IAL CIE CE RE EARCH COU
VOLUME 42 . UMBER 3 . EPTEMBER 19 605 THIRD AVE UE . EW YORK, .Y. 1015
New York City as a Research Site by John H. Mollenkopf* Power, Culture, and Place U E THE PECIAL VANTAGE point of New York City to explore the economic, political, and cultural facets of urban development in the United State . While focu ing on the e theme within the city, it al 0 a k how the nation' large t and mo t important city ha helped to hape broader patterns. While it does not re olve the debate about how power, culture, and place influence each other, it doe try to frame the crucial i sues concerning their interaction a they aro e during the mercantile, indu trial, and po tindu trial tran formation of ew York City and the larger ociety. A number of methodological and ub tantive a umption underlie thi effort. We believe that the emergence of modern, urban, po tindu trial ociety can be ucce fully under tood only through a con ciou analysi of the interplay between power, culture, and economic tructure. Not only mu teach dimen ion be given it analytic due, but their
â€˘ John H. Mollenkopf i an a sociate profe sor of political ience at the Graduate Center, City University of ew York, and a member of the ouncil' Committee on ew York City. Thi article i adapted, with permi ion of the publi her, from the introduction to hi 19 edited volume, Power, Culture, and Pillet: Essays on New York City. pon ored b the committee, the volume i copyrighted b the Ru Il Sage Foundation. The committee' a tivitie are made po ible b grants from the Ru Il age and pen er foundation a well as by financial upport from the Robert F. Wagner, r. In titute of Public Poli y, ity Univer ity of ew York.
For contents of this issue, see the box on page 66
President Wakeman to Return to Berkeley; Search Committee Appointed Council Pre ident Frederic E. Wakeman, Jr., who ha rved ince July 1, 19 6, has announced hi intention of re igning in Augu t 19 9 in order to re ume hi tea hing and re earch at the Universit of California, Berkele . Mr. Wakeman, one of the nation' foremo Lhi Lorian of modem China, will return to Berkeley a th newlappointed Haa Profe or of Ea t A ian tudie . The Executive ommittee of the Council' board h appointed a Pre idential Search Committee, charged with recommending one or more candidate for the pre idency. The committee is chaired by Charle O. Jone, niversity of Wi on in, who rved as a member of the oun il' board from the American Political ience A ociation from 19 0 to 19 6. The other members of the committee are Hugh T. Patrick, Columbia University; tephen M. tigler, niver it of hicago; Loui A. Till , ew hool for ial Re arch ; and Charle V. Willie, Harvard Univer ity. Franci X. utton, Dobb Ferry, ew York, who chairs the ouncil' board, and ardner Lindzey, Center for Advanced tudy in the Behavioral ience , who chair the Executive Committee, will erve a ex officio members. David L. zanton, an Executive A ociate at the ouncil, will erve a taff to the committee. Nomination of candidate for the pre idenc are wei omed, and hould be ent to Mr. Jone at the ounci!.
inter ection mu t al 0 be explored. By contra t, the ocial cience di cipline have tended to ab tract the realm of polity, economy, and culture from one another, and at their wor t, have di mi ed or a umed away important interaction among them. Admittedly, it i ea ier to a ert the need for 65
CONTENTS OF THIS ISSUE (i}
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int rdi iplinary re ear h than to bring to life a genuine dialogue am ng the di ipline, While the e a in th v lum are in vitabl r ted in a oun iI' mmittee n ew York di iplin ,th it , i ommitt d t bringing p litical, cultural, and e onomlc p r pe tive int fuller engagement with ea h other. n ther point of departure i a belief that th need t re over from their de patialiial ien zati n. In the pur uit of generalizable re ult , the ial i n di ipline hav tended t remove pa e and pIa e fr m c n ideration r on ider them m r I in id ntal. Ind ed, di iplinar p ialization pra ti ally r quire th h mogenization of pa e and plac . But pow r, ulture, and econ mi tru ture do not xi t in ab tra ti n, but in pIa e . T borrow a n titute m taphor fr m Herman Melville, pIa e th I om of time up n whi h choice, con traint, and han e weav hi tor . Place certainl re ult from pa t h ic and confli t , but the al con train and en urage future hie and conflict, thu imparting a di tin t pattern to hi t rical development. A I el r lated a umpti n i that larg Cltle have driv n 19th- and 20th-centur d velopment and will pr babl d in the 21 t c ntur . The clo e link between urbanization and indu trial apitali m make the fir t part of thi claim aIm t elf-e ident. For the curr nt p ri d, thi claim i more controverial. In re ent de ade ,economi and p pulation de ncentration and the ri e f n w urban center have created the multinucleated metropolitan realm in place of earlier, more elf-c ntained central citie . W till beli ve, h w er, that larg itie , under-
tood in thi n w m tropolitan cont xt, dominale human ttl m nt pall rn and that th ir c nl1,11 iti prochl . t m- hanging tr nd . ew York ' it\' i a particular a. 111 point. It population and budget x ed tho e of mam nation . Thr -fourth of tho. who work in il conom live within it political boundari . It i. the world' larg t and mo t div r ifi d finan i,ll and orporate ervi e c nter, home to the large I on entration of corporate h adquarter. and a global c nter for culture and ommunication .. \ uch , w Y rk innovation ranging from mortgag ba k d untl t br ak-dan ing have a wide impa t n the re t f the world. ew York, like other larg itie , combin and int n ifi th interaction among 0 ial for e that el ewh re ma b hidd n. latent, r afel egre ated fr m ne another. In hort, the volum argu that urban tudie hould b revived a a fruitful and ugge tiv ba i ~ rial ien . Th it gav birth to the' ocial ien e and m tivated man la ic tudie, ranging from Fri dri h Engel n Man he ter to R b rt A. Dahl n ew Haven. A renewed urban foeti can nlighten and enliven man f the m t important ial ienti t . i ue currentl engaging Am ng the e are u h meth dologi al and epi temologi al i u a whether to r I upon individuali t explanation ,a oppo ed to more holi ti or y ternie explanati n, r wheth r t tre meaning and interpretation, a in the , ork of the anthropologi t lifford Geertz, or to empha iz au al explanation. B c n entrating larg numb r of different kind of ial trata in clo ph ical proxirnit). people and urban area pr vide fertile oil for contra ting and comparing the appr a he. The al 0 po e a numb r of ke ub tantive pr blem in a parti ularl' vivid wa . Th e includ the ~ rmation of cla e and the d velopment of tate capa it ,the rol of politic and ulture in mediatin econ mic trend , and the relati e autonom (or la k f it) at different le\el of the 0 ial tern. e\ York Cit i an ideal laborat r in which to te t the validit and u fulne of our more eneral meth dological rientation . It con entrate and cale from the reveal force working on ever neighborhood to the globe. For a centur and a half. it ha be north America' large t cit . A it large t port, ew York ha been a leading point of conne tion with the out id world, particularl) Europ . It n dal po ition in th nati nal and lobal network of itie ha p ned it to trend ari. ing almo t e er wh re el e, wheth r ian and aribbean immigration, forei n dire t inve tment, or VOL ME
42 â€˘ .
avant-garde ideas in the arts. It is a study in exquisite cultural, economic, and political contrast. While ew York partly reflect larger trends, it al 0 helps to generate them, thus putting its own stamp on broader developments el ewhere. If we return to the question that are currently central to theoretical debates in the social sciences, we find they can be fruitfully po ed in the New York City environment. How, for example, do rapid change in economic structure influence broad patterns of ocial and political stratification? The essay in the volume delineate the enormou ocial, political, and cultural a peets of what have variously been called the first, econd, and third indu trial revolutions or the mercantile, industrial, and po tindustrial era. In each, creation and decay simultaneou Iy created an uneven and complicated impact aero s the cia structure. How, given the e complicated effects, have group entering or being created in the rapidly changing urban etting become incorporated into the economy, polity, and culture? How can a common polity, a shared civic culture, be created from so many distinct and conflicting treams? I the proce s characterized by upward mobility, a clo ed opportunity tructure, or both? What explains the fate of various group? Is an undercla a permanent feature of rapid period of structural change? New York City ha constantly generated new inequalitie , with new groups clu tered seemingly permanently at the bottom. Yet many of the e group have improved their economic po ition over time through a complex political truggle. Inten e political truggles have also taken place between decaying economic forms, whether arti an production in 1810 or garment loft factorie in the 1980 , with such ri ing forms a the factory y tem or advanced corporate ervice. The current intere t in analyzing the evolution of state capacity and autonomy can al 0 be advanced through tudie of New York City. State intervention ha fo tered and haped the city' physical and economic growth. Thi has been mo t obviou in public capital inve tments like the Erie Canal, the ew York City subway sy tem, or the John F. Kennedy International Airport, but it has al 0 been true in more subtle ways. New York's defeat of Philadelphia' Second Bank of the United State in 1836 provide an example of how political advantage helped hape financial markets not only in New York but in the nation. Reciprocally, the concentration of wealth and poverty in New York inevitably make economic trends into political i ue. Cia difference have been enormous for a century and a half in SEPTEMBER
New York, yet outbreaks of class violence or cia politics have been episodic at most. In each period, the political order and the civic culture have mediated economic tension . This mediation certainly took place outside the strictly political realm as well. A common culture was forged out of disparate and competing voices, in part becau e this culture expre ed ome cleavages among groups while dampening others. Some city paces were delineated as the turf of class and ethnic subcultures, while others developed a much more public, heterogeneous character. There are implicit rule governing the evolution of this spatial differentiation which relate to the political and economic dimensions of power. From the debate over creating Central Park to conflict over access to park space on the city'S rim 140 years later, New York City offer much material for reflection. A final question theoretically central to the ocial sciences concern the degree of and limit to local autonomy. Anthony Giddens has written that the city wa central to ocial theory until the advent of the nation-state, which usurped the city' rights and powers. Much neoclassical and neo-Marxi t thinking ha reinforced this po ition. Leading economists, sociologists, and political scientists have concluded that competition for inve tment prevents citie from exercising political power over economic arrangement, at lea t in terms of redistribution. Some neo-Marxists have portrayed citie as the product of the mode of production and it discontent, with local politics following the functional imperative of promoting the former and suppressing the latter. Other scholar , drawing on an older tradition in the United State, re i t writing off local autonomy. The community tudies literature took the importance of the urban realm for granted. The Chicago school of ociology aw the city a ociety writ mall. While recognizing that things change a the cale of analysis hifts from the nation to the city, Robert A. Dahl' classic tudy of New Haven,t and Browning, Marshall, and Tabb' recent prize-winning tudy of California cities,2 recognize that citie are place where larger force can be affected a well a ob erved and under tood. De pite the 10 of authority to higher juri diction and the vulnerabilit to global market and demographic trend ,thi view hold that action in urban politie can have real, I Robert A. Dahl. Who GovmlS~ ew Haven: Yale University Pre , 1961. 2 Rufu P. Browning, Dale Marshall, and David Tabb. Prott t Is Not Enough . Berkeley: Universit of alifornia Pre , 1984.
systemic con equences because they exerci e real, if constrained, authority over core economic and cultural activitie . New York City offers a test ca e for the relative theoretical sturdine of the e two views. What city ha been more subject to global forces of economic and demographic change? Yet what city ha attempted more governmental intervention, whether through an elaborate local welfare tate, the regulation of hou ing markets, or the promotion of its own economic expansion? The evidence can help us determine the extent to which citie can u e larger forces to chart their own cour e or are merely ubject to them. Skeptics may challenge the a umption that placecentered, interdi ciplinary, historical re earch i badly needed, a well as the belief that ew York i an excellent tarting point for uch work. ew York City' distinctiveness may cau e particular doubt about the latter point. New York i older, larger, denser, and more heterogeneou than other American cities. It is more Roman Catholic than mo t and more Jewish than any. It houses di proportionate number of the rich and poor alike. It ha a larger public labor force, more kinds of public ervices, and greater governmental regulation of housing markets than other cities. And while New York City might be the nation' mo t cosmopolitan city, it al 0 ha parochial world like the Satmar Cha idim in Williamsburg or the Italian-Americans of Bensonhur t. How, then, can New York City be taken a repre entative of anything? We believe that New York City is more archtypical than atypical. By concentrating extreme, it reveals forces, trend , and conflicts that are latent el ewhere. As a world city, it is among the fir t to feel trends ari ing el ewhere. As a center of influential economic, political, and cultural in titutions, it create and propagate widely felt innovation. De pite decentralization and new ource of competition, it ha been economically dominant for more than a century. Its disproportionate influence on national political development continues to today, de pite its dwindling fraction of the national vote. From the political machine (and its Progre ive opponents), to the New Deal, to the liberal reforms of the 1960 and the fi cal crisis of the 1970s, New York has provided a template for national pattern . A third of the foundation dollars, three national network news operations, most of the leading magazine and book publishers, two newspaper with a claim to national tanding, the main art market, and many nationally 6
significant cultural in titutions are all located in New York City. It is urpri ing, then, that New York has received 0 little comprehen ive cholarly attention. Numerou monographs have appeared on particular a peets of the city' hi tory, but they are fragmented and without a common theoretical focu . Scholars have produced more ynthetic work on Bo ton or Chicago, or even on New Haven, than on New York. A quarter century has pa ed ince the la t comprehen ive re earch program on New York City'S political sy tern or its economy. Even if the skeptic rejects the claim that ew York pro ide the ba i for theoretical development in the ocial cience, the need for greater comprehensive scholarly attention can hardly be denied. E. B. White once wrote that "by rights ew York hould have destroyed itself long ago, from panic or fire or rioting or failure of orne vital upply line in its circulatory sy tern or from orne deep lab rinthine short circuit."s The essays in Power, Culture, and Place ugge t rea ons why, until now, uch a fate ha been avoided. Es ays by Diane Lind trom (Univer ity of Wi consin), Emanuel Tobier (New York Univer it ), and Norman and Susan Fain tein (Baruch College, City Univer ity of ew York, and Rutger Univer ity, re pectively) provide ample evidence that mercantile, industrial, and postindustrial tran formation posed major ocial challenge . Lindstrom shows that overall economic growth wa accompanied by increa ing cla s inequality in the antebellum period. Tobier demon trate how the tremendous economic drive at the turn of the century produced new tension over land use in the central busine di trict and the expanding outer borough hou ing markets. The Fain teins, in turn, examine how tate intervention to re hape the city to promote corporate function and metropolitan decentralization generated new kinds of conflict. The e es ays give ample evidence that economic development con istently produced conflict-yet fatal cri es never re ulted. One ource of order may emerge from learning to live with di order. Cultural hi torians Peter G. Buckley (The Cooper Union) and William R. Taylor (State University of New York, Stony Brook) examine the cro -class use of public spaces, the forging of treet life, and how the popular culture industry took elected aspects of that street culture and projected them into national discour e. Sociologists William
E. B. White. Here Is Ntw York . New York: Harper & Row. 1949. p. 24. VOLUME
Kornblum (The Graduate Center, City Univer ity of ew York) and James Be her (Queens College, City University of New York) follow this theme by examining the reconstituted white ethnic enclave along Jamaica Bay and their conflicts with emerging black and Hispanic communities over access to public spaces like the Gateway National Recreation Area. The e e says suggest that the ocial construction of public pace has important con equences for economic, ocial, and political order. Groups expend great energy to carve out and protect niches in a hared spatial context. None can completely dominate or control that shared space, yet the rules of the game favor and project ome competing elements while dampening the expre ion of others. Order and disorder are not polar conditions; order is in tead built upon the particular way disorder take place. Political scientists Amy Bridges (University of California, San Diego), Martin Shefter (Cornell University), and John H. Mollenkopf argue that the framework of political participation al 0 help to harne conflict. For Bridges, the political interests of the urban immigrant working clas were defined by America's (and New York's) great political invention, the professional political party or machine, because univer al white male suffrage preceded the formation of that class. Shefter trace how the 19th century machine-reform dialectic was transpo ed into the relatively stable, and for a time uncontested, pluralism of the 1950 and early 1960s. Mollenkopf analyze how the economic, fi cal, and racial trauma of the late 1960s and 1970s affected the position of different group in the political arena and speculates on why it remained stable nonetheless. Three reflective essays are offered in place of any firm conclusions. Thomas Bender (New York Univer ity) echoes earlier es ays by urging historian to place the study of public spaces at the center of their analysis of citie , thus returning a political dimension to the "new social history." John Mollenkopf reflects on the paradox that political parties have decayed as a means of representation at the ame time that state efforts to shape the physical environment have become stronger. Finally, Ira Katznelson (New School for Social Research) critically review how major social theorists have viewed the city and offers suggestions for future work. The e essays only begin to substantiate the as umptions that provide the tarting point for the
volume. Do culture, politics, and economics really have an equally significant influence on New York's development? How do the inter ect? Do the e ay bear out the contention that the particular hared patial context help hape how these domains are woven together? What di tinct pattern, if any, ha New York stamped on larger ocial trend? What evidence is there that ew York ha driven larger development pattern ? Or has it progre ively 10 t ground to external force ? The Committee on ew York City will pur ue the e i sue in the coming year through re earch programs on (1) recon tructing the built environment, (2) New York and the wider world, and (3) changing patterns of inequality. These subject have been chosen becau e they allow economic, political, and cultural per pective to be brought to bear and they contribute to theoretical development in the ocial ciences. The working group on the built environment will examine the building, u e, and understanding of the ph sical city. It will focus on the 18 0-1920 period in which the construction of everal hundred ky crapers transformed the kyline and captured the e ence of modernity. The econd working group will study the changing relationships between New York and the wider economy, the political y tem, and cultural in titution . If New York in titution have fo tered important national change , then a focus on their activitie should reveal largely unexplored relation between economic, political, and cultural development. Thi effort will explore, in effect, ew York's "foreign policy," asking if its leader hip can be sustained in the face of technological change and the di per ion of power. The working group on the changing nature of inequality will analyze the economic, ocial, and political ramification of the current "postindustrial revolution." Manufacturing decline, the ri e of ervice , and internalization of the city' bu ine e and population have been particularl rapid ince the 1960s. Racial and ethnic succe sion, the ri e of new ocial strata and the decline of old one , and economic restructuring have po ed evere challenge to the city'S economy, polity, and civic culture. Trends toward polarization and a new middle cla are both evident. Old pattern of inequality have thus been undermined, even a new ones are created. 0
Current Activities of the Soviet Committee A report on seminars and workshops
THE JOINT COMMIlTEE ON SOVIET STUDIES was appointed by the Council and the American Council of Learned Societies in 1983. Since that time, the committee has established even substantive subcommittees involving over 40 cholars from North America and Europe. The committee' programs are supported by the Ford Foundation, the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, the National Endowment for the Humanities, the Rockefeller Foundation, and the U.S. Department of State through the Soviet and East Europe Re earch and Training Act of 1983 (Title VIII). The 1988-89 members of the Joint Committee on Soviet Studies are: Loren Graham, Mas achusetts Institute of Technology, chair; Jeffrey P. Brooks, University of Minnesota; Jane Burbank, Univer ity of Michigan; Robert W. Campbell, Indiana Univerity; Timothy J. Colton, Univer ity of Toronto; Sheila Fitzpatrick, University of Texas; Nancy Shield Kollmann, Stanford University; Mary McAuley, University of Oxford; Brian D. Silver, Michigan State University; Michael Swafford, Vanderbilt University; and William Mill Todd III, Harvard Univer ity. Blair A. Ruble erves as staff. The policies of pere troika that have been carried out since Mikhail Gorbachev's acce sion to power have created new challenge and opportunities for Soviet studies. Glasnost enlarge and enriches Soviet printed ource while the po sibility of new field work hold out the promi e of new research option . During recent months, the committee ha explored the implications of pere troika for it variou program and activitie a well a for the oviet field more generally. A number of initiative have been undertaken to timulate new approaches to research, including the three activitie de cribed below.
Conference on Industrialization and Change in Soviet Society, 1928-1941 The committee and the Center for Ru ian and Ea t European Studie, Univer it of Michigan, cospon ored the fifth se ion of the National Seminar on Rus ian Social Hi tory in the Twentieth Century. The conference wa convened on April 22-24, 19 at the University of Michigan. Its 70
principal aim was to explore the essential analytical issues of Russian social history during the period of rapid industrialization between 1928 and 1941. Thirty-five scholars participated. Primary funding was provided by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation. The seminar was initially organized in the fall of 1979 at the initiative of Mo he Lewin and Alfred J. Rieber, both of the University of Pennsylvania. Its objective has been to bring together on a regular basis cholars with an active research interest in modern Rus ian and Soviet ocial history. Previou National Seminar conference have examined the pea antry, the bureaucracy, the Civil War period (1917-1920), and the period of the New Economic Policy (NEP), 1921-1928. The 1988 eminar, "Industrialization and Change in Soviet Society, 1928-1941," was organized under the direction of the late Kendall Bailes, University of California, Los Angeles, and William Ro enberg, University of Michigan. Messrs. Bailes and Ro enberg were assisted by Alexander Rabinowitch, Indiana University; Sheila Fitzpatrick, Univer ity of Texas; and Blair A. Ruble, taff. The conference examined five major theme : (1) urbanization, social mobility, and the problem of ocial identity; (2) management of industrialization; (3) "old" and "new" worker and the question of cla ; (4) law and coercion: legality ver us arbitrarine ; and (5) the culture of industrialization. Introductory and concluding e sion reviewed the tudy of the ocial hi tory of industrialization in the Soviet Union during this period from a variety of different per pective , historical and comparative. Conference participants were: John Barber William Cha e Katerina Clark Patrick Dale Robert W. Davie Myriam De ert Geoff Eley Laura Engel tein Sheila Fitzpatrick Michael Gelb
King' College (Cambridge) U niver ity of Pittsburgh Yale Univer ity Oberlin College University of Birmingham Mai on des Science de l'Homme (Paris) University of Michigan Princeton University Univer ity of Texa Univer ity of California, Lo Angele VOLUME
Arch Getty Leopold Haimson Heather Hogan Robert E. John on Diane P. Koenker Stephen Kotkin Hiroaki Kuromiya Mo he Lewin Roberta T. Manning Stephen Merl DanielOrlovsky Alexander Rabinowitch William G. Ro enberg Donald Karl Rowney David Schearer
Jutta Sherrer Lewi H. Siegelbaum Peter H. Solomon, Jr. Su an Solomon Ronald G. Suny Lynne Viola Neil Bruce Wie man Reginald E. Zelnik
Univer ity of California, River ide Columbia University Oberlin College University of Toronto Univer ity of Illinoi Univer ity of California, Berkeley King's College (Cambridge) Univer ity of Penn ylvania Boston College Free Univer ity of Berlin Southern Methodi t Univer ity Indiana Univer ity Univer ity of Michigan Bowling Green State Univer ity University of Pennsylvania Mai on de Science de I'Homme (Paris) Michigan State Univer ity Univer ity of Toronto Univer ity of Toronto Univer ity of Michigan State Univer ity of New York, Binghamton Dickinson College Univer ity of California, Berkeley
Sandra Barrow and Blair A. Ruble erved a
Summer Workshop on Soviet Domestic Politics and Society The committee sponsored its First Annual Summer Workshop on Soviet Domestic Politics and Society at the University of Toronto on June 5-18, 1988, in cooperation with the Center for Rus ian and East European Studies. Primary funding was provided by the Carnegie Corporation of New York. The workshop was constructed around the theme, "Reform under Gorbachev: Process, Meaning, and Historical Perspective." Morning sessions were organized around seminar presentations by the 20 participants who focused on their current re earchon topics ranging from questions of ideology, social contract theory, the politics of succession, educational and agricultural reforms, to the Soviet state and society during the period of the New Economic Policy. Attention was paid to the link between Soviet studies and the discipline of political science and the methods of conducting empirical research on the Soviet Union. SEPTEM8ER
The afternoon discussions were led by vIsIting faculty members who addressed the group on various aspects of the current reform. Vi iting faculty included: Joseph Berliner, Russian Re earch Center, Harvard University; Nancy Condee, Wheaton College; Walter Connor, Boston Univer ity; Jerry Hough, Duke Univer ity and the Brooking Institution (Washington, D.C.); Kenneth Jowitt, University of California, Berkeley; Vladimir Padunov, Institute for Current World Affairs (Hanover, New Hampshire); Brian Silver, Michigan State Univer ity; and S. Frederick Starr, Oberlin College. Peter Solomon, University of Toronto, and Thane Gustaf on, Georgetown University, directed the work hop. They were joined on the faculty by Su an Solomon, U niver ity of Toronto. The participants at the workshop were: Dominique Arel Yitzak Brudny Evelyn Davidhei er Jame Derleth Ru ell Faege Ellen Gordon Stephen Han on Joel Hellman Jeffrey Kop tein Hiroaki Kuromiya Catherine Merridale Martha Merritt Peter Rutland Elizabeth Schillinger Joseph Schull Steven Solnick Rachel Walker Steven Wegren Richard Weitz Elizabeth Wood
Univer ity of Illinoi Princeton Universit Duke Univer it Univer ity of Maryland Univer ity of California, Berkele Univer ity of Michigan Univer ity of California, Berkeley Yale Univer ity University of California, Berkeley King' College (Cambridge) King' College (Cambridge) University of Oxford University of Texas Oklahoma State Uni\'er ity University of Oxford Harvard University Univer ity of Southampton Columbia Uni\'er ity Harvard Univer it Univer ity of Michigan
Regina A. Smyth and Blair A. Ruble erved a
The Second Annual Summer Workshop on Soviet Domestic Politics and Society will be held, also at the University of Toronto, in June 1989.
Summer Workshop on Soviet and East European Economics The committee sponsored its Fourth Annual Summer Workshop on Soviet and East European Economics at the University of California, Berkeley, on July 10-21, 1988. The program was conducted in cooperation with the University'S Center for Slavic 71
and East European Studies, with primary funding provided by the Ford and Alfred P. Sloan foundation . The workshop ought to sustain high quality re earch on the economie of the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe and to encourage the work of younger scholars. In addition to seminar e sions organized around the work of each participant, the workshop offered lectures and discussion periods with the faculty as well as invited speakers. Among the major topics of discussion were economic reform in centrally planned economie , the internal organization of the industrial enterprise, agricultural economics, .. econd" economy activities, foreign trade and international economic relations, and the modelling of centrally planned economies. Herbert S. Levine, University of Pennsylvania, directed the workshop. He was joined on the faculty by Richard Ericson, Columbia University; Ed A. Hewett, The Brookings In titution (Washington, D. C.); VaUerii Leonidovich Makarov, Central Mathematical Economic In titute, USSR Academy of Sciences (Mo cow); Blair A. Ruble, Social Science Re earch Council; Judith Thornton, University of Washington; and Laura D'Andrea Tyson, University of California, Berkeley. Visiting speakers Gregory Grossman and Gail Lapidus, both of the Univer ity of California, Berkeley, also discussed their re earch and perspectives with workshop participants. Regina A. Smyth erved as staff. Postdoctoral participants were: Michael Alexeev, George Mason University; Michael Lewis Boyd, Univer ity of Vermont; Irwin L. Collier, University
of Houston; Barry W. Ickes, Pennsylvania State University; Gabor Kertesi, Institute of Economics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences; John M. Litwack, Stanford University; Janet Mitchell, University of Southern California; Randi Ryterman, University of Pennsylvania; and Janine Wedel, International Trade Commission (Washington, D.C.). Predoctoral participants were: Renzo Daviddi, European University In titute (Florence); Ellen Hamilton, Columbia University; Simon John on, Mas achusetts Institute of Technology; Evan Kraft, New School for Social Re earch; Mark Lundell, University of California, Berkeley; Lee Metcalf, Stanford Univer ity; Dubravko Mihaljek, University of Pennsylvania; Susanne Oxenstierna, Swedish In titute for Social Research (Stockholm); Thomas Richard on, Columbia University; Catherine Sokil, Middlebury College; Yanqi Tong, The Johns Hopkins University; and Milovan Vodopivec, University of Maryland. Chen Sheng-jun, Institute of World Economics and Politics, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (Beijing); Miro lav Gronicki, University of Pennsylvania; Iurii Popov, Central Mathematical Economics Institute, USSR Academy of Sciences (Mo cow); and Zhu Xiaozhong, In titute of Soviet and East European Studies, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (Beijing) observed the workshop proceeding . The Fifth Annual Summer Workshop on Soviet and East European Economics will be held, also at the University of California, Berkeley, in July 1%9. 0
"Interdisciplinary": The First Half Century by Roberta Frank* What a plendid book one could put together by narrating the life and adventure of a word. The events for which a word wa u ed have undoubtedl left variou imprints on it; depending on place it ha awakened different notion ; but doe it not become grander till when con idered in its trinity of soul, bod ,and movement? Honore de Balzac, Louis LAmberti
"INTERDISCIPLINARY" WAS PROBABLY BORN in New York City in the mid-1920 , mo t likely at the corner of 42nd and Madison. The word eems to have begun life in the corridor and meeting room of the Social Science Re earch Council as a kind of bureaucratic shorthand for what the Council aw a its chief function, the promotion of re earch that even con tituent involved two or more of it 2 ocieties. "Interdi ciplinar" tarted out with a rea onably bounded set of sen e . Then, subjected to indecent abu e in the 50 and 60s, it acquired a precocious middle-aged spread. Now not only i the word everywhere but no one can pin down what people have in mind when they utter it. Whoever coined "interdisciplinary" never claimed paternity, the way Jeremy Bentham apologized for creating a new compound: "The word international, it must be acknowledged, is a new one; though, it is hoped, sufficiently analogous and intelligible."!! Profe or Robert Sessions Woodworth (1869-1962), the distinguished Columbia University p ychologist and the first per on I have caught using "interdi ci-
â€˘ Roberta Frank i a profe or in the Department of Engli h and the Centre for Medieval Studie ,Universit of Toronto. Thi article appears in Woydf, edited by E. G. tanle and T. F. Hoad, and publi hed by D. S. Brewer (Woodbridge, Suffolk, United Kingdom) in 19 8. It i reprinted here with the kind permi ion of the publi her. Wordf i a Ft tschrift presented to Robert Burchfield, the editor of the Oxford English Dictionary, on the occa ion of hi 65th birthday. Roberta Frank' contribution i ba ed in part upon material in the Council' archives and demon trate the Council' earl interest in interdisciplinary research. I (Etwrts complJtt dt M. dt Baluu. LA ComMit humaint, vol. 16.2 (Pari , I 46), Ill. 2 Founded in 1923, the Council wa , according to Charle E. Merriam, its first Chairman, ordinarily to "deal only with uch problem a involve two or more discipline ." ("Report for the year 1925 Made to the American Political Science A ociation b Charle E. Merriam, Chairman," Ammcan Political Scit/lCt Review 20 , 186.)Âˇ 'An Introduction to tht Principles of Morals and Ltgislation
(London, 1780 ), xvii, 25.
plinary" in public, neither apologizes nor treats the word a a neologism. On Monday evening, August 30, 1926, in Hanover, New Hamp hire, where member of SSRC had gathered to e cape the heat of New York City and to devi e "A Constructive Program for the SSRC," he poke about the range of re earch appropriate for the Council: "There i a certain limitation in the fact that we are an a embly of several di ciplines, and in our official statements again it i expres ed that we shall attempt to fo ter re earch which bring in more than one di cipline."4 He continued a few sentence later: "There would be no other body, unles we a ume the function our elve, charged with the duty of con idering where the be t chance were for coordinated or interdi ciplinary work." Profe or Woodworth at the time a member of the founding SSRC Committee on Problems and Policy and oon to be Pre ident of the Council (1931-32), had just erved as Chairman of the division of anthropology and p ychology of the National Re earch Council in Washington (1924-25). He clearly had an interest in and sen itivity to the language u ed by planners in both Council : at a 1931 Brooking Institution conference on cooperative re earch, when his colleague got tangled up in the differences between cooperation, collaboration, and coordination, Woodworth was able to report that the word "co-ordination" had been favored at the NRC a decade earlier "as a refuge from orne wor e word which I don't eem to remember."5 That "wor e word" was not "interdisciplinary," which, if it exi ted, has left no trace, a far a I can determine, in the Reports, Minutes, and archive of the NRC or the National Academy of Science . The cientists came clo e of course. George Ellery Hale, in 1916 the fir t President of the NRC, had propo ed as early as 1912 that the Academy should fo ter interest in "subjects lying between the old-established divisions of science"6 and insisted in 1914 on "the inter-relationship of the ciences."7 In the 20 and
.. SSRC HanovtT ConftTtnct, vol. II (Dartmouth College, Augu t 23-September 2, 1926),445 . .5 Brookings In titution, Co-operatnlt Rtstarch (Wa hington, D.C., 1931),67. 6 G. E. Hale to C. D. Walcott, May 17, 1912. Cited by Rexmond C. Cochrane, Tht National Acadt11/)' of Scitllus: Tht Fir t Hundrtd Yta~, 1863-1963 (Washington, D.C., 1978),327. 7 "National Academie and the Progre of Research II. The
30s, the most popular terms at the NRC were "new fields," "overlapping projects," "interrelated research," and-winners by a mile-"borderlands" and "borderline research. "8 Outside SSRC committee rooms, "interdisciplinary" seems not to have been current among social cientists in the 20s or 30s, even though the years between the founding of the New School for Social Research (1919) and the Yale Institute of Human Relations (1929) produced a mountain of documents calling for the integration of the social sciences and the related arts of industry, government, and public welfare. Rising stars like Margaret Mead called not for interdisciplinary activity but for "co-operation for cross-fertilization in the social sciences," and wellestablished luminaries like Harold Laski lamented the "endless committees to co-ordinate or correlate or integrate."g "Interdisciplinary" seems not to have made it into the fifteen-volume Encyclopaedia of the Social Sciences (1930-35), plans for which were laid in 1923. "Cooperative research" is the usual term in a half-dozen books published between 1925-30 that pre ent the whole field of social science as a unit. They stress the "interrelation," "mutual interdependence," "interpenetration," "intercommunication," "cross-relationships," "interfiliation," and, of course, "interaction" of the various disciplines, along with the need to explore "twilight zones" and "border areas," to fill any "unoccupied spaces," and to encourage the "active cultivation of borderlands between the several disciplines." But "interdisciplinary" never once raises its head. 1o Meanwhile, back at the Social Science Research Council, the word was beginning to flex its muscles. At the 1930 Hanover conference, the Council First Half-Century of the National Academy of Science ," Science 39 (February 6, 1914); cited Cochrane, p. 196. 8 Cochrane, p. 322. 9 American Journal of Sociology 37 (1931), 274; "Foundation, Univer itie and Research," Harper's Magazine 157 (1928), 295-303. 10 E.g., Harry Elmer Barne et aI., eds., The History and Prospects of the Socinl Sciences (New York, 1925); Edward Cary Haye , ed., Recent Developments in the Social Sciences (Philadelphia, 1927); William F. Ogburn and Alexander Goldenweiser, eds., The Social Sciences and their Interrelations (Boston, 1927); Frederick A. Ogg, Research in the Humanities and Social Sciences (New York, 1928); Wilson P. Gee, ed., The Fundamental Objectives and Methods of Research in the Social Sciences (New York, 1929); Howard W. Odum and Katherine Jocher, An Introduction to Socinl Research (New York, 1929); Leonard D. White, ed., The New Socin1 Science (Chicago, 1930); W. E. Spahr and R. J. Swenson, Methods and Statw of Scientific Research with Particular Appliattion to the Social Sciences (New York, 1930).
adopted a statement of purpose, quoted in the Annual Report for 1929-30: "It is probable that the Council's interest will continue to run strongly in the direction of these inter-discipline activities." The same report also warned with disquieting ambiguity that "Concern with 'co-operative research' or 'interdiscipline problems' should not be allowed to hamper the first-rate mind. . . ."11 By 1933, in an SSRC fellowship notice appearing in the American Journal of Sociology, "interdisciplinary" had regained its -ary and broadened its reference to include "education" as well as "problems": "The fellowships were designed to afford opportunity for research training, preferably interdisciplinary in nature."12 The first citation for "interdisciplinary" in Webster's Ninth New CoLLegiate Dictionary and A Supplement to the Oxford English Dictionary is from the December 1937 issue of the Journal of Educational Sociology, in a sub equent notice concerning SSRC postdoctoral fellowships: "The primary purpose of these fellowships is to broaden the research training and equipment of promising young social scientists. . . . Programs of study submitted should provide either for study of an interdisciplinary nature, for advanced training within the applicants' fields of specialization, or for field work or other experimental training intended to supplement more formal academic preparation for research."15 By August 1937, when the University of Chicago sociologist Louis Wirth submitted his mimeographed report 6n Council policies, "interdisciplinary" is branded as an in-house vogue word: "It may also be said the Council has allowed itself to some extent to become obsessed at times by catch phrases and slogans which were not sufficiently critically examined. Thus there is some justification for saying that much of the talk in connection with II
Social Science Research Council, Sixth Annual Report,
1929-1930, p. 18. First communicated to me in a letter from David L. Sills, Executive A sociate, SSRC, October 7, 1985, and
cited by him in "A Note on the Origin of 'Interdisciplinary,''' Items 40 (March 1986), 18. (At the 1931 Brookings conference on cooperative research, Robert S. Lynd, the Permanent Secretary of SSRC, twice spoke of "cro -discipline cooperation" [Cooperative Research, p. 121.) I am grateful to Dr. Sills for hi interest in my original enquiry (letter R. Frank to D. Sill ,July 10, 1985) and for his kindnes in sharing with me material from SSRC archives. 12 American Journal of Sociology 39 Uuly 1933), 106; al 0 40 Uuly 1934), 108. SSRC notices before 1933 lack "interdisciplinary" and seem more pointed: "The major objective of these fellow hip continues tQ. be the development of more adequately trained research investigators ..." (AJS 38 Uuly 19321, ll8.) IS Journal of Educational Sociology 2 (December 1937),251. The same announcement appeared in the American Journal of Sociology 41 (September 1935),239 and 42 Uuly 1936), 104. VOLUME
Council policy, especially in the early years, about cooperation and interdisciplinary re earch turned out to be a delusion."14 On Friday, December I, 1939, in the University of Chicago's Social Science Re earch Building, at a se sion entitled "The Social Sciences: One or Many," Robert T. Crane repre enting the SSRC spoke in a similar fashion about the old days: "The Social Science Research Council ha talked Ie s in recent than in earlier year about integration of the ciences, about cro -fertilization, and about a multi-di ciplinary or interdi ciplinary approach to problem ."15 Mark May, repre enting the Institute of Human Relations at Yale, recalled how "the Social Science Re earch Council, eeing the great need for integration, attempted to tre s interdi ciplinary forms of research as well as interdisciplinary training under its fellowship program ... I di tinctly remember attending meeting of the Council at which time the phrase 'cross-fertilization' was translated into 'cros -sterilization' with the obvious intent of discrediting interdi ciplinary activities. "16 The American Council of Learned Societie, founded in 1919, was without the word for two decade. In the spring of 1940, however, the Council spon ored a conference in Washington, D.C., on "The Interdisciplinary Aspects of Negro Studie ."17 The relative novelty at ACLS of such phra es as "interdisciplinary cooperation," "interdisciplinary cro -fertilization," "inter-disciplinary character," and "inter-disciplinary nature" may be reflected in the copy editor's 0 cillation between hyphenated and non hyphenated forms. In the 1964 ACLS Report of the Commission on the Humanities, only three societie and the index boast of "interdisciplinary relationships." But any residual shyne s disappears in the 1985 ACLS Report to the Congress of the United States on the State of the Humanities, in which all twenty-eight constituent societies openly acknowledge their interdisciplinary intentions and their de ire to transcend disciplinary perimeters, melt boundaries, fill gap , and escape narrow confines. The Bibliographical Society of America, for example, expres es its willingness to enter into "interdisciplinary partner-
14 Social Science Research Council. "Report on the Hi tory. Activities and Policie of the Social Science Research Council. Prepared for the Committee on Review of Council Policy." p. 145. Cited Sills. "A Note." p. 18. IS Loui Wirth. ed .â€˘ Eleven Twenty-Six: A DutuIe of Social Science Research (Chicago. 1940). 122. 16 Eleven Twenty-Six. p. 133. 17 See ACLS Bulletin 32. September 1941.
ships" and to receive funding for "interdi ciplinary program" and "interdisciplinary conference ." The Medieval Academy of America mentions its interdi ciplinary inclinations six time in about as many page ; while the American Society for EighteenthCentury Studies, a bit ahead with twelve, ob erves sugge tively "that the United States of America is itself one of the great interdi ciplinary achievements of the eighteenth century." By mid-century "interdi ciplinary" wa common coin in the ocial sciences. A early as 1951, an editorial in the journal Human Organization, commenting on an es ay in that issue entitled "Pitfalls in the Organization of Interdi ciplinary Research," complained that "pre ent fashion make the tres ing of the interdi ciplinary aspects of the project almo t mandatory."1 Numerous how-to-do-it manuals and articles, by and for social scientists, began appearing, culminating in Margaret B. Luszki's Interdisciplinary Team Re earch: Methods and Problems (Washington: ational Training Laboratorie , 1958).19 B the late 50s, the idea even seemed old-hat: "Ten ear ago interdi ciplinary research was very much in vogue."20 The adjective reached political cience circles in France by 1959 ("ce que 1'on nomme dans Ie jargon usuel Ie travail 'interdi ciplinaire' ");21 the noun arrived a decade later, just in time to appear on Marianne' banner at the barricades of May 1968 ("pluridi ciplinarite et interdisciplinarite: deux termes barbares, meme s'ils sont d'actualite").22 In the cour e of the 60s "interdisciplinary" changed from a eries of widely scattered occurrence into a kind of weather. An international conference held in Nice in 1969, under the auspice 10 (Winter 1951). 3. E.g .â€˘ Dorothy S. Thomas. "Experience in Interdi iplinary Research." American Sociological Review 17 (1952). 663-69; R. Richard Wohl. "Some Observation on the Social Organization of Interdisciplinary Social Science Research." Social Forces 23 (1955). 374-90. The production of uch guide continued through the 60 : see Interdisciplinary IUlationships ill tile Social Sciences, ed . Muzafer Sherif and Carol n W. herif (Chicago. 1969). 20 Elizabeth Bott. Family aruL Social Network: Roks. Norms. and ExtemaL IUlationships in Ordinary Urban Families (London. 1957). ii, 3. Yet the concept seemed new again to authors in the 60s: "The writing of thi book. . . represents fundamentally an exercise in what i now called 'interdisciplinary research.' " (Ben B. Seligman. Most Notoriol/.s Victory [New York. 1966], p. xi). 21 Pierre Gilbert. Dictionnaire des ,/lots nouvtaux (Pari, 1971). 277. Also Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. Interdisciplinary Cooperation in Technical and Economic Agricultural Research (Paris, 1961). n l.e Figaro. 8 September 1970. 18
of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, produced the first of many guides that in the 70 taught us to taste the subde difference between interdisciplinary, metadisciplinary, extradiciplinary, multidi ciplinary, pluridisciplinary, crossdi ciplinary, transdi ciplinary, nondisciplinary, adisciplinary, and polydi ciplinary, and to discriminate knowingly between the even brand of interdi ciplinarity (teleological, normative, purpo ive, subjectoriented, problem-oriented, field-theory, and General Systems theory).2s In the 1970s interior designers were among the more fervent interdi ciplinarians. The Augu t 1975 issue of the Designer teaches ub cribers that "There is a wide gap between multi-di ciplinary team and inter-di ciplinary team . Multi-di ciplinary applies when various disciplines provide their views with minimal cooperative interaction. Interdisciplinarity requires coordination among di cipline and synthe is of material through a higher-level organizing concept."24 Educators defined "interdi ciplinary" with their u ual flair: "Interdi ciplinary re earch (or activity) requires day-to-day interaction between per ons from different di ciplines . . . and the interchange in an interactive mcxh of samples, ideas, and results. Naturally, this is facilitated gready by physical propinquity."25 Humanists slowly di covered that their careers, too, could be fostered by the u e of "interdi ciplinary": "I believe that English must become interdisciplinary, but with caution and no illusions. In the 1970s English must become interdisciplinary, multidi ciplinary, cro disciplinary . . . We must become interdisciplinary, first of all, for self-pre ervation."26 "Interdisciplinary" made its first appearance in Speculum, the journal of the Medieval Academy of America, in 1951, as part of an ACLS Interdisciplinarity: Problems of Teaching and Restarch in ities (Paris: OECD/Centre for Educational Research and Innovation. 1972). See also Harry Finestone and Michael F. Shugrue. eds.. Prospects for the 70s: English Departments and Multidisciplinary Study (New York. 1973); Helmut Holzhey. ed .• InttTdiszipiinlir: InttTdiszipiinlire Arbeit tlnd Wwenschaftstheorie (Basel. 1974); Geoffrey Squires.lfIItTdisciplinarity (London. 1975); Joseph J. Kockelman • ed .• Interdisciplinarity and Higher Education (College Park. 1979). 24 Definition by Sherry R. Am tein of the Academy for Contemporary Problem . Cited by Edwin Newman. A Civil Tongue (New York. 1975). 157. 25 Ru tum Roy. "Interdisciplinary Science on Campu : The Elu ive Dream." in Kockelman • InttTdiscipiinarity, p. 170. 26 Alan M. Hollingsworth. "Beyond Literacy." ADE Bulletin, no. 36 (March 1973). 7. See Elizabeth Bayerl. Interdisciplinary Studies in the Humanities: A Directory (Metuchen. N. J.. 1977). whose 1091 pages suggest overkill more than self-preservation. 25
fellowship notice, the same year that an SSRC study appeared showing that social cientists were supported four or five times as generously as humanists. 27 The word does not reappear in Speculum until 1967, when John Hopkins University boasts of an interdisciplinary program, followed in 1968 by Ohio State University. In the same year, the new annual Viator announces its intere t in "interdisciplinary and intercultural research"; in 1970 the University of Connecticut is in possession of an "interdi ciplinary program," University College, Dublin, of an "interdisciplinary approach," and the field of British studie of a "triannual interdisciplinary newsletter." In 1971 the Medieval Academy published a brochure entided Interdisciplinary Medieval Programs and the Training of Students: A Discussion. In 1972 it sponsored a panel discussion on marriage in the Middle Ages "employing the interdi ciplinary method."2 The next year the word appears in a Speculum article (" Abelardian research will become more and more interdi ciplinary"). By 1982 "interdisciplinary" has made it into the Memoirs of Fellows of the Academy, a clear sign of respectability: the decea ed i praised for his "very early realization of the concept of interdisciplinary medieval studies," his creation of an "interdisciplinary group" and "an interdi ciplinary Centre." Contributors to a 1982 book-length survey, Medieval Studies in North America: Past, Present, and Future, use "interdisciplinary" frequendy and fervendy.29 There is so litde consciousness of mimicking the antics of those who were first at the federal feast that one essay concludes: "Outside the humanities there i widespread resistance to the notion of interdisciplinarity ... " It is not surprising that the authors would rather belong to an expanding interdiscipline like Medieval Studies than to an e tablished discipline like Medieval Studies. "Interdisciplinary" sometimes turn into a disembodied smile, a floating demi-Iune coming to rest on whatever we already value. Its silhouette, however, has definitely thickened with the years. No lean, plain word to begin with, "interdisciplinary" was soon larded with thick greasy
27 Elbridge Sibley. Support for Independent Scholarship and Restarch (New York: SSRC. 1951); see also Abraham F1exner. Funds ami Foundations: T1aeir Policies. Past and Present (New York. 1952). 2 The discu ion took place at the annual meeting of the Medieval Academy in Los Angeles. 15 April 1972. and was publi hed in Viator 4 (1973). 413-501. 29 Ed . Franci G. Gentry and Chri topher Kleinhenz (Kalamazoo. Mich.: Medieval In titute Publication ).
yllable front and back. Nouns include interdiscipline, interdi ciplinarian, interdi ciplinarianship, interdisciplinism, and interdisciplinarity (with a plural -ies, as in "previou potential interdi ciplinaritie ").'0 An adverb is atte ted ("person who are active interdisciplinarily").'1 Since there i a verb "to pluridiscipline" ("applied field have alway tended to be cro di ciplinary and its [sic] practitioner pluridi ciplined"),'2 the cone ponding "to interdi cipline" may be just around the corner. I could find no citation for "interdisciplinated," as in "chocolated laxatives." A the word got fatter, it wa contained by acronyms uch a IDE (Interdi ciplinary Enquiry, 1965), lOR (Interdi ciplinary Re earch, 1980), IOU (Interdi ciplinary Units, 1979), IGPH (Interdi ciplinary Graduate Program in the Humanities, 1970), ISC (Interdi ciplinary Studie Context, 1971), IRRPOS (Interdi ciplinary Re earch Relevant to the Problems of Our Society, 1970), and the mo t recent entry, a journal title de igned to indicate graphically that interdi ciplinarity is central to the editors' purpo e: AVISTA (As ociation Villard de Honnecourt for the Interdi ciplinary Study of Medieval Technology, Science, and Art, 1986)." In 1977 "interdisciplinary" made The Dictionary of Diseased English. M The stretching out of syllable (a in "p eudointerdisciplinarity")'5 went hand-in-hand with an
50 Wolfram W. Swoboda, "Discipline and Interdisciplinarity: A Hi torieal Perspective," in Kockelman • 11ltrrdisciplillarity, p. 82. The file of the Oxford Dictionarie contain citation for interdiscipline, interdisciplillarity, interdisciplinism, and intrrdisciplinarian; illterdisciplinarianship (along with the other noun) i included in Merriam-Web teT' file. Thi information wa kindly upplied b Freda J. Thornton, A i tant Editor. hoTter Oxford English Dictionary, and Frederick C. Mi h. Editorial Director. Merriam-Web ter Inc. 51 Robert L. Scott. "Personal and In titutional Problem Encountered in Being Interdisciplinary." in Kockelman • p. 324. 52 Ibid., p. 325. 55 (IOE) Ideas no. 1 and Ideas no. 2 (bulletin obtainable from U. of London. Gold mith • College Curriculum Laboratory. 6 Dixon Road. New Cro ); (lOR) Neil Nelson. "I ue in Funding and Evaluating Interdisciplinary Research." Journal of Canadian Studies 15/3 (Fall 1980). 25; (IOU) Roy in Kocke1mans. Interdisciplinarity" pp. 171-2; (IGPH) in Kockelman Interdisciplinarity, p. viii; (ISC) Daniel Bernd. "Prolegomenon to a Definition of Interdisciplinary Studie : The Experience at Governors State University." ADE Bulletin, 31 (November 1971).8-14; (IRRPOS) National Science Foundation Factboolt, ed . Alvin Reneuky et al. (Orange. N.J.. 1970). 54 Kenneth Hudson. The Dictionary of Diseased English (London. 1977). 125. 53 G. W. Leckie. Interdisciplinary· Research in the University Setting (Univ. of Manitoba: Centre for Settlement Studies. 1975).4.
exten ion of meaning. Different and even conflicting concepts now hang onto the word, vaguely increasing its meaningfulne without limiting it to any pecific en e. "Interdi ciplinary" always promi e good. Fellow hip applicants u e the word to hint at the innovative, problem- olving, ocially committed nature of their re earch (= worthy of support). When u ed by the granting agency, "to develop interdi ciplinary intere ts" ounds 0 natural, 0 inevitable, like "willingne s to grow"; but it can still mean "to retool," the ba ic Depression en e: "The fellow hip broaden the cholar's competence in an interdi ciplinary way, or give that cholar the opportunity to retrain for a nonacademic career."'6 Some fellowship ound like more fun: the Rockefeller Foundation promi e that "fellowship are offered a residencies in order to foster interdi ciplinar work ... ," the Kellogg ational Fellow hip, that "fellow will carry out a nondegree, interdi ciplinary, elfdirected activity to expand their per onal horizon ."57 It turn out that "real life i interdi ciplinary," that "finally, life i interdi ciplinary," that "contemporary is ue are interdi ciplinary," and that "the interdi ciplinarity of the major ocietal i ue of the decade-or century-calls for interdi ciplinary 0Iutions."5 We are taught that "some di ciplines eem to be more interdisciplinary than others," that "if we are to have interdisciplinary achievement, we must have interdisciplinary language," that "the new science isn't 'interdisciplinary' in the old en e of the word," and that students profit from "cour e giving an interdisciplinary introduction to the disciplines judged by experienced scholars to be e ential for the historical approach to medieval studie ."'9 A new quarterly aimed at generous, politically liberal alumni describes itself as "an interdisciplinary jour56 Announcement of Bo ton University Profe sors Po tdoctoral Fellow hip in Directory of Research Grants (Phoenix. Ariz .• 19 6). no. 617. 57 Announcements in PMLA 100/4 (September 1985).642 and in Directory of Research Grants, no. 2075. 5S Report of the Association of American Colleges 19 5; Neil Nelson. "I ue in Funding and Evaluating Interdisciplinary Research." Journal of Canadian Stlldies 15/3 (Fall 19 0).25; Henry Winthrop. "Interdisciplinary Studies: Variation in Meaning. Objectives. and Accompli hments." ADE Bldldin, no. 33 (May 1972). 29 (reprinted in Prospects for the 70s. p. 168); Nelson. "I ue in Funding." 25. 59 Carl R. Hau man. "Disciplinarity or Interdisciplinarity?" in Kockelman • Interdisciplinarity, p. 8; R. I. Page. Anglo-Saxon Aptitudes (Inaugural Lecture. Cambridge. 1985). 25; George Cook. "Renewal 19 ·7." University of Toronto Aillmni Magazine 14 (19 7).8; Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Stlldies S)'llablls 1979-80 (Toronto. 1979). 6.
nal . . . founded on the notion that highly sophi ticated academic material could be rendered acce sible to reader from all disciplines."4o Another side warns that "the thematic of interdisciplinarity open up a dangerou fis ure in the continuity of bourgeois knowledge."41 "Interdisciplinary" can be somewhat indiscriminate in its collocations: "The program ... i unstructured and interdisciplinary, yet directed and rigorous. "42 Thanks to this opennes , reviewers are no longer in the hateful position of having to specify whether a book is cultured, erudite, thorough, original, or conversely, superficial, facile, general, derivative: the one all-purpose adjective keep reader alert and authors friendly. Unlike its nearest ri al -borderlands, interdepartmental, cooperative, coordinated-"interdisciplinary" has something to plea e everyone. Its base, discipline, is hoary and anti eptic; its prefix, inter, is hairy and friendly. Unlike fields, with their mud, cow , and corn, the Latinate discipline comes encased in stainless steel: it sugge ts omething rigorous, aggres ive, hazardous to master. Inter hints that knowledge is a warm, mutually developing, consultative thing. The prefix not only has the right feel but, like an unhinged magnet, draws to itself all other inter . And from the twenties on, between-ness was where the action was: from interper onal, interHarvard Graduate Soddy NnÂťSutJer (Summer 1986), 9. Arthur Krober. "Migration from the Di ipline ," ]oumal of Canadian tudiLs 15/3 (Fall 19 0),7. 4~ Meditval StttdiLs in North America, p. 73. 40
group, interreligious, interethnic, interracial, interregional and international relations to intertextuality, things coming together in the state known as inter encapsulated the greatest problems facing society in the twentieth century.4S "Interdisciplinary" combined the notion that nothing is static or fixed, that discovery comes from breaking some conventional limit or barrier, with the desire to see things whole. It is perhaps not totally coincidental that the earliest citation I could find for "interdisciplinary" comes from the same year in which Jan C. Smuts coined "holistic," referring to "the tendency in nature to produce wholes from the ordered grouping of unit tructure ."44 The 1920s had launched a number of new terms for reciprocal interaction within a total system. By 1928, Harold Laski was complaining that "in our own day it has become fashionable for the observer to apply to the social process the latest discoveries of psychology."45 And the fashion has lasted. "Interdisciplinary," now entering its seventh decade, shows little sign of fading away. Indeed, it is hard to imagine getting through the rest of the 0 century without it. 45 Peggy Ro enthal, Words and VallltS: Some Leading Words (New York and Oxford, 1984). Also David Lodge, "Where It' At: California Language," in The Stale of the Language, ed . Leonard Michael and Chri topher Rick (Berkeley and Lo Angele. 19 0), 503-513; publi hed in a lightly different form in Encottnter magazine under the title "Where It' At: The Poetry of P ychobabble." 44 A SufJPltmtnl to the Oxford English Dictionary, .v., citing Holism and Evoltttion (London, IS26), p. 99. 4 5 "Foundation, Universities, and Re arch ," p. 295.
Council Personnel New directors and officers The Council's board of directors, at its meeting on June 7, 1988, elected or re-elected five directors. Newly elected to board membership for three-year terms were Robert M. Coen, Northwestern University, from the American Economic Association, and Robert B. Zajonc, University of Michigan, from the American Psychological Association. Re-elected for a three-year term was Richard A. Berk, University of California, Los Angeles, from the American Sociological Association. Newly-elected to three-year terms as directors-atlarge were Robert Darnton, Princeton University, and Kai T. Erik on, Yale University. The Council's officers for 1988-89 were also elected by the board. Francis X. Sutton, Dobbs Ferry, New York, was elected chair; Mr. Berk was re-elected vice-chair; Suzanne D. Berger, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, was re-elected secretary; and Condoleezza Rice, Stanford University, was elected treasurer. Ronald J. Peleck, the Council's controller, was re-elected assistant treasurer. Gardner Lindzey, Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences (Stanford, California), was re-elected chair of the Executive Committee. The board also re-elected three nonboard members to the Committee on Problems and Policy. Susanne Hoeber Rudolph, University of Chicago, was re-elected for a one-year term as a member and to serve as chair, and Michael Silverstein, University of Chicago, and Charles V. Willie, Harvard University, were re-elected as members for one-year terms.
Staff appointments SILVIA RAw joined the Council as a staff associate on July 5, 1988. Her primary responsibility will be to erve as staff for the Joint Committee on Latin American Studies. Ms. Raw received a Ph.D. in economic from the University of Mas achu etts in 1985. She conducted field work in Brazil, under a Council International Doctoral Research Fellowship, for her dissertation,
which was entitled "The Political Economy of Brazilian State-Owned Enterprises: 1964-1980." Prior to joining the Council, Ms. Raw was a istant professor of economics at Vassar College. In the spring of 1986, she was a postdoctoral fellow at the Helen Kellogg Institute for International Studies, University of Notre Dame. GLORIA KIRCHHEIMER joined the Council's professional staff on July 25, 1988; her primary responsibility will be to serve as editor for the Council's publications. Ms. Kirchheimer received her B.A. in French studies from New York University and was the recipient of a Fulbright Fellowship to France. She has worked as a translator for a number of film companies, as well as for the French Cultural Services of the French Embassy. Ms. Kirchheimer has been a re earcher for the Foreign Policy Association and an editor at AMS Press, the Clearwater Publishing Company, and the Reearch Institute of America. She has been a fellow-inresidence at Yaddo in Saratoga Springs, New York, and at the MacDowell Colony in Peterborough, New Hampshire. A number of her short stories have been published. TOM LODGE, a British historian and political scientist, will join the staff of the Council in October to serve primarily as staff for the Joint Committee on African Studies. Mr. Lodge received his secondary education at Sabah College in Malaysia and his undergraduate and graduate education at the Univer ity of York. He received a Ph.D. in Southern African studies in 1985. Mr. Lodge has been teaching in the Department of Political Studies at the University of the Witwater rand since 1978; in 1985, he was appointed a enior lecturer. He has written extensively about African society and politics: he is the author of Black Politics in South Africa Since 1945 (London and Johannesburg: Longman and Raven, 1983) and the editor of Resistance and Ideology in Settler Societies (johannesburg: Raven, 1986). His article, "Political Mobilisation During the 1950s: An East London Case Study," was published in the Council-spon ored book edited by Shula Marks and Stanley Trapido, The Politics of Race, Class and Nationalism in Twentieth Century South Africa (London and New York: Longman, 19 7).
Grants Received by the Council in 1987-88 A summary of grants received during the year ending June 30, 1988* Bank of Japan Project LINK (Committee on Economic Stability and Growth) Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System Project LINK (Committee on Economic Stability and Growth) Carnegie Corporation of New York Work hop for young scholar on Soviet dome tic policie , for two year (Joint Committee on Soviet Studies) Exxon Education Foundation General support of the Council Ford Foundation Award and research planning by foreign area committees Re earch on international scholarly relation in Latin American tudie (Joint Committee on Latin American Studies) Conference on international productivity and competitivene (Committee on Economic Stability and Growth) French-American Foundation Tocqueville fellow hip program (Joint Committee on Western Europe) German Marshall Fund of the United States Program upport (Committee on the Berlin Program for Advanced German and European Studie ) William and Flora Hewlett Foundation Predoctoral fellowship awarded by foreign area committee Japan Foundation Regional seminars (Joint Committee on Japanese Studie ) Japan-United States Friendship Commission Advanced re earch grants (Joint Committee on Japane e Studie )
â€˘ Doe not include "in-kind" grants; that i. upport of travel. hotel. conference. and imilar expense received by Council committees in the form of direct payments by other organization. t Represents thi year' allocation of revenue from a prior multiple-year grant.
The William Joiner Center for the Study of War and Social Consequences, University of Massachusetts, Boston Indochina studie program (Joint Committee on Southea t A ia) Korea Research Foundation Survey of Korean tudie in the United State (Joint Committee on Korean Studies) John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation Fellowships and program upport (Committee on International Peace and Security Studies) John and Mary R. Markle Foundation Conference on social science re earch on computational technologie , for three years Andrew W. Mellon Foundation Program support, for five years (Joint Committee on Soviet Studies) National Endowment for the Humanities Grants awarded by foreign area committees National Science Foundation Planning upport (Committee on Cognition and Survey Re earch) Christopher Reynolds Foundation Planning for academic exchanges with Indochina (Joint Committee on Southeast Asia) Rockefeller Foundation Fellowship programs, including international doctoral research fellowship , predi ertation re earch fellow hip , and training and di sertation research fellowship (Joint Committee on African Studie) Conference on African material culture (Joint Committee on African Studies) Program support (Committee for Re earch on the Urban Undercla s) Project on African agriculture, for two years (Joint Committee on African Studies) Russell Sage Foundation Program support (Committee for Research on the Urban Underclass) Support for planning AIDS research VOLUME
1.200,000 66,500 $613,750 $400,000
$97,797 24,921 42,
Alfred P. Sloan Foundation Summer workshop on Soviet and Ea t European economics, for three years (joint Committee on Soviet Studies) Conference on international productivity and competitiveness (Committee on Economic Stability and Growth) Smithsonian Institution Conference on African material culture (joint Committee on African Studies) Spencer Foundation Project on ocial knowledge and the origins of ocial policies (Committee on State and Social Structures) State Economic Information Center, People's Republic of China Project LINK (Committee on Economic Stability and Growth) Toyota Foundation Program support (joint Committee on Southeast Asia) United Nations Project LINK (Committee on Economic Stability and Growth) U.S. Department of State Program support, including the national fellowship program, in titutionallanguage training, and grants for teaching po itions; for three year (joint Committee on Soviet Studie ) Total
Council Board Votes to Divest 185,000
THE COUNCIL'S BOARD OF DIRECTORS voted at its Annual Meeting on June 7, 1988, to dive t its endowment of all mutual fund with share to companie that do bu ine in South Africa. Council Pre ident Frederic E. Wakeman, Jr. noted that "while ocial and political repre ion exi ts in numerou countries, South Africa i the only tate in the world who e official policy is to u e racial difference as a ba is for a discriminatory sy tern of economic, political, and social life." He added that "social and natural scientists agree that o-called racial differences in human capacitie are not genetically given, or rooted in 'nature,' but are in tead ocial, cultural, and political con truction . In South Africa, scientifically invalid claim of racial difference are advanced in order to legitimate the concentration of political power and the country' va t economic wealth in the hands of a mall white minority, and to deny power, wealth, and human freedom to the vastly larger black and A ian majority. A scholars we mu t object to the e claim in the stronge t po sible terms." Hugh T. Patrick, R. D. Calkin Profe or of International Busine , Columbia Univer ity, chair of the Council's board, stated that "the board and a pecially de ignated committee examined variou methods for responding to this eriou moral i ue, while simultaneou ly maintaining fiduciary re pon ibilitie for the Council's endowment. After long evaluation, dive tment-in an expeditiou and orderly manner- eemed the only appropriate action."
Recent Council Publications A selection of Council books published In 1987 and 1988 The African Bourgeoisie: Capitalist Development in Nigeria, Kenya, and the Ivory Coast, edited b Paul M. Lubeck. Papers from a 19 0 conference in Dakar. Senegal. ponsored b the Joint Committee on African tudie. the Council for Economic and ial Re earch in Africa. and the Environment and ational Development in Africa Program. Boulder. Colorado: Lynne Rienner Publi her. 1987. Cloth. 30.00. American Families and Households, b Jame A. Sweet and Larry L. Bumpa . A publication in the serie "The Population of the United tate in the 19 0." pon ored b the Committee for Re earch on the 19 0 Cen u. New York: Ru ell age Foundation. 19 . xxxii + 416 page. Cloth. 39.95. American Neighborhoods and Residential Differentiation, b Michael J. ~ hite. A publication in the erie "The Population of the United tate in the 19 0." ponsored b the Committee for Re earch on the 19 0 Cen u. New York: Ru ell age Foundation. 19 . xx + 327 page. Cloth. $37.50. Child Abuse and Neglect: Biosocial Dimension , edited b Richard J. Gelle and Jane B. Lancaster. Ba ed upon a 19 4 conference pon ored by the Committee on Bio ocial Per pective on Parent Behavior and Off pring Development. Hawthorne. ew York: Aldine de Gru ter. 19 7. Cloth, 42.95; paper. 21.95. The Color Line and the Quality of Life in America, b Reynold Farle and Walter R. Allen. A publication in the erie. "The Population of the United tate in the 19 0 ." Spon ored by the Committee for Research on the 19 0 en u . New York: Ru ell age Foundation. 19 7. xxiv + 493 page. loth. 37.50. Democratizing Japan: The Allied Occupation, edited b Robert E. Ward and akamoto Yo hikazu. Paper from a conference ponsored b ' the Joint ommittee on Japane e tudie. Honolulu: niv rsit of Hawaii Pre • 19 7. xv + 456 page. loth. 29.95. Dollars and Dreams: The Changing American Income Distribution, b}' Frank Lev}'. A publication in the erie "The Population of the nited tate in the 19 0." pon ored by the ommittee for Re earch on the 19 0 en u. 'ew York: Ru ell age Foundation, 19 7. ix + 259 page. Cloth. 27.50. Forecasting in the Social and Natural Sciences, edited b Kenneth . Land and teph n H. hneider. Paper from a conferen e held at the National enter for Atmo pheric Re earch in Boulder, olorado,June 10-13, 19 4. pon ored b the Committee on ocial Indicator (1972- 5). Dordre ht, Holland : D. Reidel Publi hing 0 .• 19 7. 3 I page. loth. 7 .00 ( old and di tributed in the United tate and Canada by
Kluwer Academic Publi hers. 101 Philip Drive. A inipi Park. Norwell. Ma sachusetts 02061. Selected papers al 0 publi hed in Climatic Change. Volume 11. No . 1-2. 1987). From Many Strands: Ethnic and Racial Group in Contempo-
rary America, by Stanley Lieberson and Mary C. Water. A publication in the serie "The Population of the United tate in the 19 0 ." Spon ored by the Committee for Re earch on the 19 0 Cen u . New York: Russell age Foundation. 19 . xx + 294 page. Cloth. 29.95. Guide to Historical Map Resources for Greater New York, by Jeffrey Kroe ler. Sponsored by the Committee on New York City. Monograph Number 2 of the Map and eography Roundtable of the American Library Association. Chicago: peculum Orbi Pre • 19 . Paper. 11.95. Health, Illness, and Medical Care in Japan: Cultural and Social Dimensions, edited by Edward Norbeck and Margaret Lock. Publication re ulting from a workshop upported b the Joint Committee on Japane e Studie . Honolulu: Universit of Hawaii Pre • 19 7. xiii + 202. Cloth. 21.00. The Hispanic Population of the United States, b Frank D. Bean and Marta Tienda. A publication in the erie "The Population of the United tate in the 19 0 ." Spon ored by the Committee for Research on the 19 0 Cen u. ew York: Ru sell Sage Foundation. 19 . xxiv + 457 page. Cloth, 42.50. Housing America in the 1980s, b John S. Adam. A publication in the eries "The Population of the United State in the 19 0." ponsored b the Committee for Research on the 19 0 Cen u . New York: Rus ell age Foundation. 19 8. xviii + 32 page. Cloth. 65.00. The Politics of Race, Class and Nationalism in Twentieth Century South Africa, edited b hula Mark and tan ley Trapido. Papers from a 19 2 conference held in ew York. pon red b the Joint Committee on African tudi . London and ew York: Longman, 19 7. xiii + 462 pages. Paper. 21.95. Regional and Metropolitan Growth and Decline in the United States, by William H. Frey and Alden peare.Jr. A publication in the erie "The Population of the United tate in the 19 0 ." pon ored b the Committee for Re earch on the 19 0 Cen u . New York: Ru ell age Foundation. 19 8. xxxii + 564 page . Cloth. 70.00. Religion and Ritual in Korean Society, edited b Laurel Kendall and Griffin Dix. Publication re ulting from a onference pon red b the Joint Committee on Korean tudie. Korea Re earch Monograph. No. 12. Berkeley. California: University of California. In titute of Ea t A ian tudie. 19 7. viii + 223 pp. Paper. 15.00.
Fellowships and Grants for Research on the Urban Underclass New fellowships offered in 1989 P RPO E
To encoura e re earch in all the ocial ience on the tru ture and pr ce e that generate, maintain, and over orne the condition and con equence of p ri tent and concentrated urban povert in the United tate . T recruit and nurture a p 1 of talented and welltrained tudents and holar who will continue to carr out re earch on the e and related topic.
P tdoctoral grant provide tip nd of up to 30,000 for one year of re ar hand 7,5 0 for r . archrelated exp n e . Appli ant mu l have a Ph.D. or have had omparable re earch exp nence.
PON OR HIP
Fellow hip and grant are pon ored by the Council through it Committee for Re earch on the Urban Undercla . Fund for the e program are provided by a grant to the Council from the Rockefeller Foundation. PROGRAM
Undergraduate re earch as i tantship Undergraduate re earch a i tant hip provide upport for re earch conducted b undergraduate tudent in collaboration with faculty and/or advanced graduate tudent. upp rt i offered for individual a well a group re earch project (up to five tudent per project) through tipend of up to 4,0 0 per tudent and re earch-related expen e of up to I, 00 per tudent. For individual proje t ,the tudent mu t be a member of a minorit gr up; for group re earch project , at lea t half of the tudent mu t be minoritie . Minoritie are defined a Ala kan ative, Ameri an Indian , Black American, Me ican Ameri an , ative Pacific I lander , and Puerto Rican
Dis ertation fellow hips Di ertation fellow hip pr vide finan ial upport for full-time re earch dire ted toward the omplelion of the doctoral di ertation. The fellow hip ffer tip nd of up to 1,000 P r month ~ r up to 1 month and additional re ource of up to 4,000 to c ver reearch expen e incurred during the fellow hip petudent nl. riod. Thi program i
RE EAR H THEME
Topic that rna b upported b the e program include, but are not limited to: • The relation hip between the per istenc and "palial toncentration of povert and the con'>equence'> for famih and individual developm III in different urban ,etling" •
he differential abilit\ of in tltulions. familie . and indl\ Iduab to re pond po itiveh to change~ in emplov melli, hOlI,ing. and ra ial and ethnic compo ition within Iheir communilie,
ompari n of the d}namics underlnng the contemporal \ gro\\ th of oncentrated urban povert\ \\ ith Ihe hi.,tori< .. 1emergence of lum and gheltos in the Cnited St.lte, and e1,e\\ here
• The effects of hifts in the nature of jobs, ()(tupaliom, and emplo}me11l on group that la k educational and elllpim melll kills and experience • The effe lS of concentrated and p r.,istent UI ban pO\en\ on the tructure and functioning of families and on the intergenerati nal tran mi. ion of pm rt) • The role of publi politie and programs in educalion. emplO\me11l and training. hou ing, and immigration III (I "ling, maintaining, or over oming cone ntrated and per.,i,tent UI han povert) • Re earth on a \ariet) of th me. \1 hich cr ali\eh tOll pie, <Iuantitative e timates of the fre<luenc\" di.,tribution. <lI1d inlt'l'<tnion of muhipl <>cial and economic disa<hantage, \\ ith «lIalilal1\ e eviden e of the meaning of these condition, to Ihe people \\ ho are e periencing them
Application deadline: Application mu t b r ei\'ed b January 10, 19 9. Award will be annoullc d bv April I, 19 9. Appli ation deadlin for sub. quent competition will be announ ed in the fall of each year. For further information and appli ation material, contact:
o ial ience Re ear h Coun il Rear h on the ' rban Undercla 605 Third Avenue ew York, ew York 1015 (2 I 2) 6 1- 2 0
IAL CIE 605 THIRD AVE
ERE EARCH E,
EW Y RK, •. Y. 10158
Tht CounCIl was Incorporattd In tilt tatt of IllinOis, DtcnnbtT 27, 1924, fOT lilt PUTpoSt of advancing Tt~aTcll in lilt oclal Clmets. Nongol1trnmtlltal alld InttTdi.sciplinary in natuTt, tilt Council appoints commlilu of chola~ which ttk to achltVt tilt Council' purpo t through lilt gtntrallOIl of Iltw was alld lilt tral/ll/lg of scholars. Tilt activltit of tilt Council art upporltd pnmanl by grants from pntl(ltt foundallons and govtT1lrMnt agmcit . Dartctors, 1988- 9: CLA DE KE, niversit of Port Harcourt; lA NE D. BERGER, 1as chu us In titule of Technology; RI H RD . BERK, Universily of California, Lo ngele; ALAN . Bu DER, Princelon niversil; ROBERT M. COE, orthwe lern Uni\ersil ; RALF DAHRENOORF, t. nlon ' College (Oxford); ROBERT DARNTON, Prin elon niversil; KAI T. ERI N, Yale Universil ; G RD ER LI DlEY, Center for d,'anced lud) in th Behavioral ien e ; BEVI Lo GSTItETH, Debevoise & Plimpton; EMILY 1ARTIN, Th John Hopkin ni,ersit; ONOOUEZlA RI E, tanford Universil ; WILLIAM H. EWELL, JR., niver ily of 1i higan; BURTO H . I GER, Yal niver ity; FRA CIS X. UTTON, Dobb FeIT), 'ew York; FREDERIC E. WAKEMAN, JR., ial Scien eRe arch un il; ROBERT B. ZAJON, ni\ersilyof 1i higan. E. WAKEMAN, JR., Prt idtnt; RI HARD . ROCKWELL, DAVID L. IUS, DAVID L. ZANTO, Extcutivt OCJaIt~; RONALD J. PEUCK, ControlJn; GLORIA KIRCHHEIMER, Editor; DoRJ I OCCHI, istant to the Prt idtnt; YA MINE ERGA, liARTHA EPH RT, To I loDGE, RICH RD H . Mo ,RACHEL OVRY RIVERA, ILVIA RAw, ROBERT W. PEARSON, BLAIR . R BU, TEFAN TANAKA, TOBY
OfflCtTS and taff: FREDERI
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