoral dissertation research fellow hips, tenable at the Free University of Berlin, were awarded by the selection committee of the Berlin Program for Advanced German and European Studie . Members of thi committee are: Charle Maier (chair), Thomas Childers, Lily Gardner Feldman, Anton Kae , Andrei Markovits and Wolfgang Streeck. Kenton W. Worce ter and David Terrien served as staff for this program. Keith M. Anderton, Ph.D. candidate in history, Harvard University. "The Limits of Science: A Social, Political, and Moral Agenda for Epistemology in Bismarck's Germany, 1870-1890" Brigid Doherty, Ph.D. candidate in art hi tory, University of California, Berkeley. "Gender, Modernity, and Arti tic Identity in Berlin Dada, 1918-25" JUNE/SEPTEMBER

1993

Barbara T. Donovan, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Georgetown University. "The In titutionalization of Political Partie in Germany's New States" Daniel V. Friedheim, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Yale University. "Mid-Level and Regional Officials in Regime Collapse: The Peaceful East German Revolution of 1989-1990" Michael B. Gro s, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Brown University. "Prote tantism and the Working Clas in Berlin, 1871-1914" Manik T. Hinchey, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Yale University. "The New Right in the New Europe" Katherine H. Pence, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. "Culture of Con umption and the Con truction of Po twar East and We t German Gendered Identitie , 1948-1961" David W. Scialdone, Ph.D. candidate in ociology, Columbia University. "Liberal Busine smen in Imperial Ru ia and Germany-Ideology, Identity, and Intere tOt Patricia R. Stoke, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Cornell University. "The Experiences of Childbirth and Pregnancy in Germany, 1913-33" Roland W. Strobel, Ph.D. candidate in architectural hi tory, University of Southern California. "Ideology, Urban Planning, and the Built Form: Comparing the Phy ical Landscape of Planning Processe of East and We t Berlin's Urban Planning Programs from 1945 to 1989" Timothy R. Vogt, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of California, Davis. "Denazification in Land Brandenburg under Soviet Occupation, 1945-49" SSRC-MacArthur Foundation Fellowships on Peace and Security in a Changing World The Committee on International Peace and Security voted to award eight dissertation and eight po tdoctoral SSRC-MacArthur Foundation Fellow hips on Peace and Security in a Changing World. The committee members are Karen Dawi ha, Albert Fishlow, Lawrence Freedman, Peter Katzenstein, Atul Kohli, Samuel C. Nolutshungu, Michel Oksenberg, Susanne H. Rudolph, Philip E. Tetlock, and David Wright. The committee was as i ted by a dissertation screening committee: David Holloway (chair), Raymond Duval, Rosemary Foot, Fen Hamp on, Dan Little, and Jon Sumida and a po tdoctoral screening committee: Catherine Kelleher (chair), Lynn Eden, Richard Immerman, Gale Mattox, Michael MccGwire, Masaru Tamamoto. Steven Heydemann, Cary Fraser, Lori Gronich, Ethan Cerami, and Paul Erickson served as staff for thi program.

Dissertation Fellowships

Michael Barletta (United States), Ph.D. candidate in political science, University of Wiscon in, Madi on. "The Dome tic Politic of International Security ITEMS / 6's


Cooperation: Argentine-Brazilian Nuclear Arms Control, 1979-1990 " Georgi Derluguian (Ru ia), Ph.D. candidate in sociology, State University of New York, Binghamton. "Sociology of War and Peace in the Caucasu . Power, Ethnicity, and the Real Economy in the ex-Soviet South" Ana Devic (Fonner Yugo lav Republic), Ph.D. candidate in sociology, University of California, San Diego. "Intellectual in the Con truction of Ethno-Nationali t Authoritariani m in Yugo lavia: Homogenization and Militarization of Social Con tituencie , 1988-1992" Julia Dvorkin (United State ), Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Harvard University. "The Impact of Gulf Migration on Egyptian Con truction of Identity and Economy as Seen from the Street in Cairo" Oleg Kharkhordin (Ru ia), Ph.D. candidate in political science, University of California, Berkeley. "The Nonnalization of Ru ia: Cultural Change and Social Cohe ion, 1965-1991" Daniel Lynch (United State ), Ph.D. candidate in political science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. "State Capacity, Policymaking, and the Management of Global Communication Flow in the People' Republic of

China" Timothy Parsons (United State ), Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, The John Hopkin University. "A Social and Economic History of the King's African Rifle " Hongying Wang (China), Ph.D. candidate in political science, Princeton University. "Greater China: Ethnicityl Culture, Economic Integration and Beyond"

Postdoctoral Fellowships Michael Barnett (United State ), profe sor of political science, University of Wiscon in, Madison. "International Community and Security in the Arab World" Elena Calandri (Italy), research as ociate, University of Florence. "Toward a 'Greater Turkey'? Turkey's Economic and Cultural Initiative in the Post-Cold War Era" Marina Carter (United Kingdom), research fellow, history, London University. "Containing Ethnic Violence: A Comparative Study of Mauritiu and Sri Lanka" Martha Finnemore (United State ), as i tant profe sor of political science, George Washington University. "Restraining State Violence: The International Red Cro s as a Teacher of Humanitarian Norms" Valerie Gagnon (United States), po tdoctoral research fellow, political science, Stanford University. "Ethnicity and International Conflict: The Yugo lav Case" Yuen Foong Khong (Malay ia), as ociate professor of government, Harvard University. "Norms, Power, and Security Cooperation in the ASEAN Region" Michael McFaul (United State ), research associate, political science, Stanford University. "The Dynamic of Change in the Soviet Union, Rus ia, and the International Sy tern" Kimberly Zi k (United State ), as i tant profe sor of political science, Ohio State University. "The Security Implications of Radical Change in Economic Policy: The

66\ ITEMS

Case of Rus ian Defense Indu try Conversion and Privatization"

International Peace and Security The Committee on International Peace and Security also made the following award :

Research

~orkshop

Elizabeth Economy and Miranda Schreurs, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. "Understanding Dome tic and International Linkage in Environmental Politic " Lynn Eden, David Holloway, and Norman Naimark, Stanford University. "The Unmaking of Yugo lavia: Hi tory, Ethnicity, Intervention" Janie Leatherman, Ron Pagnucco, Jackie Smith and George Lopez, The Joan B. Kroc In titute for International Peace Studie , University of Notre Dame. "International In titution and Transnational Social Movement Organization " Joseph Lepgold and Andrew Bennett, Georgetown University. "Burden-Sharing in the 1991 Gulf War" Marvin Navias, Lawrence Freedman, and Susan Willett, King College, London. "The We t European Arms Trade and the Common Market" Robert Price, Michael Watts, and Kevin Danaher, University of California, Berkeley. "Succe se and Failure of United Nations Peacekeeping Efforts in Africa" Kofi Quashigah, University of Nigeria. "The Role of Non-Governmental Organizations and the Protection of Human Rights in We t Africa"

Visiting Scholar Fellowships Sikya K. Kovacheva (Bulgaria), political sociology, Plovdiv University. "A Comparative Study of Student Attitudes Toward Peace in a Continent of Turmoil and Change" Tzvetanka I. Lozanova-Ovetcharova (Bulgaria), international public law, Institute of State and Law, Sofia. "Implementation of International Norms in the Field of Human Rights in Bulgaria" Derek A. Matyszak (Zimbabwe), law, University of Zimbabwe. "A Preliminary Inquiry Into the Legality of the Law and Order Maintenance Act of Zimbabwe" Slavomfr MichAlek (Slovak Republic), history, The Historical Institute of the Slovak Academy of Science . "American Foreign Policy Toward Czechoslovakia After World War ll: Economic and Political Relation, 1945-48" Nabzeem O. Mirniko (Nigeria), international relation, Ondo State University. "The Relative Impact of Internal and External Con traints on the Democratic Proce s in Africa: The Case of Nigeria" Kayode A. Omojuwa (Nigeria), political science, Ahmadu Bello University. "Pro peets for Peaceful Reconciliation VOLUME

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in South Africa: Le ons from Nigeria' Po t-Civil War Experience for a Po t-Apartheid State" Marek Pietras (poland), political science, Maria CurieSklodow ka University, Lublin. "The Ecological Dimension of European Security" Patricia A. T . Williams (Nigeria), political science, Ogun State University, Ago-Iwoye. "Religiou Plurali m and Security in the We t African Sub-Region"

Research on the Urban Underclass The Fellowship Selection Committee of the Committee for Research on the Urban Underclass-Martin SanchezJankowski (chair) , Maria Enchautegui, Melvin Oliver, Larry Steinberg, Joe Trotter and Margaret Weir-voted at its April 5, 1993 meeting to award fellow hips and grants to the following individuals. Martha Gephart, Alice O'Connor, Susan Clelland, Le lie Dwight, and Felicia Sullivan served as staff for thi program.

Undergraduate Research Assistantship Grants Deborah E. Belle, as ociate professor of psychology, Boston University, and Evelyn Green Davis Fellow in Psychology at the Bunting Institute, Radcliffe College, to support research by four undergraduate on the processes through which neighborhood affect children, and the ways in which children construct ocial networks in Cambridge and Chelsea, Massachusetts Beaulah M. Flournoy, coordinator, Invitational Scholars Program, Florida International University, to support research by three undergraduates on the effects of Hurricane Andrew on poor African American torm victims Rodney D . Green, professor of economics, Howard University, to support research by three undergraduates that examines the spatial mismatch of jobs and residences for black and non-black households in the Washington, D.C. area from 1970-1990 Kathryn M . Neckerman, assistant profe sor of sociology, Columbia University, to support research by three undergraduates that examines the negotiation of cultural identity in the language training of minority busine college students in New York City Harriett D . Romo, assistant profes or of sociology, Southwest Texas State University, to support research by four undergraduates on the ways in which literacy, perceptions of literacy, and job skills affect Hispanic Head Start parents' employability in southwest Texas Jan Rosenberg, as ociate professor of sociology, Long Island University, to support research by three undergraduates on persistently poor urban neighborhoods in Brooklyn, which will include an intensive, summer-long

JUNFlSEPTEMBER

1993

period of focused ethnographic research under the supervision of an e tablished mentor

Dissertation Fellowships Marjorie D. Abend-Wein, Ph.D. candidate in sociology, Harvard University, for research that examines the life circumstances, choices, and experiences of women who attempt the welfare-to-work transition, and their perception of work, family, poverty, and welfare, and the JOBS program Dana L. Barron, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, University of Pennsylvania, for research that examines the coping strategies employed by poor unwed mothers and their families in Philadelphia from 1920-1965 Nancy E. Churchill, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Connecticut, for research that examines the factors poor women identify as central to their decision to seek employment training, and their reasons for assuming or rejecting paid employment upon graduation Aixa N. Cintr6n, Ph.D. candidate in social work and sociology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, for research that examines the effects of change in educational attainment, industry structure, and migration status on the labor force participation of Puerto Rican women since 1960 Daniel P. Dohan, Ph.D. candidate in ociology, University of California, Berkeley, for research that explores the relationship between poverty and the patterns of behavior associated with the underclass by examining how culture-defined as the capacity for strategies of action-affects income generating behavior in lowincome neighborhoods Angela D. James, Ph.D. candidate in sociology, University of California, Lo Angeles, for research on factors that explain patterns of family formation among African Americans from 1940-1990 Todd C . Shaw, Ph.D. candidate in political science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, for research on the activism of black low-income advocacy groups, the barriers to effective political protest, and the impact of activi m on accountability among black politicians to the interests of the black poor in Detroit, 198~1993 Michael A. Stoll, Ph.D. candidate in urban studies and planning, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, for research that assesses the relative importance of employer discrimination and spatial mismatch between residences and jobs in explaining the labor market experiences of black and Latino youth Eve S. Weinbaum, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Yale University, for research on "community development" efforts in three separate poor communities and the succe ses and limits of anti-poverty policies since the 1960s in these communities

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Grants Received by the Councll in 1992-93 A summary of grants received during the year ending June 30, 1993* Bank of Japan Continuing support of Project LINK (Committee on Economic Stability and Growth) SI5,OOO Carnegie Corporation of New York Workshop for young scholars on po t-Soviet dome tic politic (Joint Committee on the Soviet Union and Its Successor State) SIIO,OOO Ford Foundation Continued support for a graduate fellow hip program designed to encourage tudents in the social sciences to develop competence in an international or area tudie field (International Predi sertation Fellow hip Program) S2,187,41O Summer institute on modem Southeast A ian literature (Joint Committee on Southeast Asia) S23,400 Project on strengthening development-focused research and training in Latin America (Joint Committee on Latin American Studie ) S35,65O Human sexuality research asse ment project SIOO,OOO Foundation for ChUd Development Support for planning meeting: "Children, Research, and Policy: Toward a Multidisciplinary Consortium of Child Research" (Committee on Culture, Health, and Human Development) SIO,OOO French-American Foundation 1993 TocqueviUe fellow hip awards (Joint Committee on We tern Europe) Si8,OOO German Marshall Fund of the United States Support for the Berlin Program for Advanced German and European Studies S38,080

• Doe not include "in kind" gran ; that i • support of travel. hotel. conference. and imilar expenses received by Council committee in the form of direct payments by other organizations.

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William T. Grant Foundation Support for workshop: "Participation in Practice : New Model of EnculturationlSocialization" (Committee on Culture, Health, and Human Development) SIO,OOO Wenner Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research, Inc. Support for conference entitled "Cultural Citizen hip in Southeast A ia" (Joint Committee on Southeast A ia) SIO,OOO Support for conference entitled "Nationalizing the Past" (Joint SIO,OOO Committee on South A ia) Gund Foundation Human sexuality research asse ment project S25,OOO Harvard University Social learning in the management of global environmental ri k (Committee for Research on Global Environmental Change) S56,869 Japan Foundation Center for Global Partnership Abe Fellow hip Program in international multidisciplinary research on global SI,997,223 concern Japan-U.S. Friendship Commission Grants for advanced research in Japan (Joint Committee on Japanese Studie ) S155,209 Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Human sexuality research asse ment project S5O,OOO Kaiser Foundation Human sexuality research asse ment project S25,OOO Luso-American Development Foundation Oi sertation fellow hip in Portuguese tudie (Joint Committee on We tern Europe) $46,130 John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation Project on international law and global environmental change (Committee for Research on Global Environmental Change) 275,000

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Support for the activities of the Committee on Culture, Health, and Human $500,000 Development Human sexuality research assessment $50,000 project Markle Foundation Computers and contemporary society $41,250 project Andrew W. MeDon Foundation Program on immigration to the United $25,000 States in global perspective National Endowment for the Humanities Po tdoctoral fellow hip in international $824,619 area studies Project entitled "European Identity and Its Intellectual Roots" (Joint Committee on $15,000 We tern Europe) National Science Foundation Continued support for research on global environmental change (Committee for Research on Global Environmental $122,184 Change) Additional support for research on global environmental change (Committee for Research on Global Environmental $16,739 Change) Workshop on comparative examination of landed property rights (Committee for Research on Global Environmental $60,000 Change) Christopher Reynolds Foundation Project to preserve tradition of Cambodian dance through photographs (Joint $5,000 Committee on Southeast A ia) RockefeDer Foundation Multi-year program to mobilize the academic community for

JUNPlSEPTEMBER

1993

interdisciplinary research on the urban underclass (Committee for Research on the Urban Underclass) $500,000 Exhibition and outreach component of the African Archives and Museums Project $30,000 (Joint Committee on African Studies) Predissertation fellowships in the social sciences and humanitie in Africa (Joint $75,000 Committee on African Studies) Human sexuality research asses ment $50,000 project State Institute of Statistics of Turkey Support of Project LINK (Committee on $60,000 Economic Stability and Growth) Toyota Foundation Continued support for the participation of a Japanese researcher at the meetings of $7,980 the Joint Committee on Southeast Asia U.S. Department of State Continued program support (Joint Committee on the Soviet Union and Its $1,641,220 Succe sor States) U.S. Information Agency Delegation of cultural and educational administrators and policymakers from the Lao People's Democratic Republic $7,340 (Joint Committee on Southeast Asia) UNESCO Project on international law and global environmental change (Committee for Research on Global Environmental $15,000 Change) United Nations Support for Project LINK (Committee on $100,000 Economic Stability and Growth) Total

$9,344,303

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Social Science Research Council American Council of Learned Societies

Joint Committee on the Near and Middle East Workshop Call for Applications The Joint Committee on the Near and Middle East invites applications from graduate students intere ted in participating in a workshop on political economy methods in the study of the Middle East.

The worksbop is de igned to provide an opportunity for graduate tudents conducting research on the Middle East to explore different political economy approache to the study of development and underdevelopment. The committee wishe to solicit application particularly from graduate students who have completed all requirements for the Ph.D. and/or have begun to write their dissertations. The workshop is being organized under the direction of Kiren Chaudhry, University of California, Berkeley, and has been tentatively scheduled for February 10-13, 1994. Funding for the workshop has been provided by the committee, the SSRC, and the International Predissertation Fellow hip Program of the SSRC. The SSRC will cover expenses associated with participation in the workshop. The workshop will consist of approximately 12-1S students and five invited faculty. It will include presentations by the students of their research, as well as faculty-led seminars. Student participants will be selected by the committee. Those interested are reque ted to provide: • Letter of application and statement of qualification • Curriculum vitae • Three letters of reference • A five-page analytical summary of the di sertation research or intended dissertation research Materials should be sent to: Joint Committee on the Near and Middle East Political Economy Workshop Social Science Research Council 60S Third Avenue, New York, NY 101S8

Applkation deadllne: October 15, 1993.

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SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH COUNCn.. 605 11URD AVENUE, NEW YORK, NY 10158

(212)

661~80

FAX (212) 310-1896

~ Council was incorporat~d in the Stat~ of Illinois. IHc~mMr 27, 1924. for the purpos~ of advancing r~sMrch in the social sci~nc~s. Nongov~rrrmental and interdisciplinary in natur~. the Council appoints comminus of scholars which suk to achi~v~ the Council's purpos~ through the g~Mration of new ideas and the training of scholars. ~ activiti~s of the Council ar~ suppon~d primarily by grants from privat~ foundorions and gov~rrrment ag~nci~s. Dir~ctors,

1991-92: PAUL B. BALTES, Max Planck Institute for Human Development and Educatioo (8erIin); ROBEItT H. BATES, Duke University; LAWIENCE D. BolO, University of California, Los Angeles; ROBEitT M. CoEN, Northwestern University; WII.LlAM CaONON, University of Wisconsin, Madison; DAVID L. FEATHEDlAN, Social Science Research Council; ALlEItT FIsHLOW, University of California, Berkeley; BAItIARA HEYNS, New York University; NAGAYO HOMMA, Tokyo Woman's Christian University; DAVID MAGNUSSON, University ofStoc1tho1m; EMlLY MAITlN, The Johns Hopkins University; JOEL SHDZEIt, University of Texas, Austin; BUitTON H. SINGEIt, Yale University; MAITA fuNDA, University of Chicago; KENNETH W. WACHTEIt, University of California, Berkeley; ANNETTE WEiNEIt, New York University; ROBEitT B. ZAJONC, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. OJ!ic~rs and Staff: DAVID L. fEATHEltMAN, Pr~silknt; STANLEY J. HEoINIOTHAM, Vic~ Pr~sident; RONALD J. PELECK, Vice Presid~ntfor Financ~; GLOItlA KaCHHEIMEIt, Editor; DollE SINOCCHJ, Human R~sourc~s Dir~ctor; ITTY ABRAHAM, BAltlAItA A. BIANCO, SUSAN BItONSON, ScoTT BItUCKNEIt, MAlty-LEA Cox, CARY FltASEIt, MAitTHA A. GEPHART, Loll HELENE GItONICH, EIuc HEltsHlEltG, STEVEN HEYDEMANN, FRANK KEssEL, MIMI M. KIM, DAVID C. MAJOIt, Ftux V. MATOS RODltfGUEZ, MAlty BYaNE McDoNNELL, JOHN H. MOLLENKOPF, AuCE O'CoNNOIt, WLODZIMJEU OKItASA, ELLEN PEItECMAN, SHEILA A. SMITH, M. PItlscJLLA STONE, TOBY AuCE VOLlCMAN, KNUT WALTEIt, KENTON W. WOItCESTEa.

The Social Science Research Council supports the program of the Commission on Preservatioo and Access and is represented on the National Advisory Council 00 Preserv tion. The paper used in this publication meets the minimum requirements of American National Standard for Information Sciences-Permanence of Paper for Printed Library Materials. ANSI Z39.48-1984. The infinity symbol placed in a circle indicates compliance with this standard.

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ISSN

0049-0903

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Items Vol. 47 No. 2-3 (1993)  
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