( SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH COUNCIL) Volume 441Numbers 2-3IJune- September 1990 â&#x20AC;˘
Gorbachev's First Five Years Past debates, current echoes, and the intellectual challenge for Soviet studies by Robert T. Huber* Introduction Pere troika, a practiced during Gorbachev' fir t five year ha enabled ocial cienti t to tudy a variety of i ue that, due at lea t in large part to a lack of available information, could not be tudied fruitfully in the pa t. Available information on a whole range of que tion -the ocial-political foundation of the Stalini t tate, effect of Ru ian migration on center-periphery relation , public opinion about regime re pon ivene ,the deci ion-making proce with re pect to the Soviet inva ion of Afghani tan, and the deployment of the intermediate-range nuclear mi ile in Europe, to name only a few-exemplifie the richne of ubject matter that i becoming available. A once-repre ed ource of material are exposed to cholarly analy i ,past cholarly complaint about unavoidable but ometime que tionable extrapolation and detective work in tudying Soviet society and foreign policy are being replaced by a genuine chagrin about the overload of information needing scholarly attention. Thi tran formation of information flow hold enormou potential for the way in which ocial scienti t can conduct re earch. Pere troika ha not only made more normal cientific activity po ible, but it ha penetrated the field of Soviet tudie a well. Such a pere troika i premi ed on deempha izI
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ing approache which rely heavily on unique, ui generi characteri tic of Soviet ociety and foreign policy. Such approache, upported in pa t becau e of the lack of cientific information, a well a in part by the ideological heritage of the Cold War, offered per ua ive evidence a to the ob tacle to change and the element of political tability during the Stalin and po twar period of Soviet ociety. But the pace of change in Gorbachev' first five years ha removed mo t of the utility from model which tended to ee the Soviet Union a either comparable only to other communi t political y tern or a unique political entity unto itself. â&#x20AC;˘ Roben T . Huber, a political scienti t, i taff to the Joint Committee on Soviet Studie and the Committee on Foreign Polic)' Studie . Thi anid i derived in pan from the proceeding of a conference held at Georgetown University on March 8-9, 1990 entitled "The First Five Years of Pere troika: What Have We Learned? What Has Gorbachev Learned?" which received uppon from the Joint Committee on Soviet Studie.
CONTENTS OF TillS ISSUE Gorbachev' First Five Years, ROMrt T. HUMr 25 National Implementation and Compliance with International Environmental Accords, Harold K. Jacobson and Edith Brown W~iss 31 Pre idential Item , David L. F~athuman 33 Council Personnel Stanley Heginbotham Named Vice Pre ident 34 New Directors and Officers 34 Staff Change 34 New Staff Appointments 35
Intern tional Predi nation Fellow hip Program Cen u Volume on the American Indian, Gary D. Sand~fur Other Council Publications Council Fellow hip and Grant Programs, I ~91 Grants received by the Council in 1989-90 Fellow hips and Gran Offered in 1990
37 41 42
The past debates and current echoes The struggle over explanation of what has already occurred and prediction about what will occur is in many critical ways a continuation of the intellectual debates about the nature of Soviet society and politics prior to Gorbachev' s accession. These debates dealt with several key issues including: (I) the effects of industrialization, generational change among political elites, and the differentiation of social structure on policy outcomes and the nature of Soviet political values; (2) the relative influence of leadership initiative in policy making as opposed to a policy process based on elite bargaining; (3) the amount of homogeneity of views within the ruling structure; (4) the relative significance of ethnicity as a force for political instability in non-Russian areas of the Soviet Union; and (5) the relative importance of an overarching ideological framework as opposed to pragmatic and experiential learning in the making and conduct of Soviet foreign policy. Whatever the merits of the arguments raised on these issues, the position of Western scholars on the past debates is often a quite accurate barometer of their views about the significance of perestroika and the prospects for enduring political and economic reform in the Soviet Union. As such, the debates of the past have been rejoined with respect to three major problems of analysis of the present. These problems can be described as follows: • Whether reform has been directed by Gorbachev or is spontaneous and driven by popular support; • Whether current reform efforts should be seen as a success or failure; • Whether the long-term prospects for Gorbachev's reform efforts should be viewed with optimism or pessimism. Not surprisingly, there is a certain parallelism of analysis concerning these problems.! Those scholars stressing the "revolution from above" elements of Gorbachev's reforms tend also to regard the overall process of reform to have been largely a failure
I For a thorough discussion of optimism and pessimi m among Soviet scholars about the future prospects of Gorbachev's reforms and the derivative past debates influencing scholars' current intel~ apo .. . proaches see George Breslauer. " Thinking About the SoViet Future. ID Can Gorbacl.ev ·s Reforms Succeed? edited by George Breslauer. Berkeley: Center for Slavic and East European Studies and the Berkeley· Stanford Program in Soviet Studies (1990). pp. 1- 32.
(particularly in economic terms) and regard future prospects with a great degree of pessimism, citing such factors as the resistance of a perceived monolithic ruling structure to the elimination of its privileged status and the alien nature of liberal democratic institutions to the traditional Russian political culture. Correspondingly, those who regard perestroika as driven in large measure by more spontaneous agitation of various political and social groups encouraged by Gorbachev to articulate their demands, also tend to regard perestroika as having been at least partially successful (particularly in terms of liberalizing political discourse and reforming political institutions) and regard the future of reform efforts with more optimism, stressing that highly educated political elites from both within and without the Communist Party supportive of major reforms are becoming a permanent feature of Soviet society. Similarly, positions on debates about major elements of perestroika can be anticipated with considerable reliability, depending upon the position of scholars on past debates and the major problems of analysis of the present cited above. For example, those who regard the past Stalinist political structure as a traditional type of Soviet-Russian political system-with Stalin himself as a traditional type of ruler-also tend to view political participation among major social groups as neither critical nor decisive to policy outcomes. 2 Thus they tend to regard Gorbachev's efforts to build law-based political institutions outside the party as likely to fail (or, driven by his own personal political motives, to isolate his opponents), and are accordingly quite pessimistic about either Gorbachev's political longevity, the longevity of perestroika, or both. The "success" of political reform also tends to be evaluated in terms of whether Western-style liberal democratic institutions will develop. Other analysts reject Stalinism as the norm in either Soviet or Russian politics and also argue that the "directed society, passive population" models in past debates never accurately captured the essence of policy making even before Gorbachev' s political
1 For a classic rendition of this argument see William E. Odom. " A Dissenting View on the Group Approach to Soviet Politics." World Politics (July 1976):542- 567. For an analysis of the present drawing on similar umptions see John Evans. Exploring the Onomaniz.ation Metaphor. The Woodrow Wilson Center. Kennan Institute for Advanced Russian Studies. repon of meeting on February 5. 1990.
arrival.) They tre s in their analysi the complex, highly variegated nature of major ocial group , and the inten e and increa ingly open disagreements within and without the ruling apparatu about re ource allocation and public goods. They regard a one of the ucce e of Gorbachev's reform the expanding activity of re tructured legi lative in titu· tion in e tablishing formal rights and procedure under which the Soviet executive power mu t operate. They al 0 point out that the political reforms re t on a wide ba e of popular upport and that gives ground for optimism about the future of tho e reforms, since the co t of arbitrary reversal by leadership fiat ha been raised to unacceptable levels for any future Soviet leader. Debate about economic reform al 0 exhibit a similar tendency.4 While among economists there tends to be greater con en u that economic pere· troika has been largely directed by the political leadership, pe simists about the future of reform efforts point to leadership reluctance to deal forth· rightly with critical economic problems including prices, investment deci ion making, monetary overhang, protection of property rights, and labor markets. Instead, the marginalized policy making that ha occurred due to political calculations about the unpopUlarity of economic reform has only wor ened economic condition without long·term re ource payoffs. Thi process, pe simi ts argue, will likely lead to retrenchment and economic recentralization. Pe imists al 0 point to the lack of popular support for liberal economic values such as competition and the accumulation of wealth, and doubt eriously that a cadre of entrepreneurs su taining political upport for market·oriented reforms can in fact develop. More optimi tic economists do not deny the inadequate, piecemeal nature of current reform efforts but al 0 argue that many of Gorbachev's key economic advi ors have in fact already propo ed a tran ition to a market economy.5 Such propo als J See for example. Jerry Hough. 1M Sovi~t Union and Social Sci~nc~ Thtory, Cambridge, Mas .: Harvard University Pre (1977) , entire, but particularly chapter I . For a more recent rendition of thi position see Blair A. Ruble, "The Soviet Union's Quiet Revolution," in Can Gorba('h~'s Rtforms Su('('ud?, pp. 77-94. • An example of a c1earcut pc imi tic outlook i Robert L. Kellogg, MModeling Soviet Modernization: An Economy in Transition," Sovi~t Economy (publi hed in sociation with the Joint Committee on Soviet SlUdie ), vol. 4 (January-March 1988):36-56. 5 For a somewhat more optimi tic outlook reflecting many of the arguments in upport of a greater prospect for ucce in economic
might be able to overcome re i tance within the Communist Party and government apparatus if new political in titutions like the Supreme Soviet and the Presidency eventually can i olate opposition to painful economic reforms. They al 0 point out that exi ting reform enabling greater autonomy in inve tment deci ion ha produced unexpectedly inten e entrepreneurial behavior. Furthermore, the legal anctioning of private economic cooperatives and lea ed agricultural land has led to a steady increa e in the number of individuals eeking to form a private ector in the ociali t Soviet Union. This development, which has occurred despite both illegal and official hara ment, renders dubious the argument that politico·cultural oppo ition to such forms of liberal democratic competition and wealth accumula· tion are a predominant ob tacle to market·oriented reform .
"Breathing space" strategy For orne cholar of Soviet foreign policy, dramatic change during Gorbachev's frrst five years are part of a leadership·directed "breathing space" strategy in which foreign policy conces ions are tactical and temporary, calibrated to enable the leadership to deal with a dome tic economic crisis. 6 Supporter of thi argument are decidedly pessimistic about the ucce s of perestroika or the future of reform effort. In fact, the major revisions in Soviet foreign policy are regarded as the product of an empire in decline, eeking to reduce overextended international commitments. Revisions in foreign policy are a neces ary component of the political strategy which, in an increasingly unsucce sful manner, trie to deal with growing ocietal instability due to declining economic performance, political legitimacy, and ability to control re tive populations on its periphery. More optimi tic a se sments regard "new thinking" in Soviet foreign policy a not merely tactical or temporary but rather fundamental in its trans formative
refonn, see Herbert Levine, "If I Were Advi ing Gorbachev: Thoughts of an Economi t," in Can Gorbach~v's R~forms Succud?, pp. 35-48. 6 A representative example of the "empire in decline" explanation as a major element of Gorbachev's foreign policy is Stephan Se tanovich, "Gorbachev's Foreign Policy: A Diplomacy of Decline," Prob/~ms of Communism , vol. xxxvii (January-February 1988):1-15.
effect .7 The rejection of unilateral approache to achieving ecurity, the empha i on the economic and global environmental factors in the making and conduct of ecurity policy, the jetti oning of cla ba ed analy i a an explanatory ba i for the operation of international relation , "rea onable ufficiency" in the building of defen e forces, and the repudiation of the deterrent value of nuclear weapon are regarded a radical departure from past Soviet foreign policy. Moreover, the e departure , it i argued, have been a major current ucce of pere troika in building a more table framework for international ecurity. The cope and inten ity of unprecedented foreign policy action -the withdrawal from Afghani tan, nonintervention in the 1989 political revolution in Ea tern Europe, the acceptance of arm control agreement unprecedented in cope and intrusivene of verification measure -are een as validating evidence of a tran formed Soviet foreign policy. The e critical change in the direction of foreign policy are al 0 een not a a product of a dictator dealing with y temic decline but rather a part of an inten ely debated, carefully-con idered proce of sy temic renewal, upported by well-trained and traveled diplomat and ocial cienti ts. Taken together with the pro peet for internal political and economic reform (pro pects for which are u ually viewed po itively) it i argued that change in Soviet foreign policy have the ability to maintain, perhap even increa e Soviet influence in international politic in a multifaceted and more u tainable manner.
The intellectual challenge ahead Regardle of one' view of contemporary event in the Soviet Union, and the manner in which complex economic, political, and ocial proce e give them meaning, it i clear that the reform policie that have unfolded during Gorbachev' first five years were in large mea ure not anticipated or predicted by We tern ocial cienti t . We tern cholars have largely been witne e to thi proce and in many case have watched helple ly as one after another "operating characteri tic" or proce believed to be "ju t 0" about Soviet ociety, politic, and foreign policy was obliterated by the pace of change. The 7 See for ellimple. Roben Legvold, "The Revolution in Foreign Policy," For~ign Affair. vol. 68, no. I (19 8-19 9):82-99.
humbling experience of learning to "never ay never" i being accepted. But to move beyond a cholarly elf-defen e mechani m of "anything-can-happen" require effort to e tabli h flexible analytical approache better able to deal with the intellectual challenge ahead. In an effort to meet thi challenge, cholars are beginning to favor comparative approache which examine proce e from other ocietie and their foreign policie for application to the Soviet experience. One uch approach i to ee the major political, economic, and social change in the Soviet Union in the context of other tate 'experience during their tran ition from authoritarian form of governance. For a variety of di cipline , the implication of uch a comparative framework can be highly u eful. 8 In political cience, the way in which major ocial group and political elite truggle for a reduced role for the military in both economic re ource and â&#x20AC;˘ Thi anicle, in describing the p pects for a pere troika in Soviet tudie ,h confined itself to i ue in the di iplines of political science and economic . But it i clear that pere troika h also had major effec on other di ipline in the humanitie and the social science . With re peet to language and literature, the Joint Committee on Soviet Studie ' Subcommittee on Contemporary Literature and Popular Culture h been pon ring a peeial i uc serie in the journal Sovi~r Srudi~s in Lir~raÂˇ tur~ on the effects of pere troika (and gl n t) with re peet to Soviet literature and culture, including the effect on prose, poetry, and cinema, and the role of repre ntation, gender, and genre with re pect to th literary fonns. The ubcomminee has al organized an exchange of yllabi on contemporary literature and popular culture among major Slavic Iangu ge and literature depanmen . Finally, the ubcommittee has fonned an international working group of language and literary peeiali ts from the United State , the Soviet Union, and We tern Europe to undenake a sy tematic tudy of the cultural revival that i tran forming Soviet society, to tudying over a dozen genre of culture in a comparative context so produce a more synthetic and cros -national understanding of the major cultural change occurring in the Soviet Union. The Joint Committee' Subcommittee on Sociology i al undenaking a number of effom to further develop the di ipline of sociology through the tudy of sociological i ue in a Soviet context. In cooperation with the International Research and Exchange Board (IREX), a number of young American and Soviet sociologi ,both predoc and postdoc , are conducting one- to five-month research vi its in the Soviet Union and the United State re pectively, tudying variou sociological i ue including changing pattern of interaction between the tate and the individual and groups, the di iIIu ionrnent and politicization of youth, and trends and differential in infant monality rate . Another major effon undenaken by the ubcomminee i the awarding of one-year fellow hips to first-year graduate tudents who have undergraduate Soviet tudie background to begin their tudy in sociology and anthropology depanmen in a number of universitie . These early graduate fellow hips are designed to transcend barriers between area tudie and di iplinary heritage and approache '10 that the targeted discipline will have in place, over the long-term, a well-trained group of young holars who can bring contextual Soviet tudie competence to the tudy of more universal and comparative di iplinary i ue .
political deci ion making, how alternative political in titution outside traditional authoritarian tructure evolve, and how the ba e of legitimacy change in a variety of countries has been the ubject of con iderable cholarly treatment. Pere troika, and the condition of re earch it ha fo tered, now make con tructive tudy of uch i ue with re pect to the Soviet political y tern an urgent re earch priority. In economic ,the cientific challenge of developing modeling technique for the tran ition from authoritariani m loom large. There i currently no theory for the tran ition of a command economy to one ba ed primarily on market principle . Such a theory, or at least credible effort to develop one, would indeed be timely not only in term of ba ic re earch need but of applied re earch requirements as well. Gorbachev' economic advi or , in numerou meeting with We tern economi t , have lamented the lack of re earch experience on thi ubject, re earch which, if available, might help inform policy-making option for moving the Soviet economy from it current condition to a market-oriented economy. The tudy of other regime in tran ition, particularly in outhern Europe, where paternali tic political control of the economy wa eventually tran formed into an acceptance of international economic integration, might prove a u eful comparative direction for the tudy of the Soviet economy. Comparative po ibilities Many of the characteri tic underlying the tran formation of Soviet foreign policy during Gorbachev' fiTht five years bear con iderable re emblance to new foreign policy direction undertaken by other tate in their tran ition from authoritariani m. The heightened Soviet intere t in joining variou international economic in titution (GATT, the IMF, the World Bank, etc.) doe have intere ting compari on to imilar integrative effort undertaken by Spain, Portugal, and Italy during their tran it ion from authoritariani m. The perceived need by political leaders in tho e tate to reduce international ten ion during period of tran ition 0 a to avoid co tly international commitments may in part explain the remarkable change in the range of po ible arms control agreements currently ought by the Soviet Union. The overhaul of Soviet military doctrine, with it clear implication for reduced defen e force and budget can be compared to imilar effort in tate in k
tran ition from authoritariani m a they truggle with the role of the military in civil ociety. In addition to the deductive contribution to knowledge by the application of "tran ition" literature to the tudy of Soviet ociety and foreign policy, a number of inductive contributions can al 0 be made. In the ca e of political cience, new availability of information, as well a the development of new political in titution in the Soviet Union like the newly revitalized national legi lature, facilitate the comparative tudy of a variety of i ue. The e is ue include the nature of con tituency politic in legi lature , the changing nature of legal-con titutional foundation in political y tern , executive-legi lative relation, electoral proce e and procedure , the nature of political group who participate in election , how political movement and partie evolve and gain legi lative repre entation, political re pon ivene and the relation hip between popular preference and policy outcome , the difference and irnilaritie between legi lative involvement in dome tic and foreign policy, the legi lature as a focal point for evaluating policy alternative articulating conflicting approache , and enhancing or weakening y temic tability. The e long tanding is ue in ocial cience have received con iderable treatment u ing the experience of other ocietie . A new laboratory of re earch for rigorou analy i of Soviet ociety and foreign policy now need to be utilized fully. The re earch environment nurtured by pere troika in the Soviet Union ha al 0 rapidly expanded the pro pects for direct cientific collaboration with Soviet ocial cienti t . On a number of front , from the creation of new bibliographies of Soviet re earch material, to joint re earch on urvey and public opinion data, and the opening of previou ly-clo ed archive of information on en itive political and hi tori cal i ue and event ,Soviet ocial cienti ts have greater ability than ever before to cooperate with their We tern counterparts, and offer perspective on the u e and interpretation of data that i not colored by culture-bound We tern a umptions and biase that can di tort analy i of data. Furthermore, a opportunitie expand, 0 do the pro pect for multilateral cooperation involving Soviet peciali ts not only from the United State and We tern Europe, but from non-We tern cholarly communitie with their own differing and enriching outlook on the nature of reality in tudying the Soviet Union. ITEMS129
The tudy of complex political, economic, and ocial phenomena offers no guarantee that explanation and prediction offered by ocial cienti ts about the future of the Soviet Union will be any more accurate than uch explanation and prediction were during Gorbachev' ftrst five years. Nonethele s, the potential u e of a variety of cientific approache at cholarly di po al eem greater now than it ever has been in Soviet tudie . The polarizing effects of past debate and their current echoe need not be continued. The value of normal cientific activity in both its deductive and inductive form i that we can ort out reason why we hould or hould not look at complex phenomena in the Soviet Union in a certain way. The ability of cholars to eize on re earch opportunitie enable u to make more informed choice , increasing the likelihood that our con ideration of a variety of factor under con ideration will make outcome Ie urpri ing and more predictable .
To render empirical approache more fruitful, olid contextual training in Soviet tudie i e ential and mu t continue to receive exten ive cholarly and fmancial support. Exten ive language capability, the hi torical and cultural context of contemporary Soviet ociety and foreign policy, and a thorough undertanding of the often difficult cientific infrastructure in the Soviet Union with which ocial cienti ts mu t deal are all e ential, irreplaceable elements of rigorou analy i . In hort, area tudie and di ciplinary heritage and method mu t work in a complementary fashion. The pere troika of Gorbachev's flf t five years offers an unprecedented opportunity to tran cend the debate of the past that have often fru trated cientific inquiry, to analyze the mo t persuasive arguments on both ide of tho e debate , and move beyond peculation and determini m toward a more reliable foundation of knowledge. â&#x20AC;˘
and Compliance with International Environmental Accords by Harold K. Jacobson and Edith Brown Weiss* Countrie have negotiated many international agreements to protect the environment and to con erve natural re ources. While orne of the e agreements exi ted before the 1972 Stockholm Conference on the Human Environment, most have been negotiated ince then. The rate at which important agreements are concluded i increasing. The ub tantive and procedural dutie contained in the agreement have become more stringent and comprehensive, and the range of issues subject to uch agreements has expanded. Mo t ob ervers anticipate calls for more international agreements to protect the global environment. Yet international agreement are only as effective as the parties make them. While it has been said that mo t tates comply with mo t international agreements most of the time, there are reasons to believe that national implementation of and compliance with international agreement is not always effective and that whatever implementation doe take place varies ignificantly among countrie . Knowledge about the implementation of and compliance with international environmental agreements i limited. Without better knowledge, it is impo ible to as ess their effectivene s in protecting the global environment or to evaluate the merits of propo ed agreements. Fonnally-binding international agreements are only one of the available instruments for dealing with global environmental i ues. One cannot appropriately weigh the advantages of negotiating a treaty to obtain global environmental goal ,a compared to relying on market forces or education, without knowing more about what state tend to do in their execution of treatie . Nor i it po ible to make en ible suggestions about measures
â&#x20AC;˘ Harold K . Jacob n i a profe r of political ience at the UniverIty of Michigan and a member of the Committee for Research on Global EnvIronmental Change. Edith Brown Wei i a profe r of international law at Georgetown University Law Center and serve chair to the
Ju ElSEPTEMBER 1990
that might be taken to improve the implementation of and compliance with existing and propo ed accords. Worksbop on national implementation
As a frrst step in understanding the e is ues of national implementation and compliance, the Committee for Re earch on Global Environmental Change convened a workshop on National Implementation of International Accords, in Hamilton, Bennuda, on March 15-17, 1990.** Supported by the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, the workshop brought together area and functional speciali ts from everal different disciplinesinternational relations, economic and international law. Country or regional specialists included experts on Africa, Brazil, China, India, Japan, the United States, and Western Europe. The workshop marked the inauguration of a research project to analyze the factors that determine how international agreement are implemented and complied with in various countrie . Participants noted the importance of distinguishing between implementation and compliance, with implementation referring to the fonnal legislation or regulations that are adopted by states to comply with the agreement, and compliance referring to the ob ervance of the e regulations and of the commitments contained in the international accord. A has become evident with respect to human rights treaties, compliance with international accords can change and improve over time. The planned research will seek to understand how improvement might be induced. Among the international agreements considered were: I. The Convention Concerning the Protection of World Cultural and Natural Heritage, 1972. 2. The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Specie of Wild Fauna and Hora (CITES), 1973. 3. The International Tropical Timber Agreement, 1983. â&#x20AC;˘â&#x20AC;˘ 1be workshop was organized by the authors . Participants included Piers M. Blaikie. University of East Anglia; Stephen Bunker, University of Wisconsin; Abram Chaye , Georgetown University; William C . Clark, Harvard University; Joel Darmstadter, Resource for the Future (Washington , D.C .); Jame V. Feinerman, Georgetown University; Michael J. Glennon, University of California, Davis; Ronald J. Herring , Northwe tern University; Michel Oksenberg, University of Michigan; Steve Rayner, Oak Ridge National Laboratorie ; Alberta Sbragia, University of Pittsburgh; Thomas C. Schelling, Harvard University; 1be Hon. Stephen M . Schwebel, International Court of Ju lice, the Hague; Eugene B. Skolnikoff, Mas husetts In titute of Technology; and William Zimmerman, University of Michigan. Richard C. Rockwell and Shelley Crandall served as taff.
4. The Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer. 1985; and the Montreal Protocol on Sub tance that Deplete the Ozone Layer. 1987.
Factors that affect compliance The di cu ion illuminated the many factors which affect national compliance. The e include the policy hi tory of the negotiation of the agreement, the characteri tic of the agreement, the characteri tic of the tate and its government tructure and proce it economic condition, the role of international intergovernmental organization , the role of nongovernmental organization (both local and tran national), the role of tran national organization uch a multinational corporation , the importance of cientific information and condition of acce to the information, the behavior of other tate who are partie to the agreement, the technical and economic characteri tics of the problem that i the ubject of the agreement, the importance of cultural tradition , and the importance of individual leaders. The nature of the dome tic force arrayed for and again t agreement, a well as po ible hift in re pon e to external hock in the y tem, might al 0 be con idered, a well a the nature of the hifts them elve . Some of the e factors have higher priority than others in the planned re earch project. The character of the ub tance (chlorofluorocarbon in the Vienna Convention and Montreal Protocol) or activity (trade in endangered pecie) being regulated i a ba ic factor. Some ub tance or activitie have little economic importance, while other have con equence for entire economie . Some are ea y to monitor; other can only be detected through very intru ive mea ure . The co t and benefit of regulating ub tance and activitie and the di tribution of the e co ts among variou ocial clas e and geographical region can al 0 be important. The country' policy hi tory with re pect to the ub tance or activity being regulated i another ba ic factor. What was the country doing about the ub tance or activity prior to adhering to the international accord? What role did the country play in the negotiation of the accord? The treaty it elf i al 0 an important factor. Some i ue relate to the proce by which the treaty wa negotiated. How wa the treaty proce initiated? What form did the negotiation take? Were i ue ettled con en ually or by majority vote? What wa the extent and depth of the agreement? 32\ITEMS
The ub tantive characteri tic of the treaty al 0 rai e important i ue. What i the nature of the obligation contained in the treaty? Are they preci e dutie , or are they hortatory? What compliance mechani m are contained in the agreements? How doe the agreement treat countrie that do not join? The Montreal Protocol and CITES obligate partie not to trade controlled ub tance with countrie that are not partie to the agreement. How effective i thi provi ion in inducing compliance? The cultural, ocial, economic, and political characteri tic of the countrie will al 0 influence implementation and compliance. In haping a country' action in implementing and complying with international environmental accord , what i the relative importance of it broad political culture, the level of it economic development, and the trajectory and pace of its economic growth? What difference doe it make whether the country has a market or a planned economy? If the economy i mixed, doe it make a difference in which ector the ub tance or activity i included? What are the effect of the characteri tic of the political y tem? How trong and effective i the bureaucracy, and what difference doe this make? What i the trength of nongovernmental group , including tho e engaged in intere t aggregation and articulation? What i the nature of the legal y tem? What procedure are required to adopt the regulation or other trategie nece ary to implement the agreement? A a next tep it i anticipated that there will be a re earch project to tudy the e que tion in depth, which will produce a book. The tudy will analyze what elected countrie have done to implement and comply with everal international environmental accord and will addre the factor that have influenced compliance or non-compliance. There will al 0 be cro s-cutting analy e which look at the international legal and in titutional factor that affect compliance acro a broad range of agreement and the economic factors that affect it. A re earch protocol will be developed to facilitate y tematic analy i acro area tudie and di cipline . The propo ed tudy hope to facilitate as e ment of the u efulne of international accord in protecting the environment and conserving natural re ource , and to contribute to the drafting of new international accord 0 a to maximize the chance of national compliance.
Presidential Items After nearly a year of trategic planning about the future of foreign area re earch at the Council, I am pleased to report that we and the American Council of Learned Societie are now implementing a new architecture for international re earch and training. A comprehen ive de cription of the new focus will appear in the next i ue of Items. Suffice it to ay that SSRC and ACLS trongly reaffirm the fundamental importance of area-based ocial cience about foreign culture and ocietie ; it is the bedrock upon which complementary and richly articulated comparative and tran nationally-focu ed working group , committee, and re earch con ortia will be created. Thus, the new architecture recommi sion joint foreign area committee and charges them with a "dual mandate" -re pon ibility for area- pecific field development and joint collaboration with other Council group in interregional, comparative and tran national cholarship. A key element of the new international program i training of a replacement generation of American ocial cienti ts who comprehend the language, hi tory, culture, and contemporary in titution of foreign ocietie. Two tep already have been taken to implement the training component of the new program. Fir t, the two Councils have jointly ubmitted propo al that aim to rein tate dis ertation re earch fellow hip for tudie of all world area. We hope to make award to successful applicants in the falVwinter of 1990-91. The joint foreign area committee will admini ter this national competition a in previou year. The importance of the e SSRC/ACLS fellow hip cannot be over tated. At the very moment when contemporary world events under core the need to understand our foreign neighbor , other federal and private ource of re earch funding for doctoral re earch (e.g., the Fulbright program) are declining. Second, the Council are plea ed to accept the reque t of the Ford Foundation to admini ter a predi ertation fellow hip program ba ed at 19 re earch univer itie in this country elected by Ford. (Note the announcement of thi program on page 36.) The Ford Foundation correctly diagno ed a declining
Ju ElSEPTEMBER 1990
emphasi on foreign re earch-and on the prerequi ite lingui tic kill and area knowledge-in graduate program of the more quantitatively oriented ocial cience di cipline , i.e., economic , political cience, and ociology. It al 0 detected a trend, corroborated in our own record of ACLS/SSRC di ertation fellow hip , away from re earch about the developing world. The Foundation and the Councils agreed that a vigorou program was needed to counter the e trends. Therefore the program i designed to attract the very be t tudent , e pecially in ociology, economic , and political cience, at an early tage in their graduate program when they can be enticed to con ider a career of re earch about the Third World. The aim of the e fellow hip i to encourage tudent and ultimately the univer itie them elve to redirect and stretch out the normal cour e of di cipline-ba ed training; the program will thu create a student cadre which will stand omewhat apart from its cohort. Becau e of the e pecial and difficult objectives, Ford and the Council agreed to clu ter the fellowship at a relatively mall number of univer itie and department and to involve them a working partner in the problematic of a redirective training program. The Foundation elected an initial set of 19 universities using criteria reflecting it calculation of national standing of ocial cience departments and of area studie program. The Councils and the Foundation are all, however, pledged to review the in titutional eligibility i ue upon completion of the fir t round of award. Both of the e fellow hip program are needed without delay; their aims are different but complementary. They are nece ary but not ufficient to create a critical rna s of ocial cientist and humanists who can enrich tomorrow' di cipline with perspective and experti e drawn from foreign re earch, area tudie , and collaboration with international counterpart . They are but two of the many new initiative the SSRC will pur ue in internationalizing American ocial cience. â&#x20AC;˘ - David L. Featherman
Stanley J. Heginbotham Named Vice President Stanley J. Heginbotham wa selected to fill the po t of vice pre ident of the Council, effective July 1, 1990. He will work c10 ely with pre ident David L. Feathennan and the Council taff, sharing major re ponsibilitie for program development and serving as liai on with the major foundation . Mr. Heginbotham's career ha spanned cholar hip and teaching, management of a major government re earch organization, and foundation grantmaking. Though trained primarily as a comparativist, Mr. Heginbotham erved a chair of the SSRCIACLS loint Committee on South A ia from 1976-1981. In addition to hi experience in foreign and international areas, he has trained doctoral tudents at Columbia Univer ity on New York City administration and ha led evaluation re earch project on judicial training in the United State. The new vice pre ident received his ph.D. from the Ma achu etts In titute of Technology in 1970 in political cience and taught at Columbia Univer ity from 1968 to 1976. 34\ ITEMS
Mr. Heginbotham wa chief of the Foreign Affair and National Defen e Divi ion of the Congre sional Re earch Service in Washington, D.C. from 1976 to 1987. Prior to joining the Council, he held the po ition of deputy director of the International Affairs Program at the Ford Foundation, where he worked c10 ely with the Foreign Policy Studie taff of SSRC. Mr. Heginbotham will bring to hi new po ition an unu ual melding of humani t concern and trong methodological and quantitative training. A commitment to collegiality and the involvement of diverse con tituencie has been a continuing feature of hi cholarship and management. The Council i plea ed to welcome him to the taff.
New Directors and Officers At it meeting on June 5, 1990, the Council' board of director elected three new member : Albert Fi hlow, University of California, Berkeley; David Magnu on, Stockholm Univerity; and Cora B. Marrett, Univer ity of Wi con in. They will erve as directors-at-Iarge for a three-year tenn. The Council' officers for 1990-91 were al 0 elected by the board. Cora B. Marrett was elected chair of the board of director . The following officer were re-elected: Richard A. Berk, Univer ity of California, Lo Angele , vice-chair; Kai T. Erikson, Yale Univer ity, ecretary; Bevi Long treth, Debevoi e & Plimpton (New
York), trea urer; and Ronald J. Peleck, a i tant trea urer. Newly elected a chair of the Executive Committee for a one-year tenn, was Robert B. Zajonc, University of Michigan. The board al 0 elected Albert Fi hlow for a one-year tenn on the Committee on Problem and Policy (P&P).
Rorwld J. Pduk
RONALD J. PELECK, the Council' controller, has been named vice pre ident for finance. effective July I, 1990. Mr. Peleck has erved a the Council' chief financial officer ince 1979, with primary re pon ibility for the admini tration of the Council' financial affair . In recommending Mr. Peleck' change of appointment before SSRC' board of directors, Council pre ident David L. Feathennan prai ed the high tandard of accountability and fi cal planning that Mr. Peleck ha introduced into all level of program admini tration, and noted that the promotion and recognition were well de erved. A vice pre ident, Mr. Peleck will work c10 ely with the pre ident in developing and implementing financial, personVOLUME
nel, and admini trative policies. He will al 0 a i t the pre ident in the allocation of the Council's assets and in integrating it human and physical re ource . Mr. Peleck received hi M.A. from Columbia University in 1974 in higher education administration. Prior to joining the Council, Mr. Peleck was the director of bu ine and administrative affairs for the Bank Street College of Education in New York. MARY BYRNE McDoNNELL, formerly program a ociate to the Indochina Scholarly Exchange Program, has been promoted to the po ition of staff a ociate to the Joint Committee on Japane e Studie . M . McDonnell, a historian who received her Ph.D . from Columbia University in 1986, has been employed at the Council inee 1985. In addition to her re ponsibilities for the Indochina program, M . McDonnell has served on an interim ba i as program as ociate to the Japan committee and the Committee for Comparative Re earch on Muslim Societie . She will continue to staff the Indochina Scholarly Exchange Program in addition to her dutie with the Joint Committee on Japane e Studie .
New Staff Appointments ERIC HERSH BERG join the Council, effective Augu t 15th. Initially, Mr. Her hberg will taff the Joint Committee on Latin America and the Caribbean, as uming the dutie of Silvia Raw who i on leave from the Council.
He i al 0 expected to a si t with other program , including the Joint Committee on We tern Europe. Mr. Hershberg received hi Ph.D. (1989) and hi M.A. (1984) in political cience from the Univer ity of Wi con in; he obtained his B.A. in 1981 from Indiana University. Mr. Hershberg ha pecialized in re earch on political regimes and tran ition in We tern Europe, primarily Spain, and Latin America. His di ertation wa entitled "Transition from Authoritarianism and Eclip e of the Left: Toward a Reinterpretation of Political Change in Spain. " Prior to coming to the Council, Mr. Her hberg wa a i tant profes or of political cience at Southern Illinoi University. STEVEN HEYDEMANN joined the Council on July 1 as taff to the Committee on International Peace and Security. He will al 0 erve a staff to the Committee on the Near and Middle East, effective January 1, 1991. Mr. Heydemann received an M.A. (1986) and a Ph.D. (1990) in political science from the University of Chicago, where he specialized in the comparative politic of the Middle Ea t, international political economy, and political ociology. Hi di ertation wa entitled, "Succe ful Authoritariani m: The Social and Structural Origins of Populi t Authoritarian Rule in Syria, 1946-1963." He received his undergraduate training in Near Ea tern and North African tudies at the University of Michigan. During 1983-84, Mr. Heyde-
mann erved as director of programs and re earch at the Middle East Institute in Washington, D.C., where he edited Issues in Contemporary Israel: The Begin Era, published by Westview Press in 1984. He also has a number of articles forthcoming, including "Revisionism and the Reconstruction of Israeli Historiography," "Internal Dependency and the Origins of Authoritarianism in Syria," and "Economic Crise and Authoritarian Repon es: The Limits of Economic Liberalization in Syria." In another staff appointment, ELLEN PERECMAN has joined the Council as program director of the new International Predissertation Fellow hip Program. Ms. Perecman received a Ph.D. in linguistics from the Graduate Center of the City University of New York in 1980 and a B.A. from Sarah Lawrence College in 1975. Prior to joining the Council, she was assistant profe or of neuro cience at Cornell University Medical College and a research scientist at North Shore University Hospital in Manhas et, New York. Ms. Perecman has written extensively about cognition and neurolinguistics and has delivered lectures in Japan, Germany, Taiwan, and Sweden. In 1987 he was a guest scienti t at the Institute of Medical Psychology, University of Munich. The new Council program, for which Ms. Perecman will have primary re ponsibility, is designed to encourage new linkage between the ocial sciences and area tudie (see pages 33 and 36 for information about the program). ITEMS/35
Program Announcement New International Predissertation Fellowship Program to Prepare Social Scienti ts to Study the Developing World The Social Science Re earch Council and the American Council of Learned Societie are pleased to announce a major new International Predi ertation Fellow hip Program de igned to increase the flow of talented graduate tudents in the ocial cience into research and teaching careers oriented to the developing world. The new three-year $6.4 million program will be admini tered by the Social Science Re earch Council and i being funded by the Ford Foundation. Over the initial three-year period, the new program expects to pro ide approximately 170 full-year fellow hip to tudent enrolled in Ph.D. program in the ocial cience at 19 univer itie selected by the Ford Foundation. The program i aimed primarily at graduate tudents in economic ,political cience, and ociology, but will be open to tudent in the other ocial cience di cipline as well. Application will be ought from full-time graduate tudent in the early phase of a Ph.D. program who are intere ted in upplementing their di ciplinary kill with area and language studie . Fellow hip will provide 12 month of upport including living tipend and tuition for language training, overseas tudy, and cour e work in area tudie . Support will not be provided for course work that con titute part of the tandard program of tudy in the di ciplinary program. In all case , the intent of the fellow hip will be to encourage tudent to undertake di ertation reearch in or on Africa, China, Latin America, the Caribbean, the Middle East, the Near East, South A ia, or Southeast A ia. In addition to the individual fellow hip , the program will invite fellow to participate in a serie of Council-organized methodological work hop focu ed on the development of original data sets and research material . The Council will al 0 seek way to incorporate the fellow into it other on-going internationally oriented re earch work hop and conference . Application material will be available in September 1990 from the SSRC and ACLS, and from the graduate chool in each of the eligible universitie . Applicants will be expected to work with their di ciplinary advi or and an area peciali t, in the de ign of a 1-2 year training program at orne combination of their home in titution and others either dome tic or overseas which will enable them to develop an internationally-oriented di ertation re earch project. A ward will not be tenable for di ertation re earch itself. Application from tudent will be ubmitted directly by the participating universitie . They will be reviewed and elected for funding by a pecially con tituted program committee e tabli hed by the two Council . The 19 universitie elected by the Ford Foundation to initiate the new program are: the Univen.ity of California, Berkeley; the Univen.ity of California, San Diego; the University of California, Lo Angele; the University of Chicago; Columbia University; Cornell University; Duke University; Harvard University; Indiana Univen.ity; the University of Michigan; the University of Minne ota, Twin Citie Campu ; Northwe tern Univen.ity; the Univer ity of Penn ylvania; Princeton Univerity; Stanford University; the University of Texa , Au tin; the Univen.ity of W hington; the University of Wi con in, Madi on; and Yale Univer ity. Upon completion of the first round of award in 1991, eligibility criteria for participating universitie will be reviewed by the Ford Foundation and the two Council . For further information, contact: Ellen Perecman, Social Science Research Council, 605 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10158; telephone (212) 661-0280.
Census Volume on the American Indian American Indians: The First of This Land, by C. Matthew Snipp. A publication in the series "The Population of the United States in the 1980s." Sponsored by the Committee for Research on the 1980 Census. New York: Russell Sage foundation, 1989. xxvii + 408 pages. Cloth, $49.95.
Reviewed by Gary D. Sandefur* Publication of this volume marks an important event for tho e concerned with the contemporary Native American population. Social cienti t and policy makers were previou Iy forced to rely on horter and Ie analytical reports prepared by the U.S. Bureau of the Cen u after the 1960 and 1970 cen u e and on journal article which were neces arily limited in scope. This book pull together much of what i known and provides a ocial demographic overview of the contemporary Native American population. The tory of the almo t complete destruction of the native population and it recovery during thi century i a fascinating one. Snipp analyzes how migration away from the re ervation and intermarriage have affected the contemporary population as well a the po ible effects of both factors on the future Indian population. Related to the latter i sue i the problem of defining and mea uring Indian identity, a problem complicated by the diver ity among Native Americans and definition that shift from one context to another. Another et of que tions that puzzle the casual ob erver of the Indian population is how and why this di advantaged group has uddenJy become economically better off than the black American population in almo t all areas. Chapters on hou ing, language and education, occupation and income, and labor force participation provide new data and new analyses that help readers understand how this transformation took place; they al 0 identify the group of Indian who in orne ways have been left behind by the general improvement in the national Indian population. Ethnographic accounts of American Indian kinship have always emphasized the uniqueness of American Indian familie and the diversity of family relationâ&#x20AC;˘ Gary D. Sandefur i profe sor of sociology at the University of Wi on in, Madison.
ship across Indian group . The author' analysis provides a social demographic framework within which to interpret and understand the many ethnographic accounts of pecific tribal kinship structures. The information pre ented in this volume is significant for a number of reasons. A ide from the paucity of demographic re earch on American Indians, mentioned earlier, most social demographers have concentrated on larger groups such as African American or the growing Latino population. Further, along with other 1980 Census monographs such as The Color Line and the Quality of Life in America, by Reynolds Farley and Walter Allen, and The Hispanic Population of the United States, by Frank D. Bean and Marta Tienda, American Indians provides comparable data and analyses that allow social cientists and policy makers to as es the current situation of major racial and ethnic group in the United States in more detail than has heretofore been po sible. Finally, Indian issues and the relationship between American Indians and the rest of American society have become increasingly important over the past few years. The treaty rights conflicts in Washington, Wi con in, and other states have recently gained national headlines. The need for water in the Southwest to sustain continued population growth has produced renewed conflict between traditional Indian claims to water and to other resources and the needs of metropolitan areas. Plan to establish a museum on the American Indian as part of the Smithsonian complex illustrates the renewed interest and importance of traditional Indian cultures in contemporary American life. The remainder of this review summarizes some of the major themes and findings from American Indians. concluding with question that remain to be addressed and the opportunities for doing so that will be provided by the 1990 Census.
Historical overview and future developments (Chapters I, 9, and 10) Native Americans vary profoundly in term of language, culture, and historical background. "For example," writes Snipp, "American Indians of the East Coast have little in common with Indians on the ITEMS/37
Plain , and the e group have even Ie in common with Indian in California. The difference between Ala ka Native , Eskimo , Aleut , and American Indian in the lower 48 tate are e pecially striking." This make the ta k of di cu sing the hi tory and future of American Indian very daunting. There are, however, way to characterize the common experience of the e diver e group . American Indians points out that at the time of Columbu ,the ize of the American Indian population was at least omewhere between two to five million individuals, and that recent developments in hi torical demography may lead to e timate that exceed even the top end of thi range. By 1890, the size of the American Indian population had dwindled to 228,000. Hi torical demographers are fairly certain of the rea on for thi drastic decline, although there i di agreement over the relative importance of these factor. Among the mo t critical, undoubtedly, is the introduction to the Americas of di ease uch as small-pox and measles to which the native population had never before been expo ed. Small-pox and other epidemic in orne case completely de troyed orne native group and led to ub tantial changes in pre-Columbian culture and ocial tructure that we are just beginning to understand. Another major con equence of this decimation was a decline in the ability of the native group to defend them elve again t military attacks by the French, Spani h, English and other European colonizers, which led to even further destruction of the Indian population. One re pon e to population decline wa geographical mobility. Group that were decimated by disease ometime reacted by moving to other areas that were not yet infected, and were later replaced by other group re ponding to epidemic and warfare in other area . The reduced ize of the Indian population and the inability of the native group to challenge the military might of the European coloni ts led to another great migration of Indian during the early to mid-1800 . During thi period, known as the Removal Era in American Indian hi tory, mo t of the Indian who lived ea t of the Mis i ippi were forced to move to areas we t of the Mi i ippi, often to what i now Oklahoma. The tartling population decline of the Native American population i perhap urpas ed by the population regeneration that has taken place during this century. By 1980, the ize of the American Indian population had increa ed to 1.5 million 38\ITEM
individual who identified them elve as American Indian by race and 6.8 million individual who reported that they had at lea t orne American Indian ance try. The rapid increa e in the Indian population is due to the adaptation of Indian to the pre ence of the di ea e mentioned earlier; the end of military conflict; efforts by the federal government and tribe to combat di ease ,poor anitation, and low-quality hou ing; comparatively high fertility; and change in elf-identification during the period from 1960-1980 as individual who previou ly did not record themelves as Indian began to do o. A the author point out, "In the not- o-di tant past, experts solemnly foreca t the extinction of American Indian . Re ting on five centurie of hi tory, thi prediction wa con idered a certain a the pas ing of the ea on ; and like the eason , American Indian would pa into hi tory, never to return." Experts are beginning to revi e their prediction. Currently, the mo t likely cenario i the one that the book outline : the American Indian population is likely to increa e in number and the American Indian population i likely to be even more diverse than it i now. There are three major factors that will probably lead to the fulfillment of thi cenario. First, American Indian identity i no longer ocially unacceptable. There was a time when many people of mixed Indian and non-Indian ance try were afraid or ashamed to admit that they were Indian. Thi i no longer the ca e: many American Indian who do not live on re ervation or in traditional tribal area identify a Indian . Second, the fertility of the American Indian population is higher than that of the U. S. population in general. Thu , although the growth of the Indian population will not be fueled by immigration as in the ca e of the A ian or Hi panic population , it will be fueled by birth . Third, individual tribes or nation have the authority to determine their own criteria for tribal member hip. A the number of "full-blood" Indian declined in number with the increase in intermarriage, tribe have gradually lowered the "blood quantum" requirement for member hip. Tribe u e blood quantum requirement ranging from 112 to 1116. Some of the large t tribe in 1980 such as the Cherokee (230,972) and Choctaw (50,220) had no blood quantum requirement for membership. Member mu t imply prove Cherokee or Choctaw de cent. Thi ha led to tremendou "racial diversity" within and acro tribe which i likely to increa e in VOLUME
the future. A long a Indian nation or tribe exist a commuDltte and governmental entitie , the Indian population i unlikely to di appear.
Indian identity (Chapters 2-3) The changing and variable tribal definition of Indian identity challenge the conventional view of the American Indian population. The image that many American have of the Native American population i that of a re ervation-ba ed, full-blood population peaking native language and engaging in traditional cultural practice . A American Indians points out, thi view i not upported by the data. Fir t, in 1980 only 24.9% of the American Indian population re ided on re ervation and 2.8% re ided in Alaska Native Village. Thi mean that almost three-quarters of the American Indian population lived off the re ervation. Among thi group, 8.2% lived in Oklahoma, which at one time was predominantly re ervation or tru t land, 2.2% lived on nonre ervation tru t land, and 15% lived near re ervation . So, although only roughly one-quarter of the Indian population lived on a re ervation, over one-half lived on or near re ervation or tru t land, or in Oklahoma. Second, the ize of the full-blood Indian population i orne fraction of the 1.5 million individuals who identified them elve as American Indian in 1980. Available data do not allow u to know what thi fraction i . There are basically two kind of information available. American Indians analyze individual' report of multiple ance try in the 1980 Cen u . According to the e figure , approximately 78% of individual who reported their race a American Indian reported only Indian ance try. However, it i highly probable that thi overe timate the "fullblood" population ince the ance try que tion in the Cen u form wa : "What i thi person' ance try?" and the fif t line in the in truction guide for thi que tion wa : "Print the ance try group with which the person identifie ." The remaining part of the in truction for the ance try que tion give people the option of reporting multiple ance tries, but it is difficult to know how mo t people interpreted thi que tion and it in truction . Another ource of information come from Bureau of Indian Affair data for 1950. The Office of Technology A e ment took the data, did orne projections for Oklahoma, which wa not covered in J
the 1950 urvey, and e timated that in 1950 approximately 60.2% of the Indian population at that point was full-blood (Office of Technology A e ment, Indian Health Care, Wa hington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1986). This percentage would have declined ub tantially by 1980. Third, the 1980 Cen u howed that 31.2% of the individual who identified them elve a Indian by race and indicated no other ance try poke orne language other than Engli h at home. Among tho e who identified them elve a Indian by race and indicated orne other ance try in addition to American Indian, 9% indicated that they poke orne other language at home. The facts that the Indian population i no longer a predominantly re ervation and full-blood population does not mean, however, that the current Indian are omehow Ie "Indian" than in the past. Individuals who e live have been haped by life on or near traditional Indian lands, who grow up with traditional Indian value and practice , and who are actively engaged in tribal and community life are not Ie Indian imply becau e they are "mixed blood " off the re ervation and do not peak tribal languages.
The social and economic well-being of the Native American population (Chapters 4, 6, 7, and 8) American Indians documents change in the ocial and economic well-being of the American Indian population from 1960 to 1980. Although the analy es cover hou ing, poverty, labor force participation, occupation , and income, the story told by the income figure i perhap mo t revealing. A Snipp note , "At the time of the 1970 Cen u , American Indian were unque tionably the poore t, mo t poverty- tricken group in the United State, with income well below tho e of the black population. By 1980 poverty among American Indian declined and real income ro e to level exceeding the real income of black ." However, Snipp continue, "By the tandard of white Americans, American Indian are not well educated, they are marginally attached to the labor force, they do work that is not highly valued, and the con equence of the e liabilitie are poverty and economic hard hip." Economic condition are particularly bad on many Indian re ervation . For example, the percentage of familie with income below the poverty line wa 62.1 % on the Navajo re ervation in Arizona, Utah, and New ITEMS/39
Mexico. the large t re ervation in the United States. and 54.3% on the Pine Ridge re ervation in South Dakota. Along with improvements in education. unemployment. poverty tatu. and income. American Indians have al 0 experienced improvement in their hou ing. By 1980 the hou ing of American Indian had improved beyond that of blacks. Some of the e gains were due to public hou ing program on re ervations and in traditional rural areas. In addition. American Indian were more likely than blacks in 1980 to own their own homes. but they continued to occupy more crowded living quarters than did either blacks or white. Some have que tioned the level of improvement in the economic standing of American Indian since the data for 1980 are based on a population that includes individual who did not identify them elves as American Indian in 1960 and/or 1970. However. Snipp points out that conditions improved even in tho e areas. uch a re ervation • which experienced only negligible changes in racial identification. In urn. the evidence upports the view that conditions for American Indian have improved. and improved dramatically in orne ways. but that American Indians continue to lag behind the white population. Native American families (Chapter 5) The analysi of families and household in American Indians illu trate three major point about the American Indian population. First. the prevalence of single parent hou eholds with children among American Indians is intermediate between that of blacks and whites. And. as is true of single parent hou ehold in general. American Indian women who are single heads of hou eholds have lower family incomes. are more likely to be below the poverty line. and are more likely to u e public a sistance than are hou ehold headed by couples. Second. American Indian tend to live in larger hou ehold than do either whites or blacks. Part of thi is due to relatively high fertility. Another factor i the greater tendency of American Indian hou ehold to include individuals outside the immediate family. The e factors are e pecially noticeable on re ervation and in nonmetropolitan areas. Third. as alluded to earlier. the rate of intermar-
riage between American Indian and non-Indians i very high. In 1980. 46.3% of American Indian married women were married to American Indian men and 47.6% of American Indian married men were married to American Indian women. Mo t intermarried American Indian are married to individuals who were identified a white in the 1980 Cen u . Some of the e white are Hi panic. and in certain areas of the country. there i fairly exten ive intermarriage between American Indian and members of Hi panic group . Further. evidence hows that intermarried couple are better educated. more likely to be employed. and have higher family income than do Indian who are married to other Indian .
Questions and possibilities for future research-the 1990 Census The 1990 Cen u will provide new opportunitie for re earch on the American Indian population. Current plan of the U.S. Bureau of the Cen u call for everal tabulation and publication and report similar to tho e which emerged from the 1980 Cen u data. The Bureau will publi h data on American Indian. E kimo • and Aleut for the entire country. citie • countie. tati tical area. and 0 forth. Second. the Bureau will publish data on re ervations and on American Indian tribe . In addition. new ets of tabulation are planned. including tho e for Tribal Juri diction Stati tical Area in Oklahoma. Tribal De ignated Stati tical Areas. Ala ka Native Village Stati tical Areas. and Alaska Native Regional Corporation . Several pecial reports and tape file will al 0 be created. A a re ult of the e new data. re earchers will be able to determine whether the Indian population continued to grow at the arne dramatic rate as during the 1970 . They will be able to examine the extent to which economic and educational improvement continued. and to focu more cholarly attention on tho e tribe and geographical areas that do not appear to be benefiting from this overall healthy trend. A Snipp note • ". . . the future of the American Indian population i in orne way brighter today than it ha been for a very long time. Whether this will continue in the future i impo sible to predict. but the 1990 cen u will provide many important clue ." •
Other Council Publications A Guide to Scholarly Resources on the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union in the New York Metropolitan Area, compiled by Robert A. Karlowich. Foreword by Edward Ka inec. New York: Social Science Re earch Council, 1990. 328 page . Cloth, $45 .00. A u er' guide to the holding of over 150 in titutions.
Revuelta, rebeli6n y revoluci6n: La lucha rural en Mexico del siglo XVI aI siglo XX, edited by Friedrich Katz. Mexico City: Edicione Era, 1990. Two volume, 333 + 261 page. Paper. [Spani h edition of Riot, Rebellion, and Revolution: Rural Social Conflict in Mexico, Princeton Univer ity Pre , 1988.] A publication of the Joint Committee on Latin American Studie .
Uncommon Democracies: The One-Party Dominant Regimes, edited by T.J. Pempel. Ba ed on a erie of conference pon ored by the Joint Committee on Japane e Studie , the Joint Committee on We tern Europe,
and the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science. Ithaca: Cornell Univer ity Pre , 1990. xi + 371 page. Cloth, $49.95; paper, $17 .95. Rarely in the indu trial democracie doe a ingle political party remain in control of government for extended period of time. Far more frequently, complex political problem and the power of the ballot lead to the replacement of a governing party by it oppo ition, or to hifts in the compo ition of the predominant government coalition . Exception to thi general pattern are found in only a few uncommon example , countrie where a ingle party form the core of government for three or more decade without interruption. In thi collection of e ay, edited by T .J . Pempel, profe or of government at Cornell Univer ity, thirteen area peciali t working within a common comparative frame of reference analyze major example of long-term, ingle-party rule in
indu trialized democracie . They focu on four ca e : Japan under the Liberal Democratic party since 1955; Italy under the Chri tian Democrat for over a generation tarting in 1945; Sweden under the Social Democratic party from 1932 until 1976 (and again after 1982); and Israel under the Labor party from pre- tatehood until 1977. The author examine the cau e of one-party dominance by comparing each ca e of dominance to roughly equivalent situation in which a ingle party eemed poi ed for long-term rule but wa unable to achieve it. They further explore the difficultie of retaining power under adver e political circum tance ; the con equences of long-term, single-party rule; and the question of what happen when one-party dominance end . Reflecting on this important but poorly understood problem in democratic theory, they illuminate ignificant difference a ociated with the way dominance i conceived and utilized to pre erve power.
Council Fellowship and Grant Programs, 1990-91 Predoctoral and Dissertation Training and Research DESCRIPTION
SSRC-MacArthur Foundation Fellowship on Peace and Security in a Changing World
Two- ear di ertation training and re earch fellowhip to fo ter critical thinking about international peace and ecurit ·
December I , 1990
International Predissertation Fellowship Program
upport for graduate tudents at 19 elected univeritie in the field of economi ,political ience, ience, de igned to ociology, and other ocial enrich their di iplinary tudie with area and language kill focu ed on the developing world.
To be announced ( ee page 36)
Dissertation Research Fellowship Area Studies
Africa, Korea, Latin America and the aribbean, ear and 1iddle East, uth A ia, uthea t A ia, and , e tern Europe: upport for doctoral re earch abroad in the social ience and the humanitie
'ovember I, 1990 (Korea: February I, 1991)
Dissertation Research Fellowships for Area Studies administered by the American Council of Learned Societies·
China and Eastern Europe: upport for doctoral re arch in the ocial ience and the humanitie
Berlin Program for Advanced German and European studies
upport for doctoral re earch in Germany in the ocial cience, hi tory, and cultural tudie
Fellowships for Predissertation Research in Africa
upport for predi ertation re earch trip to Africa for graduate tudents in the ocial ience and the humanitie
December I, 1990
Fellowship for Training and Di rtation Research on Agriculture and Health in Africa
upport for natural or technical ience training and di ertation re earch for ocial cience Ph.D. candidate who e re earch topi are related to agriculture or health
ovember I, 1990
First-Year Fellowship in Underrepresented Fields in Soviet Studies
upport for univer itie to offer fellow hip in the fir t ear of graduate tud in the field of ociology and anthropology, with a focu on the application of di ciplinary training to the advanced tud of the viet Union
December I, 1990
Graduate Training in Soviet Studies
Two ·ears of upport for 3rd and 4th, or 4th and 5th year graduate tud
December I, I 90
Dissertation Fellowships in Soviet and Japanese Studies
upport for the final di ertation
December I, 1990
Undergraduate Research As istantship for Research on the Urban Underdas
upport for undergraduate re earch projects that are conducted in collaboration with facu lt member during the ummer or an academic year
January 10, 1991
Dissertation Fellowships for Research on the Urban Underclass
upport for doctoral re earch on the urban underdas; ummer di ertation work hop for minorit · tudents
January 10, 1991
ear write-up work on
ovember 15, 1990
January 15, 1991
• For detail and in truction on how to pply for these fellow hips and gran ,addre the American Council of Learned Societie , 228 East 45th Street, ew York . New York 10017. For all others. addre the pecific program at the Social Science Re arch Council . 42 \ lTEM S
VOLUME 44. NUMBEIts
Council Fellowship and Grant Programs 1990-91
Advanced Postdoctoral Training and Research PROGRAM
SSRC-MacArthur Foundation Fellowship on Peace and Security in a Changing World
Two-year po tdoctoral training and re earch fellowhip to fo ter critical thinking about international peace and ecurity
December 1. 1990
Grants for Area Studies Research
Africa. Japan. Korea. Latin America and the Caribbean. ear and Middle Ea t. South A ia. and Southea t A ia: upport for advanced re earch in the ocial science and the humanitie
December 1. 1990
Grants for Area Studies Research administered by the American Council of Learned Societies.
China and Ea tern Europe: upport for advanced re earch in the ocial science and the humanitie
November 15. 1990
Berlin Program for Advanced German and European Studies
upport for advanced re earch in Germany in the ocial cience. hi tory. and cultural tudie
Research Fellowships in Foreign Policy Studies
One to two year of upport for re earch on economic. cultural. political. and ocial influence on the making of U.. foreign policy. Application from non-U.. holar encouraged
December 1. 1990
Indochina Scholarly Exchange Program
Support for ocial cience and humanitie re earch in or on Vietnam. Lao • and Cambodia normally conducted in cooperation with a counterpart in the country of re earch. Support also available for vi iting scholar
December 1. 1990
Grants for the Study of African Agricul-
Training and re earch fellow hip for individual African or team of African and non-African for interdi ciplinary re earch on the agricultural eri i
December 31. 1990
Grants for Soviet Studies
upport for three ummer and one erne ter of re earch for cholar who received their Ph.D. no earlier than 19 4
December 1. 1990
Fellowship for Public Policy Research on Contemporary Hispanic Issues Uointly with the Inter-University Program for Latino Research)
Grants to upport advanced re earch on the Hi panic population; po tdoctoral fellow hip to upport one year of re earch at an IUP in titution. or other. univer it etting; policy fellow hip for one year of full-time re earch in Washington D.C.; ummer work hop on tati tical re earch method .
January 16. 1991 except for ummer workshop which will be announced
Grants for Research on the Urban Underdass
One year of re earch upport
January 10. 1991
January 15. 1991
Note: All programs are subject to funding.
• For detail and instruction on how to apply for these fellow hips and grants. addre the American Council of Learned Societie • 228 East 45th Street • • ·e York. New York 10017. For all others. addre the pecific program at the Social Science Research Council.
Grants Received by the Counell in 1989-90 A summary of grants received during the year ending June 30, 1990* Bank of Japan Project LINK (Committee on Economic Stability and Growth) 15,000 Carnegie Corporation of New York Workshop for young scholars on Soviet domestic politics (Joint Committee on Soviet Studies) $199,500 Ford Foundation Support for completion of a review of social science re earch on Latin America and the Caribbean (Joint Committee on Latin American Studies) $46,000 Conference on the Chicago Urban Family Life Project (Committee for Research on the Urban Underclas ) $49,500 Conference on Southeast A ian Studie (Joint Committee on Southeast Asia) $35,200 Predissertation fellow hip program designed to encourage tudent in the social sciences to prepare to undertake dissertation research on an area of the developing world (International Predissertation Fellow hip Program) $4,277 ,000 Support for public conference on Indonesia to complement the offerings of the Fe tival of Indone ia (Joint Committee on Southeast A ia) $107,000 Program support (Committee for Public Policy Research on Contemporary Hi panic Issues) $224,850 Support for the project on African Agriculture: Cri i and Tran formation (Joint Committee on African Studie ) $200,000 Foundation for Child Development Undergraduate training and research on family poverty and child development (Committee for Research on the Urban Underclass) $165,399 Eu ene Garfield Foundation Editorial costs of a upplementary volume to the International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences $10,000 â&#x20AC;˘ Does not include "in-kind" grants; that i, uppon of travel, hotel, and similar expense received by Council committee in the form of direct paymen by other organizations.
German Marshall Fund Research fellow hip (Joint Committee on We tern Europe) $125,000 Harry and Frank Guggenheim Foundation Working Group on the Ecology of Crime and Drug in the Inner City (Committee for Research on the Urban Underclas ) $42,250 Joseph H. Hazen Foundation Editorial co t of a upplementary volume to the International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences $30,000 Japan Foundation Regional eminars on Japan (Joint Committee on Japanese Studie ) $37,500 Japan-United Slat Friendship Commission Partial upport for conference on negotiating public and private intere ts in contemporary Japan (Joint Committee on Japanese Studie ) $27,097 Korean Research Foundation Survey of Korean tudie in the United State (Joint Committee on Korean Studie ) $20,000 Henry Luce Foundation Support for development of Korean tudie at American universitie (Joint Committee on Korean Studie ) $240,000 National Endowment for the Humaniti Po tdoctoral fellow hip awarded by the joint foreign area committee ; three-year grant $2,100,000 National Science Foundation Support for collaborative interdi ciplinary research program on the Human Dimen ion of Global Environmental Change (Committee for Research on Global Environmental Change) $127,166 Christopher Reynolds Foundation Work hop on Reform in Vietnam under Sociali m; Indochina Scholarly Exchange Program (Joint Committee on Southeast A ia) $32,000 Rockefeller Foundation Program upport for interdi ciplinary research on the underclas (Committee 940,320 for Re earch on the Urban Underclas )
VOLUME 44, NUMBERS 2/3
Program upport to continue building a cohort of outstanding Africani t ocial scienti ts (Joint Committee on African Studie ) $1,800,000 Support for the project on African Agriculture: Cri i and Tran formation (Joint Committee on African Studie ) $400,000 Volkswagen Foundation Support for re earch on the nature and consequence of democracy in the new Southern Europe (Joint Committee on We tern Europe) $70,848
United atioos Project LINK (Committee on Economic Stability and Growth) U.S. Department of State Program upport, including the national fellow hip program, work hop in underrepresented field , in titutional language training, and grant for teaching po ition (Joint Committee on Soviet Studie Total
Confidentiality and Data Access Comments Invited Many users of Federal tall lIc are aware of the balance that mu t be truck between protecting the confidentiality of infonnation provided by person and bu ine se for tati tical purpose and the need to make publicly-collected data widely available for legitimate research and tati tical use . In search of new way to deal with thi i ue, the Committee on National Stati tic and the Social Science Research Council, with support from several Federal agencie , have convened a Panel on Confidentiality and Data Acce . A part of its two-year tudy, the Panel, which had it first meeting in December of last year, will be compiling relevant infonnation from both producers and users of Federal tati lics. Readers of Items are invited to ubmit hort tatements on any or all of the following ubjects: Access problems. Specific example of in tance where Federal agency confidentiality law or policie have made it impo ible for you or your colleague to obtain data needed in your work or caused exce ive delay in arranging for acce to the data. Please indicate the source and pecific kind of data de ired and the purpose for which the data were needed. Suggestion for improving ac . Have you had any experience in obtaining acce to data not disclosed for general public u ? How was thi arranged? Do you have ugge tion for improving data acce with appropriate afeguard to maintain confidentiality and without undue ri k of adverse effects on public cooperation with cen use and urvey? Persons or busin harmed by disclosure. Do you know of any in lance in which person or busine se were harmed by unlawful or unintended disclo ure of infonnation they provided to the government under the condition that the infonnation was to be used only for tati tical purpose? How did thi happen? What were the consequence? (Thi category differs from the fltSt two in that statements need not be based on your own personal experience.) Please ubmit your tatements to George T. Duncan, Chair, Panel on Confidentiality and Data Acce ,clo Committee on National Stati tic, National Re arch Council, 2101 Con titution Avenue, NW, Washington DC 20418. If you have 8flY que tion , please call Robert W. Pearson at the Social Science Research Council, (212) 661-0280.
Fellowships and Grants Offered in 1990 FOLLOWING are the name • affiliation • and topic of the individual who were offered fellow hip or grants by Council committee in the mo t recent annual competition for research in the ocial science and humanitie . The area tudie research award were made by the committee jointly pon ored by the Council and the American Council of Learned Societie (ACLS). They are upported by grants from the Ford Foundation and the National Endowment for the Humanitie . Additional funding for individual program i provided by the Chiang Ching-kuo Foundation for International Cultural Exchange. the Ford Foundation. the French-American Foundation. the Gennan Marshall Fund. the Japan-United States Friend hip Commi ion. the Henry Luce Foundation. the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation. the Chri topher Reynold Foundation. the Rockefeller Foundation. and the U.S. Department of State under the Soviet and East European Research and Training Act of 1983 (Title VITI). Fellow hip in international peace and security are upported by a grant from the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation. Grants from the Ford Foundation upport fellow hip for the comparative tudy of Muslim societie • for foreign policy tudie • and for public policy research on contemporary Hi panic i ues. Award for research on the urban undercla are upported by the Rockefeller Foundation and the Foundation for Child Development. Un Ie It I pecifically noted that a program i adminitered by the ACLS. the program Ii ted are admini tered by the Council. The Council doe not discriminate on the basi of age. color. creed. disability. marital tatu. national origin. or sex. The program change ornewhat every year. and intere ted cholars hould write to the Council for a copy of the current general brochure. Individual program al 0 publi h brochure • with more complete description of their aim and procedure. at variou time during the year. See al 0 the ummary of all current fellow hip and grant program on page 42-43.
screening committee-Eric Arnould. Adam A hforth. Denni D. Cordell. Katherine A. Demuth. Margaret Thomp on Drewal. Jeffrey Herb t. Alma Gottlieb. and ehri tine Jone -and a selection committee-Karen E. Field (chair). Sandra T . Bame • David W. Cohen. Edri Makward and Pearl T . Robin on. Tom Lodge. M. Pri cilla Stone. Marty Baker. and Gary Wilder served as taff for thi program.
DOCTORAL RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS FOR AREA STUDIES
The following predi sertation fellow hip were al a awarded at the committee' meeting on March 30-31. 1990.
Afr ica The following di sertation fellow hip were awarded by the Joint Committee on African Studie -Randall M. Packard (chair). Kwame A. Appiah. Claude D. Ardouin. Charle M. Becker. Frederick Cooper. Franci M. Deng. Gillian Feely-Harnik. Karen E. Field • Chri traud M. Geary. Lemuel John on. and David Laitin-at its meeting on March 30-31. 1990. The committee was as i ted by a 46\ ITEMS
GEOFFREY H. BERGEN. Ph.D. candidate in political science. University of California. Lo Angele • for a comparative tudy of the role of organized labor in the development of Cote d'Ivoire and Senegal WILLIAM C. BUSHELL. Ph.D. candidate in anthropology. Columbia University. for a tudyof piritual practice involving altered tate of can ciou ne in the Ethiopian Orthodox Chri tian Church TIMOTHY D. CLEAVELAND. Ph.D. candidate in hi tory. Northwe tern University. for a tudy of the evolution of I lamic value in a sedentary setting in nineteenth century Walata LAURA J . FAIR. Ph.D. candidate in hi tory. University of Minne ota. for an hi tori cal tudy of ocial prote t in colonial Zanzibar. 1925-1955 LYNETTE A. JACKSON. Ph.D. candidate in hi tory. Columbia University. for a tudy of the relation hip between mental health legi lation and colonial order in Southern Rhode ia. 1893-1950 EMMANUEL H. KREIKE. Ph.D. candidate in hi tory. Yale University. for re earch on the impact of the AngolanNamibian colonial border on the Kwanyama food production y tern. 1914-1960 SHERYL A. McCURDY. Ph.D. candidate in ociomedical science. Columbia University. for a ocial hi tory of the Manyema of We tern Tanzania through the context of health. hygiene and medicine IKEM S. OKOYE. Ph.D. candidate in architecture and urban planning. Mas achu ett In titute of Technology. for a tudy of the early twentieth century architecture of outheastern Nigeria JONATHAN L. ZILBERG. Ph.D. candidate in anthropology. University of Illinoi (Urbana-Champaign). for a tudy of the diversity of ethnic influence on the tone sculpture of the Shona of Zimbabwe
ROD C. ALENCE. Ph.D. candidate in political cience. Stanford Uni ....ersity. for travel to Ghana SUSAN L. CRADDOCK. Ph.D. candidate in gf'ography. University of California. Berkeley. for travel to Tanzania REBECCA L. GREEN. Ph.D. candidate in fine arts. Indiana University. for travel to Madagascar MIKAEL B. KARLSTROM. Ph.D. candidate in anthropology. University of Chicago. for travel to Uganda VOLUME
JAMES K. MAKUBUYA , Ph.D. candidate in ethnomu icology, University of California, Lo Angele , for travel to Kenya, Malawi , and Uganda LISA A. McNEE, Ph.D. candidate in comparative literature, Indiana University, for travel to Zaire MORRIS MEYER, Ph.D. candidate in perfonnance tudie , Northwe tern University, for travel to Nigeria MARGARET J . MILLER, Ph.D. candidate in economic, University of California, Berkeley, for travel to Cote d'Ivoire and Senegal KOLAWOLE O. OLUGBADE, Ph.D. candidate in political cience, University of Pitt burgh, for travel to Ghana and Nigeria JOHN G. PETERS, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, University of Michigan, for travel to Cote d'Ivoire and Senegal The following fellow hip for training and di ertation research were al 0 awarded at the committee' meeting on March 30-31, 1990 with the as istance of a selection committee-Ivan Karp (chair), Margaret Bentley, Frederick L. Dunn, Atieno Odhiambo, Patricia L. Rosenfield and Paul Richard . YARE AMARE, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Bo ton University, for training in nutritional asse ment and infectiou di ease diagno i , and for re earch on the ocio-economic, agro-ecological, and cultural detenninant of maternal and child nutritional tatu in a central highland district of Ethiopia JAN-LoDEWIJK P. GROOTAERS, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Univer ity of Chicago, for training in tropical agricultural, and for a tudy of the tran fonnation of Zande agriculture in colonial central Africa JUDITH F. KRIEGER, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Kentucky, for training in pediatric, and for research on the linkage between child nutritional tatu and women' economic activitie in a peri-urban village near Bamenda, Cameroon REBECCA C. POPENOE, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Chicago, for training in nutrition, and for research on the cultural ignificance of female obe ity among the Durum hek Arab of Niger KAREN A. PORTER, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Roche ter, for training in oil cience, and for research on declining food production and agricultural deci ion-making in household in outhern Pare, Tanzania
China The Grants Selection Committee of the Joint Committee on Chinese Studie (admini tered by the American Council of Learned Societie )-Steven M. Gold tein, Robert Hyrne , Lillian M. Li, Shuen-fu Lin, Elizabeth J. Perry, Willard J . Peterson, Martin J . Powers, and Robert Weller-at it meeting on May 5, 1990 awarded fellowhip to the following individual . Ja on H. Parker and Ruth Waters erved a taff for thi program. Ju ElSEPTEMBER 1990
EMILY M. HILL, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Cornell University, for re earch in Hong Kong, England, and Gennany on government control of indu try through management of an electric power plant in Guangzhou (Canton) from 1930 to 1958 TIK-SANG LIU, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Univerity of Pittsburgh, for research in Hong Kong on occupational pecialization and stigma in a outhern Chinese oy ter rai ing community The following will be Chiang Ching-kuo Foundation Fellow: JEAN ANN, Ph.D. candidate in lingui tic, University of Arizona, for research in Taiwan on the structural propertie of hand hape in Chinese ign language MARIE GUARINO, Ph.D. candidate in East A ian languages and culture, Columbia University, for re earch in Japan on the Lectures from the Classic Mat: the impact of hi tori cal and philo ophical discourse on government practice in Northern Sung MARGARET A. MAURER-FAZIO, Ph.D. candidate in economic , University of Pittsburgh, for research in Taiwan on the economics of education in the People's Republic of China and a compari on of efficiency of educational inve tment in the Chine e mainland and Taiwan SHELLEY E. RIGGER, Ph.D. candidate in government, Harvard University, for research in Taiwan on the Kuomintang and the Democratic Progre ive Party: political refonn and organized oppo ition in the Republic of China MINGZHENG SHI, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Columbia University, for re earch in Taiwan and Japan on the tran fonnation of Beijing: urbanization and ocial change in the Chinese capital, 1898-1928 loWELL D. SKAR, Ph.D. candidate in Oriental tudie, University of Penn ylvania, for research in France on the outhern lineage of Song China: Taoism and alchemy in medieval Chinese Society JON D. SOLOMON, Ph.D. candidate in Chinese literature, Cornell University, for research in Taiwan or Hong Kong on nation, ethnicity and the modem: Chinese cultural critici m in the 20th century
Eastern Europe The Joint Committee on Eastern Europe (administered by the American Council of Learned Societie )-Madeline G. Levine (chair), Ivo Banac, Ellen T. Comi 0, Zvi Y. Gitelman, Michael H. Heim, Andrew C. Jano , George Kolankiewicz, Deborah D. Milenkovitch, David Stark, and Katherine Verdery-at its meeting on February 24-25, and March 31-April 1, 1990 voted to award di sertation fellowship to the following individual. Jason H. Parker and Ruth Waters served as taff for thi program. WANDA BUBRISKI, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory of art, Yale University, for research on the re ort or clinic: Taking ITEMS/47
the waters at the Bohemian Spa, 1870-1914 (an architectural tudy of Karl bad, Marienbad and Franzen bad) JOANN F. GOVEN, Ph.D. candidate in political cience, University of California, Berkeley, for research on the hi tori cal development of the interrelation of gender and c1as in Hungary TODD HUEBNER, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Columbia University, for re earch on the political hi tory of Czecho lovakia, 1918-21 CAROL S. LILLY, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Yale University, for research on ideological trends in Yugo lavia, 1944-48 HOWARD P. loUTHAN, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Princeton University, for research toward a comparative tudy of the Hab burg Emperors, Maximilian II (1564-1576) and Leopold I (1657-1705) ANNAMARIA SELENY, Ph.D. candidate in political cience, Mas achusetts In titute of Technology, for re earch on the Hungarian second economy as political arena KEELY STAUTER, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, University of Michigan, for research on the political mobilization of Poli h peasants in Galicia between emancipation in 1848 and the founding of the Populi t Party in 1895 The following graduate training fellow hip were also awarded by the committee. BARBARA M. CONNOLLY, graduate tudent in politkal cience, University of California, Berkeley, for research on inter-German political and economic relation and general East-We t relation; preparation for comprehenive exam and di sertation BRIAN A. PORTER, graduate tudent in hi tory, University of Wi con in, for preparation for qualifying exams and di ertation on the conception of nation held by major political movement in Poland, 1890-1914 RICHARD E. STERN, graduate tudent in economic , University of California, Berkeley, for preliminary research on di sertation working with new macroeconomic data on Eastern Europe; language training in Serbo-Croatian WILLIAM B. TOMUANOVICH, graduate tudent in hi tory, Yale University, for research on the national ideology of Bi hop Jo ip J . Stro mayer, u ing archival ource in Vienna and the Vatican
Language Training Grants The East European Language Training Grant Committee of the Joint Committee on Eastern Europe (admini tered by the American Council of Learned Societie )-Ronelle Alexander, Henry R. Cooper, Jr., Victor H. Friedman, Michael H. Heim, Madeline G. Levine, Robert A. Roth tein, and Erne t A. Scatton-at its meeting on March 30, 1990 voted to award language training grants to the following individual. Jason H. Parker and Ruth Waters served a taff for thi program. 48\ITEMS
SAMUEL D. ALBERT, graduate tudent in the hi tory of art, Yale University, for the tudy of Hungarian ELLEN C. ANDERSON, graduate tudent in German tudie, Stanford University, for the tudy of Czech DAVID A. BARSNESS, graduate tudent in history, Univerity of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, for the tudy of Czech HEATHER ELMS, graduate tudent in economic, Columbia University, for the tudy of Hungarian LYNNE A. HANEY, advanced undergraduate tudent in ociology, University of California, San Diego, for the tudy of Hungarian CHRISTOPHER W. JONAS, graduate tudent in Uralic and Altaic tudie , Indiana University, for the tudyof Hungarian KATHY A. LADUN, graduate tudent in Soviet and East European tudie , Yale University, for the tudyof Serbo-Crotian KATHERINE M. LAHTI, graduate tudent in Slavic tudie, Yale University, for the tudy of Serbo-Croatian GEORGE H. LIN, graduate tudent in regional tudieSoviet Union, Harvard University, for the tudyof Poli h LARRY G. McLELLAN, graduate tudent in Slavic language and literature , University of California, Berkeley, for the tudy of Serbo-Croatian STEVEN B. MERTENS, graduate tudent in anthropology, University of Dlinoi , Urbana-Champaign, for the tudy of Romanian MIEKE E. MEURS, as i tant profe or in economic , American University, for the tudy of Bulgarian JAMES R. PALMITESSA, graduate tudent in hi tory, University of Mas achusetts, Amherst, for the tudy of Czech ROBERT M. SULEWSKI, graduate tudent in comparative literature, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, for the tudy of Poli h KAREN-SUE TAUSSIG, graduate tudent in anthropology, John Hopkin Univer ity, for the tudy of Czech JONATHAN A. TERRA, graduate tudent in international and public affairs, Columbia University, for the tudyof Poli h DANIEL L. WATSON, graduate tudent in Uralic and Altaic tudie , Indiana University, for the tudy of Hungarian ALEX J. ZUCKER, graduate tudent in international and public affairs, Columbia University, for the tudyof Czech The following grants were al European Language in truction.
awarded for East
INDIANA UNIVERSITY, Summer Slavic Workshop in Soviet and East European Language , for an introductory course in Czech INDIANA UNIVERSITY, Summer Slavic Work hop in Soviet and East European Language , for an introductory course in Hungarian MARC L. GREENBERG and MARTA PlMAT-GREENBERG, for an introductory course in Slovene, to be offered at the Indiana University Summer Slavic Workshop in Soviet and East European Language . VOLUME
Korea The following di sertation fellow hip were awarded by the Joint Committee on Korean Studie -Roger Janelli (chair), Jang-Jip Choi, Carter Eckert, Stephen Haggard, Uchang Kim, B. C. Koh, Chung-in Moon, and Michael Robin on-at it March 24-25, 1990 meeting. Raquel Ovryn Rivera and Donna GonzAlez Fiedler served as taff to thi program. DoNMooN CHO, Ph.D. candidate in ociology, University of Wi con in, for a comparative hi torical tudy of the labor movement in South Korea and Mexico through interview with workers in South Korea about their work experience in the 1940's and 1950' , with follow-up research in Mexico and the United State HENRY EM, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, University of Chicago, for re earch in Korea on the origin of the Korean War through an examination of conflicting ideologie EUNSHIL KIM, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of California, San Franci co, for research in Korea on the ocial, cultural, and political impacts of family planning policy on the live of Korean women
Soviet Union The following graduate training fellow hip were awarded by the Joint Committee on Soviet Studie William Mills Todd, III (chair), Jane Burbank, Robert Campbell, Caryl Emer on, Nancy Shield Kollmann, Mary McAuley, Bruce Parrott, Brian Silver, Richard Stite , Michael Swafford, and Reginald Zelnik-at it meeting on April 27-28, 1990. The committee wa a i ted by a screening committee-Nancy Shield Kollmann (chair), Harley Balzer, Mark Bei inger, Edith Clowes, Su an Linz, and Jiri Valenta. Robert T. Huber, Kathryn Becker, and Rose London erved as taff for thi program. RUTH CARON COOPER, Department of Energy and Resource, University of California, Berkeley, for training in preparation for di sertation research on current and future production emission from fo ii-fuel burning in the Soviet Union REBECCA GRAOOLPH, Department of Sociology, University of California, Berkeley, for training in preparation for di ertation re earch on objective and ubjective cla tructure in the Soviet Union CRAIG KENNEDY, Department of History, Harvard University, for training in preparation for di ertation research on the hi tory of Ru ia's relation with its Turkic neighbor from a "poly-cultural" viewpoint ALAINA MARIA LEMON, Department of Anthropology, University of Chicago, for training in preparation for di ertation re earch on national and ethnic identitie and policy in the Soviet Union, focu ing on language and culture RA DALL WARREN STONE, Department of Government, JUNE/SEPTEMBER
Harvard University, for training in preparation for dis ertation research on Soviet foreign policy towards Eastern Europe BRIAN WINKLER, Department of Political Science, University of California, Berkeley, for training in preparation for di sertation research on the conception of the individual in late 19th-century and contemporary Rus ian culture The following di sertation fellowship were also awarded at the committee's meeting on April 27-28, 1990. ANNE GoRSUCH, Department of History, University of Michigan, for a dissertation on Soviet youth cultures and the struggle for ocial transformation, 1921-1928 BORYS GUDZIAK, Department of History, Harvard University, for a dissertation on the Ruthenian Church between the Union of Lublin and the Union of Brest KATHRYN HENDLEY, Department of Political Science, University of California, Berkeley, for a dissertation on the que tion of the role of law in Soviet society, focu ing on the law governing transfers and dismissals THOMAS HOOOE, Slavic Department, Stanford University, for a dissertation on lyric and romance in early 19thcentury Russia CELIA LECKEY, Slavic Department, University of California, Berkeley, for a dis ertation on historical syntax and psycholinguistics, focu ing on the development of the relative clause in Old Russian ISOLDE RENATE THYRET, Department of History, University of Washington, for a dissertation on pagan and Christian perceptions of the female and their influence on women's roles in the Russian orthodox community during the Muscovite period VICTORIA VELKOFF, Department of Sociology, Princeton University, for a dissertation on differentials in infant mortality in the Soviet Union
Western Europe The following dissertation research fellowships were awarded by the Joint Committee on Western EuropePeter Hall (chair), Helga Heme, Michael Herzfeld, Peter Lange, Philip Nord, David Soskice-at its meeting of April 14, 1990. It was assisted by the screening committee-Christina Crosby, Anne Higonnet, Susan Pederson, George Steinmetz, Lawrence Taylor, Kathleen Thelen, Lynn Wozniak. Yasmine Ergas, Stavros Gavroglou and Elizabeth O'Brien served as staff for this program. JOHN BEDELL, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Minne ota, for re earch in England on dispute settlement and the process of local decision making in England, 1300-1327 PAMELA CAMERRA-RoWE, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Duke University, for research in Germany on the challenge of European economic integration: governments ability to reconcile long- and short-term goal ITEMS/49
REBECCA EMIGH, Ph.D. candidate in ociology, University of Chicago, for research in Italy on the pattern of agrarian clas tructure and demography in 15th-century Tuscany TOM HARSANYI, Ph.D. candidate in political cience, Harvard University, for research in Germany on the politic of the new middle clas in contemporary Germany NANY lAICKS, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Columbia University, for research in France on "the AngelMakers:" the crime of abortion in 19th-century Lyon and Pari MARy KWAx, Ph.D. candidate in government, Harvard University, for research in Germany on con tructing a national security consen u : the dome tic foundation of foreign policy MICHELLE NEEDHAM, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Indiana University, for research in Greece on motherhood and mothering in modem Greece: ideologie , repre entation and practice SILVANA PATRIARCA, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, the lohn Hopkin University, for research in Italy on "a tati tical enterprise:" ocial numbers and the repre entation of ociety in Italy, 1820-1880 ABIGAIL SOLOMON-GoDEAU, Ph.D. candidate in art hi tory, Graduate Center, City University of New York, for research in France on the image of de ire: sexuality, femininity and photography in the Second Empire in France SUSAN TEllRlO, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, New York University, for research in France on contemporary French artisanal chocolate makers: trategie for adaptation and reproduction in a context of change DROR WAHllMAN, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Princeton University, for research in England on "the repo itory of all virtue :" the debate over a middle clas idiom in Britain, c. 1780-1820
GRANTS FOR AREA STUDIES RESEARCH
Mrica The following grants for advanced area research were awarded by the loint Committee on African Studie Randall M. Packard (chair), Kwame A. Appiah, Claude D. Ardouin, Charle M. Becker, Frederick Cooper, Franci M. Deng, Gillian Feely-Hamik, Karen E. Field, Chri traud M. Geary, Lemuel lohnson, and David Laitin-at its meeting on March 30-31, 1990. Tom Lodge, M. Pri cilia Stone, Marty Baker, and Gary Wilder served as taff for thi program. ADAM ASHFORTH, as i tant profe sor of political science, Baruch College, City University of New York, for a tudy of political representation in 20th-century South Africa IRIs BERGER, as ociate profe or of hi tory, Afro-American and African tudie, and women' tudie, State University of New York, Albany, for a tudy of the life SO\ITEMS
hi torie of black women in lohanne burg during the years in which apartheid policie were put into effect MICHAEL BOYD, as i tant profe or of economic , University of Vermont, for a tudy of rural income and employment generation in contemporary Namibia lOHN M. CHERNOFF, enior research as ociate in anthropology, We t Che ter State University (Penn ylvania) and the In titute for the Study of Human I ue (Philadelphia), for an ethnography coauthored with a Dagbana elder, and focu ing on the representation of hi tory and politic within mu ic, dance and epic ong SUSAN E. DIDUK, as i tant profe or of anthropology, Denison University, for a tudy of local variation in rural nutrition in a food self- ufficient ociety in Cameroon BARBARA E. FRANK, as i tant profe or of art, University of Tul a, for a tudy of potters and pottery tradition among the Mande- peaking people of We t Africa ALLEN ISAACMAN, profe or of hi tory, University of Minnesota, for a tudy of commodity production, rural differentiation and peasant social prote t in colonial Mozambique SIDNEY LITTLEFIELD KASFlR, as i tant profe or of art hi tory, Emory University, for a tudy of the We tern appropriation and con truction of definition of African art LnsA H. MALKKI, vi iting lecturer in anthropology, University of California, Irvine, for a tudy of the interrelation hip among the phenomena of refugee , exile and di placement and their impact on hi tory and hi torical identity M. BRIDGET O'LAUGHLIN, auxiliary profe or of economic , Eduardo Mondlane University (Maputo), for a tudy of the re tructuring of agriculture in the labor-reserve economy of outhern Mozambique ELIZABETH S. SCHMIDT, as i tant profe or of hi tory, MacAle ter College, for a tudy of women' involvement in the nationali t movements in Guinea, 19471958 AlDEN SOUTHALL, profe or of anthropology, University of Wi con in, for a reasse ment of 40 year of ethnographic work among the Alur of Uganda
African Agriculture: Fellowships and Commissioned Research The Subcommittee on African Agriculture of the loint Committee on African Studie -Piers M. Blaikie (chair), Charle M. Becker, Hailu Gebre-Mariam, Angelique Haugerud, Mandivamba Rukuni, and Michael Watt voted at its meeting on March 23-24, 1990 to make fellow hip and commi ioned research award to the following individual . M. Pri cilia Stone and Martha Baker served as taff for thi program. ALASSANE DIARllA, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology and patial geography, In titut de Amenagements Regionaux et de l'Environnement, Universite de Montpellier, France, for research on resource degradation and land management in Gao, Mali VOLUME 44, NUMBERS
RICHARD GROVE, director of tudie and fellow in geography at Churchill College, Cambridge, and TOYlN FALOLA, senior lecturer in history, University of He, Nigeria, for research on the hi to.ry, ideology.and ocial impact of colonial and neo-colomal fore t, 011 and water conservation policie in ub-Saharan Africa, their continuing impact , and the nature of conflicts between colonial framework of conservation and indigenou land-use strategie ABDUL MUSTAPHA, senior lecturer in political cience, Ahmadu Bello University, Nigeria, for research on ocial stratification, and use change and micro-ecology in rural Kano, 1948-90 SUNDA Y OKON, lecturer in agricultural economic , University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt, Nigeria, and STEPHEN EKPENYONG , senior lecturer in ociology, University of Port Harcourt, for research on crop/live tock interactions and re ource utilization by the agro-pa toral Fulani in Nigeria ADEFEMI OLOKESUSI, research fellow in environmental planning, Nigerian In titute of Social and Economic . Research (NISER), VICTOR AoEYEYE, research fellow m agricultura1 economic , NISER, and AoENlYI GBADEGESIN, lecturer in geography, University of Ibadan, for a study of the appropriatene and impact of river bank ero ion control trategies on agriculture in Rivers State, Nigeria KATE SHOWERS, head of research divi ion, In titute of Southern African Studie , National University of Lesotho, and GWENDOLYN MALAHLEHA, director, In titute of Southern African Studie , National University of Le otho , for a pilot s~dy te ting methodolog~ to be used in an environmental Impact a e ment of 011 conservation program in Le otho 1930-1986: a synthesis of ecology and oral history
China The Grants Selection Committee of the Joint Committee on Chinese Studie (adrnini tered by the American Council of Learned Societie )-Steven M. Gold tein, Robert Hyrne, Lillian M. Li, Shuen-fu Lin, Elizabeth J . Perry, Willard J. Peterson, Martin J. Powers , and Robert Weller-at its meeting on May 5, 1990 awarded fellowhip to the following individuals. Jason H. Parker and Ruth Waters served as taff for thi program. JOANNA WALEY-COHEN, Fellow and lecturer in East A ian language and culture, Columbia University, for research on ju tice and power in late imperial China: the murder of Magi trate Li JEFFREY N. WASSERSTROM, as istant profe or of hi tory, University of Kentucky, for research on political rituals and political legitimacy in recent Chinese hi tory: the role of educated youth HUNG Wu, as ociate profe or of fine arts, Harvard University, for re earch on the beginning of Chinese painting: a tudy of "literary painting" from the Ea tern Han to the Wei-Jin period (ca. 0-400 AD) JUNE/SEPTEMBER
The following will be Chiang Ching-iruo Foundation Fellow: GUY S. ALITIO, as ociate profes or of history, University of Chicago, for research on the local history of an economically peripheral area: Wanxi (Henan) during the Republic (1911-1949) JERRY P. DENNERLINE, profe or of hi tory and A ian tudie , Amherst College, for research on continuity and change in the rural communi tie of outheastern Wuxi County, Jiang u, in the 19th century DoNALD J. HARPER, as i tant profe or of Asian studies, Bowdoin College, for research on the Ma-wang-tui medical manu cripts and classical Chinese medicine VICTOR G. NEE, profe or of ociology, Cornell Univerity, for research on the peasant economy of China after market reform DA VID L. ROLSTON, as i tant profe or of Chinese, University of Michigan, for research on traditional Chinese fiction critici m and the development of the novel in China R. KEITH SCHOPPA, profe or of history, Valparai 0 University, for research on arenas of revolution: Shen Dingyi and Chinese Society (1916-1928) MICHEL STRlCKMANN, as ociate profe sor of Oriental language , University of California, Berkeley, for research on apocalyptic literature of medieval China TED A. TELFORD, adjunct assistant profe or of ociology, University of Utah, for research on the hi torical demography of Tongcheng County lineage, 1850-1930
Eastern Europe The Joint Committee on Eastern Europe (administered by the American Council of Learned Societie ) - Madeline G . Levine (chair), Ivo Banac, Ellen T. Comi so, Zvi Y. Gitelman, Michael H. Heim, Andrew C . Jano , George Kolankiewicz, Deborah D. Milenkovitch, David Stark, and Katherine Verdery-at it meeting on February 24-25, 1990 voted to award fellow hip to the following individual . Jason H. Parker and Ruth Waters served as staff for this program. BOODANA CARPENTER, as ociate profe or of Slavic language and literature , University of Michigan, for research on Zbigniew Herbert: ethics and poetry DAVID PiKE, profe or of German, University of North Carolina, for research on the politic of culture in Soviet-occupied Germany, 1945-1949 JOSEPH SCHALLERT, as i tant profe or of Slavic language , University of Maryland, College Park, fo~ research on the hi tory of Balkan Slavic accentuatlon: 17th-century vernacular texts and modem dialect
Korea The following advanced research grants were awarded by the Joint Committee on Korean Studies-Roger Janelli ITEMS/51
(chair), Jang-Jip Choi, Carter Eckert, Stephen Haggard, Uchang Kim, B.C. Koh, Chung-in Moon, and Michael Robin on-at it March 24-25, 1990 meeting. Raquel Ovryn Rivera and Donna Gonulez Fiedler served as taff to thi program. TuN-JEN CHENG, as i tant profe or, Graduate School of International Relation and Pacific Studie , University of California, San Diego, for re arch on the nature of Korean capitali m JAHYUN KIM HABOUSH, as ociate profe or, Center for East A ian and Pacific Studie , University of Illinoi , for research on changing Korean perception of the CM an tate and civilization
Latin America and the Caribbean The Joint Committee on Latin America Studie -John Coatsworth (chair), David Collier, Emilia Viotti da Co ta, Edmond Valpy Knox FitzGerald, Walnice Nogueira Galvao, Elizabeth Jelfn, Enrique Mayer, Lorenzo Meyer, and Barbara Stalling -at its meeting on March 23-25, 1990 awarded grants to the following individual . Silvia Raw and Jeni Lee Chapman served as taff for thi program. SAMUEL AMARAL, vi iting as i tant profe or of hi tory, Stanford University, for research on the economic consequence of the War of Independence in Bolivia, 1800-1830 JAMES BRENNAN, lecturer in hi tory, Harvard University, for research on work, technology, and community in C6rdoba, Argentina, 1955-1976 EVELYN GARFIELD, profe or of Spani h and comparative literature, University of Illinoi , for research on the cultural contradiction in the literary di course of Gertrudi G6mez de Avellaneda JEFFREY GoULD, as i tant profe or of hi tory, Indiana University, for re earch on the Indian communitie and the myth of Nicaraguan Me tiza, 1880-1980 REBECCA HORN , as i tant profe or of hi tory, University of Utah, for research on the cultural tran formation of po t-conque t central Mexico MARGARET KECK, as i tant profe r of political science, Yale University, for research on environmental politic in Brazil BROOKE LARSON, as ociate profe or of hi tory, State University of New York at Stony Brook, for research on Aymara peasant politic and the decline of liberali m in Bolivia, 1900-1934 DEBORAH LEVENSON, as i tant profe or of hi tory, Columbia University, for research on young people in Guatemala City, 1960-1980 KATHERINE MORRIS, vi iting as i tant profe or of German and Ru ian, University of North Carolina, Green boro, for research on the experience of German-Jewi h women in exile in Brazil CYNTHIA STEELE, as i tant profe or of Spani h, Univerity of Washington, for re earch on gender, clas , and 52\ITEMS
ethnicity in the work of Ro ario Castellano and Elena Poniatow ka KARL ZIMMERER, as i tant profe or of geography, University of North Carolina, for research on the impact of migration, lowed demographic growth, and agricultural policy on oil degradation and con ervation in the Cochabamba region
ear and Middle East The following advanced re arch grant were awarded by the Joint Committee on the ear and Middle East-E. Roger Owen (chair), Talal A ad, Andrew C . He , Hurichihan i lamo~lu-inan , Mary Layoun, Jean Leca, Joel S. Migdal, Timothy Mitchell , and Ghas an Salame-at its meeting on March 23, 1990. Tom Lodge and Dara Shapiro served as taff for the program. ELLIS J. GoLDBERG, as i tant profe or of political cience, University of Washington, for research on the political economy of medieval I lam DINA RtZK KHOURY, adjunct profe or of hi tory, Georgetown University, for re earch on the merchants of outhern Iraq in the 17th and 18th centurie MICHAEL E. MEEKER, profe or and chair, department of anthropology, University of California, San Diego, for research on tate and ociety in provincial Turkey MARTHA W. MUNDY, Malcolm Kerr Fellow, department of hi tory, University of California, Lo Angele , for research on agriculture and ociety in Southern Hauren, 1876-1948 THEODORE SWEDENBURG, lecturer of Near Eastern language and civilization, University of Washington, for research on the intifada and re-vi ion of Pale tin ian national identity JUDITH E. TUCKER , as ociate profe or of hi tory and chair of academic program in Arab tudie , Georgetown University, for re earch on a hi tory of the urban Arab family, 1700-1900
The following advanced research grant were awarded by the Joint Committee on South A ia-Paul Greenough (chair), Arjun Appadurai, Clive Bell , Jan C . Breman, E. Valentine Daniel, Patricia Jeffery, Atul Kohli, Regula Qure hi, and V. Narayana Rao-at its meeting on April 1, 1990. Toby Alice Volkman and Dara Shapiro served as taff for the program. VEENA T. OLDENBURG, Dana Faculty Fellow in A ian tudie , Sarah Lawrence College, for re earch in the United Kingdom on dowry murders GYAN PRAKASH, as i tant profe or of hi tory, Princeton University, for re earch in the United Kingdom on genealogie of modernity: cienti tic di course in India, 1860-1960 CAROL SALOMON , research as ociate of A ian language VOLUME
and literature. University of Washington. for research in Banglade h on attitude toward the Lalan Shai tradition in contemporary Banglade h LEE A. SIEGEL. profe or of religion. Univer ity of Hawaii . for re earch in the United Kingdom on romance of Indian cremation ground
re earch on the culture of clas relation in Ru ia from 1855-1918 The following award were al 0 made under the Program for Participation of American Scholars in Soviet Sociological Research Project .
Program for Senior Scholars:
The following advanced research grant were awarded by the Joint Committee on Southea t A ia-Karl L. Hutterer (chair). Jane Atkin on. Gillian Hart. Hue-Tam Ho Tai. Yoneo I hii. Renato Ro aldo. Anthony J. S. Reid. Robert Taylor. and Peter S. Xeno -at its meeting on March 16. 1990. Toby Alice Volkman and Sarah Tarrow served a taff for the program.
MICHAEL B UROWA Y. Department of Sociology. University of California. Berkeley. for a one-month tay in the Soviet Union MARTHA BRILL OLcon. Center for the Study of Spiritual Heritage of the People of the East. Univer ity of Chicago. for a one-month tay in the Soviet Union
SUSAN M. DARLINGTON . Ph.D. candidate in anthropology. University of Michigan. for re earch in Thailand on religion and conservation in Thailand NANCY EBERHARDT. a i tant profe or of anthropology. Knox College. for re earch in Thailand on Shan theorie of human development MARGARET J . FLOREY. graduate as i tanto department of lingui tics. University of Hawaii. for re earch in Indone ia on language ob ole cence in ea tern Indone ia TAKASHI SHIRAISHI. a i tant profe or of hi tory. Cornell University. for re earch in Indone ia on police politic and popular literature in the Dutch Indie • 1927-1942
HOWARD ALLEN. Ph.D. candidate in ociology. University of California. Berkeley. for a fourth-month tay in the Soviet Union STEPHEN CROWLY. Ph.D. candidate in political cience. University of Michigan. for a five-month tay in the Soviet Union MICHAEL FISH. Ph.D. candidate in political cience. Stanford University. for a three-month tay in the Soviet Union DoUGLAS JOHNSON. Ph.D. candidate in political cience. University of Michigan. for a three-month tay in the Soviet Union
Institutional Support Programs
The following advanced re earch grants were awarded by the Joint Committee on Soviet Studie -William Mill Todd. m (chair). Jane Burbank. Robert Campbell. Caryl Emerson. Nancy Shield Kollmann. Mary McAuley. Bruce Parrott. Brian Silver. Richard Stite • Michael Swafford. and Reginald Zelnik-at it meeting on April 27-28. 1990. The committee wa as i ted by a creening committeeBrian Silver (chair). Barbara Ander on. William Chase. Ben Eklof. Johanna Nichol • and Judith Thornton. Robert T. Huber. Kathryn Becker. and Ro e London served a taff for thi program. SVETLANA BOYM. as i tant profe or of comparative literature and hi tory. Harvard Univer ity. for research on Ru ian-Soviet kitsch. a cultural tudy of politic and aesthetics WENDY GOLDMAN. as i tant profe or of hi tory. Carnegie Mellon University. for re earch on revolution in the family. focu ing on Soviet law and ocial change from 1917-1936 YURI SLEZKTNE. a i tant profe or of hi tory. Wake Fore t Univer ity. for research on the Russian policie and attitude towards Siberian hunters. gatherer • and reindeer breeders MARK STEINBERG. as i tant profe or. Yale Univer ity. for JUNE/SEPTEMBER
Program for Graduate Students and Junior Scholars:
In its ixth national competition of grant to American in titute that offer inten ive training in the Ru ian and non-Ru ian language of the Soviet Union. the Joint Committee on Soviet Studie • as i ted by a creening committee-Caryl Emerson (chair). Michael Flier. Victor Friedman. A de-Aye Rorlich. and Anelya Rugalevamade the following award at its meeting on April 27-28. 1990. In the Ru ian language competition. award were made to the Ru ian Language In titute at Bryn Mawr College. the Ru ian In titute at Indiana University. the Ru ian School at Middlebury College. the Ru ian Program at the Monterey In titute of International Affairs. the Ru ian School at Norwich Univer ity. and the School of Advanced International Studie at the John Hopkins University. In the non-Ru ian language competition. award were made to the Ukrainian language program at Harvard University. the Georgian and Uzbek program at Indiana University. the Uzbek language program at the Univer ity of California. Lo Angele • and the Uzbek program at the University of Wa hington. In the fifth national competition under the Joint Committee on Soviet Studie • program to initiate new teaching ITEMS/53
po ition in Ru ian and Soviet Studie at American in titution , the committee made one award at it meeting on April 27-28, 1990: the University of Arizona received an award for partial funding of a po ition in geography.
OTHER PROGRAMS Berlin Program for Advanced German and European Studies
The following research fellow hip were awarded by the Selection Committee of the Berlin Program for Advanced German and European Studie - Peter J. Katzen tein (chair), Ru sell J. Dalton, Helga Haftendorn, Peter Haye , Charle Maier and Dietrich Rue chemeyer-at its meeting of March 10, 1990. Yasmine Ergas, Stavro Gavroglou and Elizabeth O'Brien served as taff for thi program. TINA CAMPT, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Cornell Univerity, for research in Germany on the convergence of race, sexuality and gender in the formation of cultural identity among a German ethnic minority BELINDA DAVIS, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, University of Michigan, exten ion of fellow hip for continuation of research in Germany on power, working women and the tate during World War I in Berlin GABRIEL FINKELSTEIN, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Princeton University, for research in Germany on the materiali t Phy iology of the 1847 group WALLIS MILLER, Ph.D. candidate in architecture, Princeton University, for research in Germany on the Siedlungen in Berlin, 1924-1931 WILLIAM ROLLINS, Ph.D. candidate in German tudie, University of Wi con in, for research in Germany on environmental and ocial reform in Wilhelminian Germany JEFFREY SELLERS, Ph.D. candidate in political cience, Yale University, for research in Germany on a comparative tudy of the role of formal adrnini trative in titution and legality in the y tern of land use policy making, implementation, and conflict proce ing in and around Freiburg im Brei gau (Germany), Montpellier (France), and New Haven (Connecticut) HELMUT SMlTH, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Yale Univerity, for research in Germany on nationali m and religiou conflict in imperial Germany, 1887-1914 ANDREW TAUBER, Ph.D. candidate in political cience, Ma achusetts In titute of Technology, for research in Germany on a comparative tudy of the American and German political economie after World War I KATJA WEBER, Ph.D. candidate in political cience, University of California, Lo Angele , for re earch in Germany on an analytical tudy of cooperative security arrangement JENNY WHITE, recipient of Ph.D. in anthropology, June 1990, University of Texa , for po tdoctoral research in Germany on labor and identity among Turki h women migrant in We t Germany 54\ITEM
Comparative Study of Muslim Societi
The Joint Committee on the Comparative Study of Mu lim Societie -William Roff (chair), Lila AbuLughod, Richard Bulliet, Chri tian Decobert, Ali De ouki, William Graham, M. Khalid Masud, Barbara D. Metcalf, Jame Pi catori, and M. Nazif Shahrani-voted at its meeting on January 8-9, 1990 to award an advanced re arch grant to the following individual. David L. Szanton, Mary B. McDonnell, and Michael Dravi served as taft for thi program. PAUL LUBECK, profe or of ociology and hi tory, Department of Hi tory, University of California, Santa Cruz, for research on Mu lim in titution and entrepreneurship in Malay ia and Nigeria Foreign Policy Studi
The following po tdoctoral fellow hip were awarded by the Committee on Foreign Policy Studie -Mile Kahler (chair), I. M. De tIer, John A. Ferejohn, Erne t R. May, Olga Pellicer, Walter W. Powell, Zara Steiner-at its meeting on February 16-17, 1990. Robert T. Huber and Nancy Lu tgarten served as taff for thi program. Advanced Research Fellowships in U.S. Foreign Policy Studies
RICHARD C. EICHENBERG, as ociate profe or of political science, Tufts University, for research on the impact of leadership on the formation of foreign policy during the admini tration of Pre ident Jimmy Carter and Chancellor Helmut Schmidt PATRICK O'HEFFERNAN, vi iting as ociate profe or of political cience, Georgia In titute of Technology, for a comparative tudy of media relation and image marketing as uperpower foreign policy tool in po t-Cold War Europe JOHN B. SHARPLESS, as ociate profe or of hi tory, University of Wi con in, for research on U.S. involvement in overseas population planning programs during four period from 1945 to the pre ent Development grants in U.S. Foreign Policy Studies
DoNG LA I REN, as i tant profe sor of hi tory and research fellow, Nanjing University, for research on U.S. involvement in the Chine e and Greek Civil Wars between 1945 and 1948 Indochina Studi
The following advanced research grants were awarded by the Indochina Scholarly Exchange Program Committee-Karl Hutterer (chair), David Chandler, May Ebihara, Carol Ire on, Charle Keye, Hy Van Luong, David Marr, VOLUME
Hue Tam Ho Tai, Keith Taylor, and William Turley-at its meeting on March 2-3, 1990. Mary McDonnell, Toby Volkman, and Arnie Roo evelt served as taff for thi program. LAWRENCE F. ASHMUN, Southeast Asia librarian, Cornell University, for library con ultation and training of Lao librarian in Lao EILEEN F. BLUMENTHAL, as ociate profe or of theater, Rutgers University, for interview-based research in Cambodia on traditional Cambodian court dance WILLIAM J. DUlKER, profe or of hi tory, Penn ylvania State University, for re earch in Vietnam for a biography of former Vietnamese pre ident Ho Chi Minh CHRISTOPH, J. F. GIEBEL , MICHELINE R. LESSARD, SHAWN, F. McHALE, MICHAEL J. MONTESANO m, PETER ZINOMAN, Ph.D. candidate in history, Cornell University, for collaborative research with three tudents and faculty from Can Tho University, Vietnam, on women in four Vietnamese province between 1920 and
1954 CHARLES HIRSCHMAN, profe or of ociology, University of Washington, for research on demographic and ocial change in Vietnam and training of Vietnamese ociologi ts, u ing a general "life hi tory" urvey of 400 household in rural and urban Vietnam DARA KANLAGNA, Mini try of Information and Culture, Vientiane, Lao , for research for article in "Vannasin" magazine on the culture and people of Lao H. LEEDOM LEFFERTS, JR., profe or of anthropology, Drew University, for re earch on the production , use , and meaning of textile in Lao and for training Lao ethnographers WILLIAM loBBAN, Au tralian ethnologi t a ociated with the Fine Arts School and the Ministry of Culture in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, to complete a collection of photograph of Khmer clas ical dance ge ture , which will then be identified and annotated by a former Cambodian clas ical dancer FRANK PROSCHAN, former folklori t in the Smith onian In titution' Folklife Program, and DAMRONG TAYANlN, Rockefeller Re idency Fellow in the Humanities, Cornell University, for re earch on Khmhu village life and tradition in Lao and Vietnam WILHELM G . SOLHEIM n, profe or of anthropology and director of Center for Southeast A ian Studie , University of Hawaii at Manoa, and CHARLES F. W. HIGHAM, profe or of anthropology, University of Otago, New Zealand, for research on the origin and cause for the development of the complex chiefdom of Dong Son, through an excavation of Qui Chu, a cemetery and occupation site in Thanh Hoa Province, Vietnam
International Peace and Security Studies The Committee on International Peace and Security, at its meeting held March 22-23, 1990, voted to award 9 di ertation and 7 po tdoctoral SSRC-MacArthur Foundation Fellow hip in International Peace and Security. The committee members are Michel C. Oksenberg (chair), JUNE/SEPTEMBER 1990
Albert Fi hlow, David J. Holloway, Samuel Clement Nolutshungu, Robert O'Neill, Judith V. Reppy, Su anne Hoeber Rudolph, and Jeremiah D. Sullivan. The committee was as i ted by a di sertation screening committee (Mr. Sullivan [chair], Sergio Aguayo, Lynn R. Eden, Dietrich Max Fischer, Jack Gold tone, Mr. Holloway, Deborah Larson) and a po tdoctoral screening committee (M . Reppy [chair], Barton Bern tein, Michael MccGwire, Scott Plou , and Lars Schoultz). Richard C. Rockwell, Cary Fraser, Su an Merryman, and Felicia M. Sullivan erved as taff for thi program.
Dissertation Fellowships ANOOSORN CHANTAPAN (Thailand), Ph.D. candidate in international relation , The John Hopkin University. "Japan' ASEAN Policy from 1967-1989: From a Free-Rider and Supporter of the United State to an A ian Hegemonic Power?," 36 month including 12 month for foreign area field work CHRISTOPHER DAASE (Federal Republic of Germany), predoctoral fellow in philo ophy, Free University of Berlin. "Controlling Small Wars: Cri i Management and Conflict Termination in Sub-Conventional Warfare," 24 month including ix months for foreign area field work ELIZABETH CHARISSA EcONOMY (United State ), Ph.D. candidate in political science, Univer ity of Michigan. "Toward a Conflict or Cooperation on the International Environment: Developing Chinese and Soviet Strategie on Global Warming," 34 month including 10 month for foreign area field work SOHAIL HUMANYUN HASHMl (United State ), Ph.D. candidate in political cience, Harvard University. "Toward an I lamic Ethic of International Relation ," 24 month YEVGENY N. KUZNETSOV (USSR), Ph.D. candidate in economic , Mo cow State Univer ity. "The USSR Defense Indu try Conversion and Its Impact on USSRUSA Economic Relation ," 12 month MICHAEL ALAN McINTYRE (United State ), Ph.D. candidate in political science, University of Chicago. "Briti h Imperiali m in India and Brazil, 1850-1914," 24 month MALIK MUFTI (Jordan), Ph.D. candidate in political cience, Harvard University. "Pan-Arabi m and the Rise of State Sovereignty in the Middle Ea t: A Case Study of Syrian-Iraqi Unification Attempt ," 24 month including three month for foreign area field work SIMEI QING (people' Republic of China), Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Michigan State University. "Chine e and American Conception of Peace, Order and Economic Development in East A ia, 1944-1984," 24 month GEOFFREY RAYMOND WISEMAN (Au tralia), private secrewry with the Au tralian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade with a background in political cience who i seeking a degree from the University of Oxford. "Common Security and Non-Provocative Defense: An Hi torical Perspective," 24 month ITEMS/55
Postdoctoral Fellowships MOHAMMED A. BAMYEH (Jordan), ociologi t trained at the University of Wi con in. "Collective Identity and Tran national Integration: The Ca e of the European Internal Market," 24 month including 12 month for foreign area field work GREGORY H. Fox (United State ), lawyer who received hi training at New York University. " New International Right to Open and Fair Election : It Emergence and Viability," 24 month LISBETH DAGMAR GRONLU D (United State ), phy ici t trained at Cornell University. " Confidence Building Measure for Military Re earch and Development, " 24 month SHAI ALEXANDER LINN (I rael), phy ician and director of epidemiology, Rambam Medical Center (Haifa, I rael) . "00 We All Pay the Price of War?: Developing Criteria for the A se ment of the Human Co t of War, " 24 month EDWARD KHIOOU MAKUBUYA (Uganda), lawyer at Makerere University, (Kampala, Uganda). "Dimen ion of Refugee Statu ," 36 month including 12 month for foreign area field work SUSAN STOKES (United State ), political cienti t, Univerity of Washington. "Beyond Populi m and Orthodoxy: Toward a Model for Development with Democracy in Latin America," 36 month including 12 month for foreign area field work MICHAEL J. WATTS (United State ), geographer, Univerity of California, Berkeley. "The Right to Food and Freedom from Hunger: Agrarian Tran ition , State Legitimacy and the Politic of Food Entitlement," 24 month including ix month for foreign area field work
Development Grant RAVINDER PAL SINGH (India) , enior re earch fellow , In titute for Defense Studie New Delhi, "Influence of Selected We t European Military Indu trie on Some A ian Conflict ."
cause of poverty among Puerto Rican and it consequence for patial concentration, ocial and political i olation, and ocioeconomic outcome ROBERTO FERNANDEZ, as ociate profe or of ociology, Northwe tern University, for a tudy of the tructure of ocial network and c1as in poor neighborhood in Chicago THOMAS KANE, project coordinator, Center for Social Policy, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, for research on the extent to which community college prepare inner city minority tudents for job and four-year college and universitie PHILIP KASINITZ, as i tant profe or of ociology, William College, for re arch on the ocial i olation of the underclas in the Red Hook neighborhood of Brooklyn, New York SUNANDA LUTHAR, Alan Bedde po tdoctoral fellow in p ychology, Yale University, for research on underclas adole cent ' ability to maintain ocially competent behavior in re pon e to extreme life tre MAX PFEFFER, as i tant profe or of human ecology, Rutgers University, for re earch on the relation hip between the labor force participation by A ian immigrants and the living condition and job opportunitie of black and Hi panic in Philadelphia, Penn ylvania; Trenton and Camden, New Jersey RONALD TAYLOR, as i tant profe or of p ychology, Temple University, for research on educational achievement by black adole cents OoUGLAS SHE SON, in tructor of epidemiology and ocial medicine, Albert Ein tein College of Medicine, for comparative research on the ocial and biological ecologie of the urban poor in New York City, London, and Pari MARGARET WEIR, as ociate profe or of government, Harvard University, for comparative research on the way in which poor ethnic and racial minoritie have been ocially incorporated or i olated through political partie ,public chooling, and ocial policy in the United State and Britain during the past 30 years
Research on the Urban Undercl
In the second year of i fellow hip competition, the Committee for Research on the Urban Underclas -Paul E. Peterson (chair), J. Lawrence Aber, Barry Blue tone, Sheldon Danziger, Peter Hall, Chri topher Jenck , John D. Kasarda, Ruth Mas inga, John U. Ogbu, Marta Tienda, and William Juliu Wil on-awarded fellow hip and grants to the following applicant at it meeting held on March 29-30, 1990. Martha A. Gephart, Robert W . Pearson, Raquel Ovryn-Rivera, Joan T . Brown, and Heather E. Sandner served a taff for thi program.
ARNETHA BALL, Ph.D. candidate in education, Stanford University, for re earch on the relation hip between language pattern and academic ucce of black adole cent KoJO A. DEI, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Columbia University, for re earch on re pon e by family and friend to youth involved with illicit drug in a low-income black neighborhood in Mount Vernon, New York SHARON HICKS-BARTLETT, Ph.D. candidate in ociology, University of Chicago, for an ethnographic tudy of the role played by family and community in reproducing ocial c1as relation in a mall, geographically isolated, and racially segregated community AURORA JACKSON, Ph.D. candidate in ocial work, Ohio State University, for a tudy of the relation hip between the employment preference of poor, ingle, black
Postdoctoral Grants MARlA ENCHAUTEGUI, Rockefeller po tdoctoral fellow in economic , University of Michigan , for research on the 56\1TEMS
mothers and role tain, well-being and perception of their three- and four-year-old children MARVA LEWIS, Ph.D. candidate in p ychology, University of Colorado at Boulder, for re earch on the effects of cultural belief y tern about children and child-rearing on the attachment behavior of black mother MARTA TELLADO, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Yale Univer ity, for research on the relation hip between the political agendas of locally-elected Latino officials and the interests of the impoveri hed members of their con tituencie
Undergraduate Research Assistantships AUDREY L. BROWN, director, Center for Applied Research and Urban Policy, University of the Di trict of Columbia, to upport research by five undergraduate tudents inve tigating the ocial, cultural, political, and health factors as ociated with the evolution and re olution of home Ie ne ROBINSON HOLLISTER, JR., profe or of economic , and HILLARD POUNCY, as ociate profe or of political science, both of Swarthmore College, to upport research by five undergraduate tudent on the changing economic and political characteri tic of low-income neighborhood and the personal and political efficacy of their re ident JAN ROSENBERG, a ociate profe or of ociology, Long I land University, and MILTON VICKERMAN, education officer, New York City Board of Education, to upport research by eight undergraduate on the relation hip between poverty, immigration, and the relative level of ucce in the black community ROBYNE TURNER, as i tant profe or of political cience, Florida Atlantic University, to upport re earch by two undergraduate tudent on the effect of in titutional proce se in a local community on the development and production of affordable hou ing units MELVIN N. WILSON, as ociate profe or of clinical p ychology and as i tant dean of the College of Art and Sciences, Univer ity of Virginia, to upport a tudy by five undergraduate tudent that examine the influence of the black extended family on familial interaction pattern and childrearing practice PATRICIA G. ZUKOW, adjunct as istant profe or of p ychology, University of California at Lo Angele , to upport research by one undergraduate tudent on whether communicative kill and experience enhance young children' opportunitie to di play cultural competence in the cIas room
Summer Dissertation Workshop Program SANDRA ANDINO, Ph.D . candidate in urban tudie and
anthropology, Temple University, for research on economic, ocial, and hou ing development in a Puerto Rican neighborhood in Philadelphia ROBERT BROWN, Ph.D. candidate in political science, University of Michigan, for re earch on black political repre entation and poverty SANDRA LEE BROWNING, Ph.D. candidate in ociology, University of Cincinnati, for research on the effect of welfare on marital formation DoNNA PENN DoNALDSON, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, The American University, for research on how the academic performance of young black male i affected by changing tudent-teacher relation hip ELOISA GORDON-MORA, Ph.D. candidate in political cience, University of Notre Dame, for research on the effect of the i land' political tatu on urban poverty in Puerto Rico CHERYL GROCE, Ph.D. candidate in p ychology, Univerity of Penn ylvania, for research on y temic and cultural pre ure on relation hip between black men and women DANIEL LESLIE HOWARD, Ph.D. candidate in public policy, Vanderbilt University, for re earch on the availability of quality healthcare in underclas neighborhood AURORA JACKSON, Ph.D. candidate in ocial work, Ohio State University, for re earch on the relation hip between the employment preference of poor, single, black mothers and their role train, well-being, and perception of their three- and four-year-old children MICAH McCREARY, Ph.D. candidate in psychology, Virginia Commonwealth University, for research on po itive racial identification and tre proce se of black adole cent ALFONSO MORALES, Ph.D. candidate in ociology, Northwe tern Univer ity, for research on the relation hip between economic re tructuring and underclas participation in the urban informal economy BELINDA SIMS, Ph.D. candidate in p ychology, Loyola University, for re earch on the impact of economic con traint on familie and the socioeconomic development of their children GLADYS SMITH, Ph.D. candidate in public policy, St. Loui University, for research on the effect of desegregation on the quality of education for minority tudents ABEL VALENZUELA, JR., Ph.D. candidate in urban studies and planning, Ma achu ett In titute of Technology, for research on the relation hip between immigrant employment opportunitie and the formation of an Hi panic underclas MARIA VIDAL DE HAYMES, Ph.D. candidate in ocial work, Ohio State University, for comparative re earch on Latino and black undercIa s communi tie
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The Council wa incorporated in the State of Illinois, /Humber 27, 1924./or the purpo e of advancing rtstarch in the social sciencts. Nongovtrnmtntal and interdisciplinary in naturt, the Council appoints commillttS of scholar which ttk to achitvt tht Council's purpo t through the gtntration of ntw idtas and tM training of cholars. Tht activities of tht Council art supporttd primarily by grants from privatt foundations and govtmmtnt agtncits. Dirtctors, 199G-91 : CLAUDE ME, University of Port Harcourt; SUZA ED. BERGER, M sachuset [n titute of Technology; RICHARD A. BERK, University of California, Lo Angele; ROBERT M. COE ,Northwe tern University; ROBERT DAR TO. , Princeton University; KAI T. ERIKSON, Yal University; DAVID L. FEATHERMA ,Social Science Research Council; ALBERT FI HLOW, University of California, Berkeley; GARD ER LJ DZEY, Center for Advanced Study In the Behavioral Science; BEVI Lo G TRETH, Debevoise & Plimpton; DAVID MAG USSO , Stockholm University; CORA B. MARRETT, University of Wi on in; EMILY MARTI ,The John Hopkin University; WILLIAM H. SEWELL, JR., University of Mi higan; BURTO H. SI GER, Yale University; FRA 'ClS X. SUTTON, Dobbs Ferry, New York; MARTA TIE DA, University of Chicago; ROBERT B. ZAJo c, University of Michigan. Officers and Staff: DAVID L. FEATHEIlMAN, Prt idtnt; STA LEY J. HEGI BOTHAM, Vict Prtsidtnt; Ro ALD J. PELECK, Vict Prtsidtntfor Financt; GLORIA KI R HHEIMER, Editor; DoRiE SI OCCHI, Assistant to tht Prtsidtnt; KATHRY BECKER, YA Mt E ERGA , CARY FRASER, STAVRO GAVROOLOU, MARTHA A. GEPHART, ERIC HERSHBERG, STEVE HEYDEMA ,ROBERT T. HUBER, TOM LoOOE, RAQUEL OVRY RIVERA, ROBERT W. PEARSO ,ELLE PERECMAN, SILVIA RAw (on leave), RI HARD C. ROCKWELL, M. PRJ ILLA STO E, DAVID L. SZA TO ,TOBY ALI E VOLKMA .
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