Items Vol. 42 No. 1-2 (1988)

Page 1


UMBER 112 . JU E 19 VOLUME 42 . 605 THIRD AVENUE . NEW YORK, .Y. 1015

Contemporary Research on the Urban Underclass A selected review of the research that underlies a new Council program by Martha A. Gephart and Robert W. Pear on*

THE NATURE OF POVERTY in the United State i changing. It is found Ie among the elderly and people living in nonurban areas and more among children living with one parent-in hou ehold headed principally by young women. Poverty has also become increasingly concentrated in urban America, in neighborhoods where a mall core of the di advantaged face the pro pect of remaining impoverished, unable to participate meaningfully in the broader ocial and economic life of the country. The urban communities in which many of the di advantaged live-America's urban ghettos-differ from tho e of the late 1950s and early 1960 . The ghettos today appear to be more mean-spirited, more i olated, and more damaging to their poor re idents than tho e that aro e in major urban areas after World War II. The e communitie are increa ingly deficient in the ocial in titutions that control and mediate ocial, political, and economic relations and that provide resource and avenues for individual advancement. The inhabitants of the e ghettos are

increa ingly being labelled "America' undercla ."

new urban

The urban underclass Although a portrait of the urban undercla i not yet complete, one of it mo t salient dimen ion i spatial; the location of poverty in the United State ha hifted dramaticall during the la t 25 year . Poverty-although till pronounced in America' rural area -is an increa ingly urban phenomenon. And within urban areas, poverty i increa ingly concentrated in area in which ub tantial proportions of the population are al 0 poor. In 1959, for example, approximately 27 per cent of all poor people in the United State lived in central citie . By 1985, thi had climbed to about 43 per cent.' And within central citie , the proportion of the poor living in poor urban cen u tracts increa ed from 17 per cent to 24 per cent in the ten year between 1975 and 1985. The re ult for the changing spatial di tribution of poverty among blacks were more dramatic: in 1959, 38 per cent of poor black lived in central citie . By 19 5, thi figure had ri en to 61 per cent (U.S. Bureau of the Census 19 2; 1985).2

Also in this issue ••• • Robert O'Neill on international security analy i • Herbert S. Levine on Soviet economi reform • Richard C. Rockwell on the social science and global economi change • Toby Alice Volkman on Indochina tudies • Current activities at the Council • 26 new Coun il books described • Fellow hip and grants

For compltte contents, ge 1M box on page 2.

• Martha A. Gephart, a political ienti t and p ychologi t, and Robert W. Pear on, a political ienti t, are taff as ociate at the ouncil. The are currently erving a taff to the Council' new program of re earch on the urban underda . I These figure are intended to illu trate the magnitude of uch changes. pecific figure in the re earch literature and in tati tical reports vary. 2 Hi pani have also experienced increasingly concentrated urban poverty. There exi ts con iderable variability among

CONTENTS OF THIS ISSUE Research on the roan ndercl -Martha A. GqJharl and RoMri W. Ptarson II A Hi torieal Perspective on International Security Anal i -RoMt O'NtiU in Earth Tran formation-RIChard 16 Human Proc C. RocllwtU Mo ow Roundtable on Soviet Economic ReformHtrMt S. UlIl1Ie

22 25 2

37 40 49 62

New Direction in Indochina tudies-Toby Alact Volkman Repon on the Behavioral and Social Sciences PubIi hed Current Activiti at the Coun il -Di rtation workshop on .fuslim societies (page 2 ) - ew Joint Committee on the Research Library (page 30) - ovut Economy (page 30) -Public Policy Research on Contemporary Hispanic I ue (page 31) -Project on African Agriculture (page 32) -Re arch work hop on foreign policy (page 33) -International Peace and Securit tudi conference (page 34) -New bulletin on publi culture (page 35) - taUs and ooaL tnJctum Newsletter (page 36) - taff appointments (page 36) "The Population of the nited tates in the 19 Os" Other New Council Publication Fellow hip and Grants Offered in 19 uncil Fellow hip and Grant Program , 19 8- 9

Particular pockets of urban decay are especiallypronounced. Consider, for example, North Lawndale, a black community on Chicago'S We t Side (Wacquant and Wil on 19 8). Nearly half of the hou ing tock of North Lawndale has disappeared ince 1960, and that which remain i rundown and dilapidated. In 1985, the murder rate in the community wa twice that of the city and six time that of the nation. Five per cent of the community' youth were referred to court in the year 1980 alone. While infant mortality declined nationwide and in Chicago during the la t 25 year, it increased in Lawndale to 28 death per 1,000 live birth at its peak in 1985. During that year, 70 per cent of all babie born in the community were born out of wedlock, half of the e to mother who were 21 or younger. And the percentage of tho e receiving

welfare a i tance ro e between 1970 and 1980 from one third to one half of the community'S population. Wacquant and Wil on (1988) graphically portray the dramatic economic change that underlie the e problems: Thi taggering explo ion of ocial problem i clo ely related to a tring of plant and tore hutdown that have gradually turned orth Lawndale from a lively indu trial and commercial hub into one of the mo t de titute ghetto communities of the city.. . . Because North Lawndale has, like many inner city neighborhood acro the country, depended heavily on mokestack indu trie for low- killed jobs and teady income, it has houldered more than its hare of the costs of . . . deindu trialization. In its good day, the economy of thi We t Side community was anchored by two huge factorie, the famou Hawthorne plant of We tern Electric with over 43,000 jobs and a Harve ter plant employing orne 14,000 workers; the world headquarters of Sears, Roebuck and Company was also located in its mid t, bringing another 10,000 jobs. . . . There were, among others, a Zenith and a Sunbeam factory, a Copenhagen nuff plant, an Alden' catalogue tore, a Dell Farm food market and a post office bulk tation. But things changed quickly: Harve ter clo ed its gates at the end of the 60 and i now a vacant lot. Zenith, unbeam and Alden, too, hut down their facilitie . Sears moved mo t of its offices to the downtown Loop in 1973, leaving behind only its catalogue di tribution center, with a workforce of 3,000, until last year when it wa relocated out of the tate of Illinoi . The Hawthorne factory gradually phased out its operation and finally closed down in 1984. A the big plants went, so did the maller tore, the banks, and countle other bu ine dependent on the wage paid by large employers for their sale . To make matters worse, ore of tore were forced out of bu ine or pu hed out of the neighborhood by in urance companie in the wake of the 1968 riots that wept through Chicago' We t Side after the a sa ination of Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr. Ten of others were burned or imply abandoned. It has been e timated that the community 10 t 75 per cent of its bu ine e tabli hments from 1960 to 1970 alone. Presently North Lawndale ha one bank and one upermarket versu 48 tate lottery agents, 50 currency exchange and 99 licensed bars and liquor tore for a population of over 60,000 (page 24-25).

The e change are not unique to Chicago. They have taken place within the context of larger change in global, national, and regional political economie that have affected many urban areas. For example, entry-level manufacturing job in the country's older industrial cities-the jobs most likely to have been held by black and Hi panic men in earlier decade have become more carce in the 1980 (Ka arda Hi pani group, however, and information concerning change in the di tribution in poverty based on 1970 and 19 0 decennial 1985, page 38), and earnings of black and Hispanic Cen u data are troubled b change in the way in which men have declined in tandem. In 1974, blue-collar re ponden ' ethnicity was recorded. ttlement pattern of craft, operative, and foreman jobs accounted for Hi pani and A ian in We tern citie in the United tate al nearly half of the job held by employed black men in appear to differ from pattern elsewhere; in the We t, the group have been more likely to ettle in uburban rings the United States, age 20 to 24. By 1984, such job accounted for only one-fourth of the e job (ibid., (Kasarda 19 ). 2





page 12). ~ In 1973, more than half of all 20- to 24-year-old black male had earning adequate to upport a family of three above the poverty line. By 1984, Ie than one-quarter did (ibid., page 13). The corre ponding decline in Hi panic male capable of minimally upporting a mall family wa 61 to 35 per cent; for non-Hi panic white male, 60 to 46 per cent. Manufacturing firm that have remained in the e "fro tbelt" citie have often moved to cheaper, larger pace in uburban ring where they are more acce ible to regional and national markets. In everal of the e citie , retail and ervice ector have grown dramatically during the arne period that manufacturing firm have clo ed or moved. However, many of the new job - uch a . tho e in the information proce ing ector-require higher level of education and kill, while job uitable for un killed labor typically offer low wage and part time or temporary contracts. Taken together, the e hifts may have profoundly altered the ability of many citie to provide employment opportunitie for their mo t di advantaged and lea t educated and killed re ident . The gap between the mean annual income of a high chool dropout and a high chool graduate for 1 - to 24-year-old male wa 31 per cent in the early 1960 . By the early 19 0 , it had ri en to 59 per cent (Berlin and Sum 1988, page 9). Migration flows have imultaneou ly changed the racial and ethnic composition of metropolitan central citie, uburb, and non metropolitan areas of each region. The minority populatipn of central citie in the orthea t grew from 33 per cent to 42 per cent between 1975 and 1985; central city minority populations in Midwe tern cities grew from 28 per cent to 36 per cent. The ize and characteristics of an urban undercla are not defined by indu trial re tructuring and migration flows, or by their effects on employment and earning . Indeed, problem of definition and conceptualization are an important concern that will undoubtedly continue to confront cholar becau e there are unlikely to be ea ily agreed-upon definition of the undercla available to tho e who eek to under tand it (Cook and Curtin 1987). Mo t current

Council Initiates New Program on the Urban Underclass

The Council ha e tabli hed a new, interdi ciplinary program to develop an improved undertanding of America' urban undercla and to recruit and nurture a pool of talented and well-trained cholar who will carry out reearch. With upport from the Rockefeller and Ru ell Sage foundation , the program will eek to encourage re earch on the tructure and proce e which generate, maintain, and overcome per i tent and concentrated urban poverty. The program will include a committee of cholar, everal working group, a policy advi ory group, and funding for undergraduate re earch a i tantship ,di ertation fellow hip , and po tdoctoral re earch grants. A preliminary intellectual agenda of the program i outlined in the accompanying article. After a committee ha been appointed by the Council' Committee on Problem and Policy (P&P), a ub equent article in Items will de cribe the program in greater detail.

definition center around the concept of concentrated and per i tent poverty and/or a profile of "undercla behavior" that are judged dy functional by their ob erver . The e concept are them elve problematic. Much of the re earch, for example, imply define and operationalize "concentration" in a zip code district or Cen u tract a a relativel high proportion of poor re idents (e.g., 40 per cent or above). But what i it about concentration that accounts for the con equence with which we are concerned? Is it concentration, per e, or i it population den ity, or the ratio of the poor to available ocial re ource within a pecific geographic area? I it the concentration of minoritie , or do imilar proce e appear in the geographical egregation of per i tently impoveri hed white ? And what are the antecedent of the relevant dimen ion ? The conceptualization and mea urement of "per i tence" i al 0 problematic becau e it implie at lea t four 'Between 1953 and 19 5, for exam pI , New York City 10 t di tinct, if related, phenomena. It i u ed to refer to over 600,000 job in manufacturing, while white-collar ervice (1) the per i tence of poverty during period of jobs grew b nearl 00,000. During thi period, Philadelphia relative pro perity, (2) the per i tent poverty of an 10 t more than two-third of its manufacturing job. Manufacturindividual or family, (3) the intergenerational tran ing employment in Bo ton de lined from 114,000 to 49,000; in Baltimore, from 130,000 to 55,000; and in t. Loui , from mi ion of po erty, and (4) the per i tence of povert for certain group and in certain place . 194,000 to 66,000 (Ka arda 19 ,pag 171).





Anal t have recently provided e timate of the ize of the urban undercJa u ing a variety of definition of thi population (i.e., geographical ncentration, per i tence over time, un- or underemplo ment, member hip in a minority group, ocial "pathqlogie ," low kill and education, urban re idence, and poverty). everal conclu ion emerge from the e e timate . (1) The undercla -regardle of definition-i a relatively mall part of the nation' population. E timate range from lightly Ie than one per cent of the population in the early 19 0 (approximately two million people) to nearly four p r cent (approximately eight million people). The e figure repre ent no more than about one-fifth of the country' low income population. (2) The e relatively mall population, however, include many of tho e who at any point in time are in the mid t of a long pell of poverty, and require a large amount of ial welfare re ource over extended period of time. (3) The ize of the undercla grew dramatically in the 1970 . The number of people living in area haracterized by high rate of high chool dropouts, male nonemployment, welfare receipt, and femaleheaded hou ehold -to u e one behaviorally-ba ed comp ite definition of the undercla -increa ed more than three-fold between 1970 and 19 0; the number of people living in area of concentrated en u tracts in which 40 per poverty (defined a cent or more of the re idents lived in familie who earned Ie than the official poverty thre hold) grew 60 per cent, which wa double the total population increa e during thi period (Ricketts and Mincy 19 7; Rei chauer 19 7; Ricketts and awhill 19 ). Thi growth wa particularl acute in America' older indu trial citie . The proportion of the poor population of New York City living in extreme poverty area grew by 269 per cent; in Chicago and Detroit b 162 per cent; in Indianapoli by 150 per cent; and in Philadelphia by 12 per cent (Wacquant and Wil on 19 ,page 6). While the total number of familie in the 10 large t citie of the United State declined b four per cent during thi period, the number of tho e on public a i tance grew by 62 per cent from .4 per cent of all familie in 1970 to 15 per cent in 19 0, almo t entirely b cau e of increa e among black (64 per cent) and Hi panic (79 per cent) (ibid., page 9). The nation' ability to provide a numerical portrait of the e problem from a variet of per pective (including, for example, the geographical and ociodemographic distribution of poverty) i impre ive. The e number in part provide ground for con iderable con en u concerning the cope of problem 4

facing the di advantaged in the United State. Unfortunately, a con en u concerning the cau e and dynamic of p r i tent and concentrated urban poverty doe not exi t, nor i it clear what policie will be t ameliorate man of the e problem . Many of the hypothe e that have been po ed to explain the cau e and dynamic of concentrated and per i tent urban poverty require analy e which cro level and di cipline, and employ multiple methodologie. Moreover, man current polic recommendation for ameliorating inner city poverty are ba ed on a umption about relation hip acro the e level, and not enough i known about a number of ke relation hip to a e their polic implication. A i typically the ca e in the early tage of the identification and analy i of complex ocial phenomena, re earch that i relevant to an under tanding of the concentration and per i tence of urban poverty i divided b method, di cipline, and level of anal i in way that create barrier to under tanding the complex proce e involved. One purpo e of the Council' new program on the urban undercla i to create and nurture di cu ion-and ub equent reearch-acro the e barrier and to help create and repleni h a pool of cholar who e attention would be focu ed on generating new knowledge about the e phenomena.

The nature of research on the urban underclass Improving our under tanding of concentrated and per i tent urban poverty i challenging becau e thi under tanding require an analy i of relation hip between macro- and micro-level proce e -analy i that ha alway been difficult in the ocial cience. It i al 0 difficult becau e inve tigation of the phenomena require a diver it of di cipline and a range of re earch me thodologie . Cen u - and urvey-ba ed inve tigation of poverty, a noted above, have provided national e timate of the incidence and duration of poverty, its attitudinal, ociodemographic, and behavioral correlate , and its patial di tribution. Developmental and ethnographic re earch have enriched our under tanding of the way in which the poor experience and interpret poverty, ocial in titution , and the dynamics of family proce e. Some cholar have argued, however, that the more quantitative tudie of, ay, teenage unemployment, would be considerably enriched if they could be coupled with ethnographic evidence about what employment and unemployment mean to the chronically unemployed, what VOLUME




A brief and illustrative di cus ion of existing re earch that i relevant to an under tanding of the per i tence and concentration of urban poverty will highlight orne of the unre olved que tion upon which the Council's program will focu . For convenience, the di cu ion i organized according to the everallevels of analy is into which re earch has been divided. Changing global and national political economies. In the 1970, rna production technologie in the advanced capitali t countrie increa ingly gave way to the ri e of a more " ervice" or information-ba ed economy, which called for a more highly educated work force. Thi proce s was accompanied by patial change , including the uburbanization of hou ing, interregional movements of labor, and the internationalization of production, as well a by demographic change including, in the United State, the shifting re idential location of race and ethnic groups. The direct, aggregate effects of change in global and national economie on the compo ition of urban employment are only now beginning to be known-and they remain the subject of controver y. Some argue that growth (and decline) in the employment and output of traditional production industrie ha tended to occur in industrie that are characterized by flexible production methods that distribute the production proce to a network of firm ,each of which pecialize in a particular cla of intermediate output . Large firm u e thi form of di tributed production to pa s along the ri ks and uncertainties of increasingly international markets to the e smaller local e tabli hments where open employment contracts permit the frequent hiring and firing of relatively less-skilled and low-paid labor. Con picuously ab ent from the employment growth pattern of the more recent period in some cities in the United States is the semi-skilled or skilled production job in the large, vertically-integrated firm, which characterized employment growth in the late 1950 and early 1960s, as well as in earlier period , and which provided entry-level jobs for urban immigrants who e skill and formal education were adequate for the e production proce es. According to thi argument, changes in the 4 The Council convened a planning meeting on October 8-10,

sorts of job they apply for, what ort of job they are willing to accept, what el e they do with their time, how they 10 t their la t job, how hard they try to keep any job they get, and 0 forth. Conver ely, qualitative de criptions of unemployment or chronic poverty are more meaningful if we know omething about the frequency with which we are likely to encounter the phenomena they de cribe. How many people live like the one de cribed in a particular tudy? How alike or different are the chronically unemployed in one community from tho e in another? Other traditions in the ocial cience focus on tructural variables-local labor market characteristics; industrial tructure; and the age, ize, organizational tructure, and characteri tics of local communities. We know omething about the demographic, economic, and political correlate of poor communities and neighborhoods, although Cen u - and urvey-ba ed data have rarely been ystematically linked to data on the economic structure of indu tries and labor markets, or to the politics of local, tate, and federal governments. The challenge of understanding concentrated and per istent urban poverty i to link the e different levels and units of analy is in ways that ca t light on the proce e that connect the fate of both familie and communitie . What i al 0 needed i a move from correlational to cau al analysis, which requires more refined theoretical tatements about links acro s levels, and the creative u e of quantitative and qualitative longitudinal data to examine the e link . A program that addresse the e i sue will face the challenge of integrating survey-ba ed re earch, ethnographic methods, and prospective longitudinal re earch de ign and the challenges of linking macro- with microre earch per pective . Scholars with whom the Council has consulted have outlined the nature of exi ting re earch on concentrated and per i tent urban poverty, and have uggested important unre olved questions that could define the topical foci of re earch and re earch planning activities that will ari e from the program. 4

19 7 for the purpo e of con idering whether a Council program on entrenched urban poverty hould be e tabli hed and, if 0, on what i ue it hould focu and through what mechani m it hould work. Participants at thi meeting included Elijah Anderson, Univer ity of Penn ylvania; Mary Jo Bane, Harvard University; Dante Cicchetti, University of Roche ter; Greg J. Duncan, University of Michigan; Peter Gottschalk, Bo ton College; Jeanne Brook -Gunn, Educational Te ting Service (Princeton, New Jer ey); Chri topher Jencks, Northwe tern JUNE


Univer ity; Paul Peter on, The John Hopkin Univer ity; Michael Kau, University of Penn ylvania; Erol Ricketts, The Rockefeller Foundation; Carol Stack, Duke Univer ity; Michael Storper, University of California, Lo Angele; Eric Wanner, Ru ell age Foundation; and William J. Wilon, University of Chicago. Council taff included Martha A. Gephart, Robert W. Pear on, and Rachel Ovryn Rivera.


compo ition of economic activity and in the organization and geographical di tribution of production have both led to change in labor demand in pecific place -in particular, to increa es in orne areas in both the relative and the ab olute demand for un killed labor, to reduction in the demand for emi- killed labor, and to increa e in part-time chedule and temporary contract, often referred to a "contingent" work. The i ue of how ectoral and/or regional hifts affect local and national unemployment are being debated, although their effects on the poor have received Ie attention (for an exception, ee Ka arda 19 5). The economic i ue here involve the speed and quality of labor upply adju tments to variou labor demand hifts (through retraining, migration, etc.). How do worker learn of new job opportunitie ? What are their expectation of recovering or obtaining more traditional kind of employment? And what role do public policy play in facilitating or retarding adju tments to the e economic and technological change ? hifts in the nature of labor demand hould be an important part of re earch on the urban undercla . What are the hiring criteria in variou ector concerning education and experience? Are poor youth hurt mo t by their potty work hi torie and lack of reference , by deficiencie in ba ic kill, b lack of "contacts" and information about firm , or by their appearance and demeanor when applying for job ? A better under tanding of the hiring proce in different kind of firm would be e pecially u eful in an wering the e que tion . Unfortunately, data on firm 'behavior are e peciall hard to come b . Of the nearl 1,000 data file archived b the InterUniver ity Con ortium of Political and ocial Reearch (ICP R), for example, only 17 are cla ified a being concerned with organizational behavior; none of them appear uitable to an wer que tion such a the e. The e i ue are rele ant for the poor, nonpoor, and urban undercla s, and they are e pecially important when con idering policy option uch a ub idized training and relocation, the reform of unemployment in urance program ,or the tandardization of welfare benefit acro tate. Information on hifts in economic activity i poor, in part becau e of the inclu ivene of tati tical categories for economic ector and becau e of outdated occupational categorie in economic cen u e . Some argue that we have yet to mea ure uch concepts a "ba ic kill" ati factorily-thus limiting our ability to under tand these problem and to de ign program 6

at local level that are affected b change at regional, tate, national, or global level . Regions, state, and citie. A large number and variety of proce e appear to link global and national change to tho e in the political economie of citie a they generate or avoid, maintain or ameliorate, concentrated and per i tent urban poverty. Con ider, for example, the variet of pattern in concentrated and per i tent urban poverty that urvey- and cen u -ba ed re earch have recentl highlighted. ix citie include 50 per cent of the urban poor who live in area of concentrated poven (Chicago, Detroit, Hou ton, Lo Angele, New York, and Philadelphia). But over a third of the poor in ew York and Chicago live in the e concentrated pockets of poverty, while only about 10 per cent of the poor in Lo Angele and Hou ton do (Bane and Jargow ky 19 ,u ing 19 0 data). Although the proportion of urban poor who live in very poor area increa ed from 16 per cent to 24 per cent between 1970 and 19 0 in the 100 large t citie in the United tate , the e citie di played con iderably different pattern of change that do not fit the facile explanation e oked by "fro tbelt" and "unbelt" label . The concentration of poverty in Miami and Phoenix, for example, increa ed greatly during thi period, while it declined in Cleveland. Among the 50 large t citie in the United tate, Bane and Jargow ky (19 ) found 31 in which poverty grew more concentrated between 1970 and 1980 (13 in which it increa ed ub tantiall ) and 19 in which it declined. Other data ugge t that the dynamic of per i tence are equally varied and unexplained. Adam and Duncan (1987), for example, u ed model of per i tent urban poverty-ba ed on analysis of the Univer ity of Michigan Panel Study on Income Dynamics (P ID)-to impute the incidence of per i tent poverty in 30 of the large t citie in the United tate. Although approximately half of the poor living in 10 of the large t 11 citie in 19 0 were per i tently poor between 1974 and 1983 (i.e., poor in at lea t eight out of tho e 10 year ), variation in the incidence of per i tent poverty in citie of approximately 400,000 to 700,000 people were large. Over two-third of the poor in Atlanta, Cleveland, Memphis, and ew Orlean were e timated to be per i tently 0 in 1980, while Ie than a third of the poor in Indianapoli, Kan a City, Na hville, an Jo e, and Seattle were. Concentration i e pecially acute in high-ri e, urban hou ing complexe, but we do not have y tematic tudie of them that provide an under tandVOLU fE




ing of the mechanisms that create, maintain, or overcome the di advantage that already face tho e with inadequate income, job , and education. Studies have also not analyzed the relation hip between per i tence and concentration acro s or within citie . Cen us tract data on which the e analy e of geographical concentration often draw cannot provide direct evidence concerning the persistence of poverty for individual or families, or acro generation . And the national longitudinal studies on which our knowledge of per i tence i ba ed are not ufficiently large to speak authoritatively about pecific citie or more detailed geographical and political units. There exi t a yet unexplored opportunitie to link Cen u tract data to ongoing national surveys, a repre ented, for example, by the work of Mary Corcoran and colleague at the University of Michigan, which adds contextual data about communitie to the record of PSID re pondents (Corcoran et al. 1987). An improved under tanding could be gained from more detailed tudie of pecific citie or communitie if aggregate, but geographically detailed, Cen us tract data were u ed more sy tematically to elect area for more richly contextual tudy. Communitie and neighborhoods. Recent di cu ion of the urban undercla have begun to focus attention on the con equences that living in particular neighborhood may have for their re idents. Author are e pecially concerned that the increa ing concentration of minority poor in urban area may relegate its re idents (and e pecially its children) to per i tent poverty and" ocial pathologies." Much of thi di cu ion a ume that the poor are worse off if they live among other poor than if they live in commumue and neighborhood in which other ocial and economic cla e reside. The inc rea ing concentration of poverty may be related to other ocial ill (e.g., increa ing chool drop-out rate, high crime rate , child maltreatment, and drug abu e). The e effects are variou ly attributed to the decline of the local economy and of local institution uch as chools and churche, to changing pattern of interaction between local institution and re idents, to declining capital inve tments in the e areas, and to the inadequacy of informal ocial upport networks in high ri k neighborhood . Whether concentrated re idential poverty place children at a special ri k of becoming and taying poor them elve i not clear. Some argue that adver e neighborhood characteri tics are mediated by family structures and proce e. Other a ert or imply that the e environments exert a eparate and powerful influence on children' live, over and above family influence . JUNE

19 8

The term of di cu ion are not well-formed a yet, and much of the di cussion of concentration focu es on its negative con equence ; little attention i given to the condition under which concentration may be turned to an advantage in delivering social ervices. Much of the exi ting re earch on the effects of neighborhoods on behavior i weak, and policy pre criptions ari ing from a imple focu on the spatial di tribution of urban poverty-in the ab ence of larger organizing concepts and a greater appreciation for the politic or implementation of newly propo ed programs-risk doing more harm than good. Unfortunately, the correlational evidence concerning the effects of communitie and neighborhood on behavior is drawn from a re earch literature replete with methodological difficulties Uenck and Mayer 19 8). Inadequate attention i given to individual characteri tic that may influence outcome , to the election of spatial unit for analy is, to the prior conditions of individual or the neighborhood in which they may have previously lived, to the interaction among neighbor , or to the likelihood that mea ured outcome change over time. Although quantitative analy e of the importance of communitie and neighborhoods have not yet found an adequate way of measuring neighborhood effects, it eem that linking thi re earch with ethnographicallyba ed tudies, which have for orne time argued for the importance of neighborhood in under tanding poverty, would be fruitful. The level of analy i used in the tudy of communitie and neighborhood will play a central role in anchoring the broader integration and synthesi of re earch that is being ought and in providing a point of entry for linking re earch to public policy. It is at thi level that re earch can analyze the effects of changing labor markets, the role of other in titution in constructing the ocial reality that people experience, and the impact of public policy and private philanthropy in creating resources and supporting institution 路that upplement social relation that have been di rupted by cultural, ocial, economic, and technological change. Family structures and proce es. The growing literature on family tructure and functioning typically doe not directly addre s either the concentration or the per i tence of poverty. However, studie in several different subfields are relevant for under tanding ways in which concentrated and per i tent poverty may affect familie ,and ways in which family structure and functioning may influence the intergenerational transmi ion of poverty. A number of 7

tudie al 0 point to the importance of relationship between the characteri tic of neighborhood and local communitie and the functioning of familie . The intergenerational tran mi ion of poverty ha received increa ing attention. While a family' origin help predict whether individual member are able to e cape per i tent poverty, the effects are not a large a many would expect nor do they account for a much variance a (1) current family tructure, (2) family functioning, (3) ocial support and re ource , and (4) individual opportunitie and life deci ion (Brook -Gunn and Fur tenberg 1988). A con iderable body of re earch upports the conclu ion that ingle-parent-headed hou ehold are much more likely to be p or than are hou ehold in which two parents re ide. With the proportion of out-of-wedlock birth reaching 90 per cent for black teenage girl and 60 per cent for black women in their early 20 , marriage becomes an increa ingly difficult avenue out of poverty. Little i known about the type of family tructure in which mother and their children live, their effects upon education and work, or their effects on children. Many femaleheaded ingle parent hou ehold are actually threegenerational familie which include grandmother , mother , and children. Greater attention need to be focu ed on the way in which uch hou ehold differ from traditional two-parent households or from ingle parent hou ehold in which the mother is the only adult. Re earch ugge ts the importance of kin network -which include individual residing in different hou ehold -for haring cash, child care, and other re ource and re ponsibilitie (Stack 1974; Lerman 1986). It al 0 uggests that family tructure are often quite fluid; whether and under what condition fluidity facilitates or impedes the movement out of poverty for familie i not known. Many of these relationship remain undocumented in the more conventional large urvey-ba ed que tionnaire that permit analy i of patial detail. Greater attention to the conceptualization of hou ehold , familie , and interfamilial and hou ehold links is needed. A number of studie suggest that it may not be the family tructure itself, but a ociated difference in family functioning which re ult in different outcome for children. Although there i a fairly extensi e literature on the effects of ocioeconomic tatu on family functioning and on child development, the family proce approach has not been pecifically applied to familie who are living in concentrated and per i tent poverty. Exi ting reearch in thi field sugge ts that both the effects of concentration and persi tence of poverty on family

proce and the effects of family functioning on the per istence of poverty could be profitably examined. Finding concerning the importance of the family' interaction with the local community are emerging from re earch in the ecological tradition of developmental p ychology, from behaviorally oriented tudie of family functioning, and from a growing body of re earch on the effects of ocial upport on p ychological well-being. The work environment (or lack thereof), the ocial impoveri hment of a neighborhood, and the number and quality of mothers' extrafamilial contacts have been hown to be related re pectively to the quality of parent-child interactions, the ri k of child maltreatment, and the incidence of children' behavioral problem . Moreover, individual' ubjective perception of the adequacy of their ocial upport network are a better predictor of the quality of father-mother and father-child engagement than are quantitative meaure of their ocial network , sugge ting the importance of under tanding the characteri tic of ocial networks that make them upportive rather than demanding and depleting. Individual attributes. Much re earch emphasize the diver ity of individual outcome in concentrated and per i tent urban poverty. A large body of literature in economic, for example, examine the manner in which individual choo e the level and nature of their education, search for work, gain job experience, and make migration deci ion . The e proce e need to be applied to the study of the urban undercla s, to which they have not a yet been. The family proce literature stre es the wide diver ity of patterns of family interaction and of outcome for children. Similarly, the ethnographic literature de cribe some youth who ucceed and pro per in a neighborhood of concentrated poverty a well a youth who e live are de troyed. Developmental studie emphasize the indeterminacy of outcome , and the po ibility of beneficial outcome at many points in an individual' life cour e. The diversity of outcomes and 路of pathway to outcome sugge ts the need for a developmental per pective to under tand the cau es and con equence of that diversity. Studies in the developmental psychology of children at ri k employ pro pective longitudinal de ign which enable them to tudy the impact of ri k and protective factor on the outcome of tage- alient developmental ta ks (Garmezy and Rutter 1983). In a review of re earch into tre re i tant children, Garmezy (1985) concluded that three broad ets of variables operate as protective factor that are highly robu t predictor of re ilience: VOLUME




per onality features such a elf-e teem; family cohe ion and an ab ence of di cord; and the availability of external support system that encourage and reinforce a child's coping efforts. Rutter (1987) has argued for the need for re earch that focu e on the protective mechani m and proce e through which the e factor operate. Why and how, for example, do orne individual manage to maintain high elf-e teem and elf-efficacy in spite of facing the arne adver itie that lead other people to give up and 10 e hope? What happen that enable them to have ocial upports that they can use effectively at moments of cri i ? And what institutions or organizations tend to do well in providing the e ocial support in the type of urban ghetto mo t clo ely identified with the undercla ?

break out of per i tent poverty (e.g., marriage, employment, receipt of a high chool diploma or ba ic skills). The challenges facing re earch and public policy on the urban underclass are formidable. Not only are the is ue complex and our under tanding of individual and ocial in titution limited, but the phenomenon of the urban undercla i itself a moving target. As difficult a it is, both re earch and policy need to anticipate social, economic, and technological change; to integrate re earch acro the variou levels of analysi and di ciplinary difference into which it is now divided; and to challenge this re earch to attend to the policy implication of its 0 re ults.

Selected Bibliography Conclusion The emergence of an urban underclass i a function of tructures and proce e which include change in demographic trend , economic re tructuring, and neighborhood . But we are uncertain of the magnitude and nature of the e influences and whether they work in uni on to create and maintain the urban undercla s. We do not know if the urban undercla i a con equence of each or all of the e proces e , and it may not erve public policy well to lump together uch divergent group, tructure, and proces es under a general rubric. We are limited in improving this understanding in part by the data, measure , and re earch de igns which this re earch ha had. The Council' program will eek to improve thi ituation. In urn, the program will eek to encourage di cu sion and sub equent re earch that spans everal levels of analy i , which them elves are often further divided by di ciplinary, theoretical, and methodological difference . Several mechani ms provide the thread that weaves the e differences into a common fabric: (1) the structure that produce or create the possibility of persistent and concentrated urban poverty (e.g., increasing incompatibilities between labor demand and the availability of an appropriately skilled work force; the changing spatial distribution of job brought about by transfers of production, finance, and distribution that are themelves made po ible by changes in technology, the growth of multinational tran actions; etc.); (2) precipitating events that cau e individual or families to become impoverished (e.g., health related incapacitie, unemployment, divorce or eparation, etc.); and (3) cycle or dynamic that maintain or enable one to JUNE


Adam, Terry, and Greg J. Duncan. "The Prevalence and Correlate of Urban Poverty." Paper pre ented at the urve Research Center. Univer ity of Michigan, 19 7. Anderson, Elijah. A Place on the COrneT. Univer it of Chicago Pre ,1978. Auletta, Ken. The Urukrc/ New York: Vintage, 19 3. Bane, Mary Jo, and Paul A. Jargow kyo "Urban Povert Areas: Ba i Que tion Concerning Prevalence, Growth, and D nami ." In Michael G. H. McGeary and Laurence E. Lynn, Jr., editors, Urban Change and p(JIJerty. Wa hington, D.C.: National Academy Pre , 19 . Berlin, Gordon, and Andrew urn. Toward a More Perfect Union: Basic Skills, Poor Families, and Our Economic Future. New York: Ford Foundation, 19 . Brofenbrenner, Urie. The Ecology of Human Development: ExperimenJs by Nature and Design. Cambridge, Ma achu ell : Harvard University Pre ,1979. Brook -Gunn, Jeanne, and Furstenberg, Frank F., Jr. "Continuity and Change in the Context of Poverty: Adole ent Mother and Their Children." In J. J. Gallagher, editor, The Malleability of Children. Baltimore, Maryland: Brooke Publi hing Company, 19 8. Cook, Thoma D., and Thoma R. Curtin. "The Main tream and the Undercla : Why Are the Difference 0 alient and the Similaritie So UnobtTU ive?" InJ. C. Ma ter and W. P. mith, editor, ocial Comparison, Olial Justice, and Relative Deprivation: Theoretical, Empirical, and Policy Perspectives. Hill dale, ew Jer ey: Erlbaum, 19 7. Corcoran, Mary, Greg J. Duncan, Gerald Gurin, and Patricia Gurin. "Myth and Reality: The Cau e and Per i tence of Poverty." Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 4:516-536, 19 5. Corcoran, Mary, Roger H. Gordon, Deborah Laren, and Gary Solon. "Intergenerational Tran mi ion of Education, Income, and Earnings." University of Michigan, mimeo, July 19 7. Dadd , Mark R. "Familie and the Origin of Child Behavior Problem ." Family PrOle es, 26:341-357, 19 7. Duncan, Greg J. Years of P(JIJerty, Years of Plenty: The Changing Fortunes of American Worlters and Families. Ann Arbor: In titute for Social Re earch, Univer ity of Michigan, 19 4. Elder, Glen H., T. V. Nguyen, and A. Ca pi. "Linking Family


Hard hip to Children' Live." Developmental Psychology, 56:361-375, 19 5. Ellwood, David T., and Mary Jo Bane. "The Impact of AFDC on Family tructure and Living Arrangements." Harvard Univerity, mimeo, March 1984. Ellwood, David T. Divide and Conquer: Re ponsible Security for America:S Poor. New York: Ford Foundation, 1987. Furstenberg, Frank F., Jr., R. Lincoln, and P. Morgan. Adolescent Mothers in Later Life. New York: Cambridge University Pre , 1981. Garmezy, orman. "Stre Re i tant Children: The Search for Protective Factors." In J. tevenson, editor, Developmental Psyclwpallwlogy. Oxford: Pergamon Pre ,19 5. Garmezy, Norman, and Michael Rutter. Stress, Coping and Development in Children. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1983. Gueron,Judith M. Reforming Welfare With Work. ew York: Ford Foundation, 1987. Jencks, Chri topher, and Susan Mayer. "The Social Consequence of Growing Up In a Poor Neighborhood: A Review." In Michael G. H. McGeary and Laurence E. Lynn, Jr., editor, Urban Change and Poverty. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Pre ,1988. Kasarda, John D. "Urban Change and Minority Opportunitie ." In Paul Peterson, editor, The New Urban Reality. Washington, D.C.: Brookings In titution, 1985. Kasarda, John D. "Job, Migration, and Emerging Urban Mi matches." Michael G. H. McGeary and Laurence E. Lynn, Jr., editors, Urban Change and Poverty. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Pre ,19 8. Lerman, Robert. "A National Proftle of Young Unwed Fathers: Who Are They and How Are They Parenting?" A paper presented to a Conference on Unwed Fathers, Family Impact Seminar, Catholic University, Washington, D.C., October 1986. Model, Suzanne. "Mode of Job Entry and the Ethnic Compo ition of Form: Early Twentieth Century Migrants to New York City." Sociological Forum, forthcoming. Murray, Chari . Losing Ground: American Social Policy, 1950-1980. New York: Basic Books, 19 4. Nathan, Richard P. "Will the Underc1as Alway Be with U ?" Society, (MarchlApril):57-62, 1987. Rainwater, Lee. "Clas , Culture, Poverty, and Welfare." Harvard University, mimeo, November 1987. Reischauer, Robert D. "The Size and Characteri ti of the


Underclas." Paper presented at the APPAM Research Conference. Bethesda, Maryland, October 29-31, 1987. Ricketts, Erol, and Ronald Mincy. "Growth of the Underelas : 1970-1980." Paper presented at the APPAM Research Conference. Bethesda, Maryland, October 29-31, 1987. Ricketts, Erol, and I abell Sawhill. "Defining and Measuring the Underclas ." JourntJi of Policy Analysis and Management, forthcoming, 1988. Room, Graham. "New Poverty in the European Community." Unpubli hed report. Centre for the Analy i of Social Policy, Univer ity of Bath, May 1987. Rutter, Michael. "P ychosocial Re ilience and Protective Mechani m." Paper pre nted at the annual meeting of the American Orthop ychiatric A sociation, 1987. Ryan, William. Blaming the Victim. New York: Vintage, 1972. Stack, Carol B. AU Our Kin: Strategies for Survival in a BItuA: Community. New York: Harper and Row, 1974. Sullivan, Mercer L. "Youth Crime: ew York' Two Varietie ." New York Affairs, 8:31-48, 1983. Tienda, Marta, and Leif Jensen. "Poverty and Minorities: A Quarter-Century Proftle of Color and Socioeconomic Disadvantage." Paper presented at the In titute for Re arch on Poverty, University of Wiscon in-Madison, ovember!Hi, 19 7. U.S. Bureau of the Censu . "Characteri tics of the Population Below Poverty Level: 19 0." CPS Reports, Washington, D.C. 19 2. U.S. Bureau of the Cen u . "Money Income and Poverty Status of Familie and Person in the United State: 1985." CPS Reports, Washington, D.C. 1985. Wacquant, Loi'c J. D., and William Juliu Wil on. "Beyond Welfare Reform: Poverty,Joble ne ,and the Social Tran formation of the Inner City." Paper presented at the Rockefeller Foundation Conference on Welfare Reform. William burg, Virginia, February 1988. Wahler, R. G. and A. D. Afton. "Attentional Proce e in In ular and Non-In ular Mothers: Some Difference in Their Summary Reports About Child Behavior Problem ." Journal of AppliLd Behavior Analysis, 2:25-41, 19 O. Wilson, William JuLiu . "Cycles of Deprivation and the Undercla Debate." Social Service Review, (December):541-559. Wil on, William Juliu . The Truly Disadvantaged. University of Chicago Pre ,1987. Winefield, H. R. "The ature and Elicitation of Social Support: Some Implication for the Helping of Profe ion." Behavioral Psychotherapy, 12:318-330, 1984.





A Historical Perspective on International Security Analysis IJy Robert O'Neill* UNTIL 1945, the only type of ecurity problem that was worth discussing in international forums and on which people wrote at any great length wa that of the great powers: the six of Europe (Great Britain, France, Russia, Italy, Germany, and Austria-Hungary), together at various times with the United States, Japan, China, and the Ottoman Empire. Everybody el e wa subordinate either in the international ~ierarchy of independent states or, more frequently, 10 one of the great empire -tho e of Britain, France, Holland, and Portugal, not to mention that of the United States acquired from Spain. The most populous state of all, China, emerged only in the 1920s from a medieval sy tem of administration and then underwent a paralyzing internal conflict before being dismembered by Japan. The mechanism for the maintenance of great power security had been the delicate and intricate linkage of the Concert of Europe, a linkage which became overloaded in the years immediately before World War I and simply could not carry the weight that wa placed on it. At a lower level, the great powers also had to worry about the ecurity of their own empires, and within the highest policy councils of Britain and France there were major divisions regarding imperial defen e or imperial ecurity. We might call it regional security today, but it was looked at then, of course, in a very different context. Britain and France worried a good deal about the way their writ ran in their own empires and even more about the new resources over which they might gain control and how strategic vantage points might be won, defended, and used to disconcert rival great power . An~ that is about as far as it went. The feelings of ubJect people began to be of consequence in the 19th century, but few in the metropolitan powers had any time for their ca e until the attempt was made to reform the international order under the aegis of President Wilson after the war.

*Rohert O'Neill i Chichele profe sor of the hi tory of war, All Souls College (Oxford), and a member of the Council' Committee on International Peace and Security Studie . Thi paper i based upon hi remarks delivered at the concluding plenary se ion of the 1987-88 conference of SSRC-MacArthur Foundation Fellow in International Peace and Security Studie , Morelo , Mexico, January 9-13, 1988. JUNE


The impact of World War I That war left the legacy of a hattered Austria-Hunwho e fragments defied ordering and stabilizatIon then and occasion concern even today. Just contemplate the role of Czecho lovakia, the friction between Romania and Hungary that ha gone on for years undiminished by ideology or formulae for self-determination, and the almo t unworkable me s that the Southern Slavs-the Yugo lavs-have created out of the bits and piece from the Ottoman Empire and the Au tro-Hungarian Empire that they have tried to fit together into a federal state. Ru ia gone, repl~ced by. the i olated, weak, and bitterly dIstrustful SovIet Umon, the outsider whom, until the late 1920 , nobody really wanted back in, even its clandestine paramour-the German. Britain and Franc~ were weakened critically. Germany re ented bemg made through reparation to take the whole blame for the failure of a system of maintaining ecurity that had become incapable of preserving balance and harmony under the pre ures of nat~onalism, econ?mic change, ocial change, and theIr consequent Impact on national perceptions of ecurity and military power. A cruelly di illusioned world tried to found a new international sy tem through the League of Nations, and through the proce of self-determination for pi~ces of the loser' empires in Europe and the MIddle East that were temporarily free from attachment to one power or another. A major attempt was made to di arm. It took quite a long time even to agree on how to begin to talk about di armament. Crippled by America's refu al to join and by defections of major power member , the League was effectively dead by the mid-1930s. Europe and the world were back to the old balance-of-power system, but with two principal players- Hitler and Mussolini-who despised the old rule and longed for the day on which they would defy them and commence the overthrow of the old order. ~ary

The lessons of World War II World War II showed clearly that the European balance of power was finished as a means of maintaining security in the world at large. Europe 11

had largely de troyed itself in the proce ,and the United State had achieved a po ition of dominant trength, albeit of a temporary nature. The oviet Union had gained a tronger ba i of economic upport in Ea tern Europe. Japan was humbled. Generall ,leader hoped that they had learned the right Ie on from the 1930 and that there wa ome pro pect that the affair of the world would be conducted in moderate harmony in accordance with the principle of the United ation Charter-or rather on interpretation made by the five permanent member of the ecurity Council. The tate men of the world, however, a in the 1920 , were flying blind with little real analy i and debate to guide them. What public political analy i there wa tended to be highly idealistic or crudely con ervative. Military analy is, with ome notable exception like that of Bernard Brodie, tended to be narrowly operational. Political-military or politica1trategic analy e were largely ab ent outside of the rank of foreign and defen e mini trie , and even there, analy e were u ually narrowly conceived and often u ed a a ba i for pecial pleading in the internal fight for re ource . Public concern after the Ie on of the two world war and the demon trated power of the atomic bomb was high. But there wa not much to relieve that concern. The level of public debate wa low and governments took little trouble in explaining their ecurity policie either to their own electorate or to their potential enemie . The demi e of the great power of Europe as the central actor in the international y tem left an order with four layer that i largely intact today, if inadequatel under tood. Abo e everything remain till the univer allinkage of the United ation, but only partially re pee ted and with very limited juri diction. Beneath that lie the relation hip betw en the uperpower and their allie, then the relationship of the regionally-connected tate that have formed them el e into local y tem , particularl in the Middle Ea t, entral America, and outhea t A ia. Finally, underlying all, are the ecurity problem of the newly-independent, or not et indep ndent, tate with their many internal weakne e and external pre ure. The field of analy i broadened dramatically a the Cold War inten ified and regional problem mounted. The di parity between the demand for con idered view and their upply wa 0 enormou that governments had to take p cial mea ure to fo ter experti e, and foundation uch a Ford and Rockefeller helped to found a whole new intellectual industry. The age of the academic grand trategi t had really arrived, and 12

he wa welcomed in government circle and in new re earch in titutions uch a the Rand Corporation. We have had an opportunity in thi conference to examine their efforts in the 1940 and 1950 through the work done by our historian in the program. They have shown u what a frightening time it was for tho e who really under tood the magnitude of the take, the level of the ri k that had to be accepted, and the carcity of real option. The hi torian have revealed some good analy i by government agencie but al 0 much that was crude, ideologically or politically predetermined, narrow, and de igned to ward off unwelcome conclu ion uch a were provided by the U. . Strategic Bombing urvey in Germany, regarding the effectivene of air operation .

The anticolonial movement Our tudie have al 0 shown u a growing awarene of the new dimen ion of ecurity in the po t-1945 period and of the role of dependent territorie -such a Briti h po e ion in Southea t A ia and the Caribbean-in determining international leverage and statu and in contributing to the trength of the metropolitan power . They have al 0 revealed, albeit indirectly, an ab ence of thinking about an important new range of problem , tho e of accommodating the de ire and pre ure of people who wanted to be free of colonial or neighbor' domination. In one or two case, uch a that of the Briti h in Malaya, the ultimate power of the con ent of the indigenou people wa recognized and utilized, clearing the way for independence with a mooth and relatively peedy tran fer of power to more or Ie con ervative European-educated and We tern-looking leader. But the contempt of the newly-independent for the exi ting bipolar trueture of international power wa hown in the e tabli hment of the Afro-A ian Conference in 1955 and ub equently the on-Aligned Movement. While the re earch in titute and univer itie were churning out important tudie on nuclear i ue, the e other problem were carcely under tood, let alone analyzed effectively. The dominant powers paid for thi failure of under tanding in the 1960 and 1970 , particularly, of cour e, the United State in Vietnam. But the uperpower 10 t both standing and leverage throughout the developing world becau e they did not under tand it problem. They did not totally lose influence, however. Through strength uch a the economic power of the United States, or the military VOLUME




re upply capabilitie of the Soviet Union, they gradually regained it. The power to hape international events, however, became more widely di em inated to the advantage of countrie like Japan, tho e of the European community, the oil producer, and client state in strategic trouble pots uch a Israel and South Korea.

Early studies of arms control The analysts worked to very u eful effect on the problems of maintaining stability in the bipolar nuclear tructure through the cIa ic works of the early 1960 on strategy and arms control. On the other hand, practical progre s in tho e fields was often held ho tage to event el ewhere in the world: Vietnam, the Middle Ea t, and the Prague Spring of 1968. Analysts had to wait until the ten e uperpower relation hip had become Ie before they could begin eriou ly to di cu arm control in the late 1960 . But they had rendered a powerful ervice in laying the foundation on which wa built the fabric of arm control and the more carefully managed international y tern that we aw e tabli hed in the 1970 . The contributors to the e development were not only American, but their ranks did not tretch far beyond America' European allie . Cri i management tudie following the Berlin and Cuban mi ile drama bur t upon u by the armful, orne de igned imply to make the participant look good, other to give u new in ight into how the United tate' national ecurity policy-making machinery worked at the highe t level . I hope that tho e in thi program and in other related endeavor uch a the Nuclear Hi tory Program, which link cholar in Britain, France, Germany, and the United State in a major activity, will oon be able to delve much more deepl into the tudy of action, reaction, and interaction both within and between the capital of the key tate in both of the e cri e . The working of the 30-year rule for the decla ification of document i very timely for our purpo e in the e ca e .

Developments in Asia While the great tragedy of Vietnam wa being acted out, two other important development occurred in Southea t A ia. Fir t, Indone ia' confrontation with Malaysia wa , in effect, a conflict of prote t again t a too generous pa ing on of Britain' colonial re pon ibilitie to the Malay ian government. Sukarno wanted weak neighbor ,not trong one . Thi wa a



19 8

new type of conflict between Third World tate them elve for regional power. Second, the fir t ignificant regional cooperative grouping, ASEA , was formed, demon trating how neighbor which had been through a very worri orne, indeed frightening, experience could bury an old quarrel in a new tructure of power which acknowledge and reinforce interdependence rather than militate again t it. The late 1960s and early 1970 were not a go d time for regional ecurity analy i . In the wake of the optimi tic wave of book on counterin urgency, which appeared in the fir t half of the 1960 , came a tream of biting, di illu ioned work which made compelling reading-like tho e of Noam Chomskybut which we u e today more a indicator of the tate of debate, and the ten ion involved, than for in ights into how governments actually took po ition and developed policie .

Decline of interest in peace and security studies Curiou ly, the negotiation of the SALT I and ABM treatie , the development of a Ie ho tile relation hip between the We t and China, and the winding down of U.. involvement in Vietnam-all of which had been urged by many writer in our field-dealt international ecurity tudie a body blow. Public and political intere t in the field collap ed, both in re pon e to the po itive developments in Ea t-We t relation and to the clear ign, at la t, that the United tate and China would not let the Vietnam War blow up into a wider conflagration but leave it to burn it elf out for a long a it took the North to con ume the Thieu government and its army. Never wa there a more difficult time for rai ing money, finding job , and maintaining re pect for the field in the eye of colleague in other di cipline and area of inquiry. Peace tudie, in contra t, became firml e tabli hed and made more important contribution in the 1970 . Although the Arab-I raeli War and the on et of the de truction of Lebanon attracted intere t, much of it wa of a uperficial kind from people who admired brave I raeli oldier and mart weapon without looking beyond into the deepening problem of the Pale tinian and the Labor Party in I rael, and into the con equence of the hattering of Lebanon and the opening it demi e left to externally controlled faction . The tiny handful of cholar who were right about Iran, compared with the multitude of peciali t who believed that the Shah could hold on, howed further the parlou condition into which 13

we had slipped. When it wa finally noticed after the oviets had gone into Afghani tan that oviet peciali t were carcely to be found below the age of 60, thing began to happen. Prompted al 0 by clear ign of a tate of cri i in the Atlantic Alliance after Pre ident Carter' deci ion not to deploy the neutron bomb and the controver ial I F twin-track deci ion in 1979 (to deplo intermediate range mi ile in Europe while imultaneou I negotiating with the Soviet Union over the elimination of the e mi ile), governments, univer itie, foundation, and the media began to think about becoming more upportive of our field of inquiry.

Recent revival

orne heed to non-We terner. Some We terners could ee that the ecurity problem of the developing state would be dealt with most effectivel by peciali ts from the developing countrie them elve , who not only under tood the wider international environment (and for that they had had to come to the We t to get an initial orientation) but al 0, and more importantly, could relate their knowledge and under tanding of the international environment to the weak internal structure with which mo t developing tate were afflicted.

Small states and developing countries The We t, in the meantime, had recovered from the po t-Vietnam backlash. Some regional ecurit problem did matter after all, the public had come to believe, and We tern analysts began to approach the e problem with more of a en e of their own conceptual limitation and with a greater willingne to collaborate with pecialists from the developing tate under examination. A concatenation of mall tate problems from the Seychelles to Grenada to Botswana and Le otho in the 1980 awakened people to the fact that 44 out of the 150 or 0 tate of the world had populations of Ie than a million, were easy targets for external pre ure, and had virtuaUy no re ource for their own defen e. Yet the e tates were con tantly pre ed by both We t and Ea t to allow external power to defend them and-quite often in the arne proce -were exploited for wider trategic ends. The e pre ure virtually en ured that there would be chronic instability problems in key trategic region where the e mall tate are located. Al 0 during the 1980 , it has become increa ingly clear that the ecurity problem of developing tates are not to be under tood as being e entially imilar to tho e of developed states. Nation building, cohe ion, quality of government, ability to conduct election, en e of national identity, cultural autonomy, and di ciplined government servants under fun government control, particularly the military-all thing which We tern tate can take largely for granted-have to be promoted actively to build ecure states in the Third World. Economic ju tice is another key requirement for Third World security at both individual and state levels.

The hock produced by the Reagan victory of 19 0 and orne of Reagan' sub equent ecurity policy tatement , notably the gaffe of 1981, finally held the attention of foundation board long enough to relea e the re ource to begin a major new wave of development in international ecurity tudie . Important work forged ahead in alliance relation , doctrine and force tructure , Soviet tudie, and under the pecial timulu of the Strategic Defen e Initiative-arm control. But thi new wave of international ecurity tudie (of which the program in which we are all involved i now the mo t ambitious component) had to addre s a far wider array of i ue than tho e of the golden age of the 1960 which focu ed e entially on nuclear trategy and arm control. The Vietnam experience ugge ted that there wa omething wrong with our regional ecurity analy i . But uch wa the feeling of exhau tion and bitterne s after the U.S. withdrawal that little intere t remained. However, the end of detente, and the conflicts in Afghani tan, Angola, Iran, and Kampuchea, removed much of the inhibition in We tern circle. More importantly, in the late 1970 the developing tates them elve took a much more erious interest in analyzing their own ecurity problem. Re earch in titute were e tabli hed by everal governments. A small cadre of Third World experts wa trained, and recognizable Third World voice held forth to contribute to the We tern debate. There were not enough analy ts from the developing countrie at work in this field to make much of an impact or to enlighten greatly the thinking of Regional security and the central balance We tern governments, but the ice had been broken. Third World in ecurity can till tran late into great Contacts had been made, interest had been aroused in both the developing state and the We t, and the power insecurity both by neglect, creating opportuWe t had begun to learn a little humility and to pay nitie for the other ide to fi h in troubled waten, 14





and by intervention, leading often, if not always, to frustration, loss of standing in the eyes of the world, and erosion of domestic support in the intervening power for the government of the day. This situation is very different from the zercrsum game that the superpowers played with bases and facilities in the 1960s and 1970s. The linkage between regional security and the central balance needs to be comprehended now in a much broader and more subtle manner. Just because arms control is now making progress again-a Reagan administration triumph of experience over inclination-this is no time to stop research on further stages of arms control and the problems of managing the central balance at lower levels of nuclear weapons. Achieving 50 per cent reductions will be difficult enough, but there are greater challenges in the long term as governments have to decide what their preferences are for combining defensive and offensive systems and then assess the size of the offensive force that they will need to preserve their own interests. Assuming, for the moment, that they will be able to achieve significant progress towards these goals, we will then face the problems of living without substantial nuclear redundancy. Government and public opinion in both West and East may well respond more frantically to perceived changes in the conventional balance, and be more sensitive to changes in the Third World that appear to relate to their security interests, than was the case at a time of far greater superfluity in nuclear weapons.



Research needs in an era of nuclear disarmament We need to study more closely the problems of stable management of the bipolar relationship at much lower levels of nuclear force. Many of the studies of perception, of the p ychology of decision making, and of language and logic that are alrea~y under way in the SSRC-MacArthur program m International Peace and Security Studies can be very helpful. They will need to be augmented by studies of ethics, of nuclear and nonnuclear doctrines, and of the many other fields represented in this program. But, substantial as we hope to make it, the existing program is obviously far from enough by itself to cope with the range of ecurity problems to be solved. It will, I hope, be extended and reoriented. Let me close on a practical point. The amount of financial support available for further work in this field will depend significantly on appraisals of the quality of work already under way. Wider issues hang on the results of our efforts than simply our own futures, and work should be undertaken with a sense of responsibility both to other scholars working in this field and to those who will have to manage the affairs of the world in the coming generation. Even if tensions in the East-West relationship continue to ease, management of the international system in an increasingly complex society of states will be difficult enough. Moreover, past experience ~arns us .no~ to gamble on trends in East-West relations contmumg for more than a few years. 0


Human Processes in Earth Transformation A proposed Council program on the social sciences and global environmental change by Richard C. Rockwtll* MEN AND WOMEN LIVE ON THE FACE OF THE EARTH,

breathe its air, and exploit it re ource. Our ph icall weak pecie ha ri en to the top of the food chain, e tabli hing ecological niche acro the globe. For millennia we have tran formed the Earth by our action . The changing Earth ha al 0 altered human behavior, in ome ca e enhancing our u e of the Earth, in other limiting and puni hing our behavior, and in other threatening the ur i al of future generation . Yet few ocial and behavioral cienti t have been articulate in rai ing i ue about man' role in Earth tran formation, and fewer till have carried out re earch program . The idea of initiating a Council project focu ed on que tion that ari e from ocial cience concern about the human role in and human re pon e to global en ironmental change ha generated much enthu ia m both in the ocial cienc community and at the ouncil. A propo al to develop an interdi ciplinar national program focu ed on a core ocial cience agenda will b reviewed b the Council' Committee on Problem and Policy (P&P) when it meets in June 19 . P&P, which provide intellectual guidance to the Council and approve the initiation of new project, will be a ked to approve the appointment of a planning committee. Over the pa t 300, or 500, or 1,000 year -no one ha completed the hi torical accounting-there ha been a radical change in how human interact with their environment. Thi change ha b en ignaUed by an order-of-magnitude increa e in the cale of the effects of human activity on the environment, b an exten ion beyond the normal vi ion of governments and individual of the time horizon in which human action elicit ignificant environmental change, and by increa ing complexity in the interaction of pa t environmental change with current tre e on the environment. The e theme have increa ingly become the focu of re earch by biologi t ,chemi ts, and phy ici t over the pa t 10 to 15 ear. Re earcher in the e di cipline are aware of the great need for improved understanding of what i happening a human tran• Richard C. Rockwell. a iologi t. i an xecutive as ociate at the Council. He erve a taff to the program in International Peace and ecurity tudie. the urve of In orne and Program ial Con equence of the AID Participation. and the Global Epidemi.


form the Earth. Government have al 0 re ponded. ational a igning ignificant portion of their Gro Product to an indu try that did not even exi t a few decade ago-environmental management and pollution control. Citizen environmental movements have ari en in virtually every indu trialized and developing nation, particularl ince the 1962 publication of Rachel Car on' eminal work, ilent Spring. A the Ru ian geographer Vladimir Ivanovitch Vernad ky argued 60 year ago, human have become a large- cale geologic force. We are harply changing the chemi try and phy i of the environment. ew mea urements and model how that human activities are now inducing change on a cale comparable to change induced by the natural cycle of the Earth. Thi radical amplification of the interaction of human with nature make more central the role in physical and biological proce e of human and their intitution and organization. To Vernad ky, the central role in environmental change wa not that of human technology but of the global knowledge and communication engendered by that technology. The time ha urely come to incorp rate ocial per pective more adequately into re earch on human a force in nature. In international forum in recent year , both the ociali t nation and the developing nation have urged increa ed attention to the need for fundamental ocial cience re earch on the e matter and to the need for u tained interaction among phy ical, biological, and ocial cienti ts. cienti ts who have long worked in the field have voiced imilar hope . Such in i tence has led to a variety of re pon e from the ocial cience community, of which the Council' intere t repreent a portion: that portion focu ed on developing a U. . national program de igned to formulate a ocial cience re earch agenda and to develop the field. If the tudy of the interaction of human and naRequest for Comments Thi note reports early thinking on how the Council i proceeding in formulating a po ible program focu ed on ocial ience que tion about global environmental change. The author ask for comments and expre ion of intere t; plea e direct them to Richard C. Rockwell at the Council. VOLUME

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ture i to attract the needed level of intere t among ocial cienti t , the re earch problem mu t intere t ocial cienti t on their cientific merit . The reearch agenda mu t offer orne hope of enriching ocial cience by advancing an under tanding of general ocioeconomic proce e. While ocial cienti t are no Ie concerned than are other citizen about the ero ion of oil , the pollution of the air of citie , the hazard of earthquake in built-up area, the genetic danger of biochemical control of weed and pe ts, and the long-term menace of ri ing global mean temperature , the e concern in them elve have not proved enough to cau e u to enli t in re earch endeavor in large number . Nor have repeated plea from natural cienti t that ocial cienti ts help them addre their problem . What i needed i a formulation of re earch i ue that are intrin ic to the viewpoint of the ocial cience. What i needed i a research agenda that place the que tion quarely within the ocial cience in an effective interdi ciplinary, not imply multidi ciplinary, way. That the problem can be een a prime candidate for cutting-edge re earch in the ocial cience hould require little argument. Social facts, as Emile Durkheim under tood them, are at the core of the interaction of human with nature. The concept of "natural re ource ," often con idered the domain of natural cienti t , is a ocially-con tructed and hi toricallycontingent proce . Only the human occupation of the Earth give meaning to energy and to natural re ource uch a coal. The Dome day Book of 10 5-86 did not mention the abundance of coal in England, although it pre umed to de cribe all the reource and as et of that land for William the Conqueror, becau e no one viewed coal at that time a a ource of energy, much Ie a ource of chemical.

Council seminar The Council embraced thi opportunity for fo tering re earch by convening a eminar during the December 1987 meeting of P&P and a ub equent planning meeting held on the Brown Univer ity campu on April 29-30, 198 . In preparation for the December eminar, William C. Clark of the John F. Kennedy School at Harvard Univer ity and Robert W. Kate ofthe World Hunger Program at Brown Univer ity-a member ofthe Council' board of director -produced a " ampler" of que tion rooted in ocial cience that merit re earch attention. That Ii t included the following ob ervation : • Global change to and tran formation of the earth are increa ingl driven by human activitie . What are the per i tent, broad-scale ocial tructure and proce e that underlie JUNE


the e change? In particular, what are the relative role of the amount and concentration of human population, the character and u of technology, the changing relation betwe n pIa e of production and con umption, and the "reach" and power of tate and other in tiLUtional tructure ? How do the e role vary acro culture. and through hi tory? Epi ode of abrupt change, di continuitie • and urpri e are central to the hi tory and po ible future of global change. How can the nonlinear proce e. unique even • perception thre hold . and tochastic phenomena that underlie the e epi ode be more creativel addre ed and y tematically under tood? How can in titutional tructure be de igned to monitor and manage them more effectivel ? The cale of ignificant interaction between human a tiviti and the environment ha progre ively expanded to the point at which local. regional. and global phenomena are now involved. How have in titutional tructure and policie changed to cope with thi expan ion? What new mode of ocialorganization have emerged? Which in titutional re pon e have been relativel effective in linking local action to global change? Where are more ffective ocial tructure mo t needed and how can they be created? In the 25 year ince ilrot pring, the "environment" i ue has become an economy that command 1-2 per cent of the indu trialized countrie ' GNP. a politi that cro e traditional divi ion ,and a persi tent concern on the public agenda. How can the e phenomena be explored and explained? How pecial are they relative to other emerging i ue? all for more" u tainable" development proliferate. But what are the strength and limitation of alternative approache to improving the living tandard of individual in developing countrie while pIa ing fewer tre e on the natural environment and re ource ba e? More broadly. what ought to be th human u e of the bio ph re? Man organization collect and di eminate data relevant to global change. What additional global data on the human condition are nece ary to monitor and manage the ocial dimen ion of uch chang ? Knowledge of the phy i ,chemi try, and biology of global change ha increa d dramatically over the la t d cade; advan e over the next 10-20 year are certain to be even greater. But thi ientific knowledge i and will remain incomplete, more able to rai e ocial alarm than to re olve th m. What methodological or in titutional mea ure can be taken to deal more effectively with thi dilemma? More generally, how can ocial u e of the incomplete but policy relevant knowledge of global change be better under tood?

Providence planning meeting Thi Ii t of que tion erved a the foundati n for a ub equent meeting held in April 19 on the Brown Universit campu in Providence. The purpo e of the meeting wa to te t the propo ition that there i a plauible re earch agenda that grow out of the ocial ience , to add to the "sampler" of que tion above, and to make initial plan for how the Council might proceed. Participants included Robert Chen, Brown Univer ity; William C. Clark, Harvard Univer ity; Roger Ka peron, Clark University; Robert W. Kate, Brown Univerity; William H. McNeill, Univer ity of Chicago; Robert 17

¡ Mitchell, lark University; John F. Richard, Duke Universit; ara R. Millman, Brown University; and Billie Lee Turner, Clark University. Richard C. Rockwell repre ented the ouncil. The group took a it aim the formulation of a program that will enable ocial cienti ts better to under tand the circum tance of change in the en ironment, to extend the effectivene and wi dom of con ciou human attempt to manage Earth tran formation, to a i t in the creation of policie that might avert orne of the feared ecological mi hap and tragedie , and to develop the data ba e required for thi re earch. The group propo ed that the Council create a reear h planning program around everal theme . Tho e theme will be articulated in a paper now being drafted b Mr. Ka per on with contribution from other participants in the Providence workshop. What i envisioned pan the ocial ience: anthropology, economi , geography, hi tory, political cience, p ychology, 0001ogy, and tati ti , a well a uch allied field a legal tudie , polic anal i, and ri k anal i. In general term, the program encompa e: (1) the human driving force oftran formation ofthe Earth; (2) OOal feedback proce e, including consciou mobilization and "invi ible hand "; (3) the vulnerability and re ilience of

human oaetle to environmental change; (4) a hi torical perspective; and (5) data ba e focu ed on ocial phenomena. Participants were mindful of the rich new technologie available for monitoring change in human activitie as well as in the environment, including satellite ob ervation of human ettlement and re ource use, and of the con iderable utility of computer model and imulation. Participants emphasized that the propo ed program require a long-term inve tment of human and financial re ource . At least three years will be required imply to build up a re earch agenda and complete orne exemplary tudie. Another five years will probabl be required to e tablish career tracks in universitie and re arch ettings, to recruit outstanding young researchers to the endeavor, and to rai e enough funding to upport the nece sary ub tantial re earch program. The hope i that by about 1995 a trong interdi ciplinary field will ha e produced orne reliable and u eful finding about human proce e in the tran formation of the Earth and that these finding will feed further advance in the ocial cience . The group a pire to aid in the recruitment b that time of a cohort of young ocial cienti 15 from man di cipline who will be pur uing concrete, well-funded re earch program . 0

Moscow Roundtable on Soviet Economic Reform by Herbert S. THE JOINT COMMITTEE ON OVIET STUDIE of the American Council of Learned Societie and the ocial cience Re earch Council, and the entral Mathematical Economic In titute (T EM I) of the oviet Academy of cience, jointly pon ored a roundtable di u ion on oviet economic reform, held in Mo cow during the week of December 14, 19 7. The di cu ion brought together leading American peciali t on oviet economic and politic and prominent oviet economi t, who included everal ke ad vi er to General ecretary Mikhail S. Gorbachev. While thi it elf wa omewhat uncommon, what wa truly unu ual, indeed unprecedented, wa the prior agreement that the roundtable di cu ion were to be taped and tran cribed, and each ide had the right to publi h the di cu ion in a cholarly journal in it countr . Thi ha ju t been done in the • The author i a Lauder In titute of Univer it of Penn ommittee on vi t


profe or of economi and codirector, Management and International tudies. lvania. and a member of the Joint tudie.


American journal pon ored b the committee, ovitt Economy, Volume 3, October-December 19 7 (i ued at the end of March 19 ). The American participants, led b Ed A. Hewett, The Brooking In titution (Wa hington, D.C.), included Abram Berg on, Harvard Univer ity; Gregory Gro man, U niver ity of California, Berkeley; T hane Gu tat: on, Georgetown Univer ity;Jerry Hough, Duke Univer ity and the Brooking In titution; Herbert S. Le ine, U niver ity of Penn ylvania; Jan Vanou , PlanEcon, Inc.; and Martin N. Bailey, The Brooking Intitution, a peciali t on the U.S. economy. Victor Win ton, publi her of Soviet Economy, and Andrew Bond of hi taff, participated a rapporteur. 1 The Soviet participants, headed by Academician Aganbegyan (academic ecretary of the Economi Department of the Academy of Science of the US R), included Academicians Leonid I. Abalkin (director, Intitute of Economi ,Academy of cience of the U R) I D. Gale Johnson. University of Chicago. originally a member of the American delegation. w unable to attend becau of illn .





and Tat'iana I. Zaslav kaya (In titute of Economi and the Organization of Indu trial Production; and Economi Department, Academ of Sciences of the USSR); corr ponding members of the Academy of Sciences Valerii L. Makarov (director, T EMI) and Nikolai Va. Petrakov (deputy director, T EMI); Vadim P. Loginov (deputy director, In titute of Economi ,Academy of 路ence of the USSR); Vladlen A. Martyno (deputy director, World Economi and International Relation Institute, or IMEMO); Revold M. Entov (IMEMO); Yurii A. 01' vich (head, Foreign Economi Section, Economi Department, Academy of Science of the USSR); and Yurii V. Yaremenko (director, In titute for Economic Foreca ting of Scientific and Technical Progre , T EMI). The di cu ion ranged widely over man a pects of oviet reform-perestroika (re tructuring). The Soviet economi ts u uall led off with brief opening tatement and then re ponded to often inten e, probing que tioning by the American peciali t . The exchange provided highly illuminating in ights into the tate and progre of oviet economic reform in both po itive and negative term . Given the rapid pace of pert troika, it wa extremely valuable to the American peciali ts to have the opportunit to di cu and try to clarify what wa happening, and what oviet economi ts wanted to happen, in the reform proce . Thi article offer a flavor of the di cu ion, tre ing the highlights, including the di cu ion of the ocioeconomic a pects of pere troika, which are u ually not very thoroughly covered in the economic literature on oviet reform. Tho e reader intere ted in a full account hould refer to the i ue of oviet Economy cited above.

Basic directions of perestroika The lead in the di cus ion of the ba ic direction of the economic reform wa taken b Aganbegyan and Abalkin. Three a pect of pert troika, were de cribed: (I) efforts to enhance the ocial orientation of economic development: hou ing, food upply, health, education, and welfare; (2) commitments to change the factor, ource, and face of economic growth, and to inten ify the improvement of product quality and the acceleration of technical progre ; and (3) the radical re tructuring and democratization of the management of the oviet economy. In di cu ing the ource of economic growth, the Soviet economi ts tre ed the need to alter inve tment p lic which, in the pa t, led to the low replacement of ob olete capital. The empha i i to be on the modernization of exi ting factorie -the replacement of old machine with new, technicall uperior one,




rather than the con truction of new factorie . Thi mean that the hare of machinery and equipment in inve tment should increa e relative to the hare of con truction. 2 In order to accompli h thi goal, ubtantial inve tment mu t be put into the machinebuilding ector. Aganbegyan a erted that in the period of the 12th Five-Year Plan (FYP), which cover the year 19 6-1990, inve tment in machine building will be double that in the previou FYP period. 5 The ab orption of uch a hift in inve tment policy i not ea y. Manyenterpri e are not ready to adapt to the e change and to new, unfamiliar equipment. In addition, the new y tern of go priemka ( tate-monitored quality control) introduced la t year ha di rupted orne enterpri e . Thi ha led to declining rate of growth in output. While the ituation i now improving omewhat, the 12th FYP is a mo t difficult one. More generall ,the Soviet economi ts tated, the period of tran ition during the next three years to the new economic mechani m announced in June 19 7, and described in preliminary form in a erie of decree i ued in July 19 7, will be very difficult. Enterpri e will be hifting to fmancial independence while price and the price formation y tern remain unchanged, and other elements of centralization including, in particular, the centralized y tern of upply (rather than the future ytern of decentralized wholesale trade) till predominate. Furthermore, the 12th FYP, whi h was not de igned with the new economic mechani m in mind, will till be in effect. Thu , the potential benefits of the new economic mechani m will not be immediately apparent and people will have doub about how the reform i working out. The 13th FYP (1991-1995) will, however, be different. The ituation will improve, but the problem of tran ition to a new tern are and will continue to be evere.

Transition strategies and problems It wa the problem of tran ition that dominated the early roundtable di cu ion. The American pe iali ts argued that critical to a ucce ful tran ition wa the building and maintenance of forward momentum. Thi , fir t of all, require popular upport. But the fruits f pert troika are long term while the co ts are immediate. Thi i wh an "agriculture fir t" equencing trategy i 0 attractive. The payoff to radical reform in agriculture i fa t, a wa evident in China and Hungar ,and the improvement in the quantity and qual2 Thi i a poli y that actually predate ptrt troilw . But as one of the American peciali ts pointed out, the revers appear to have occurred in the last couple of ear. , If thi i an a curate tatement, it i quite intere ting, becau e the actual 12th FYP called for "onl .. an 0 per cent in rea in inve tment in rna hine building.


it of the food uppl gain the upport of the people for the reform proce . Thi i true aloof the better provi ion of con umer ervice from the expan ion of private and cooperative economic acti ity that i included in the oviet reform. However, another ource of improvement for the oviet con umer-the increa ed importation of con umer good -doe not eem to be contemplated. The building of momentum in the reform proce al 0 require the imultaneou introduction of change in enough of the interrelated a peets of an economic tern 0 a to give the new economic mechani m uffi ient internal con i tenc to ure that the reform proce ("reform i a proce n t an event") will move forward. The American peciali ts que tioned the wi dom of the reform trategy of tarting in the indu trial ctor, the ector that pre ents the mo t eriou difficultie for imultaneou change. In particular, the wi dom of not waiting until the price reform had been worked out wa challenged, ince price reform affects all a peets of the new economic mechani m. In addition to i ue of equencing trategie ,a number of other tran ition problem were raised. One i the conflict between pre ure for growth in both the quantit and qualit of output. The two goal compete with each other, e pecially in the Soviet Union, given the nature of pa t oviet planning practice which emphaized quantit over qualit . Another i ue i the need, if conomic efficiency i to improve, to protect the manager' right to di mi unneeded worker without the requirement to find them new job (which hould be the obligation of the tate). A third i ue i the contradiction in the viet approach to reform of forbidding a uperior economi organization (a ,a mini try) from interfering in the acti ity of a ubordinate body (sa an enterpri e) while at the arne time holding the uperior body re pon ible for the performance of its ubordinate. The oviet re pon e to the e que tion were direct and intere ting if not totall convincing. With regard to an "agriculture fir t" trategy, the re pon e generall wa that the oviet Union i not China. Given the more advanced mechanization of agriculture in the oviet Union, the imple etting up of famil units in agriculture i not ufficient, although there i a place for it in a broader program of agricultural reform which i being developed. Furthermore, it wa argued that the oviet Union cannot afford to delay reform in indu tr for ix to eight year a wa done in China. The oviet Union i now a generation behind the We t in term of indu trial technology. If it waits ix to eight ear before reforming the economic mechani m in indu try, it rna not be able to catch up, argued Academician Abalkin. 20

The delay in introducing price reform wa defended on the ground of the extreme complication involved and the need to work out the detail carefull , Ie t co t1 error be made. "E entially, we are opting for a pain takingly thorough approach. for unlike in the ca e of Poland and Hungary, there i no one to help u out if we mi calculate. We can onl rely on our elve ," Aganbegyan tated. The oviet economi ts acknowledged that there i a potential contradiction between the pur uit of quantity and qual it growth. But it wa argued that a planned national product gr wth rate of 41/2 per cent per year in the oviet Union i not too high for qualit al 0 to grow. It wa al 0 agreed that go priemka i an admini trative method of quality control rather than an economic one. Ultimatel , the cu tomer hould be the judge of the qualit de ired, but in the tran ition to the new economic mechani m, go priemka i u eful. There wa trong agreement that manager ' right to reduce their work force need to be upported and that tate agencie have to take on the re pon ibilityof dealing with frictional unemployment. It wa pointed out that the proce of reducing the number of worker had already begun in the railroad y tern in the Beloru ian Republic. In 19 6, 125,000 worker 10 t their job , and in 19 7, the preliminary figure wa 270,000 worker. The e were reduction through the di mi al of worker , not ju t through attrition. Finally, with regard to the re pon ibilitie and restriction of mini trie ,one oviet economi t argued that the mini try i re pon ible, in a branch of indu try, for its long term growth, not for the activity of the enterpri within that branch. To accompli h thi tran ition, the taff: of mini trie are being reduced b one-half. The power of mini trie to control enterpri e i being further reduced by elements in the economic reform. For example, mini trie will not be able to disrni enterprise manager, ince the managers under the new law on the tate enterpri e are to be elected by the labor collective of the enterpri e.

Growth and technology The crucial role of real competition in the proc of innovation and technical change wa prominent in the di cu ion of i ue relating to growth and technology. The Soviet agreed on the importance of competition. Makarov (the director of T EMI) poke pecificall of the need to develop a market for products of cientific technological origin which, if it i to function efficiently, hould interact with a market for traditional products. The discu ion also involved the role of the military ector in the development of new technology and the VOL ME

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relation hip of the military-<ivilian trade-off to the progre s of economic reform. The important element here, it was argued mo dy by the American , i the tran fer of highly capable manager from the military ector to the civilian ector, e pecially to civilian machine building. Inevitably, discu ion moved to the i ue of the burden of defen e in the Soviet economy. One Soviet economi t argued that defen e expenditure in the Soviet Union do not compri e 15-17 per cent of the GNP as claimed by the CIA; he felt they are sub tantially lower. Soviet tati tics now acknowledge that the official figure publi hed as the So iet military budget is limited to pernnel, military pen ion ,familie of veteran ,etc. "The direct expenditure ," he tated, "compri ing military procurement are reflected in the balance of other government authorities- not in the figure attached to the Mini try of Defen e. The figure are unknown, but they may be publi hed in the future."

Socioeconomic aspects of perestroika

The main thru t of the comments and que tions by the American speciali t tre sed the critical, hard choice that all societie have to make between equality and efficiency. Za lav kaya accepted thi and added the need in the Soviet Union for a change from ba ing pay on time pent at work to pay ba ed on the quality of work and it contribution to ocial benefit. But, she argued, a ceiling at orne level mu t be placed. While the average wage i now about 200 ruble per month, a ceiling of 2,000-3,000 ruble for example, or even 10,000 ruble ,i sufficient to bring forth all the benefits of income differentiation. Income above that would be counterproductive. In addition, he tated that people engaging in private activity in the Soviet Union, where high income can be earned, are al 0 employed in the state ector and thu do not bear the arne degree of ri k a private entrepreneur in capitali t countrie . Furthermore, since prices in the Soviet Union are rather "whimsical," they hould not be the ba is for income differential . (3) Worker security and attitudes toward the refonns. The American peciali ts al 0 argued that so ietie have to choo e between ecurity and economic dynamism. While We tern ocietie may be moving away from dynami m toward more ecurity for their people, the Soviets face the more difficult ocial and political ta k of moving in the oppo ite direction. Za lav kaya accepted thi and aid it i a problem that will require great efforts on the part of the government to educate the people a to the benefits that can flow from a more dynamic economy. Support for perestroika, she stated, i rather strong (although ophisticated mean for measuring the upport have yet to be developed), but that it varie with who tands to gain and who tand to 10 e from reform. In general, though, young people, who tand to gain the mo t, are upporter of perestroika.

Among the mo t interesting di cu sion at the roundtable were tho e on the ocioeconomic a pects of perestroika. The di cu sion wa led by Academician Za lav kaya. Some of the is ue rai ed were the following: (I) Unemployment. Who will be the fir t people to be di mi ed by enterprise manager? To begin, they will be the wor t worker , the lea t killed and the lea t di ciplined, including tho e with drinking problem . Specific olutions must be developed to find the e people suitable alternate work. Second, people who find it hard to compete will be dismi ed. The e include women with small children, people in poor health, and elderly people. Social guarantees uitable for this group will have to be devi ed. Finally, there will be the problem of tructural (branch) and regional unemployment. (2) Living standards and income inequality. Many Conclusion a pects of this is ue were di cu ed. Za lav kaya While firm conclu ion cannot be drawn from such expre ed her own concern that perestroika with its a wide-ranging et of di cus ions, an overall ob ervaempha i on tying income and living tandard to the tion can be made. Clearly, the problem of tran ition earning of enterpri e will lead to exce ive regional, to a new economic mechanism, and tho e a ociated branch, and enterpri e inequalitie . "Some profitable with the broad, revolutionary cope of perestroika, are enterpri e will have ten of millions to pend, and ub tantial and severe. Not all of the trategic i ue their employee will have swimming pool , green- of tran ition have been thought through thoroughly. hou e , and a wonderful life to enjoy. Meanwhile, There appears to be a prevalent attitude of "let u Ie ucce ful, ay, small enterpri e with very enter the batde and adjust as we go." 0 meager re ources, will have very litde."4 The American participants also pent two day in Riga meeting with economists. We were told by the director of the Economic 4

J .[ 19


Research In titute of the Latvian Go plan that its consulting services for enterprises in and around Riga were so uccessful that the Intitute was able to buy a yacht for the use of its members.


New Directions in Indochina Studies by Toby Alice Volkman· IN 1975, THE AMERICAN WAR in Indochina ended. For mo t We tern cholar of outhea t A ia, the American defeat al 0 meant the end of We tern re earch in and on the region: acce to the field wa impo ible, institutional upport waned at home, and the powerful po twar amne ia that overtook 0 much of America affected the cholarly communit a well. Vietnam, Lao , and Cambodia-three countrie that had been 0 deeply intertwined with America' recent hi tory and ocial cri i -faded from popular and academic con ciou ne with a toni hing peed. Concerned about the decline in cholarly intere t in Indochina, the Joint Committee on outhea t A ia OCSEA) created an Indochina tudie Program (ISP) in 19 3. Supported by grants from the Ford Foundation, the ational Endowment for the Humanitie ,and the Henry Luce Foundation, the ISP wa intended to reinvigorate the Indochina field b drawing on the re ource of orne of the 650, 0 Vietname e, Lao, and Cambodian then re ident in the United State. The program awarded grants to individual for reearch on all a pects of Indochine e ociety (exclu ive of the American war) that could be tudied through the knowledge, peech, kill, and memory of mu ician ,dancers, textile artists, writers, tory tellers, former pea ants and politician ,journali ts, teacher , monk , and haman now living in North America. Since its fir t round of award in 19 4, the ISP ha given 3 grants to 67 American, Vietname e, Khmer, Lao, Hmong, and other recipients for re earch in uch field a anthropology, dance, hi tory, law, literature, lingui ti ,mu ic, religion, and ociology. everal mea ure ugge t that the tud of Indochina in the United State ha been growing in the la t few ear. The number of tudents regi tered for Vietname e, Khmer, and Lao language cour e at the Sou thea t A ian Studie ummer In titute (EA I) increa ed from 10 in 19 4 to 37 in 19 7. In 1987, over 400 cour e were offered nationally on the Indochina war. The I P has organized a number of activitie which have erved to heighten the vi ibility of Indochina tudie: a work hop on "Gender and Kin hip in Indochina" held at EA I in 19 7; a panel on new data ource for the tud of po trevolutionary Indochine e ocietie held at the 1987 meeting of • Tob Alice Volkman, an anthropologi t, IV at the Council a tafT to the joint commillees on uth A ia and utheast A ia. In January and February 19 he visited Indochina as part of a Council delegaLon exploring scholarl cooperation.


the A ociation for A ian Studie ; and colloquia on language change and on traditional performing ans planned for the ummer of 19 8. The JC EA has al 0 pon ored two conference re ulting in publication concerning Indochina: Cambodia: Revolution aM Its Aftermath (Yale Univer ity outhea t A ia eri 19 3) and Po twar Vietnam: Dilemmas in Socialist DrvtI· opment (Cornell Univer ity outhea t A ia Program Monograph erie, 19 ).

Openings for scholarly cooperation Mo t exciting, however, ha been the po the first time ince 1975 of direct contact with Vietnam, Lao , and Kampuchea (as Cambodia now i known~ Encouraged by the gradually improving political c1imate, the Council ent program a ociate Mary McDo& nell to Vietnam in 19 6, and to Vietnam, Lao . and Kampuchea in 19 7. Under the au pice of the U. .-Indochina Reconciliation Project (Philadelphia) and its director John F. McAuliff, M . McDonnell was ho ted the Foreign Mini try in each country, and met with repre entative of ocial ience in titute ,universiti ,miDi trie , and other organization . Responding to . expre ed at these meetings in developing rnr' ......'r<>tio., program with the Council, the JCSEA and I P to pur ue thi initiative by ending a delegation to dochina in January-February 19 for extended cu ion with counterpart organization . Charles Keye , Univer ity of Washington, chair of the and the ISP; David G. Marr, The Au tralian N::Itllnlllll University, a member of both committee; Tob Volkman, taff associate; and M . McDonnell pated in this delegation. Council pre idem Frederic eman, while in Vietnam in January 19 with a tion of China scholars, held related meetings in and in Ho Chi Minh City.

Vietnam In Vietnam, the Council's initiative wa welcomed. The delegation met with Foreign M yugen Co Thach and with other member of Foreign Mini try, and with repre entative of Mini try of Higher and Vocational Education the Mini try of Culture; the State Committee for Social Science ; the univer itie of Hanoi, Ho Minh City, an Tho, Hue, and Dalat; the I for International Relation; the Federation of tific and Technical A ociation; the State LomnutUI on Science and Technology; and the ational VOL ME


for cientific Research. The latter two organization expre ed great interest in e tabli hing relation with the U.. National Academy of Science. The meeting took place at a moment when ignificant change are occurring throughout Vietname e econom , ociety, and public di cour e. The 6th Party Congre in December 1986 i ued a highly elfcritical report on the problems facing the country. Thi ha generated an atmo phere in which government official and the people in general are exhorted to engage in "renewal of mind," a well a the "renovation" of the ociety and the economy. "Renewal and renovation," which are today part of everyday di cour e, are to be accompli hed in part through a new openne to wider world : an openne on many level from economic (a new foreign inve tment law wa approved in December 1987) to intellectual, reflected in the commitment to develop cholarly communication and cooperation with capitali t countrie . In this context, the ocial science have begun to a ume an increasingly important role in Vietnam. Broadly defined to include anthropology, hi tory, language , literature, and philo ophy, as well a other ocial science, these discipline are valued as mean of under tanding both Vietnam and the larger context of Southea t Asia and the world beyond. The de ire to learn from We tern holar wa evident not ju t among natural cienti ts but also among the anthropologi ts, economists, and hi torian with whom we spoke. On behalf of the Council, our delegation emphaized the importance for the West of under tanding Vietnam not merely a the "other" in America' war or national trauma, but on its own term ; not a changele and di crete image on American televiion, but a a ociety with a long and often turbulent hi tory, a ociety of cultural and ethnic complexity (with 54, by official count, di tinct ethnic group ), and a ociety undergoing rapid change. The e complementary interests-building on the groundwork laid in previou meeting -made it po ible for the Council delegation and repre entative of the Vietnam Committee for the Social Science to initial a letter of intent (in Engli hand Vietname e) to promote cholarly cooperation ( ee photograph above). The Vietnam Committee for the Social Science ,which repre ent 18 in titute , acted al 0 on behalf of the Mini try of Higher and Vocational Education and the univer itie under that mini try, and the Institute of International Relation of the Foreign Mini try. A similar letter wa initialed by the delegation on behalf of the Council and the Federation of Scientific and Technical A ociation of Ho Chi Minh City. A a fir t step toward cooperation, we invited the Vietnam Committee for the Social Science , the Min-




Council and Vietnamese representatives preparing agreement for scholarly cooperation. (From I. to r., Le Van ang, Pham Nhu Cuong, Ho Hai Thuy, Nguen Van Ku, Mary Byrn McDonnell, Charle F. Keye ,Tob lice Vollman, David G. faIT, and John F. McAuliff, director of the ..- Indochina Reconciliation Project.)

istry of Higher and Vocational Education, and the Federation of Scientific and Technical A ociation to end a small delegation of official repre entative to the United State in the fall of 198 in order to ign a final ver ion of the agreement, to be followed by a larger delegation of cholar vi iting univer itie and other in titution in the United State. Aloin thi early pha e, a Vietname e linguist ha been invited to participate in the ISP- pon ored colloquium on language change in Indochina, to be held at SEASSI in July 1988. Support for the e "familiarization" activitie ha been provided by a grant to the Council from the Christopher Reynolds Foundation. The JCSEA i currently eeking upport to undertake a range of activitie , including workshop and exchange of both educational material and research scholars. It i likely that exchange will be developed which will involve scholars intere ted in uch fields a archeology, development, ecology, hi tory, and the language and culture of Vietnam. The program envisaged hould make it po ible for American scholars in a range of field to offer lecture or eminars while conducting research in Vietnam, perhap in collaboration with counterparts. Many Vietnamese scholars (and librarie ) have not had acce to major American journals ince 1975; librarie lack not only books but mean of cataloguing or pre ervation. It would al 0 be of value for American scholars to receive Vietname e publication , to have acce to archive and libraries in Vietnam, and to communicate with Vietname e cholars who vi it the United States. The per pective of a Vietname e contemporary hi torian, for example, would be of great interest to tudents and scholar in thi country. 23


ican lingui t who could both teach Engli hand tud In Lao , the delegation met with the Mini ter of Khmer language and culture. We ob erved the efEducation, with repre entative of the ocial cience forts to rebuild Phnom Penh U niver ity and learned Re earch In titute under the Mini try of Education, that the former Fine Arts Univer ity would reopen and with repre entative of the ational Mu eum and thi year, and that a new fine arts chool wa to open the Arti tic and Literary Re earch In titute under the in the northea t. The latter would pecialize in teachMini try of Culture. We al 0 met with everal people ing the arts and literature of the more than 20 nain the Mini try of Foreign Affair. Lao i not only tional minoritie . We found not only evidence of the poor, like the other countrie of Indochina, but it i de truction wrought b the Khmer Rouge in the Iial 0 a mall country with few univer ity graduate . brarie , mu eum ,and chool, but al 0 were imWhile Lao can obtain training to be teacher or doc- pre ed by the trong motivation with which those tor in Lao , mo t Lao who eek higher education go affiliated with the e in titution have et about reconabroad (primarily to Ea tern Europe, France, India, tructing them even with very limited re ource . Perhap mo t important, the groundwork ha been and the Soviet Union). Becau e there are only a mall laid for future cholarly relation hip between Amernumber of cholar out ide of Lao intere ted in the country, we concluded that it made better en e to ican and Khmer in titution once a political olution' eek to develop mall- cale project , particularly tho e found to the Kampuchean conflict. The ongoing disconcentrating on the culture and hi tory of Lao . Ar- cu ion between Prince orodom Sihanouk and Precheology, the arts, con ervation, ethnograph (there mier Hun en in earch of an "independent, neutral, are officially 6 ethnic group in Lao ), ethnomu icol- nonaligned" Kampuchea, as well a Vietnam' reogy, mu eology, and oral literature are field in which peated a ertion that its troop will be withdrawn from it might be po ible to undertake orne cooperati e Kampuchea by 1990, ugge t that a olution i now activitie . We agreed to provide relevant book and more likely than it ha been at any time ince 1975. material to the ational Mu eum, the Arti tic and Throughout Indochina, we found a en e of hope for Literary Re arch In titute, and the cial Science Reearch In titute, and to pur ue contacts with cholar a re olution which would make more fruitful relations in the e organization about po ible collaborative po ible in the not-too-di tant future. Although at the project on topic of mutual intere t. A a fir t tep, pre ent time the Council may playa major coordinating Lao cholar were invited to participate in the ISP role in the United State in facilitating scholarl coopcolloquium on language change and in a colloquium eration with institution in Vietnam, Lao , and Kamon performing arts in Indochina, al 0 to be held in puchea, it i clear that no ingle in titution or organization on either ide can be the ole or permanent link. the ummer of 19 Other American in titution are currently exploring c0operative relation ,including the William Joiner Center Kampuchea In Kampuchea, the political con traints are much for the tudy of War and Social Consequence (Univergreater than in either Lao or Vietnam, and educa- ity of Ma sachu etts, Bo ton) and the mith onian Intional tructure are till being recon tructed after the titution. everal universitie and colleges have also bede a tation of the Pol Pot period. There are, none- gun to initiate direct connection , through conferen thele ,potential opening for cholarly communica- tudy trip , and the propo ed ending of language tution. The delegation met with repre entative of the dents. It i probable that future program will be develmini trie of Foreign Affair, Culture and Informa- oped both independently and in collaboration with a tion, and Education; the In titute of ociology; the variety of in titutions in the United State. The JC EA. Facult of Medicine; the Foreign Language In titute; which ha an active international component both in its the hool of Dan e; the ational Library; and the member hip and i activitie, hope to work together National Mu eum. The Mini try of Culture and In- with program in Au tralia, France, the etherlands, formation and the Foreign Mini try re ponded po i- and Japan to ree tabli h scholarly dialogue with the 0 ti el to the idea of receiving two Khmer-American countrie of Indochina. cholar of Khmer dance and mu ic, and to the po ible tran lation of recent Khmer publication about traditional medicine. We were e pecially intere ted to learn that an Au tralian had recently been allowed to teach Engli h at the Foreign Language In titute, and aw in thi a po ible precedent for ending an Amer24

Reference Lurie, Theodora. "Indochine Refugee -A 'ew holarly Re ource." The Ford FoulIdation utter, 1 (1):2-4, February 19 7. A report on the Indochina tudie Program of the Joint Committee on uthea t A ia.





Report on the Behavioral and Social Sciences Published Council collaborates with the Stanford Center and the National Academy of Sciences The Behavioral and Social Sciences: Achievements and Opportunities- known informally a A


"The Ten-Year Outlook"-wa publi hed in March. Edited by Dean R. Ger tein, National Re earch Council; R. Duncan Luce, Harvard univer ity; Neil J. mel er, univer ity of California, Berkeley; and Sonja Sperlich, National Re earch Council, the report i a publication of the Committee on Ba ic Re earch in the Behavioral and Social Science -a committee of the Commi ion on Behavioral and Social cience and Education (CBASSE), National Re earch Council. The Social Science Re earch Council and the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Science (Stanford, California) cosponsored the report with CBASSE. * The major recommendation of the report is that a new national commitment to the behavioral and ocial cience i needed to capitalize on the wide-ranging opportunitie for cientific advances in the e field and on the practical benefits-from reduced drug abu e to improved economic analyse - temming from uch advances. The report recommend that the nation spend an additional 240 million annually to upport advanced training, re earch technology, data re ource , new center , and inve tigator grant in behavioral and ocial ciences to rever e recent decline in federal funding for uch re earch. Between fi cal year 1972 and 1987, the committee found, federal upport in constant dollar for the behavioral and social cience dropped by 25 per cent. In contra t, federal pending for other field of cience re earch increa ed by 36 per cent in con tant dollars over the same period. The committee' project was de igned to report on scientific frontier , new re ource needed to develop them, and the "general institutional conditions and upport y tern for behavioral and ocial ciences research." The project was funded by the National Science Foundation, the National Institute on Aging, the ational Institute of Child Health and Human Development, the National Institute of Mental • The report i available from the ational Academy Pre for 29.50, prepaid at 2101 Con titution Avenue, N.W., Wa hington, D.C. 20418. JUNE


Health, the U.S. Army Re earch Institute for the Behavioral and Social Science, the Rus ell Sage Foundation, the Sy tern Development Foundation, and the National Re earch Council Fund.

Organization of the report Thi volume i a ucce or to two earlier tudies by the Committee on Ba ic Re earch in the Behavioral and Social Science. In one, Behavioral and Social Science: Fifty Years of Discovery (1986), the committee canned the work of the pa t, identifying specific line of accumulated knowledge and broad hifts in emphasi since the 1933 report of the Pre ident' Re earch Committee on Social Trend , Recent Social Trends. In the other, Behavioral and Social Science Re earch: A National Re ource (1982), the committee con idered particular ca es and pre ented it judgment concerning the pre ent value, ignificance, and ocial utility of ba ic re earch in the e di cipline . An earlier report by a predece or committee-the o-called "BASS" report, The Behavioral and Social Sciences: Outlook and Needs (1969), was organized along di ciplinary lines. Early in the planning of the pre ent report, it wa decided to empha ize interdi _ ciplinary collaboration and to organize the report by theme. Chapters 1 through 5 characterize the ub tantive re earch opportunities that lead mo t directly to the recommendation. Chapter 1, "Behavior, Mind, and Brain," focu e on research concerning individual behavioral and mental proces es of en ory perception, memory and learning, cognition, and language. Chapter 2, "Motivational and Social Contexts of Behavior," con ider affective tate and proces e , the linkages between health, behavior, and ocial context, the cau es and control of violent crime, and the nature of ocial interaction. Chapter 3, "Choice and Allocation," deal with re earch on individual and collective decisions and their consequence in market-ba ed and other economic sy tern , contracts, organizational hierarchies, and occupational ystems. Chapter 4, "Institutions and Culture," con iders more global and hi torical a peets of ocietyincluding human evolution, demography, moderniza-


tion proce es, cience and technology, world trade, and international conflict. Chapter 5, "Methods of Data Collection, Representation, and Analysis," concern methodological re earch which harpen the ob ervational and explanatory powers of the behavioral and ocial ciences. The la t two chapters of the report step back from the sub tantive pecific to give an overall per pective on the cientific enterpri e and its conditions. Chapter 6, "The Research Support System," deals with the human, technological, data-generating, and funding resources that shape opportunitie in the behavioral and ocial ciences. This chapter draws together the conelu ion on how to make the support system tronger and more productive. Chapter 7, "Raising the Scientific Yield," summarizes the reearch opportunities and new initiatives that the committee recommend . (Appendix A supplements this chapter with analyses of trends in the scale of federal and private foundation re earch funding.) The committee believe that this agenda of activitie will go far towards ensuring the vitality and preeminence of the national effort in behavioral and ocial ciences re earch. The 23-member committee is cochaired by R. Duncan Luce, Department of Psychology and Social Relations at Harvard University, and Neil J. Smelser, Department of Sociology, Univer ity of California, Berkeley. Also serving on the committee are: Meinolf Dierke John A. Ferejohn Lawrence M. Friedman Victoria Fromkin

Rochel Gelman Leo A. Goodman

Jame G. Greeno Eugene A. Hammel

Leonid Hurwicz


Science Center Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany Department of Political ience, tan ford Univer ity tanford Univer ity School of Law Graduate Divi ion and Department of Lingui ti • University of California. Lo Angele Department of P ychology, University of Penn ylvania Department of Stati ti and Department of Sociology, Univer ity of Chicago and University of California, Berkeley School of Education. Stanford Univer ity Graduate Group in Demography and Department of Anthropology. Univer ity of California. Berkeley Department of Economi , Univer ity of Minne ota

Edward E. Jone Gardner Lindzey

Daniel L. McFadden

Jame McGaugh

Jame N. Morgan

Richard L. Morrill Sherry B. Ortner Kenneth Prewitt Barbara Gutmann Rosencrantz

Larry R. Squire

ancy Brandon Tuma Allan R. Wagner

Department of P ychology, Princeton Univer ity Center for Advanced tudy in the Behavioral Science ( tan ford , California) Department of Economic , Ma achu etts In titute of Technology Center for the Neurobiology of Learning and Memory. Univer ity of California. Irvine In titute for Social Research and Department of Economics. Univer ity of Michigan Department of Geograph " University of Washington Department of Anthropolog}¡. University of Michigan The Rockefeller Foundation Department of Hi tory of Science and School of Public Health, Harvard Universit Department of P ychology and P ychiatry. University of California, an Diego. and Veteran Admini tration Medical Center. an Diego Department of Sociology. Stanford University Department of P ychology. Yale Univer ity

The report was presented to the National Science Foundation and other sponsors at a dinner ymposium held at the National Academy of Science on March 9. David L. Sills, executive a ociate, and Robert W. Pearson, staff as ociate, repre ented the Council at the sympo ium.

Publication of working papers The sub tantive recommendations of the repon are ba ed upon some 30 working papers prepared by subcommittees appointed for this purpo e. These working papers will be published in late 19 by the Rus ell Sage Foundation under the editor hip of Me srs. Gerstein, Luce, and Smelser.

Next steps for the Council Implicit in the Council's collaboration in the preparation of this report is the opportunity and the responsibility that it promises for the Council' program. The substantive priorities outlined in the report are

derived from a canva of the view of many hundred concerned with the ocial cience: CBA SE, the of American cienti ts-the arne con tituency to which Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral the Council attempts to be re pon ive. Accordingly, Science, the Ru ell Sage Foundation, and the the opportunitie pre ented for future Council com- Council. The Council' board at its annual meeting in June 19 8 will con ider way of extending collaboramittee activity will be carefully examined. Organizationally, the report repre ents a product tion among the four organization who e coopera0 of the collaboration of four national organization tion re ulted in the report.

The Problem of Voice The place and role of the behavioral and social ciences in the administrative arrangements of relevant federal agencies hould be critically reappraised. It is necessary to ensure continuous high-level representation of the scientifIC needs and opportunities in the e fields. The coordination of the e cience and their general advisory roles should be strengthened by establishing a mechanism to coordinate interagency policy on behavioral and ocial ciences research. One feature of the pre ent ituation that work against the best intere ts and the be t utilization of the behavioral and ocial cience i the way they are ituated within the administrative tructure of federal re earch agencie . If one look to re earch-oriented academic institution , it i cu tomary for faculty member to be affiliated with divi ions of humanitie , phy ical cience, life cience, and social ciences or chool ofbusine ,law, medicine, and other profe sion . (History i located ometime with the ocial science and ometime with the humanitie , and p ychology i located ometime with the life ciences and ometime with the ocial cience .) Thi divi ion permits behavioral and ocial cientists to negotiate effectively the immediate admini trative environments in which they work and, in mo t univer itie , to gain rea on able acce to (and occa ionally to find colleague in) high administrative position . If one looks at the behavioral and ocial ciences in federal re earch agencie , there i no parallel to academia. For example, the National Science Foundation ha its Directorate for Biological, Behavioral, and ocial Science . The title of the directorate, except for its nonalphabetic equence, sugge ts perhaps a certain degree of parity, but that is not so: the budget for the behavioral and ocial ciences wa about 50 million in fi cal 1987, compared with 200 million for biological re earch. Moreover, ince its inception in 1974, thi directorate has been headed by biologists. There are imilar or even more di proportionate relation hip between biomedical and behavioral and ocial cience re earch in every in titute in the Alcohol, Drug Abu e, and Mental Health Admini tration and ational In titute of Health. Thi kind of sub umption under related field has led in the pa t-and could lead at orne future date-to mi perception at the highest policy level about the cientific opportunitie and needs of the behavioral and ocial ciences. This problem of misperception is aggravated by the paucity of high-level coordination between agencie of the federal government that fund behavioral and ocial ciences re earch, including the Department of Health and Human Service, Defen e, Labor, Education, Ju tice, Commerce, State, and Hou ing and Urban Development, and independent agencie , e pecially the ational Science Foundation and the Smith onian Institution. To deploy carce re ources wi ely and effectively, there hould be efforts to develop complementary (not, of cour e, monolithic) re earch and funding policy for the behavioral and ocial ciences acro the federal government.

(The Behavioral and Social Sciences, page 235-236)



19 8


Current Activities at the Council Dissertation workshop on Muslim societies Although the Middle Ea t and North Africa are the hi torical heartland of I lam, onl one-quarter of the world' nearl 900 million Mu lim Ii e in that part of the world. Far greater number live in core of ocietie in outh and outhea t A ia, China, the viet Union, and ub-Saharan Africa-with about five million in We tern Europe and the United tate. The practice of I lam acro extremel di parate ocietie create a natural laboratory for tern of idea and exploring the relation hip of religiou commitment to diver e ocial, cultural, e onomic, and political contexts and circum tance . A va t array of hi torical and contemporar quetion and theoretical i ue bubble to the urface a one begin to contemplat the di er it of etting in which I lam i reproduced. Yet the exi ting divi ion of cholar hip, which tend to focu on geographical region and often on ingle countrie , make little u e of the e comparative po ibilitie. The Joint Committee on the omparative tudyof Mu lim ocietie wa founded in 19 5 with the aim of encouraging cholar to take advantage of the e largely unrecognized opp rtunitie for comparative re ear h. A part of it field building efforts, the committee ha organized a number of international workshop and conference, and offer a mall number of re earch and training grants for explicitly comparative project. The committee ha al 0 exp rimented with a new modality, an annual di ertation work hop which ha been ucce ful enough to warrant de cription here, in the hope that other might organize imilar activitie on i ue of concern to them. The point of the di ertation work hop i to bring ad anced graduate tudent -at that formative tage in their career when they are preparing for, in the mid t of, or writing up their di rtation re earchinto inten e per onal and intellectual interaction with other oung cholar working on related topic , in other culture and acro a broad array of di cipline . o far, we have organized two uch work hop, with a third coming up hortly. Each year, with a do ing date in November, orne 250 announcements of the next work hop have been ent to individual and in titution around the world thought likely to ha e advanced graduate tudents in the ocial cience and humanitie engaged in re earch on I lamic ubject in different part of the Mu lim 28

world-from enegal to Xinkiang. Although we expected few if any applicants actually to be engaged in comparative work, we explained that our interest i in trying to help them ee their re earch in comparative per pective, and in particular to explore the po ibilitie in relating Mu lim di cour e to the great variety of ocioeconomic, political, and cultural contexts in which it occur . We have attracted around 40 applicant annually. From the e a ubcommittee elected orne 12 (with alternate ), on the ba i of the intellectual excitement of their doctoral re earch propo al , at lea t orne perceptible coherence in the i ue being treated. and with an eye to maximizing the pread of di ciplinary, intellectual, and national background a well a of the geographical area being tudied. We al 0 tried to get roughl equal number of tho e who had yet to do field work, tho e in the field, and those writing up thi field work-although there has tended to be a predominance of the la t group. The fir t work hop, arranged at fairly hort notice, wa held in ew York and had a majority of ed participants. but ince then we have met in Mu lim ocietie -in Tangier in June 19 7, with I tanbul cheduled for June 19 -and the mix ha been much more varied. The organization of the Tangier workhop et the pattern now to be de cribed. Once we had acceptance from tho e elected, we circulated to all of them a full et of their re earch propo al or de criptions, explained again the general intent of the committee ( ee the March 1986 i ue of Items, page 2-6) and a ked them to write a 1,500 word re pon e to three que tion of the following kind: What doe it mean for individual to "be Mu lim" in the ociety you are intere ted in, and how do the phenomena you are working on reflect thi ? In what way i collective life haped by the fact that the ociety i Mu lim. and how i thi manife ted in public di cmir e? How would you addre these que tion in relation to the propo al other than your own, grouping the e in any way you wi h? This forced everyone to read all the other with orne care and think about how the related to each other, ub tantively, conceptually, and methodologically. The e ay were reque ted a month or 0 before the work hop. in ufficient time for the e too to be circulated to the whole group before the meeting. A the tudents arri ed in Tangier on the da before the three-day work hop, each wa a igned to gi e a 15-minute po itive pre entation of a elected VOLUME




propo al other than their own on the fir t day. Pre enter were paired with propo al on the ba i of incompatibility rather than compatibility (thu, fughal India with Sadat' Egypt, or non· French intellectual with French intellectual, or political ienti t with anthropologi t), but were a ked to peak with a much empathy and under tanding a the could mu ter. Each uch pre entation wa followed by 15 minute of general di cu ion of the propo ai, in which the author of the propo al wa not permitted to join. All 12 propo al were di cu ed on the fir t day-with compari on involved at lea t ot lea t implicitly-and got everybody talking. important, thi procedure hort·circuited the kind of immediate defen ive-<:orrective re pon e that hear· ing one' own paper di u ed u ually engender . Mi under tanding, pondered on, can ignal impor. tant thing quite a much a critici m. On the econd day, we went through the propo al again, grouping them in a more related fa hion and thi time allowing author to go fir t, not, however, with a imple re·pre entation of their re earch, but with an effort to di cu it a productively a po ible in the light of earlier comment and com pari on , now 24 relatively calming hour afterward. Again, half an hour each got u through the whole et of 12, and produced orne wonderfully lively di cu ion and debate. In thi connection, it became evident that many parti ipant were intere ted in proce e of mainte· nance or con truction of "Mu lim identity," a the social actor they were concerned with drew upon and reworked I lamic idiom or in titution in a great \"ariet' of context. John Han on, a hi torian from Michigan tate Univer ity working in Mali, wa analyzing the way in which Senegambian migrant into late 19th century Karta re tated the idea of jihad to ju tif warfare again t earlier Mu lim ettler. In a quite different ituation, Davida Wood, a Princeton anthropologi t doing re earch among Arab Mu lim in I rael, wa exploring the relation hip between secular and religiou di cour e directed toward the re tatement of Pale tinian identit in the context of the Zioni t di cour e of the tate. A imilar concern with the role played by the modern tate wa the focu of the tudy of current pr ce e of "I lamiza· tion" in Paki tan, b Jamal Malik, a p litical cienti t at the Univer ity of Heidelberg. B contra t-and et not 0 contra ting a fir t appeared-U ha San ai, a hi torian from Columbia Univer ity, wa examining the writing and teaching , and the later politic , of the 19th·20th century "Barelwi Movement" in outh la, a it truggled to determine, and argue for


E 19

other, how Mu lim hould be t be "Mu lim"accepter of the faith. On the third day, we u ed onl the morning. Fir t we broke the group into two, for an hour and a half, to con truct among them elve a chema, or thematic framework, or y tern of thinking about the relation· hip among the propo al and the po ibilitie, if any, for fruitful com pari on. We then reconvened the full group and each half pre ented its re pective (and, a it turned out, rather different) overall reflection for general di cu ion. Throughout the proceeding, except for the two mall group e ion on the third morning, the entire committee wa pre ent, but had previou 1 agreed to enter di cu ion onl if it felt compelled to, for fear of warn ping the tudent or of being over·directive. In fact, by the third day we were all pretty mu h talking on equal term , and the committee arguing among them elve quite a much a the tudent. And of cour e, a on all occa ion of thi kind, much wa exchanged during coffee break, at meal, and around the wimming pool, with, one u pected, tudent often getting more eriou attention than they normally received in their home in titution . At the end of the meeting (which concluded with a free day on which we all joined in a tour to pIa e of intere t), we a ked participant to end u a letter with their reflection on the ub tance, po ible impact, and organization of the work hop, wa it might be im· pro ed, and way to maintain contact. The re pon e were very rich and heart warming. The di u ion were extremely inten e, ju t about ever one wanted to tay in touch, people became much more con iou of variation in intellectual and interpretive approach than they had imagined p ible, and di covered va t new topic and intere t . And both the value and the problem of comparative tudy had become much more clearl recognized. We are now engaged in producing what we hope will be a erie of mode t new letter, which in addi· tion to brief ummarie of the project di cu ed in the fir t two work hop, will contain the current ad· dre e of all participant, and report from mo t of them on the progre of their re earch or ub equent work. The general purpo e, of trying to build a net· work of people who, early in their career , have had a chance to think eriou ly about their own work in the context of comparable re earch in other Mu lim ocietie , in other time and place , and often from within quite different analytical tradition, eem to be working, and enthu ing everyone involved. WILLIAM R. ROFF Columbia Univer ity


New Joint Committee on the Research Library

harle Young

Chancellor, Universit of CaJifornia, Los Angel

The Council ha joined the American Council of The fir t meeting of the committee wa held at the Learned ocietie, the A ociation of American office of the American Council of Learned ocieties Univer itie , and the Council on Library Re ource on January 18, 19 . In addition to committee in pon oring a Committee on the Re earch Library. member, the taff member pre ent included: The topic of concern range from financial and management i ue to the need and problem of Dougla Greenberg American Council of Learned u er to the impact and utilization of new technoloSocietie tan ley . Kau American Council of Learned gie . The pro tempore chairman of the committee i Societie Warren J. Haa , pre ident of the Council on Library Deanna B. Marcum Council on Library Re ure Re ource . Henry W. Riecken Council on Library Re oure The initial member of the committee are: David L. iJl SociaJ ience Research Council filii ent Abell ~

illiam Arm

Patricia Battin Ph IIi Bober Edwin Bridge B rnard . Cohen

Bernard . ohn Jill


John D'Arm Jame O. Freedman Bill E. Frye



William Jo ce

Beverl Lynch Theodore Marmor Robert Middlekauff


Hilli Miller

Robert O'Neill Jame


Ro e

eil L. Ruden tine

eorge Rupp idne Verba


Universit librarian, Yale niver ity Vi e pre idem, Academic rvi e , Carnegie Mellon niversit Pre idem, ommi ion on Pre ervation and Acce Profe or of Archaeology, Bryn Mawr ollege Archivi t, tate of Alabama Vi e chancellor, Academi ffair , Univer it of Wi on in Profe or of anthropology, Univer ity of Chicago Vi iting profe or of hi tory, Ma achusetts In titute of Technology Dean of the Graduate hool, Univer it of Michigan Pre idem, Dartmouth ollege Vice pre idem for academic affairs and provo t, Emory Univer ity Univer it librarian, Univer ity of orth arolina A ociate librarian, Rare Books and peciaJ Collection , Princeton Univer it Univer ity librarian, Univer it of IIIinoi at Chicago Ru ell age Foundation and Yale University Profe or of hi tory, Univer ity of aJifornia, Berkeley Profe or of Engli h, University of alifornia, Irvine Pre ident, Univer ity of Virginia Vice presidem and provo t, tan ford University Executive vice pre ident, Andrew W. Mellon Foundation Pre idem, Rice Univer ity Director, Harvard Univer ity Librarie

John Vaughn

A ociation of American Universitie

Soviet Economy The quarterly journal Soviet Economy wa e tabIi hed in 1985 under the pon or hip of the Joint Committee on oviet tudie and its Subcommittee on Economics, a a forum for di cu ion by peciali on the economic development of the Soviet Union. It i the only Engli h-Ianguage journal devoted excluively to re earch on the oviet economy, economic geography, and regional economic i ue. The editor are Ed A. Hewett, The Brooking In titution (Wa hington, D.C.); Jerry F. Hough, The Brookings In titution; and Gertrude E. Schroeder, Univer ityof Virginia. The journal wa founded at a time when enior cholar perceived a lack of younger cholm in the field of oviet economic . Thi ab ence attributed to lack of intere t, the i olation of current peciali ts from one another, and economic tagnation in the Soviet Union under Brezhnev. 10 re pon e to thi tate of the field a well a the challenge of economic reform propo ed by the current leader hip of the oviet Union, the journal eek to provide a highl vi ible forum for economics re earch and hope to attract the intere t non pecialists to important trend in Soviet economic development and their broader theoretical ignificance. I ue of Soviet Economy for the past year ha covered a broad pectrum of area of re earch and form of di cu ion and exchange. Sum marie of the annual panel di cu ion on oviet economic perf011 mance, and a Soviet Economy roundtable on Gon. chev' economic reform, have been included, a were everal article contributed by cholar in the So . Union. Topics of re earch repre ented in the jou include Soviet foreign trade, price policies, lowdown in Soviet indu try, Gorbachev' VOLUME


reform and trategy, and the ocial a pects of reform. Example of the e article are "Re tructuring the echani m of Foreign Economic Relations in the U R," by Ivan D. Ivanov; "Ba ic Direction of Pm troyko.," by Abel G. Aganbegyan; "Gorbachev' Economic Advi ors," by Ander A lund; "Pro pects for Change in the Sy tern of Price Formation, Finance and Credit in the USSR," by Nikolay Petrakov; "Approache to the Politic of Sy temic Economic Reform in the oviet Union," by Timothy J. Colton; "The Social Dimen ion of Pere troyka," b Blair A. Ruble; "Gorbachev' ocial Contract," by Peter Hau lohner; and " ocioeconomic A pects of Pm troyko.," by Tat'iana I. Za lav kaya. SOl!iet Economy i publi hed by V.H. Win ton & Son, Inc., 7961 Ea tern Avenue, Silver Spring, aryland 20901. The annual ub cription rate are 50.00 for individual in the United State; 93.00 for V. . librarie and in titution; and 105.00 elsewhere.

Public Policy Research on Contemporary Hispanic Issues The Joint Committee for Public Policy Re earch on Contemporary Hispanic I ue wa appointed in 1985 to build a en e of community among re earchen who tudy Latino i ue, to encourage the development of new re earch idea , and to promote research that i both of value to the Latino community and can inform public policy debate. The committee i pon ored jointly by the Council and the Inter-Univer ity Program for Latino Re earch;* it is upported by fund from the Ford Foundation. The 19 7-88 members of the committee are ROOolfo O. de la Garza, Univer ity of Texa , chair; axine Baca Zinn, Univer ity of Michigan, Flint; Hubert M. Blalock, Jr., Univer ity of Wa hington; Frank Bonilla, Hunter College, City Univer ity of ew York; Leobardo Felipe E trada, Univer ity of California, Lo Angele; Joan Moore, Univer ity of iscon in, Milwaukee; Robert D. Rei chauer, The Brooking Institution (Wa hington D.C.); and Sa kia n, Columbia Univer ity. Rachel Ovryn Rivera taff at the Council; Harriett Romo,

-The Inter- niversit Program for Latino Research (IUP) i a moperative effort of four major centers: Centro de Estudio Pumorriqueno., Hunter College, City University of New York; Cmter for Mexican American tudie. University of Texas; CUcano tudie Research Center. University of California. Lo Angeles; and the tanford Center for Chicano Research. Slanford University.

Univer ity of Texa , erve a project coordinator for the IUP. ince its inception in May 19 5, the committee ha upported a wide range of re earch training and planning acti itie. The committee' mo t vi ible program, to date, ha been it po tdoctoral re earch competition. High priority i placed on interdi ciplinary, comparative re earch that will provide recommendation for polic and program development. The fir t round of grant, awarded in 19 5, empha ized re earch on Latino immigration and Puerto Rican migration; ethnicity; political participation and civic involvement; employment and income ecurity; and effective chooling and dropout rate . The econd round of grants, awarded in 19 7, empha ized re earch on employment and economic well-being; income equitie , income di tribution, and per i tent poverty; the criminal ju tice tern; and changing famil tructure. A third po tdoctoral re earch competition i cheduled for 19 9. To trengthen the impact of the e competition, the committee hold an annual forum for grantee . The 19 5 annual forum, ho ted by the Chicano tudie Re earch Center at the Univer ity of California, Lo Angele, brought grant recipients and other academic re earcher together to pre ent ongoing re earch on minoritie in the United State, di cu pa t inve tigation, and target topic for future con ideration. The 19 forum, ho ted by the Center for Chicano tudie at Stanford, wa deigned to provide grantee with an opportunit to examine the proce of conducting univer ity-ba ed public-re earch polic . In order to focu thi examination, grantee organized panel, compo ed of cholar and policy maker, around five theme : education, economic development, language, political organization, and neighborhood qualit and immigration. The committee annually provide po tdoctoral fellow hip for Latino/a cholar intere ted in pending a year doing re earch and writing at either an IUP affiliate or at a de ignated public policy in titute. * In addition, the committee annually spon or two training work hop and occa ionally co pon or work hop and eminar with other Council program . A training eminar for Latinalo graduate tudents, de igned by the IUP, bring - The de ignated in titute are the Brookings In titution (W hington. D.C.); the enter on Budget and Policy Priori lie (Wa hington, D.C.); the In titute for Re earch on Poverty. Univer ity of Wi on in; the Center for the tudy of Social Policy (Wa hington. D.C.); and the Urban In titute (Washington. D.C.).


Latina/o graduate tudent from acro the country together to work with di tingui hed Latino faculty to develop in-depth knowledge of non tati tical approache to ocial cience re earch on Latino . A ummer work hop on tati tical re earch method for Latina/o cial cienti ts provide ocial cienti ts with an opportunity to develop in-depth knowledge of national data ets relevant to the tudy of Latino p pulation and to impro e their knowledge of tati tical re earch method through participation in e tabli hed cour e of the Inter-Univer ity Con ortium for Political and ocial Re earch (lCP R) at the Univer it of Michigan. In Augu t 19 7, in conjunction with the Council' ommittee on the Surve of Income and Program Participation (SIPP), the committee co pon ored a four-day eminar at the Univer ity of Michigan on the u e of the SIPP for re earch on minoritie . The committee i committed to di eminating the re earch finding of its grantee via publication for u e b public official and the general public in order to contribute to a more informed public debate and poli -making proce on i ue affecting Latino. Thi year, the committee e tabli hed two working group which focu on Latino in the United tate. One will focu on changing family tructure, the other on participation in ocial welfare and income tran fer program . Both working group are deigned to pr duce a bod of cholar hip on the Hi pani population whi h will inform contemporary debate and concern in the public polic arena. In additi n, the committee co pon ored, with the Rockefeller Foundation' Equal Opportunitie Program, a eminar erie on Hi panic employment. Thi erie wa developed by Edwin Melendez, Ma achu etts In titute of Technology, and Clara R driguez, Fordham Univer ity. In 0 tober 19 , the committee will ho t a conference, tentatively entitled "Communitie in Tran ition: Latino and Black in the 1990 ," with the Joint Center for Political tudie, the L ndon B. John on Library, and the L ndon B. John on chool of Public Affair, Univer ity of Texa . The conference, which i de igned to direct attention to Latino and black i ue in American citie, will bring together cholar, government official , and policy maker who hope to develop pecific policy recommendation.

in African agriculture, and to promote networ among re earcher in Africa, the Project on African Agriculture, which i admini tered by the ubcommittee on African Agriculture of the Joint Committee on African Studie , organize initial work hops for orne recipients of fellow hip award . Participan in the e workshop di cu their projects with other award recipient and with repre entative of the Subcommittee on African Agriculture, the project' ad i ory group, re ource per on , and taff. Th work hop are al 0 intended to promote a ense of cohort member hip among fellow . Fellow hip recipients who do not participate in initial work hop are invited to follow-up work hop for all member of a fellow hip cohort after their fellow hip end. The project' fir t work hop wa held at the Faculty of Agriculture, Univer ity of Zimbabwe, January 18-20, 19 , for individual who were voted fellow hip award by the ubcommittee on Africaa Agriculture at its meeting on eptember 2!)-: 19 7. Other work hop participants included advise> group member Mandivamba Rukuni, dean, of Agriculture, Univer ity of Zimbabwe, and hop ho t; Kwe i Prah, head, Re earch In titute of Southern African tudie (Le otho); Randall M. Packard, member, Subcommittee African Agriculture. The econd work hop wa held at the l'm:ndl.bqI Ho tel, Bakau, The Gambia, in cooperation with Gambia Department of Agriculture, on 25-26, 19 . Other work hop participant inrll'ln.i George Benneh, pro-vice chancellor, Universit Ghana, and member, advi ory group; Ken J deputy director, Project Planning and Unit, Gambia Department of Agriculture; Chri tine Okali, Oxfam America (Bo ton). member, Subcommittee on African Agriculture. The Subcommittee on African Agriculture organize pre-fellow hip project development hop for orne applicants to its fellow hip nrl'l....... Individual who are invited to the work hops ubmitted propo al that have con iderable nnt...... for producing ignificant finding but which judged by the ubcommittee to require trengthening before they can be con idered fI fellow hip award. Participant at the project development "'I'\"IrIlI1_ di cu their propo al with other applicants and repre entative of the ubcommittee, the international advi ory group, re ource persons, Project on African Agriculture taff. The participants began to reformulate A part of its effort to upport the development of projects before leaving the work hop , and th higher quality, interdi ciplinary re earch on the cri i trongly encouraged by project repre entati


resubmit their propo al for the next fellow hip competition. The Project on African Agriculture' fir t workhop for the development of re earch projects wa held at the Agrarian Sy tern Department, International enter for Re earch in Agronomy for Development (CIRAD), Montpellier, France, on Augu t 2~27, 1987, for author of propo al who were awarded project development upport at the ubcommittee' meeting on Ma 8-9, 19 7. Other work hop participants included Jacque Lefort, director, Agrarian y tern Department, CIRAD; Konrad Ell a er and Marie-Ro e Mercoiret, CIRAD, and work hop host ; and Pier Blaikie, Univer ity of Ea t Anglia, and member, ubcommittee on African Agriculture. The project' econd work hop wa held at Chancellor College, Univer ity of Malawi, on January 22-24, 19 , for applicants who were awarded project development upport at the ubcommittee' meeting on eptember 25-26, 1987. Other workshop participants included Ben on Kandoole, dean, Faculty of ocial cience, Chancellor College, Univer°ty of Malawi, and workshop ho t; and hem igot-Adholla, Univer ity of airobi and the World Bank, and cochair, Subcommittee on African Agriculture. The third work hop wa held at the Friend hip Hostel, Bakau, The Gambia, in cooperation with the Gambia Department of Agriculture, on February 28-29, 19 , for individual who were awarded project development upport at the ubcommittee' ptember meeting. Other work hop participants included George Benneh, pro-vice chancellor, Uniersity of Ghana, who repre ented the project' advisory group; Ken Johm, deputy director, Project Planning and Monitoring Unit, Gambia Department of Agriculture; and Chri tine Okali, Oxfam America (Boston), member, Subcommittee on African agriculture. Thoma M. Painter erved a taff for both the initial and the project development work hop . The ubcommittee al 0 awarded upport for development of re earch projects by arranging for the author of two re earch projects on oil ero ion ues to attend a conference on the Environmental risi in Developing Countrie , Royal Holloway and Bedford ew College, Egham, U.K., in December 1~21, 19 7, which wa co-organized by P.T.H. Dwin, Ro al Holloway and Bedford ew College, ad Pier M. Blai kie, Univer ity of Ea t Anglia, and member, ubcommittee on African Agriculture, and seminar on methodologie for re earch on oil ion, organized by R.P.C. Morgan, Sil oe College, Bedford, U.K., December 22, 1987.

Individual who were awarded fellow hip b the Subcommittee on African Agriculture in September 19 7 are Ii ted on page 53-54.

Research workshop on foreign policy In January 1986, the Council e tabli hed a Program in Foreign Policy Studie with upport from the Ford Foundation. The purp e of the program i to fo ter re earch that reflects the increa ed complexity of policy making and examine trend in the way that foreign policy ha been and i being made. The program currently eek to meet it goal through two et of activitie : (1) re earch fellow hip for cholar who eek to broaden ub tantive or methodological a peets of their re earch ( ee page 60 for the mo t recent awards); and (2) eminar and work hop intended to take tock of current re earch and to fo ter a collective examination of policy making. The e work hop have two purpo e . Fir t, they are intended to foster the intellectual cro -fertilization that i nece ary to broaden the focu of re earch in the field of foreign polic tudie . Through the e work hop , the committee intend to take tock of current re earch finding and to timulate the exploration of innovative approache to the tudy of foreign policy making. Second, the e meeting are intended to help advance the work of the program' re earch fellow. They provide the fellow with an opportunity to meet with one another, with member of the committee, with other cholar, and with practitioner from group or in titution involved in the formulation and implementation of foreign policy. During 1987, the committee held it fir t workhop, "Beyond 'Bureaucratic Politic ': Foreign Policy Within and Outside the State," from October 29-31 in Annapoli , Maryland. The work hop wa de igned to encourage exploration of the way in which current model and theorie of foreign policy making could be upplemented to incorporate the increa ing range of influence on the policy-making proce . Participant at the work hop included Philip E. Conver e,* Univer ity of Michigan; I.M. De tler,* Univer ity of Maryland; Michael V. Forre tal, Shearman and Sterling ( ew York); Judith L. Gold tein, Stanford Univer ity; Morton H. Halperin, American Civil Libertie Union (Wa hington, D.C.); Bruce W. Jentle on, legi lative a i tant for foreign affair,

• Member of the Committee on Foreign Policy tudie.


Office of enator Albert Gore, Jr.; Rebecca R. Kahlenberg, Harvard Univer ity; Mile Kahler,* Univer ity of California, San Diego; Carl Kayen,* Ma achu etts In titute of Technology; Loui a Kennedy, tribling and A ociate (Wa hington, D.C.); Robert O . Keohane, Harvard Univer ity; Alexandro Kitroeff, Queen College, City Univer ity of ew York; Deborah W. Lar on, Columbia Univer ity; Jame M. Lindsay, Univer ity of Iowa; Richard P. Mad en, Univer ity of California, an Diego; Erne t R. May,* Harvard Univer ity; William M. Minter, Africa ew ervice (Wa hington, D.C.); David D. New om, Georgetown Univer ity; John . Odell, Univer ity of Southern California; Guillermo A. O'Donnell,* Univer ity of Notre Dame and Brazilian Center for Analy i and Planning (Rio de Janeiro); Robert Paarlberg, Harvard Univer ity; Brenda Gayle Plummer, Univer ity of Minne ota; Robert S. Ro , Univer ity of Wa hi~gton; Gary G. ick, The Ford Foundation (New York); David C. Unger, The New York Time .. and tephen Walt, Princeton Univer ity. Richard H. Mo erved a taff. Participants were a ked to comment on the impact of a diver e group of in titution on polic making in recent foreign policy events. Three pecific i ue were u ed a the tarting point for di cus ion: (1) the u e of economic anction again t the Soviet bloc during the Carter and Reagan administration; (2) the policy re pon e of the Carter admini tration to the Iranian ho tage cri is; and (3) the pa age by Congre of the Anti-Apartheid Act of 1986 and the impo ition of economic anction against South Africa. The committee commi ioned three background paper on the e ca e . During the concluding e ion of the work hop, participants were a ked to compare the ca e and to develop theme for future re earch. In addition to fo tering rich di cu ion about the varied in titutional influence on policy making on the e three i ue, the work hop identified five general que tion that eemed to hold promi e for future re earch: (1)


(3) (4)



The committee and taff hope to encourage further examination of the e que tion by individual re earcher and in future work hop or conferences. The committee i planning a econd work hop to build on the Annapoli meeting. Participants, including fellow ,member of the committee, and chola from out ide the United State, will anal 'ze the making of foreign policy from three di tinct per peetive : (1) a a proce of imultaneou dome tic and international bargaining; (2) a a proce defined by a broad range of in titution ; and (3) a a proc haped by value, frame, image, or "dominant cliche ." During the final e ion, participant compare the e per pective and attempt to develop a typ logy of theorie of foreign policy making.

International Peace and Security Studies conference

The Council' Program in International Peace and ecurity Studie, e tabli hed in 1985 with funds provided by the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, eek to focus cholar hip on fundamental a umptions about factor which inhibit cooperation and promote violence among nations. By upporting innovative re earch, often originating from outside the mainstream of national ecuri tudie , the program eek to contribute to pro pec1I for a more enduring peace and to the evolution of an international y tern in which the rights of individual and nation can prosper. The Council' program began with the e tabli hment of di ertation and po tdoctoral fellow hip for training and re earch in international peace and ecurity and ha grown to include a erie of conference . Richard C. RockweO and Richard H. Mo erve a taff to thi program. The program' econd annual conference of SSRC-MacArthur Foundation Fellow in International Peace and Security wa held in More Mexico on January 9-13, 19 8. The conference provided an opportunity for the current fellows di cu their re earch and their common rn1'1'r....,. . Fir t year fellow, tho e carrying out or Under what condition do i ue rise to the top or fall to the completing the training pha e of their program, bottom of the U.S. foreign policy agenda? in working group to review the progre of What accounts for the absence or inten ity of parti an contentiou ne ? I it an inverse function of perception of training and to di cu challenge they expected confront in their ub equent re earch. The e threat to important national intere ts? What define and accoun for" ucce " or "failure" in ing group focu ed on "Ethics, Culture, and foreign policy? (the ways in which ethical con ideration How do "frame" and "dominant clich~ " emerge? By what proce e within nations influence the way secu' mechani m are they propelled into the political marketi defined or ecurity policy is implemented place? "Regional Cooperation, Security, and the uperpo What factors con train and define the range of policy option er" (the relation hip between regional secu' con idered and elected in a given in tance of policy making?

and network and the global concerns of the tate and/or the Soviet Union); "Strategic in Peace and Security" (topics in the areas of , economic, or military ecurity that bear on strategic interactions of nations with other or organization ); "Technology and Political (re earch and development of technology political decisions governing its u e or nonuse); and Security in Latin America" (political, IItolllonrti'c, or ocial issues and their relationships to definitions of ecurity in Latin America); and ~ ...... rl""".,.. r Perceptions and Policy" (the implicaof U.S. and Soviet perceptions and decision IIMII"IIIK, particularly for the Third World). Second fellow led eminar di cussions on their indire earch. Topic included, for example, "The Dilemma: A Social Psychological Analysis the Nuclear Arms Race," "Cognitive Fallacie in and Foreign Policy Decision Making," and Implications of Global Climatic Changes for IdllUIl.<11 Security." conference al 0 provided the fellows the to learn about traditional and emerging problems in Mexico. Pre entations by specialon Mexican and Latin American affairs explored GOlme:su'c and international dimensions of Mexican broadly understood, including sociopolitical economic issues within Mexico, United Statesexican relations, and Mexico's role in Central America. Presentations were given by Adolfo Aguilar Zinser, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace ashington, D.C.); Bruce Bagley, University of iami; Lilia Bermudez, National Autonomous Uniity of Mexico; Jorge Bustamante, El Colegio de la Frontera Norte; Jo e Casar, Latin American Institute of Tran national Studies; Wayne Cornelius, U niver. of California, San Diego; Matthew Edel, The Graduate Center, City Univer ity of New York; Tom Farer, University of New Mexico; Roberto Marino, Banco Nacional de Mexico; Ifigenia Martinez, National Autonomous University of Mexico; Lorenzo eyer, El Colegio de Mexico; Jose Luis Reyna, Faculty of Latin American Social Sciences; Celia Toro, National Autonomous Univer ity of Mexico; and Victor Urquidi, El Colegio de Mexico. At the conference's final plenary session, Robert O'Neill, Univer ity of Oxford and a member of the program's FeUow hip Selection committee, gave a presentation hich i the basis for his article on pages 11-15, above. The interest in exploring broad dimension of exican ecurity generated by the conference has led to plans for a follow-up workshop on "Domestic


and International Issues in Mexico's Security." Tho e participants at the second annual conference who gave pre entations on Mexican security will revi e and develop their original presentations. They will pre ent paper on broad aspects of Mexican ecurity including human rights, economic and environmental issue , political transformations in Mexico, and Mexico-Central American relations. Sergio Aguayo, a fellow of the program, and Bruce Bagley, University of Miami, have agreed to serve as editors of a planned volume of the conference papers. The workshop will be held in late 1988. The principal expre sion of the Council's commitment to a broad understanding of ecurity continues to be the SSRC-MacArthur Foundation Fellowships in International Peace and Security. After three years, 79 dis ertation and postdoctoral fellowships have been awarded. De criptions of the projects of the mo t recent recipients of the fellow hip are given on pages 59-60. The deadline for the next competition is October 3, 1988. For further information and application materials, addre the Program in International Peace and Security Studies at the Council.

New bulletin on public culture The Joint Committee on South Asia is sponsoring a new bulletin on public culture to be publi hed by the Public Culture Project at the University of Pennsylvania. The bulletin will report and reflect current research on the cultural transformations as ociated with cities, media, and consumption in contemporary societies and the cultural flows that draw these societies into larger transnational dialogues. The bulletin has three goals: • To e tablish an international network of scholars committed to re earch on public culture issues and debates, and on cosmopolitan cultural forms (such as cinema, sport, television and video, restaurants, domestic tourism, and museums) • To publish excerpts from ongoing cholarly work, news clippings, and media material • To announce recent publications, and to encourage network members to facilitate their acquisition or exchange, particularly across national boundaries, for colleagues who have problems with foreign currency Research scholars interested in joining this network and receiving a copy of the Public Culture Bulletin should end their name, address, research interests, and recent relevant publications to Carol 35

Appadurai Breckenridge, The Univer ity Mu eum, Univer ity of Pennsylvania, 33rd and Spruce Streets, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104-5324. Telephone: (215) 898-7641; Telex: 71-06-700-328.

States and Social Structures Newsletter Spon ored by the Committee on States and Social Structure , this newsletter erve a a clearinghouse for re earch, re earch ideas, and book reviews in thi new interdi ciplinary field. The contents of the current i sue (No.6, Winter 19 8) are a follows: Atul Kohli. Princeton Univer ity. "The tate and Development" Robert H . Bate. Duke Univer ity. "Di aggregating the Political" Re earch in Progre ; Publication ; Book Note ; Cemers and Program

Individual who would like to receive the new letter hould write to: Mr. Meyer Ke tnbaum. Managing Editor tate and Social tructure ew letter ocial ience Re ear h ouncil 605 Third Avenue New York. New York 1015


The member of the Social Structure are: Peter B. Evan Theda Skocpol Bruce Cuming Albert O. Hir hman Lynn Hunt Peter J. Katzen tein Ira Katznel on tephen D. Krasner Dietrich Rue hemeyer Charle Tilly

niversity of California. Diego. cochair Harvard Universit~. cocbIir Universit of Chicago In titute for Advanced (Princeton. 'ew Jersey) University of Penn 'Ivania ornell niver ity New School for Social tan ford Unive ity Brown Univer it) ew School for Social

Staff appointments Frederic Wakeman, the Council' pre ident, announced the appointment of two new exÂŤnall! a ociate for two-year terms effective January 1988. They are Richard C. Rockwell and David Szanton. Mr. Rockwell, a ociologi t, joined the staff of Council in 1979. He will have hi primary rPCIVIIIIII bilities in the dome tic program of the Council. Mr. Szanton, an anthropologi t, joined the of the Council in 1975. Hi primary resporlslbddll will be for the area studie program. Both exÂŤ~'i't as ociate will al 0 have re pon ibilitie for transnational and international program and continue to taff individual committee .

liThe Population of the United States in the 1980s" Six new Census monographs in this series published so far this year DURING THE FIRST SIX MONTHS OF 1988, ix new books in the erie "The Population of the United tate in the 1980" were published under the pon or hip of the Council's Committee for Re earch on the 1980 Census, chaired by Charles F. Westoff, Princeton University. Thi eries repre ents an important epi ode in 0cial ience re earch and revives a long tradition of independent cen us analysis. First in 1930, and then again in 1950 and 1960, teams of social cienti t worked with the U.S. Bureau of the Census to inve ligate ignificant social, economic, and demographic de\'elopment revealed by the decennial censu es. These Cen us projects produced three landmark eries of tudie , providing a firm foundation and etting a high tandard for the pre ent undertaking. There i , in fact, more than a theoretical continuity between the earlier Cen u project and the pre ent one. Like the previou efforts, this new Censu project ha benefited from clo e cooperation between the Cen u Bureau and a distingui hed, interdi ciplinary group of cholar. Like the 1950 and 1960 research projects, re earch on the 1980 Censu wa initiated by the Council and the Rus ell Sage Foundation. In deciding once again to promote a coordinated program of Census analy i, Ru ell ge and the Council were mindful not only of the \'ere budgetary re trictions impo ed on the Census Bureau' own publishing and dis emination activitie in the 19 0 , but aloof the extraordinary change that have occurred in 0 many dimen ions of merican life over the pa t two decade . The tudie con tituting "The Population of the United tate in the 1980 " were planned, commi . ned, and monitored by the committee, which i ponsored by the Council, the Ru ell Sage Foundation, and the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, with the collaboration of the U.S. Bureau of the Census. It the committee' task to elect the main topic for research, obtain highly qualified peciali ts to carry out that re earch, and provide the tructure nece to facilitate coordination among re earchers and ·th the Cen u Bureau. All of the books are publi hed by the Ru ell Sage Foundation, 112 Ea t 64th Street, New York, New ork 10021.

In 1987, the following book in the erie were published: American Women in Transition, by uzanne M. Bianchi, U.. Bureau of the Cen u , and Daphne pain, Univer ity of Virginia The Color Line and the Quality of Life in America, by Reynold Farley and Walter R. Allen, niversity of Michigan Dollars and Dreams: The Changing American Income Distribution, by Frank Levy, niver ity of Maryland The Politics of Numbers, edited by William Alon 0, Harvard Univer ity, and Paul tarr, Princeton niversity

The following six book have been publi hed thu far in 1988:

American Families and Households, by Jarne A. Sweet and Larry L. Bumpa s. A publication in the eries "The Population of the United State in the 1980 ." Sponsored by the Committee for Re earch on the 19 0 Cen u. New York: Ru ell Sage Foundation, 19 8. xxxii + 416 page. Cloth, 39.95.

In thi volume the author et out to do everal thing with re pect to family transition and family and hou ehold tructure. Fir t, they attempt to de cribe, as of around 1980, the family and hou ehold ituation of the American population. Thi de cription include everal di tinct component including: • The rate at which "family tran ition" are occurring-marriage, childbearing, marital di 0lution, and "leaving home" as a young adult • The ocial and economic characteri tic of peron in variou family and household ituation • The prevalence and characteri tic of variou hou ehold and family types Second, they attempt to de cribe recent change in the e family and hou ehold di tribution , and in the proce e underlying them. The temporal focu of the e com pari ons i primarily the period from 1960 through 1980, although in many ca es data back to 1940 and earlier are included. Finally, they attempt to de cribe differential within the American population. They are concerned with differential rate of family tran ition , and differential trend among major population ubgroup. Among the population characteri tics that differenti-


ate family and hou ehold behavior and structure are age, ex, race and ethnicity, and education. The author are both profe or of ociology at the Univer ity of Wi consin and members of its Center for Demography and Ecology.

American Neighborhoods and Residential Differentiation, by Michael J. White. A publication in the erie "The Population of the United State in the 1980s." Spon ored by the Committee for Research on the 1980 Cen us. ew York: Rus ell Sage Foundation, 198 . xx + 327 page. Cloth, 37.50.

The 1980 Censu introduced a radical change the measurement of ethnicity by gathering i'", t n r _ tion on ancestry for all re pondents, regardl how long ago their forebear migrated to and by allowing respondents of mixed background list more than one ance try. The re ult, pre ented the fir t time in this important tudy, i a unique ometime tartling picture of the nation's makeup. From Many Strands focu es on each of the principal European ethnic group, a well as major non-European group uch a blacks Hispanics. The authors de cribe differences similarities acro s a range of dimen ion , j'lllclulm. regional di tribution, income, marriage pattern , education. While orne finding lend upport to "melting pot" theory of a imilation (levels educational attainment have become more rnrnnolft ble and ingroup marriage is declining). findings uggest the persistence of pluralism ment patterns re i t change and orne occupational pattern date from the tum century). In the e contradiction , and in the triking of re pondents who report no ethnic background report it incorrectly, Lieber on and Waters evidence of considerable ethnic flux and uncover growing pre ence of a new, "unhyphenated can" ethnic strand in the fabric of national life. Stanley Lieber on is a profe or of ociology at Univer ity of California, Berkeley; Mary C. Wa an a sistant profes or of ociology at Univer ity.

Re idential pattern are reflection of ocial structure; to a k, "who live in thi neighborhood," i to explore a orting-out proce s that is ba ed largely on ocioeconomic tatu , ethnicity, and life cycle characteri tics. This volume u e Censu data, with its uniquely detailed information on mall geographical areas, to bring into focus the familiar yet often vague concept of "neighborhood." Michael White examine nearly 6,000 Cen u tracts (approximating neighborhoods) in 21 repre entative metropolitan area , from Atlanta to Salt Lake City, Newark to San Diego. The availability of tati tics panning everal decade and covering a wide range of demographic characteristics (including age, race, occupation, income, and housing quality) make po ible a rich analy i of the evolution and implication of difference among neighborhood . In this complex mo aic, White finds pattern and trace them over time-showing, for example, how racial egregation has declined mode tly, while ocioeconomic egregation remain con tant, and The Hispanic Population of the United States, how population diffu ion gradually affect neighbor- Frank D. Bean and Marta Tienda. A publication hood compo ition. Hi a e ment of our urban the series "The Population of the United States in ettlement y tern also illuminates the ocial force 1980 ." Sponsored by the Committee for that hape contemporary city life and the troubling on the 1980 Cen us. New York: Russell policy i sues that plague it. Foundation, 1988. xxiv + 457 page . Cloth, Michael J. White is a enior re earch a ociate at the Urban Institute (Wa hington, D.C.). During the 1960 and 1970, a new awareness of ethnic diversity coincided with a influx of Hi panic to capture unprecedented From Many Strands: Ethnic and Racial Groups in tional attention for the Spanish-origin Contemporary America, by Stanley Lieberson and the United States. By the 19 0 , Hispanics Mary C. Water . A publication in the eries "The the center of such major policy i ue a u'nmllj(l-alill Population of the United State in the 1980s." bilingual education, and unemployment. As this volume demonstrate , there i Sponsored by the Committee for Re earch on the 1980 Census. New York: Rus ell Sage Foundation, single Hispanic population, but rather a cluster of populations-Mexican, Puerto Rican, 1988. xx + 294 page. Cloth, 29.95. 38

ban, Central and outh American, Spani h, and Caribbean. With thi in mind, Bean and Tienda draw on Cen u and other data to examine a range of apecific topics (including immigration, family pattml , education, and employment), imultaneou I ploring the large theme of per i tence and change over time, variation and uniformity among Hi pan. and convergence and divergence with re pect to blacks and non-Hi panic white. Throughout, the volume al 0 addre e ignificant policy implication mat follow from the e theme and trends. Thl Hispanic Population of the United State offer a DeW a e ment of the current characteristic and future pro pects of an increa ingly prominent segment of our national community. Frank D. Bean is a profe or of ociology at the Univer ity of Texas; Marta Tienda i a profe or of sociology at the Univer ity of Chicago.

Housing America in the 19808, by John S. Adam. A publication in the erie "The Population of the United tate in the 1980." Spon ored by the Council' Committee for Re earch on the 1980 Cen u . New York: Ru ell Sage Foundation, 19 路ii + 32 page. Cloth, 65.00.

HOllsing America in the 1980s de cribe and analyze the hou ing portion of the U.S. ettlement land cape during the early 19 o. Like our language, our eather, our food, and other feature of everyday life and experience, hou ing is such a fundamental, perva ive yet diver e element of the American cene mat it i hard to di cu s it in a y tematic and comprehen ive way. How can a decrepit apartment m the South Bronx be compared with a hack in a Loui iana ba ou? Or a Montana ranch hou e with a Gold Coa t condo in Chicago? Thi book, ba ed largely on data from the 19 0 Cen u of Hou ing, provide one answer. An mtroductory chapter examines part of the recent history of U.S. hou ing, e pecially ince 1960. Chapter 2 explore the meaning of housing in merica-a helter, a home, as tore of wealth for household ,a tax ba e for local government , a tu mbol for the middle cla ,and a an element of inclu ion and a weapon of exclu ion in neighborhood and community life. Chapter 3 de cribes the U.S. hou ing tock-its volume, compo ition, and geographical distribution. Chapter 4 treats the nature of hou ing demand,

gtvmg pecial attention to the way that demographic change affect hou ing demand and financial in titution help upport the hou ing indu try. Chapter 5 explore how hou ehold of variou type are matched with hou ing units throughout the United tate. Thi national and regional treatment is followed by small-area analy i in Chapter 6, pre enting tract-level portrayal of hou ing u e pattern in elected central citie and urbanized area acro the country. Chapter 7 review ome per i tent contemporary hou ing policy que tion and related governmental re pon e . Five technical appendice de cribe the data and how they were obtained; 0 table and 36 figure (largel map and photograph ) document the finding . John S. Adam i a profe or of geography at the Univer ity of Minne ota.

Regional and Metropolitan Growth and Decline in the United States, by William H. Frey and Alden Speare, Jr. A publication in the erie "The Population of the United tate in the 19 0 ." pon ored b the Committee for Re earch on the 19 0 en u . New York: Rus ell Sage Foundation, 19 . xxxii + 564 page. Cloth, 42.50.

During the 1970 , everal triking population hifts attracted wide pread attention and colorful journalistic labels. Urban gentrification, the rural renai ance, the ri e of the unbelt-the e phenomena signaled major rever als in long-term pattern of population di tribution. In Regional and Metropolitan Growth and Decline in the United tate, author Frey and Speare place uch rever als in context by examining a rich array of cen u data. Thi comprehen ive tudy de cribe new population di tribution pattern, explore their con equence , and evaluate competing explanation of current trend . The author al 0 provide an in-depth look at the changing race, tatu, and hou ehold demographic of the nation' large t citie and discu the broad ocietal force precipitating uch change . Frey and Speare conclude that the 1970 repre ent a "tran ition decade" in the hi tory of population di tribution and that pattern now emerging do not ugge t a return to the pa t. The volume offer an unmatched picture of regional growth and decline acro the United State. William H. Frey i a profe or of ociology at the Univer ity of Michigan; Alden Speare, Jr. IS a profe or of ociology at Brown Univer ity. 39

Other New Council Publications Contents Citizens and Group in Contemporary China, edited by Victor C. Falkenheim (page 40) Easttrn Europe and Communist Rule, by 1- F. Brown (page 41) Forecasting in the Social and Natural Science, edited by Kenneth C. Land and Stephen H. Schneider (page 41)

Guide to Historical Map Re ource for Greater New York, by Jeffrey Kroe ler (page 43) Health, Illness, and Medical Care in japan: Cultural and Social Dimensions, edited by Edward Norbeck and Margaret Lock (page 43) The Imperial Monetary Sy tem of MughalIndia, edited by John F. Richard (page 43) Law and the State in Traditional East Asia: Six Studies on the Sources of East Asian Law, edited by Brian E. McKnight (page 44) La participacion indigena en los mercado surandinos: Estrategias y reproduccion social, Siglo XVI a XX [Indigenou Participation in Southern Andean Markets: Strategie and ocial Reproduction, 16th to 20th Centurie), compiled by Olivia Harri , Brooke Lar on, and Enrique Tandeter (page 44) Policy Implementation in Po t-Mao China, edited by David M. Lampton (page 45) The Politics of Race, Class and Nationalism in Twentieth Century South Africa, edited by Shula Mark and Stanley Trapido (page 46) Religion and Ritual in Korean ociety, edited by Laurel Kendall and Griffin Dix (page 47) Resistance, Rebellion, and Consciousness in the Andean Peasant World, 18th to 20th Centuries, edited by Steve J. Stern (page 47) The Population of the United States in the 19805 (pages 37-39) American Families and Households, by Jame A. Sweet and Larry L. Bumpa American Neighborhoods and Residential Differentiation, by Michael J. White From Many Strands: Ethnic and Racial Groups in Contemporary America, edited by Stanley Lieber on and Mary C. Water The Hispanic Population of the United States, by Frank D. Bean and Marta Tienda Housing America in the 1980s, by John S. Adam Regional and Metropolitan Growth and Decline in the United States, by William H. Frey and Alden Speare, Jr.


Citizens and Groups in Contemporary China, edited by Victor C. Falkenheim. Michigan Monograph in Chine e Studie , Volume 56. Contain paper preented at a workshop held at the Univer ity Michigan in 1977 sponsored by the two predecessor committee of the Joint Committee on Chin Studies. Ann Arbor: Center for Chine e Studies, University of Michigan, 1987. ix + 320 page. Cloth, 20.00; paper, 10.00.


This volume began with two sympo ia held in 1977 and 1978. The fir t, a workshop on "The Pur uit Intere t in China," wa held in August 1977 at the Univer ity of Michigan, and was organized by Michel Ok enberg, University of Michigan, and Richard Baum, Univer ity of California, Lo Angele. It supported by a grant from the Joint Committee OR Contemporary China, u ing funds provided by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation. Its principal goal was to u e detailed ca e tudie to explore the relevance of intere t group approache to the tudy of Chine e politic. The econd, a panel organized the editor for the 1978 Chicago meeting of the As ociation of Asian Studie, ought to apply participatory approaches to the role of ocial grou in the Chine e political proce s. The triking degree of overlap in the focu , methodology, and participants in both meeting sugge ted to a number of the paper writers that there wa a need for a more eclectic approach which would focus imultaneo on individual and group actors. The recognition that a volume ba ed on such an approach might erve needs of students and cholar eeking to C'AdUIUIIII: ' the dynamics of informal influence and power in China was the stimulus for publi hing the stu . pre ented here in book form. Three of the chapters in the current volume originally drafts prepared for the 1977 two were initially presented at the 1978 meeting Chicago. All have been revi ed to take account of dramatic revelations of the po t-Mao year. The contributor and their chapter include:


Victor C. Falkenheim, Univer ity of Toronto, "Citizen Group Politics in China: An Introduction" Lowell Dittmer, Univer ity of California, Berkeley, "Public Private Intere ts and the Participatory Ethic in China" Andrew G. Walder, Columbia Univer ity, "Communi t Structure and Worker' Politi in China" John Burn , Univer ity of Hong Kong, "Political Participation Peasants in China"

Richard P. Suttmeier, Hamilton CoUege, "Riding the Tiger: The Political Life of China' Scienti ts" trle Goldman, Bo ton Univer ity, "Di ident Intellectual in the People' Republic of China" L'Iln T. White III , Princeton University, "Leader hip and Participation: The Ca e of hanghai' Manager" Harry Harding, Jr., The Brooking In titution (Washington, D.C.), 'The Role of the Military in Chine e Politics"

The book includes chapter on each of the eight countries of Ea tern Europe, plu overview chapter , a chapter on Soviet-East European relation , and a chapter on national minorities. Appendices include a chronology of main events ince 1969, biographical sketches of Ea t European leader, and demographic, ocial, and economic data. J. F. Brown worked on the taff of Radio Free Europe in Munich for 26 years. He re igned in 1983 and currently lives in Oxford, England.

!utem Europe and Communist Rule, by J. F. Brown. A publication of the Joint Committee on Eastern Europe. Durham, North Carolina: Duke Univer ity Pres, 1988. xii + 562 page. Cloth, 8.50; paper, 15.95.

Forecasting in the Social and Natural Sciences, edited by Kenneth C. Land and Stephen H. Schneider. Paper from a conference held at the National Center for Atmospheric Re earch in Boulder, Colorado, June 10-13, 1984. Spon ored by the Thi book i a retro pective look at Ea tern Europe Council' Committee on Social Indicator (1972-85), over roughly the four decades of its communi t (1978). Dordrecht, Holland: D. Reidel Publishing history, with pecial reference to the pa t quarter Co., 1987. 381 pages. Cloth, $78.00. (Sold and c:rntury. The author ha not attempted a history of distributed in the United States and Canada by Eastern Europe over the e years. Rather, he analyzes Kluwer Academic Publishers, 101 Philip Drive, hat eem to him to be the mo t important events, Assinipi Park, Norwell, Mas achu etts 02061. Selected paper al 0 published in Climatic Change, development , and underlying trend . The book i ba ed on more than a quarter century Volume 11, No . 1-2, 1987.) of di cu ing Ea tern Europe, writing, ruminating, Social and natural cienti ts often are called upon arguing, and worrying about it. It covers Albania and to produce or to participate in the production of ugo lavia a well as the six members of the Soviet forecasts. This volume a emble es ay that (1) bloc. The author says there is no overriding theme de cribe the organizational and political context of but several intertwined motifs. The e include: applied foreca ting, (2) review the tate-of-the-art for (I) The di tinctivene of the East European many forecasting model and methods, and (3) countrie de pite the tandardizing tenden- di cuss is ue of predictability, the implication of cie of their governing sy terns. foreca terror, and model construction, linkage, and (2) Nationalism and the power of the historical verification. The e ay hould be of particular legacy. intere t to ocial and natural cientist concerned (3) "Spontaneity" in all walks of public life and its with foreca ting large- cale ystem. threat to the system. Thi project had it origin in di cu ion of ocial (4) The impact of the invasion of Czecho lovakia foreca t and foreca ting methodologie initiated a on Ea t European political life. Its link with few year ago by everal ocial and natural cience Solidarity in Poland. members of the Council' Committee on Social (5) The effect of the "decade of detente" in the Indicator. It became apparent in the e di cu ion 1970 . that certain similar problem were confronted in (6) The apparently inexorable economic decline foreca ting large- cale y terns-be they ocial or and the growing ecological danger. natural. (7) The "incompatibilitie " in the Ea t European In re pon e, the committee hypothe ized that politie . much could be learned through more extended and (8) The unmi takable reemerging of a cla sy tematic interchange among ocial and natural y tern. cienti ts focu ing on the formal me thodologie (9) The Soviet Union' continual dilemma in applied in foreca ting. To put thi conjecture to the Ea tern Europe. te t, the committee pon ored a conference co(10) The need for, and the danger of, y temic chaired by committee member Kenneth C. Land change. and Stephen H. chneider repre enting, re pec19


tively, the ocial and natural cience member hip of • the pecial opportunitie and problem of linkthe committee. upport for the conference wa age of model from different ubject area, uch provided by a grant to the Council from the Divi ion a relating the concentration of carbon dioxide in of ocial and Economic cience of the ational the atmo phere to the energy u e pattern of human ettlement; cience Foundation. The e article were initiall commi ioned a • the ob ervation that new upercomputer wiD paper for the conference. At the meeting, each greatly dimini h the con traints once impo ed on paper wa reviewed b a ub et of participants. olving very large, complex y tern of equations. Author then publicly re ponded to the review and, The author (with affiliation at the time of the after group di cu ion, were a ked to revi e their conference) and their paper are: paper for publication. Among the i ue and finding that the author hold in common are: Kenneth C. Land, Univer ity of Texas, and tephen H hneider, ational enter for Atmo pheric Re earch. "Fore• the difficulty of adapting univer al laws that casting in the Social and , atural ience: An Overvie" and apply to i olated entitie to large- cale ocial and Anal i of I omorphi m " natural y tern, or, equivalently, the fact that whatever "law" can be found are highly contextPartI:FonoutingCon~xu pecific; • the corre ponding need for, and uncertaintie urrounding, the pecification, e timation, and Herbert L. mith, Indiana niversit, "The Indu try" extrapolation of parametric repre entation of Martin Wach ,Rutger Universit, "Foreca lS in Urban TraDIo contextual law ; portation Planning: e, 1ethod, and Dilemmas" • the fact that under tanding of pecific phenom- Robin L. Denni , Environmental Protection Agency, "For ing Errors: The Importance of the Deci ion- 1aking Cont ena and kill in making foreca t generally go Thoma R. tewart, ational Center for Atmo pheric Researda, together and require a hierarch of technique to "The Delphi Technique and judgemental Forecasting" make progre ; • the limitation on predictability becau e of error in initial condition, population heterogeneity, Part II: Current Developmenu in Technique and Mode" error in foreca t of exogenou variable, C. W. J. Granger, University of California, an Diego. and R. extrapolation, and lack of model verification; Engle, "Econometri Forecasting: A Brief tudy of • the que tion of whether theorie that apply to and Future Technologie " mall cale of time or pace can be inflated to john F. Long, U.. Bureau of the Cen u , and David larger cale with ucce ; McMillen, U.. Bureau of the en u ,"A urvey of • the complex cau al role of lowly-changing Bureau Population Projection Method " y tern components ( uch a ocean temperature Kenneth G. Manton, Duke Univer ity, "Forecasting tatu Change in an Aging U.. Population: A or cla tructure) in near-term foreca t ; the urrent tatu and orne Proposals" • the advantage of comparing foreca t from a jo eph P. Martino, Universit of Da ton, "Recent De1,elolpmeal hierarchy of model of variou level of complexin Technological Foreca ting" ity both among them elve and to empirical data, when available; • the need for formal compari on (o-called Part III: Predictability, Fonout Errors, and Model "foreca ting tournament") of foreca t of the Identification and Linkage arne phenomena; Richard C. J. Somerville, ripp In titution of UC4eanOflTllIIIIII • the need to perform en itivity analy e of model "The Predictabilit of Weather and Climate" re pon e to exogenou variable, particularly Richard A. Berk, Univer ity of California, anta Barbara, Thomas F. ooley, "Error in Forecasting Social Ph.>nnml'l. for ca e where certain internal factor or Diana M. Liverman, Univer it of' i on in, "Foreca ting boundary condition are highly uncertain; Impact of limate on Food y tern: Model Te ting and • The advantage and di advantage of complex Linkage" model a oppo ed to impler method, uch a Denni A. Ahlburg, Univer it of Minne ota, "Modeling nomi -Demographic Linkage: A tud of 'ational informed extrapolation; Regional Model " • the fact that foreca t invariably involve orne William C. lark, In titute for Energy Analy i element of human judgment and occur within a Tenne see), "Scale Relation hip in the Interactions limate, Eco tern, and Societie " political context; 42



Guide to Historical Map Resources for Greater New conception and in titutionalization of a formal York, by Jeffrey Kroessler. Sponsored by the medical y tern in a modern technological ociety. Council' Committee on New York City. Monograph The author and their paper are: umber 2 of the Map and Geography Roundtable of the American Library As ociation. Chicago: Specu- Margaret Lock, McGill University, "Introduction: Health and Medical Care as Cultural and Social Phenomena" lum Orbis Press, 1988. Paper, $11.95. William E. Ste licke, University of South Florida, "The Japane e A part of its efforts to encourage re earch on the patial dimensions of ocial, economic, political, and cultural proce e, the Committee on New York City pon ored the production of a detailed guide to 49 public and private collections of map pertaining to the greater New York City area-from the 18th century to the pre ent. The guide de cribes the cale and contents of the collections as well as provide information on acce s, copying facilitie, periods covered, etc. It di cIo es an extremely rich body of largely unexplored re earch material, not only on the phy ical development and tran formations of the city, but on changing pattern of residence, employment, economic growth, politics, family tructure, and di ea e. The Guide may be ordered from Speculum Orbis Pre , 730 North Franklin Street, Chicago, Illinoi 60610. Price: 11.95, plu $1.50 for po tage and handling.

Health, Illness, and Medical Care in Japan: Cultural and Social Dimensions, edited by Edward orbeck and Margaret Lock. Publication re ulting from a work hop upported by the Joint Committee onJapane e Studie . Honolulu: University of Hawaii Pre ,19 7. xiii + 202. Cloth, 21.00. The comparative study of health, illnes, and medical care provide a rich ource of cro s-fertilization of ideas among the ocial cience. Thi collection of e ay, ba ed upon a work hop on health and illne in Japan spon ored by the Joint Committee on Japanese Studies, explore the effects of social, political, and cultural variable on the interpretation of ideas about health, illne , and medical care in a technologically-advanced society. In discu ions of health care for the elderly, the relation hip between health care provider and the Japane e government, the cultural con truction and medicalization of distre s, and the experience and treatment of menopau e and mental illne s, the oontributors de cribe the importance of ocial relation hip, form of communication, and cultural ooncept of the body, health, and health care in the

State of Health: A Political-Economic Perspective" Susan Orpett Long, John Carroll niver ity, "Health Care Providers: Technology, Policy, and Profe ional Dominance" Chri tie W. Kiefer, University ofCaJifornia, an Franci 0 , "Care of the Aged in Japan" David K. Reynold , ToDo In titute (Lo Angele) and Health Center Pacific (Maui), "Japane e Model of P ychotherapy" Margaret Lock, "Prote ts of a Good Wife and Wise Mother: The Medicalization of Di tre in Japan" Nancy R. Ro enberger, Emory Univer ity, "Productivity, Sexuality, and Ideologie of Menopau al Problem in Japan"

Edward Norbeck i profe or emeritu of anthropology at Rice Univer ity; Margaret Lock i profe or of medical anthropology at McGill University.

The Imperial Monetary System of Mughal India, edited by John F. Richards. Paper from a conference held in 1981 in Re earch Triangle Park, North Carolina, pon ored by the Joint Committee on South A ia. Delhi: Oxford Univer ity Pre ,1987. viii + 382 page. Cloth, Rs. 210. Early modern India under the Mughal evolved a powerful uniform currency and monetary order. Like the state that created it, the Mughal monetary system wa perva ive, flexible, and long-lived. One indication of this i the heer number and wide distribution of coins in circulation or retained in private and public coffer . Equally remarkable i the fact that this enormou mint output occurred, over two centurie , in a region lacking any ignificant silver and gold, and only limited amount of copper. This volume of even e ay by di tingui hed economic historian had its origin in a conference pon ored by the Joint Committee on South A ia, held in 1981 at the National Humanitie Center, Re earch Triangle Park, North Carolina. The conference brought together hi torian of the Mughal empire, hi torians of trade and the East India companies, and numi matists tudying Mughal and I lamic coinage. U ing Per ian, Engli h, French, and Dutch ource, the e ay in the re ulting volume con titute the mo t comprehen ive tudy of the imperial Mughal monetary y tern in its economic, ocial, and political a pect . 43

Following an introduction by paper in the volume include:


F. Richard , the

John . De ell, Canadian International Development Agen y (Aylmer, Quebec), "The Development of Akbar' Currenc tem and Monetary Integration of the Conquered Kingdom .. Marie H. Martin, The American Numi matic Society (New York), "The Reform of the Sixteenth Century and Akbar' Admini tration: Metrological and Monetary Con ideration " tephen P. Blake, t. Olaf College, "The tructure of Monetary Exchange in orth India: The Province of Agra, Delhi and Lahore in 1600" Irfan Habib, Aligarh Mu lim Universit ,"A Y tem of TrimetaJIi m in the Age of the 'Price Revolution': Effects of the ilver Influx on the Mughal Monetary y tem" (with an appendix b John . De ell) Om Praka h, niversity of Delhi, "Foreign Merchant and Indian Mints in the eventeenth and the Early Eighteenth entury" J. F. Richard, Duke Univer ity, "Official Revenue and Money Flow in a Mughal Province" Frank Perlin, Clare Hall (Cambridge) and Erasmu Universit, "Money-u in Late Pre-colonial India and the International Trade in Currency Media"

Early Ming China: Some orm Codified in the Hung-n Period" Ta Van Tai, Harvard Law hool, "Protection of' omen' . Rights in Traditional Vietnam: A Compari on of the Code of the U D nasty (1428-17 ) with the Chine e ode" Carl teen trup, Univer ity of Munich, "The Legal . tern of Japan at the End of the Kamakura Period from the Litigan Point of View" Brian E. McKnight, Univer ity of Hawaii, "From tatute 10 Precedent: An Introduction to ung Law and Its Tran formation" Osamu Oba, Kansai Universit , "Edo Period tudie on Tang. Ming, and Ch'ing Law" William haw, "The eo-Confucian Revolution of Valu ID Early Yi Korea: Its Implication for Korean Legal Thought"

La participaci6n indigena en los mercados slll'lUldinos: Estrategias y reproducci6n social, Siglos XVI I XX [Indigenou Participation in Southern Andean Markets: Strategie and Social Reproduction, 16th to 20th Centurie ], compiled by Olivia Harri , Brooke Lar on, and Enrique Tandeter. Publication re ulting from a conference held in Sucre, Bolivia, on July 28-30, 1983, pon ored by the Joint Committee on Latin American Studie . La Paz, Bolivia: Ediciones CERES, 1987. 768 page.

Law and the State in Traditional East Asia: Six Studies on the Sources of East Asian Law, edited by Brian E. McKnight. Paper from a conference held at Harvard Univer ity in Augu t 1978, pon ored by a predece or committee of the Joint Committee on Chine e Studie. Honolulu: Univer ity of Hawaii Pre ,1987. ix + 182 page. Paper, 20.00.

Ethnohi torian and economic hi torian have traditionally pur ued divergent concern in Andean hi toriography. Ethnohi torian have focu ed on the endurance of Andean cultural practice and in titution , while economic hi torians have analyzed the emergence of market force during the colonial and republican period. Thi olume bring the two approache together in an exploration of how the The paper included in this volume deal with a peculiaritie of Andean cultural, ocial, and economic variety of topics, under the general rubric of law and organization haped the proce whereby market the tate. Philo ophy, codification, law enforcement, mechani m and a mercantile economy penetrated judicial proce , and foreign relations are all di - the Andean world. cu ed in one or more paper . Yet all of the paper The contributor and the English tran lation of focu in differing way on two main area -the their paper include: effect of real world con traints on law and its practice, and the ource from which the law i Part One: Antecedents derived. (The paper pre ented at the work hop John V. Murra, Cornell Universit , "Did Tribute and Exi t Before the European Invasion?" concerning the law in practice deal with the Ch'ing dyna ty; they will appear in a eparate volume.) In Part Two: Colonial Demands and Ethnic Responses the paper concerned with the ources of law, the Carlo empat A adourian, EI Colegio de Mexico, "Intrrchange in the Ethnic Territorie between 1530 and 1567, role of custom, procedure, codification, borrowing, According to the Vi its of Hu~nuco and Chucuito" and imperial will in determining the hape of the law Thierry aigne, University of Pari, "AyUus, Markets, and are all analyzed. The example are drawn from Lâ‚Ź Colonial Coercion: The Problem of Internal Migrations in dyna ty Vietnam, Yi dyna ty Korea, Kamakura Charcas (17th Century)" Japan, and Tokugawa Japan, a well a from Sung Ann Zulaw ki, Smith College, "Outsiders and Indian Peasants: The Labor Force in a Mining enter in the 17th Century" and Ming China. Jorge Hidalgo, Univer ity of Tarapaci, "Land , Taxation, and The paper included in the volume are: Edward L. Farmer, University of Minnesota, "Social Order in


Markets in the Andean Atacama, 1750-1790"

ocietie of Arica, Tarapacl and


42, Nu



fin Three: The Social Meanings of Mercantile Interventions

and operation of China's economy, altering the Olhia Harri , Gold mith College (London), "Phaxsima and qullqi. policy-making system, revitalizing and upgrading the The Power and Meanings of Money in the North of Poto i" educational and re earch system, changing the e J. tern, niver ity of Wi con in, 'The Variety and nation's demographic, and transforming China's Ambiguity of Andean Indigenou Intervention in the Euro- relation hip to the world economy. Is it po ible for pean Colonial Markets: Methodological Ob ervation " mas ocietie with complex bureaucracie to target Brooke Larson, tate Univer ity of New York, tony Brook, and ocial purpo e and then proceed to implement Rosario Le6n, Center for the tudy of Economic and Social Reality (CERE ), La Paz, "Two Hi lorical Vi ion of Mercantile them? What are the factors that promote or impede Influence in Tapacarf' policy implementation? How doe the implementation proce s in China compare with the experience PIn Four: Commodities and Urban Markets in the el ewhere? U ing ca e studies, the contributor to Colonial Period thi volume address the e que tion and offer a Roberto Choque Canqui, Univer ity of an Andre, "The comprehen ive analy i of reform policie in po tAymara Chief and Trade in Upper Peru" Mao China. Enrique Tandeter el aI., Center for the LUdy of tate and The volume covers a wide variety of subjects: Society (CEDE ), Bueno Aire, "The Poto f Market at the End taxation, water con ervancy, energy, agriculture, of the I th Century" population planning, fore try, education, price, Daniel J. antamarfa, In titute of Economic and ocial Development (Bueno Aire), "Indigenou Participation in Coca Trade election policy, and cience and technology. The and Production, Upper Peru 1780-1810" picture that emerge i of a ociety in which the Leliana Lewin ki, Univer ity of Pari, "A Fragmented Market efforts to build con en us are exten ive, involving a Place: The Cancha of Oruro, 1 03 and 1812" protracted process that can slow and di tort policy implementation. Bargaining remains a key factor in Put Five: AyUus and Markets, 19th and 20th Centuries the ystem. China is a fragmented ociety who e Tristan Platt, niver ity of l. Andrew, "Taxation hedule various institution have more power to ob truct and . iarket Participation. The ea onal Interaction of the action than to a ure compliance. A implementation upez ayllus with the Poto f Mining Market (19th Century)" frequently Herbert . Klein, Columbia Univer it , "Population Growth proceeds, unanticipated con equence or radically transform the initial policy. Finally, abort Among Internal Migrants in Bolivia in the 19th Century" Erick D. Langer, Carnegie Mellon Univer ity, "The Commercial- the degree of change i limited by the incremental ization of Barley in the Ayllus and on the Haciendas of nature of the Chine e budgetary y tern. Tarabuco (Chuqui aca) at the Beginning of the 20th Century" Drawing on interview and re earch conducted in Ramiro Molina Rivero, Univer ity of San Andre , "Traditionaland el ewhere, thi volume highlights a facet China ism as a Mean of Connection to the Market: A Pa toral of China that ha been previou ly ob cured. One ee Community in Oruro" the variety of actor in the Chine e policy proce and the unwritten rule that limit the application of Put Six: Family Strategies: Country and City coercion, and one perceive the variety of motivaJorge Dandier, International Labor Organization (Lima), "Divertion that energize both the individual and the ification, Work Proce e and patial Mobility in the Valley in titutions involved. The e ays in thi v')lume offer and Mountain of Cochabamba" lier A1b6 et at., Center for Re earch on and Promotion of the a unified per pective that should timulate further Pea ntry (CIP A), La Paz, "An Indu trial Re erve Arm for a policy re earch. Reserve Indu try: The Aymaras in La Paz" The author and their e ay are:

Policy Implementation in Post-Mao China, edited by David M. Lampton. Studies on China 7. Paper based on a workshop held at Ohio State Univer ity in June 1983, ponsored by the Joint Committee on Chine e Studie . Berkeley, California: Univer ity of California Pre , 1987. xii + 439 pages. Cloth, 5.00. Deng Xiaoping and his political allies undertook Rform initiative aimed at changing the tructure

David M. Lampton, National Committee on nited tate -China Relation (New York), "The Implementation Problem in Po t-Mao China" Chri topher M. Clarke, U.S. Department of tate, "Changing the Context for Policy Implementation: Organizational and Per onnel Reform in Po t-Mao China" Barry Naughton, niver ity of Michigan, "The Decline of Central Control over Inve tment in Po t-Mao China" Dorothy J. olinger, University of California, Irvine, "The 19 0 Inflation and the Politic of Price Control in the PRC" David Bachman, Princeton niver ity, "Implementing Chine e Tax Policy" David M. Lampton, "Water: Challenge to a Fragmented Political Sy tem" Thomas Fingar, U.S. Department of State, "Implementing


Energy Policy: The Ri and Demi e of the tate Energy Commi ion" Le ter Ro , Purdue Univer ity, "Obligatory Tree Planting: The Role of Campaign in Poli y Implementation in Po t-Mao China" David Zweig, Tufts University," ontext and Content in Policy Implementation: Hou hold Contracts and Decollectivization,

1977-19 3" Tyrene White, warth more College, "Implementing the 'OneChild-per-Couple' Population Program in Rural China: ational Goal and Local Politi " tanley Ro en, University of Southern California, "Re toring Ke condary hool in Po t-Mao hina: The Politi of Competition and Educational Quality" Deni Fred imon, Mas achusetts In titute of Technology, "Implementing China' &T Modernization Program" Barrett L. McCormick, Marquette Universit , "Lenini t Implementation: The Election ampaign"

The Politics of Race, Class and Nationalism in Twentieth Century South Mrica, edited by Shula Mark and Stanley Trapido. Papers from a 1982 conference held in New York, pon ored by the Joint Committee on African Studie . London and New York: Longman, 19 7. xiii + 462 page. Paper, 21.95.

Recent turbulence in South Africa make the tudy of its raciall divided ocial order and its national and ethnic heterogeneity an urgent intellectual and political ta k. For much of the 20th century, an exclu ive form of white Afrikaner nationali m, with its explicit objective the capture of the tate by the white Afrikaner "nation," ha confronted it counterpart, a pan-South African black nationalism which ha ought the incorporation of African into the body politic. The exclu ivi m of Afrikaner Chri tian Nationali m with its roots in late 19th century European nationali m ha been confronted by a black nationali m, which de pite trong Africanist underpinning ,ha in general e pou ed the 19th century liberal value of multiraciali m. Moreover, the alience of "national" and "racial" identity for South African tate policie and its deliberate manipulation of group difference to prevent interracial cla olidarity have haped the ethnic con ciousne of minority group uch a Coloured or Indian which have in turn con tructed their own en e of community, in part by way of re pon e. Given the complexity of political con ciou ne and community con truction in 20th century outh Africa, it would be impo sible for any collection of 46

e ay to provide anything like comprehen ive coverage. Neverthele ,the range of thi volume is con iderable. In the introduction Shula Mark and Stanley Trapido provide the hi torical and hi toriographical context of the collected e ay, and how their connection through providing a new ynthesis of 20th century South African hi tory into which they have woven orne of the main in ights contained in the e ay. Following the introduction, a number of chapten addre the i ue of ethnic boundary making and the con truction of nationali t ideologie and political con ciou ne in the context of South Africa' changing political economy and cla compo mon ince the era of the mineral di coverie in the late 19th century. Saul Dubow trace the evolution of a hegemonic egregaiioni t ideology in late 19th century/early 20th century outh Africa and is followed b I abel Hofmeyr who analyze the "construction" of Afrikaner culture in the same period. Iri Berger explore the cla con ciou n of white women worker in the Garment Worker' Union a an alternative to Afrikaner nationalist identification which nonethele did not wholly e cape the raci m in titutionalized by the tate. Ian Goldin look at the tate's intervention in the definition of Coloured ethnic identity, while Maureen Swann looks at two moment in the radicalizatioa of Indian political movements in outh Africa. The e four chapter are followed by a clu ter e ays on the making of African nationali t con io\Jlo ne : Robert Hill and Gregory Pi rio examine the of Garveyi m in the creation of an t ..,,··.,n••" ideology which permeated all black political zation in the 1920; Colin Bund di cu relation hip of nationali ts and radical to agrarian que tion; William Beinart con ider relation hip of migrant worker to rural ocial urban political network; and Tom Lodge u e a tudy of urban political conflict to examine regionally differentiated nature of African i m in the 1950. In another ca e tudy, Bonner and Rob Lambert analyze ethnicity and on the Ea t Rand in the 1950 in the light of Amato textile trike of 1959. The la t three chapter by Brian Hackland, Greenberg, and Deborah Po el deal with the pon e of capital, the tate, and the Progre ive Reform Party to the increa ing ec(].no,ill train confronting the Republic over the la t to the ri ing tide of black oppo ition, and to Africa's changed geopolitical situation. The contributor and their e ay include: VOLU 1£


William Beinart, University of Bri tol, "Worker Con ciou ne , Ethnic Particulari m and Nationali m: The Experience of a uth African Migrant, 193()....1969.. lri Berger, State niversity of New York, Albany, " olidarity Fragmented: Garment Worker of the Tran vaal, 193()....1960.. Philip Bonner, Univer ity of the Witwater rand, and Rob Lambert, Univer ity of Natal, "Baton and Bare Head: The trike at Amato Textile , February 195 .. Colin Bundy, Univer ity of Cape Town, "Land and Liberation: Popular Rural Prote 1 and the National Liberation Movements in South Africa, 192()....1960.. aul Dubow, University of Oxford, "Race, Civilisation and Culture: The Elaboration of egregationi t Discour e in the Inter-War Year .. Ian Goldwin, Univer ity of Oxford, "The Recon titution of Coloured Identity in the We tern Cape" tanle B. Greenberg, Yale Univer ity, "Ideological truggle , ithin the South African tate" Brian Hackland, Briti h Hou e of Common Re earch taff, "Incorporationi t Ideology a a Re pon e to Political Struggle: The Progre ive Part of outh Africa, 196()""19 0" Robert A. Hill, Univer ity of California, Lo Angele, and Gregory A. Pirio, Voice of America, " 'Africa for the African ': The Garvey Movement in South Africa, 192()....1940.. Igbel Hofmeyr, University of the Witwater rand, "Building a Nation from Word : Afrikaan Language, Literature and Ethnic Identity, 1902-1924" Tom Lodge, Univer ity of the Witwater rand, "Political Mobili ation During the 1950 : an Ea t London Case tudy" hula Mark, University of London, and Stanley Trapido, niversity of Oxford, "The Politics of Race, Cia and 'ationalism" Deborah Po el, Univer ity of Oxford, "The Language of Domination, 1978-19 3" . faureen Swan, Univer ity of ape Town, "Ideology in Organi ed Indian Politi ,I 91-194 ..

Religion and Ritual in Korean Society, edited by Laurel Kendall and Griffin Dix. Publication resulting from a conference spon ored by the Joint Committee on Korean Studies. Korea Re earch Monograph, No. 12. Berkeley, California: University of California, In titute of Ea t A ian Studie , 1987. viii + 223 pp. Paper, 6.00.

Korean society pre ents re earchers with a fascinating area of study, especially tho e intere ted in cultural transmi sion and change. The papers in this volume, which are based on tho e pre ented at a conference held in 1980 to discll Korean popular religion and ritual, examine both the complex ways that Confucianism ha transformed Korean society and how previous religious practice and rituals have adapted and persisted in Korea. Each of the paper analyze a different period or a pect of Korean ociety through the relation hip between ritual JUNE


practices and religious beliefs, on the one hand, and variou types of social organization-hou ehold, family ex role, lineage, community, and the stateon the other. The di cu ions of Confucianism and ancestor wor hip, hamani m, Buddhism, and divination show that although Confucianism has heavily influenced ociety, the ways in which cu toms and belieÂŁ: changed, and did not change, make Korea an interesting and important field for comparativists a well as for peciali ts on China and Japan. The author and their papers are: Laurel Kendall, American Mu eum of Natural Hi tory (New York), and Griffin Dix, an Franci co, "Introduction" Michael C. Kalton, Wichita tate Univer ity, "Early Yi D na ty Neo-Confuciani m: An Integrated Vi ion" Martina Deuchler, Univer ity of Zurich, "Neo-Confuciani m in Action: Agnation and Ance tor Wor hip in Early Yi Korea" Kwang-Kyu Lee, Seoul National University, "Ance tor Wor hip and Kin hip tructure in Korea" C. Paul Dredge, Bo ton, "Korean Funeral : Ritual A Proce .. Griffin Dix, "The New Year' Ritual and Village Social tructure" Laurel Kendall, "Let the God Eat Rice Cake: Women' Rite in a Korean Village" Kil- ong Ch'oe, Keimyong Univer ity, "The Meaning of Pollution in Korean Ritual Life" Young ook Kim Harvey (decea ed), "The Korean haman and the Deacone : Si ters in Different Gui e .. Mark Cozin, Raritan Valley Community College, "Won Buddhi m: The Origin and Growth of a New Korean Religion" Arthur P. Wolf, tan ford Univer ity, and Robert J. Smith, Cornell niversity, "China, Korea, and Japan"

Resistance, Rebellion, and Consciousness in the Andean Peasant World, 18th to 20th Centuries, edited by Steve J. Stern. Papers from a conference held in Madison, Wisconsin, on April 26-28, 1984. Spon ored joindy by the Joint Committ~e on Latin American Studie and the University of Wi consin. Madison, Wi consin: University of Wisconsin Pre s, 1987. xvii + 446 page. Cloth, 45.00. Paper, 15.00.

Three widespread a sumptions inform the scholarly literature about pea ants and agrarian rebels. First, it is generally agreed that the incorporation of predominandy peasant territories into the modern capitalist world economy has had a de tructive impact on pea ant life. Second, it is held that the penetration of capitali m accentuate the internal differentiation of pea ant society into rich and poor trata. Third, it is thought that the political re olution of agrarian conflict and crisis had a trong, even decisive, impact on the modern political history of countrie with an important pea ant tradition. 47

Drawing on the e view , but al 0 challenging them at points, the e ay in thi volume provide evidence of greater capacity among pea ants to re i t or urvive the de tructive effects of capitalist development than might be expected from the literature. The Andean pea ants are een a formidable political actor in their own right, who have initiated political relation among them elve a well as with other ocial group. The volume al 0 ca ts new light on the election of appropriate time frame and units of analy i for the tudy of Andean rebellion , for the and political diver ity of pea ant con ciou ne activitie , and on the importance of ethnic factor 10 explaining pea ant con ciou ne and revolt. The author and their paper include: Introduction

teve J. tern, University of Wi on in

Part Two: Consciousne s and Identity during the Age of Andean Insurrection

Frank alomon, niver it of Wi con in, "Ance tor ults and Re i tance to the tate in Arequipa, ca. 1748-1754" Jan zemin ki, Catholi Univer ity of Peru, "Why Kill the paniard? New Perspective on Andean In urrectionary Ideology in the I th Century" Alberto Flore Galindo, atholic Univer ity of Peru, "In earch of an Inca" Part Three: Rebellion and Nation-State Formation: 19th Century Perspective

Herac1io Bonilla, University of California, an Diego, and In titute of Peruvian tudie, "The Indian Peasantry and 'Peru' during the War with Chile" Floren ia E. Mallon, Universit of Wi on in," ationali t and Anti tate Coalition in the War of the Pacific: Junin and ajamarca, I 79-1902" Tri tan Platt, Univer ity of t. Andrew, "The Andean Experience of Bolivian Liberali m, I 25-1900: Roo of Rebellion in 19th Century Cha anta (Poto f)

Part One: From Resistance to Insurrection: Crisis of the Colonial Order

Part Four: Political Dilemmas and Consciousness in Modem Andean Revolt: Bolivian Case Studies

teve J. tern, Universit of' i on in, "The Age of Andean In urr tion, 1742-17 2: A Reappraisal" Magnu Marner, Univer it of Gothenburg, and Efrain Trelle , In titute of Peruvian tudie (Lima), "A Te t of Cau al Interpretation of the Tupac Amaru Rebellion" Leon . ampbell, niver it of California, River ide, "Ideology and Factionali m During the reat Rebellion, 17 0-17 2"

Jorge DandIer, International Labor Organization (Lima) and Juan A. Torrico, Center for the tud of Economi and ocial Realit (CERES), La Paz, "From the ational Indigenou Congre to the Ayopaya Rebellion: Bolivia 1945-1947" Xavier Alb6, Center for Re earch on and Promotion of the Pea antry (CIP A), La Paz, "From MNRi tas to Katari ta to Katari"






Fellowships and Grants Offered in 1988 CONTENTS 49 DOCTORAL RESEARCH FELLOW HIPS FOR AREA ST DIES Africa, China, Easlnn Euro~, Japan, Korea, Latin Amnua and tJu Carib~an, tlu Near and Middlt East, South Asia, outluast Asia, tJu Sovitt Union, We Inn Europe 53 GRANTS FOR AREA ST DIES RESEARCH Africa, China, Eastern Europe, Japan, Korea, Lalin Amtrica and tJu Carib~an, tlu Near and Middle East, otuh AIIG, Soutluast AIIG, tlu ovid Union, Indochina Studies 59 INTERNATIONAL PEACE AND ECURITY TUDIES Pred«toral fellowship Postd«toral feUowslups 60 FELLOWSHIPS FOR FOREIGN POLICY TUDIES 60 COMPARATIVE T DY OF M LIM OCIETIES 61 INSTITUTIONAL UPPORT PROGRAMS 62 CO NCIL FELLOW HIP AND GRANT PROGRAMS, 1988- 9

DOCTORAL RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS FOR AREA STUDIES AFRICA The following di ertation fellow hip were awarded by the Joint Committee on African Studie -Randall M. Packard (chair), Anthony Appiah, Claude Daniel Ardouin, Thoma J. Bier teker, Frederick Cooper, Franci M. Deng, Karen E. Field, Chri taud M. Geary, Gerald K. Helleiner, Lemuel Johun on, Ivan Karp, and Paul Rie man-at its meeting on March 24-26, 1988. The committee wa a i ted by a screening committee-Mary Jo Arnoldi, David Coplan, Denni D. Cordell, John P. Hutchin on, Chri tine Jone , Peter D. Little, and Ronald Weitzer-and a election committee-David W. Cohen (chair), Sandra T. Barne , Karen E. Field, Stanley B. Greenberg, and Bernth Lindfor . Martha A. Gephart and Evalyn Tennant erved as taff for thi program.

PATRICK M. BOND, Ph.D. candidate in economic geography, The Johns Hopkin Univer ity, for re earch on THESE PAGES list the name , affiliation , and topics of the financial re pon e to the international debt cri i in individual who were offered fellow hip or grants by Zimbabwe Council committee in the mo t recent annual competi- ERIC S. CHARRY, Ph.D. candidate in comparative mu icology, Princeton Univer ity, for a cro -cultural tudy of tion for re earch in the ocial science and humanitie . the concept and proce of improvi ation in mu ic, The area tudie re earch award were made by particularly the music of the Manding people committee jointly pon ored by the Council and the DANIEL M. GREEN, Ph.D. candidate in political cience, American Council of Learned Societie (ACLS). They are Indiana Univer ity, for re earch on the changing upported by grants from the Ford Foundation, the pattern of local politic in contemporary Ghana ational Endowment for the Humanitie , and the William NANCY R. HUNT, Ph.D. candidate in hiHory, Univer ity of Wi consin, for hi torical re earch on birth ritual and and Flora Hewlett Foundation. Additional funding for infant health care in the Belgian Congo, 1908-1960 individual program i provided by the Ford Foundation, PIER M. LARSON, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Univer ity of the French-American Foundation, the Japan-United Wiscon in, for re earch on the culture of lavery and State Friend hip Commi ion, the Henry Luce Foundalave resistance in central Madagascar tion, the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, the Rockefeller EBENEZER N. O. QUARCOOPOME, Ph.D. candidate in art Foundation, and the U.S. Department of State under the hi tory, Univer ity of California, Lo Angele, for Soviet and Ea t European Re earch and Training Act of re earch on art and leader hip among the Ga-Adangme and the Ewe of Ghana and Togo 1983 (Title VIII). Fellow hip in international peace and ecurity are L. CAROL SUMMERS, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, The John Hopkin Univer ity, for re earch on impenal reproducupported by a grant from the John D. and Catherine T. tive policy in outhern Rhode ia, 1905-1945 MacArthur Foundation. Fellow hip for the comparative GOOLAM H. VAHED, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Indiana tudy of Mu lim ocietie and for foreign policy tudie are Univer ity for re earch on cia ,culture, and consciou upported by grants from the Ford Foundation. ne in Indian ociety in Durban, 1916-1949 Vnle it is pecifically noted that a program i The following predi ertation fellow hip were al 0 admini tered by the ACLS, the program Ii ted are admini tered by the Council. The Council doe not awarded at the committee's meeting on March 24-26, di riminate on the ba i of age, color, creed, di ability, 1988. marital tatu, national origin, or ex. Su AN CHARNLEY, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, The program change omewhat every year, and Stanford Univer ity, for travel to Uganda and Tanzama intere ted cholar hould write to the Council for a copy RODERICK P. NEUMANN, Ph.D. candidate in geography, Univer ity of California, Berkeley, for travel to Tanzaof the new general brochure, available in Augu t. nia Individual program al 0 publi h brochure , with more EMILY M. BLOOMFIELD, Ph.D. candidate in economics, complete de cription of their aim and procedure , at Univer ity of Oxford, for travel to Ghana, Nigeria, and various times during the year. See al 0 the summary of all Zambia current fellow hip and grant program on page 62-63 MICHAEL J. KEVANE, Ph.D. candidate in economics, University of California, Berkeley, for travel to the Sudan below.





MARK W. CHEATHAM, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Michigan State University, for travel to Kenya VALERIE A. JOHNSON, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of California, Berkeley, for travel to Zimbabwe JEFFREY G. ROMERO, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Yale Univer ity, for travel to Kenya and Oman ROBERT L. THOMPSON, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Indiana University, for travel to The Gambia SIYABONGA W. NDABEZITHA, Ph.D. candidate in sociology, State University of New York, Binghamton, for travel to South Africa ELIZABETH A. GUILLETTE, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology and in the gerontology certification program, University of Florida, for travel to Botswana

EASTERN EUROPE The Joint Committee on Eastern Europe (administered by the American Council of Learned Societies)-Gale Stokes (chair), Daniel Chirot, Ellen T. Comi 0, Zvi Y. Gitelman, Michael Henry Heim, Keith A. Hitchins, George Kolankiewicz, Madeline G. Levine, Deborah Milenkovitch, Ivan Szelenyi, and Katherine Verdery-at its meetings on March 10-11 and April 23-24, 1988 voted to award di ertation fellow hip to the following individual . Ja on H. Parker and Ruth Waters served as staff for thi program.

THOMAS P.-M. BARNETT, Ph.D. candidate in government, Harvard University, for re earch on Eastern Europe's foreign relations with Third World region within the CHINA larger context of Soviet foreign policy DAVID L. BARTLETT, Ph.D. candidate in political science, The Grants Selection Committee of the Joint Committee Univer ity of California, San Diego, for re earch on the on Chinese Studies (administered by the American political economy of banking reform in Hungary Council of Learned Societies)-David Johnson (chair), DEBORAH S. CORNELIUS, Ph.D. candidate in history, Lloyd E. Eastman, Patricia B. Ebrey, Bernard Gallin, John Rutgers University, for research on youth movements, populism, and educational reform in Hungary, Hay, David M. Lampton, Willard J. Peterson, Thomas G. 1928-1948 Rawski, and Pauline R. Yu-at its meeting February 12-13, 1988 awarded fellowship to the following individ- ANNE HENDERSON DANNENBAUM, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Yale University, for research on the uals. Jason H. Parker and Ruth Waters served as staff for relations between the International Monetary Fund and this program. the three Ea tern European countries which have carried out IMF stabilization programs in the 1980 DOUGLAS L. FIX, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of BARBARA E. HICKS, Ph.D. candidate in political science, California, Berkeley, for research in Taiwan on Taiwan Indiana University, for research on contemporary in transition, 1930-50: Taiwanese elite maneuvering environmental politics in Poland under colonial rule JILL IRVINE, Ph.D. candidate in government, Harvard Ross C. GARDNER, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University, for research on state building and nationalMichigan State University, for re earch in Taiwan on i m: the Communi t Party of Yugo lavia and the Croat the ocioeconomic dynamics of subcontract manufacturquestion, 1941-1945 ing in Taiwan DEBORAH D. JANSON, Ph.D. candidate in Germanic ELLEN G. NESKAR, Ph.D. candidate in East Asian language languages, University of California, Lo Angeles, for and cultures, Columbia Univer ity, for research in research on a comprehensive analy i of the reevaluaTaiwan and Japan on Confucian shrines to former sages tion of Romanticism in the German Democratic Repuband worthies during the Sung dynasty lic DAVID L. WANK, Ph.D. candidate in sociology, Harvard VICTOR OSTAPCHUK, Ph.D. candidate in Inner Asian and University, for research in Hong Kong on modern Altaic studies, Harvard Univer ity, for re earch on the capitali m in post-Mao China: a comparative study of Ottoman Black Sea frontier and the relation of the cadres, entrepreneurs, and the free market Porte with the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Muscovite State, 1622-1642 Fellows under a new program, supported by funds from CYNTHIA M. SEMMLER-VAKARELIYSKA, Ph.D. candidate in the Henry Luce Foundation to provide one-year fellowSlavic languages and literature, Harvard University, for re earch on tbe operation of grammatical case in clitic ships to beginning doctoral students in China area studies, pronouns in Bul~rian and Macedonian, with comparawere selected by a special committee appointed for this tive analysis of SImilar constructions in Romanian and purpose. Polish and in Rus ian. LONDON DEL KIRKENDALL, for enrollment in the DepartThe following graduate training fellowships were also ment of Politics, Princeton Univer ity awarded by the committee. CHARLES A. LAUGHLIN, for enrollment in the Department of Ea t Asian Languages and Cultures, Columbia KATHERINE DAVID, graduate student in history, Yale Univer ity Univer ity, for study of Czech and German, enrollment THOMAS G. NIMICK, for enrollment in the Department of at the University of Munich and re earch on the East Asian Studies, Princeton University intellectual foundations and evolution of Czech nationJANELLE S. TAYLOR, for enrollment in the Department of alist ideology around the turn of the century Anthropology, Univer ity of Chicago ROBIN B. WAGNER, for enrollment in the Department of GARY LEE GEIPEL, graduate tudent in political science, Columbia University, for extended afftliation with the East A ian Languages and Civilizations, Harvard UniUniversity of Arizona MOSAIC Group to conduct versity 50


re earch on German Democratic Republic computer and information policy PA LA F. LYTLE, graduate tudent in political cience, Yale Univer ity, for language training in Serbo-Croatian, cour e work, and re earch on the 1942-48 period in Yugo lavia JA ON L. McDoNALD, graduate tudent in political cience, Univer ity of California, Berkeley, for languag-e training in Hungarian in preparation for a di ertaUon on the politic surroundmg economic reform in the Soviet Union, Hungary, Ea t Germany, and Poland

LATIN A fERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN The following fellow hip were awarded by the International Doctoral Re earch Fellow hip Selection Committee for Latin America and the Caribbean-Francine Ma iello (chair), Michael Conroy, William Ro eberry, Steven Sander on, Lar Schoultz, and Rebecca Scott-at its meeting on February 25 and 26, 1988. Joan Da in, Martha Rodriguez, Segundo Pantoja, and Manley Williams erved a taff for thi program.

SUSAN K. BREM , Ph.D. candidate in anthropology and ocial change and development, for re earch in Brazil JAPAN on fertility decline and method choice in regulating fertility nder a program for the completion of doctoral ANDREW L. DAITSMAN, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Univerity of Wi con in, for re earch in Chile on pea ant di ertation, spon ored by the Joint Committee on participation in the civil war of the 1850 Japane e Studie , the Subcommittee on Fellow hip -L. PETER F. GUARDINO, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Univer ity Keith Brown (chair), orma Field, Margaret Lock, of Chicago, for re earch in Mexico on pea ant rebellion . fargaret McKean, and Stephen Vlasto -voted at its and their effect on national politic in the Guerrero meeting on February 13, 1988 to make award to the region, 1800--1855 following individual . Stefan Tanaka and Dara Shapiro BARRY J. LYON, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Univer ity of Michigan, for re earch in Ecuador on served a taff for this program. indigenous perception of religiou change SUSAN A. PAULSON, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, REIKO MAZUKA, Ph.D. candidate in human development Univer ity of Chicago, for re earch in Bolivia on and family tudie, Cornell Univer ity, for the complechanging form of ocial identity and organization in tion of a di ertation on con equence of grammatical new market town parameter- etting for natural language proce ing: a CARINA C. PERELLI, Ph.D. candidate in government, developmental tudy of Japanese and Engli h Univer ity of Notre Dame, for re earch in Argentina DEBORAH J. MILLY, Ph.D. candidate in political cience, and Uruguay on the role of the armed force in political Yale University, for the completion of a di ertation on culture the politics of conceptual development in Japanese MARIANO B. PLOTKIN, Ph.D. candidate in history, Univerwelfare policie ity of California, Berkeley, for research in Argentina . fARK C. TILTON, Ph.D. candidate in political science, on the political attitude of Argentine public school Univer ity of California, Berkeley, for the completion of teacher, 1884-1955 a di ertation on the role of indu try a oclations in FRIEDRICH E. SCHULER, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Japane e declining-indu trie policy University of Chicago, for research in Mexico, the KAREN WIGEN, Ph.D. candidate in geography, Univer ity United Kingdom, and Wa hington, D.C., on the impact of California, Berkeley, for the completion of a of international politics on dome tic reform policie , di ertation on hinterlands re ource trade and regional 1938-1942 economic development in the upper Ki 0 and Tenryu G. EDUARDO SILVA, Ph.D. candidate in political science, river valley during the Tokugawa period in Japan Univer ity of California, San Diego, for re earch in Chile on the influence of busine group on authoritarian policy and regime transition SINCLAIR S. THOM ON, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, UniverKOREA ity of Wisconsin, for re earch in Bolivia, Argentina, and Spain on the ocioeconomic and political origin of the Tupac Katari upri ing, 1726-1785 The Joint Committee on Korean Studies-Hagen Koo (chair), Laurel Kendall, B.C. Koh, Lawrence Krau e, KURT G. WEYLAND, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Stanford Univer ity, for re earch in Brazil on the impact Chung-in Moon, Sung-bae Park, Michael Robin on, and of regime democratization on tate autonomy, 1974-1979 Edward Wagner-voted at its meeting on March 4, 1988 and 1985 to the pre ent to award fellowship to the following individuals. Stefan Tanaka and Dara Shapiro erved as staff for this program. NEAR AND MIDDLE EAST GYOUNG-HAE HAN, Ph.D. candidate in family tudie, Pennsylvania State Univer ity, for re earch in Korea on social change, parental strategy, and the timing of marriage of Korean men HACK Soo KWON, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Illinois, for re earch in Korea on the evolution of complex societie JUNE 1988

The following di ertation fellowships were awarded by the Joint Committee on the Near and Middle EastE. Roger Owen (chair), Talal A ad, Leonard Binder, Huricihan i I:imo~lu-inan, Jean Leca, Afaf Lutfi al-Sayyid Mar ot, Ghassan Salame, and John Waterbury-at its meeting on March 22, 1988. P. Nikiforo Diamandouro, 51

Chri tina Dragonetti, and Shira Flax erved a program.

taff for the

REMA EVA HAM {AMI, Ph.D. candidate in cultural anthropology, Temple Univer ity, for re earch on women, Sufi m, and ubalternity in Mandate Pale tine EDWARD BLACK MITCHELL, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Univer ity of California, Lo Angele, for re earch on architectural patronage and the development of the Ottoman tax-office tate under Mehmed II REGINA M. 00, Ph.D. candidate in political ience, Univer ity of Chicago, for re earch on capitali ts and the tate 10 Egypt OUTH A IA The following di ertation fellow hip were awarded by the Joint Committee on outh A ia-Bernard S. Cohn (chair), Arjun Appadurai, Clive Bell, Jan C. Breman, Richard Eaton, Ronald J. Herring, V. Narayana Rao, u an Wadley-at its meeting on March 4-5, 1988. Toby Alice Volkman and Lori McGrogan erved a taff for thi program. ALICE EGYED, Ph.D. candidate in ethnomu icology and A ian language and literature, University of Wa hington, for re earch in Tibet on variation in Buddhi t ritual and their mu ic JI HN SHANKAR, Ph.D. candidate in anthropolo~, Syracu e Univer ity, for re earch in the United Kmgdom on traditional re ource utilization and con ervation in Nagpur, India ARENDRA BRA fANIAN, Ph.D. candidate in political cience, Ma achu etts In titute of Technology, for re earch in the United Kingdom on the Dravidian movement in Tamil politic ALFRED WAINWRIGHT, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Univerity of Wi on in, for re earch in the United Kingdom on the role of India in Briti h foreign policy from 1938 to 1947

KA IAN TEjAPIRA, Ph.D. candidate in government, Cornell Univer ity, for re earch in Thailand on radical cultural politics from 1946 to 1973 AMRIH WIDODO, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Cornell Univer iti' for re earch in Indone ia on the language and ocia hi tory of a Samin community in Blora, Java DEBORAH WONG, Ph.D. candidate in mu icology, Umverity of Michigan, for re earch in Thailand on the wai khru ritual form in Thai performing arts

OVIET UNION The following graduate trammg fellow hip were awarded by the Joint Committee on oviet Studie -Loren Graham (chair), Jeffrey P. Brooks, Timothy J. Colton, Sheila Fitzpatrick, Nancy Shield Kollmann, Gail Warhot: ky Lapidu, Robert Legvold, Herbert S. Levine, Michael Swafford, William Mill Todd, III, and Heinrich Vogel-at its meeting on March 18-19, 19 8. The committee wa a i ted by a reening committee-Jeffrey P. Brook (chair), Robert Edelman, Richard Ericson, Monika Frankel, Jeffrey Hahn, and Cynthia Kaplan. Blair A. Ruble, andra Barrow, and Regina myth erved a taff for thi program.

CYNTHIA B CKLEY, Department of ociology, Univer it of Michigan, for trainmg in preparation for di ertation re earch on rural-urban migration in the oviet Union CORINNE GAUDIN, Department of Hi tory, Univer ity of Michigan, for trainmg in preparation for di ertation re earch on the collectivized village of the 1930 BRIAN DANIEL HAR EY, St. Antony' College (Oxford), for training in preparation for di ertation re earch on the role of film in Soviet-American relation, 1930-1938 MARCIA LEVEN ON, Department of Geo~raphy, Univer ity of California, Berkeley, for training 10 preparation for di ertation re earch on marine re ource management in E kimo communitie of the oviet orth JA ON MACDONALD, Department of Political Science, Univer ity of California, Berkeley, for training in preparation for di ertation re earch on comparative politic and economi reform in the oviet Union, OUTHEA TAlA Hungary, Ea t Germany, and Poland The following di ertation fellow hip were awarded by DAVID EDlK, Department of Economic, Univer ity of California, Berkeley, for training in preparation for the Joint Committee on outhea t A ia-Charle F. Keye di ertation re earch on the macroeconomi of the (chair), Gillian Hart, Karl L. Hutterer, Yoneo I hii, Ruth NEP economy in the US R McVey, David G. Marr, Renato Ro aldo, Anthony J. S. DAVID WOLFF, Department of Hi tory, Univer ity of Reid, Chai-anan amudvanija, Peter . Xeno -at its California, Berkeley, for trainin~ in preparation for di ertation re earch on municipal development in meeting on March 21-23. Toby Alice Volkman and Lori Ru ian Manchuria, 1897-1917 McGrogan erved a taff for thi program. FILOMENO AGUILAR, JR., Ph.D. candidate in rural ociology, Cornell Univer ity, for re earch in Spain, the United Kingdom, and the Philippine on the formation of a ugar planter cia in Negro , Philippine , from 1855 to 1974 PA L H TCHCROFT, Ph.D. candidate in political ience, Yale Univer ity, for re earch in the Philippine on the Philippine nationali t movement ince 1946 MARGOT JONES, Ph.D. candidate in drama and theater, Univer ity of Hawaii, for re earch in Vietnam on the Mua Roi Nuoc water puppet theater 52

The following di ertation fellow hip were al 0 awarded at the committee' meeting on March 18-19, 19 8. SVETLANA BOYM, lavi Department, Harvard Univer ity, for a di ertation on the cultural mythologie of the modern poet TED HOPF, Department of Political Science, Columbia Univer ity, for a di ertation on po twar American foreign policy a umption regarding Soviet behavior in the Third World MARK AROYAN, Department of Political ience, UniverVOLUME 42, NUMBERS 112

ity of California, Berkeley, for a di ertation on Mu lim clerical discour e and practice in oviet Azerbaijan JA EAMES SCHALLERT, Slavic Department, Univer ity of California, Berkeley, for a di ertation on the role of intonation in the yntax of poken Ru ian KENNETH STRAUS, Department of Hi tory, Univer ity of Penn ylvania, for a dis ertation on the tran formation of the Soviet working class, 1929-1941 ~fARK TAUGER, Department of Hi tory, Univer ity of California, Berkefey, for a di ertation on the Soviet collective farm y tern, 1930-1941 ~fARGARITA TUPI YN, Ph.D. candidate in art, The Graduate Center, City Univer ity of New York, for a di ertation on Soviet photography before ociali t realism, 1927-1936



Univer ity, for re earch in France on bourgeoi identity and the debate on women' role, 1919-1924 SYLVIA SCHAFER, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Univer ity of California, Berkeley, for re earch in France on the family and the birth of the modern French welfare tate in the 20th century GRANTS FOR AREA STUDIE RESEARCH AFRICA The following grants for advanced international reearch were awarded by the Joint Committee on African Studie -Randall M. Packard (chair), Anthony Appiah, Claude Daniel Ardouin, Thoma J. Bier teker, Frederick Cooper, Franci M. Deng, Karen E. Field, Chri taud M. Geary, Gerald K. Helleiner, Lemuel John on, Ivan Karp, and Paul Rie man-at its meeting on March 24-26, 1988. Martha A. Gephart and Evalyn Tennant erved a taff for thi program.

The following di ertation research fellow hip were awarded by the Joint Committee on We tern EuropePeter A. Gourevitch (chair), Victoria de Grazia, Helga M. Heme, Vfctor Perez-Diaz, Charle F. Sabel, Fritz W. harpf, and David So kice-at its meeting on April JANET M. BING, a i tant profe or of Engli h, Old Dominion Univer ity, for a tudy of the ound y tern of 23-24, 1988. It wa a i ted by the Screening CommitteeGborbo Caroline B. Brettell, Robert M. Fi hman, Herbert P. MICHELLE V. GILBERT, Mellon fellow, Department of Kitschelt, Gregory M. Luebbert, Elizabeth Anne McCauley, Primitive Art, Metropolitan Mu eum of Art (New York), Robert G. Moeller, Kathryn Shevelow, and Stewart for a comparative tudy of political di pute in Ghana Weaver. P. Nikiforo Diamandouro and Chri tina Dragon- KAREN T. HAN EN, a i tant profe or of anthropology, Northwe tern Univer ity, for re earch on gender and etti erved a taff for thi program. intergenerational re ource acce in Luka a, Zambia CATHARINE B. HILL, a i tant profe or of economic , BEGONA A RETXAGA , Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, William College, for re earch on the price of major Princeton Univer ity, for re earch in Northern Ireland commodity exports in Botswana, Kenya, and Zambia on women' action and gender ymboli m in Iri h FREDERICK J. LAMP, curator, Art of Africa, the America, nationali t political violence and Oceania, Baltimore Mu eum of Art, for archival DAVID A. BELL, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Princeton re earch on the Baga of Guinea Univer ity, for re earch in France on legal profe ional DOROTHY MCCORMICK, Ph.D. candidate in economic and in parlnnents and their participation in the political life politic, The John Hopkin Univer ity, for re earch on of the ancien regime, 1653-1789 the garment-making indu try in Nairobi ROGER VAN BLERKOM GOULD, Ph.D. candidate in ociology, ANN O'HEAR, adjunct enior lecturer in hi tory, The Harvard Univer ity, for re earch in France on the Learning Center, Niagara Univer ity, for re earch on relationship between ocial tructure and level of lavery and other form of dependence in Borin, re i tance 10 the Pari Commune, 1871 Nigena ELIZABETH A. HONIG, Ph.D. candidate in art hi tory, Yale DAVID S. NEWBURY, a i tant profe or of hi tory, UniverUniver ity, for re earch in the Netherland on Flemi h ity of North Carolina, for re earch on the "Gakwege" and Dutch painting of market in the 16th and 17th famine in ea tern Rwanda, 1928-1929 century and the relation hip of form and content to CAROL M. COTTON, director, Interdepartmental Lingui hi torical circum tances tic Program, and profe or of lingui tic, Univer ity of HARRYN M. KASMIR, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, outh Carolina, for re earch on lexical core borrowing The Graduate Center, City Univer ity of New York, for and code witching in Kenya and Zimbabwe re earch in Spain on indu trial re tructuring, cooperativ- CHARLES C. STEWART, profe or of hi tory, University of i m, and culture in a Ba que town Illinoi , for re earch on the tran generational family in ELIZABETH L. KIER, Ph.D. candidate in political cience, Mauritania Cornell Univer ity, for re earch in France and the JENNIFER A. WIDNER, vi iting a i tant profe or, Center United Kingdom on the relation hip of dome tic politic for International Affair, Harvard Univer ity, for and organizational behavior to change in Briti hand re earch on local re pon e to economic liberahzation French conventional military doctrine mea ure in I vory Coast EWA LAJER-BuRCHARTH, Ph.D. candidate in art hi tory, The Graduate Center, City Univer ity of New York, for re earch in France on the role of art 10 the formation of Project on African Agriculture a new republican ociety under the Thermidorian The Subcommittee on African Agriculture of the Joint Reaction, 1794-1799 ~fARY L. ROBERTS, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Brown Committee on African Studie -Sara S. Berry (cochair), J

E 1988


Shem E. Migot Adholla (cochair), Pier M. Blaikie, Goran Hyden, Chri tine Okali, and Randall M. Packard-voted at its meeting on September 25-26, 1987 to make fellow hip award to the following individual . Martha A. Gephart, Thomas M. Painter, and Laura Bonington erved a taff for thi program.

MOHAMMED MBODJ, a i tant profe or of hi tory, Univerity of Dakar, for development of a re earch project on the effects of economic liberalization policie in enegal, 1981-1987 HEZEKIEL Mu HALA, lecturer in geography, Univer ity of Swaziland, for development of a re earch project on land tenure and land degradation in Swaziland EMMAN EL MWANGO, ocioeconomics, Ka ungu Agricultural Development Di trict, Lilongwe (Malawi), and Do GLAS KHONJE, microbiology, Chitedze Re earch Station, Lilongwe (Malawi), for development of a re earch project on the utilization of legume inoculants by mall holder farmer in Malawi B. H. OGWANG, lecturer in animal production and health, Univer ity of Swaziland, for development of a re earch project on the relation hip between crop and live tock production y terns on Swazi ation Land TEMITOPE OKU AMI, lecturer in oil science, and D.B. AWOYOMI, lecturer in agricultural economics, Obafemi Awolowo Univer ity, He路Ife, Ni~eria, for development of a re earch project on 011 ero ion and rural hou ehold adaptive trategie, Ondo tate, igeria TIJAN SALl.AH, a i tant profe~ or of economic , Kutztown Univer ity, for development of a re earch project on land and labor law and interaction between .. trange farmer " and their landlord in the Gambia M. F. ES AY, oil cience, Univer ity of Ea t An~lia, for development of a re earch project on oil ero Ion and crop productivity among small holder in Sierra Leone

MARTIN ABDULAI, economics, Refugee Studie Program, Univer ity of Oxford, for preliminary re earch leading to a comparative analy i of the impact of land tenure and agricultural policie on migration in Ghana and Burkina Fa 0 IPUL AMIN, re earch fellow in economi , The Open University (Milton Keyne ), and ELSON Moyo, profe or of economic, Univer ity of Zimbabwe, for policyoriented re earch on rural food ecurity in Zimbabwe MOHAMMED DIAB, economi and development tudie, and ALI ON PYLE, ociology and development tudie, In titute of Development Studie (Su ex), for preliminary re earch on the impact of hou ehold urvival trategie on future vulnerability to famine, Darfur Province, Sudan, 19 0-19 6 V. ARE KOLAWOLE, re earch fellow in geography, Ahmadu Bello Univer ity, for re earch on cultivation of the lake floor area of the Chad Ba in, Nigeria HELAN E. PAGE, a i tant profe or of anthropology, Univer ity of Mi ouri, St. Loui , to develop a collaborative re earch project with re earcher in Zimbabwe on the politic of information tran fer that affect agricultural performance among Shona peasant farmers o ALEGN RAH fATO, re earch fellow in political cience, CHINA Addi Ababa Univer ity, for write-up of ca e tudy re earch on famine and urvival trategie among The Grants election Committee of the joint Committee pea ant familie in Wollo province, Ethiopia on Chine e Studie (admini tered by the American PARKER SHIPTON, a i tant profe or of anthropology and of Learned Societie )-David john on (chair), Council a ociate, Harvard In titute for International Development, Harvard Univer ity, and PATRICK ALlLA, enior Uoyd E. Ea tman, Patricia B. Ebrey, Bernard Gallin, john re earch fellow in polttical science, Univer ity of Hay, David M. Lampton, Willard J. Peterson, Thoma G. Nairobi, for re earch on informal and formal credit Raw ki, and Pauline R. Yu-at its meeting February among Kenyan mall holder 12-13, 1988 awarded grants to the following individuals. CHARLES VAN ON ELEN, profe or of hi tory, University of jason H. Parker and Ruth Water erved a taff for thi Witwater rand, for write-up of re earch on the live of program. black harecropper in South Africa CLAIRE VIGNON, agronomy, IGNACE 0 EDRAOGO, agronomy, and PATRICK COLIN DE VERDI RE, agronomy and ANITA P. CHAN, indepc:ndent holar in sociology, for re earch on the SOCIal cri i of the Hundred Flower zootechnology, National Center for Re earch in A~ron颅 omy of Arid Region (CNEARC) and Internauonal period Center for Re earch in Agronomy for Development KANG-I SUN CHANG, a sociate professor of East A ian language and literature, Yale Univer ity, for re earch (CIRAD), Montpellier, for preliminary re earch on on love and loyali m: the poet Ch'en Tzu-lung re ource u e among mall holders and pa torali ts in (1608-1647) in the dynastic transition uncultivated zone of northern Burkina Fa o. PLACIDE ZOUNGRANA, a i tant profe or of rural econom- KENNETH DUN, independent scholar in A ian lan~uages, Stanford Univer ity, for re earch on the revIval of ics, ational Univer ity of Abidjan, for re earch on the traditional local reltgiou ob ervance and their role in impact of a commercial tomato-production and proce contemporary China ing complex on mallholder in northern Ivory Coa t CHRI TINA K. GILMARTIN, as istant profe or of hi tory, The ubcommittee al 0 voted the following award for Univer ity of Hou ton, for re earch on Chinese women in politics and revolution, 1920-1927 project development at its September 25-26, 1987 KANDICE J. HAUF, a i tant profe or of hi tory, Auburn meeting. Univer ity, Montgomery, for re arch on the Jiangyou MOHA fMED BAH, rural development, Work Oxen Project, Group: culture and oclety in 16th-century Chma Sierra Leone, for development of a re earch project on GARY H. JEFFERSON, a istant professor of economics, Brandeis University, for re earch toward an evaluation in titutional is ue that affect the incorporauon of indigenou knowledge among Sierra Leone pa torali ts of different rate of productivity growth within China's in live tock development intervention branch indu tries



JON E. KOWALLIS, re earcher in language and literature, LLoYD E. EASTMAN, profe sor of history, University of Illinois University of California, Berkeley, for re earch toward an analysis of political and regional afftliations of the WILLIAM C. KIRBY, as ociate profes orofhi tory, Washington Univer ity established poetic circle during late Qing and the early Republican period LILUAN M. LI, profe or of history, Swarthmore Collese, To attend a symposium on family structures and aging for re earch on flood and famine in China: state polIcy populations in China and the West, Beijing, October and ecological crisi in the Hai River Basin, 1686-1986 MARTIN J. POWERS, as ociate profes or of the history of 21-25, 1987 art, University of Michigan, for re earch on early Chine e image of paradise BURTON PASTERNAK, profe or of anthropology, Hunter JOHN R. SHEPHERD, indep<:ndent scholar in anthropology, College, City University of New York for research on religion and identity among the inicized Siraya in Tainan county, Taiwan To attend a research conference on modern Chinese LYNN A. STRUVE, as ociate profe sor of history, Indiana thought in celebration of the 70th anniver ary of the Univer ity, for re earch on Huang Zongxi (1610-1695) teaching and re earch of Liang Shuming, Beijing, October and pivotal issues in 17th century Chinese thought 30-November I, 1987 RICHARD L. VON GLAHN, assi tant professor of history, University of California, Lo Angeles, for the study of Japanese YU-SHENG LIN, professor of history and East Asian ROBIN D. YATES, associate profes or of history, Harvard languages and literature, University of Wisconsin University, for research on an analy is of the history of the state and empire of Ch'in To attend an international conference on the Zhu Xi JUDITH T. ZEITLIN, Whiting fellow in the humanities, literature, and civilization, Harvard University, for (Chu Hsi) school of Confuciani m, Xiamen, December re earch on the Chinese discour e on the strange and 1-5, 1987 Liaozluli wiyi: the late Ming and early Qing debate on the nature and significance of recording "the strange" WM. THEODORE DE BARY, university profes or, Columbia University CONRAD SCHIROKAUER, professor of history, City College, The following awards were made by ad hoc selection City University of New York committees of the Joint Committee on Chinese Studies.

Mellon Program for Summer lAnguage Training at the Inter-University Program for Chinese lAnguage Studies (Taipei) ROGER V. DES FORGES, as ociate professor of history, State University of New York, Buffalo JEANNE L. LARSEN, as ociate profe or of English, Hollins College

Mellon Program in Chinese Studies China Conference Travel Grants To attend an international conference on the YinShang civilization of China, Anyang, September 10-16, 1987 KWANG-CHIH CHANG, profes or of archeology, Harvard University EDWARD L. SHAUGHNESSY, assi tant professor of Chinese, University of Chicago

To attend an international conference on the Yijing (Book of Changes), Jinan, December 5-10, 1987 KIDDER SMITH, a sistant profe sor of history, Bowdoin College To attend an international conference on the social and economic history of local society in China during the Qing dynasty, Shenzhen, December 14-17, 1987 ROBERT Y. ENG, associate professor of history, University of Redlands HILL GATES, profes or of anthropology, Central Michigan University PETER C. PERDUE, as ociate profes or of history, Massachusetts Institute of Technology R. BIN WONG, as istant profe sor of history, University of California, Irvine

To attend the second international research conference on the Ming dynasty, Harbin, September 15-20, 1987

To attend the fir t international academic sympo ium on the Zhaoming Wenxuan (Selections of Refined Literature, by Crown Prince Zhaoming of Liang, A.D. 530), Changchun, August 1-5, 1988

RAy HUANG, professor of Asian studies emeritus, State University of New York, New Paltz

RICHARD B. MATHER, professor emeritus of Chine e, University of Minne ota

To attend a symposium on the history and archives of Republican China, Nanjing, October 7-10, 1987

To attend the second international conference on Asian urbanization, Nanjing, Augu t 8-14, 1988

JUNE 1988


CLIFTON W. PANNELL, profe or of geography, Univer ity of Georgia, Athen EA TERN EUROPE The Joint ommittee on Ea tern Europe (admini tered by the American Council of Learned ocietie )-Gale Stoke (chair), Daniel Chirot, Ellen T. Comi 0, Zvi Y. Gitelman, Michael Henry Heim, Keith A. Hitchin, George Kolankiewi z, Madeline G. Levine, Deborah Milenkovitch, Ivan zelenyi, and Katherine Verdery-at its meeting on March 10-11, 1988 voted to award grants to the following indi idual . J on H. Parker and Ruth Water erved a taff for thi program. DAVID J. BIRNBAU -I, re earcher in lavic language and literature, Harvard Univer ity, for re earch toward a critical edition of the Life of tefan lAzarevit VALERIE J. BUNCE, a ociate pro(e: or of political cience, orthwe tern Univer ity, for re earch on the impact of economic au terity on political tability in Yugo lavia and Poland: 1980 to the pre ent IRWIN L. COLLIER, a i tant profe or of economi , Univer itr. of Hou ton, for re earch toward two tudie in di eqUilibrium in con umer markets: the di tribution of real income in the CDR and compari on of intermarket pillover in Ea tern Europe and the Soviet Union HENRY R. COOPER, a ociate profe or of lavic language , Indiana Univer ity, for re earch on the Bible and the Slav : a hi tory of la ic Bible tran lation THO -IA C. Fox, a i tant profe or of German, Wa hington Univer ity, for re earch on GDR pro e in Englisb tran lation FRANTI EK W. GALAN, a ociate profe or of Engli hand film, Georgia In titute of Technology, for re earch on Prague between the war: a tructural hi tory of a culture GEORGE G. GRABOWICZ, profe or of Slavic language and literature, Harvard Univer ity, for re earch on the reception of Mickiewicz and Sevcenko WILLIAM O. MCCAGG, profe or of hi tory, Michigan State Univer ity, for re earch on the hi tory of the handicapped in Central Europe MICHAEL C. TEINLAUF, vi iting a i tant profe or of hi tory, Univer ity of Michigan, for re earch on Pole, Jew, and the theater in modern time FRANK E. Sy YN, a ociate director, Ukrainian Re earch In titute, Harvard Univer ity, for re earch on the hi tory of the Poli h-Lithuaman Commonwealth, 15th to 18th centurie BRONI LAVA VOLEK, a ociate profe or of lavic language and literature, Indiana Univer ity, for re earch on value in Czech literature JAPAN Under a program pon ored by the Joint Committee on Japane e tudie, the Subcommittee on Grants for Re earch-L. Keith Brown (chair), Norma Field, Margaret Lock, Margaret McKean, and tephen Vlasto -voted at its meeting on February 13, 1988 to award grants to the 56

following individual . Stefan Tanaka and Dara Shapiro erved a taff for thi program. THEODORE C. BESTOR, a i tant profe or of anthropology, Columbia Univer ity, for re earch on the Japane e di tribution y tern, retailing, and the old middle cIas BOTOND BOGNAR, a ociale profe or of architecture, Univer ity of Illinoi, for re earch on the changing qualitie and role of the treet in contemporary Japane e urban architecture Jo HUA A. FOGEL, a ociate profe or of hi tory, Harvard Univer ity, for re earch on the Japane e community of Harbin, 1900-1945 EDWARD B. FOWLER, a ociate profe or of international tudie , Duke Univer ilY, for re earch on Ukigumo and the origin of modern Japane e narrative TAKIE . LEBRA, profe or of anthropology, Univer ity of Hawaii, for re earch on the culture and experience of the hereditary elite: the modern Japane e ari tocracy ENKO K. MAYNARD, a i tant proÂŁe or of Japane e and lingui tic ,Rutger Univer ity, for re earch on analyzing the language of emotion MA AO MIYO HI, profe or of Japane e, Engli h, and comparative literature, Univer ity of California, an Diego, for re earch on the SM eLm, the novel, and other narrative LOI K. PEAK, re earch a ociate, U.S. Department of Education, for re earch on di ipline and cIa room management in the fir t grade in Japan RICHARD RUBINGER, a ociate profe or of Japane e, Univer ity of Hawaii, for re earch on the ociaf meaning of literacy in 19th-century Japan RONALD P. TOBY, a ociate profe or of hi tory and Ea t A ian tudie, University of Illinoi , for re earch on popular culture and national identity in early-modern Japan KOREA The Joint Committee on Korean Studie -Hagen Koo (chair), Laurel Kendall, B.C. Koh, Lawrence Krau e, Chung-in Moon, Sung-bae Park, Michael Robin on, and Edward Wagner-voted at its meeting on March 4, 1988 to award gran to the following individual. Stefan Tanaka and Dara Shapiro erved a taff for thi program. GEOFFREY HEWINGS, profe or of geography, Univer ityof Illinoi , for re earch on an interregIonal computable general equilibrium model for Korea ROGER L. JANELLI, a ociate profe or of folklore and Ea t A ian language and culture, Indiana Univer ity, for re earch on management, authority, and tradition in Korean film Ku "JA P. KIM, lecturer in A ian art hi tory, San Jo eState Univer ity, for re earch on native mountains and tream : landscape of actual place in 18th century Korea CHAI BIN PARK, profe or of public health, Univer ity of Hawaii, for re earch on Yi dyna ty life table of Korean LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN The Joint Committee on Latin American tudie -John Coatsworth (chair), Jo ~ Murilo de Carvalho, Paul W. VOLUME 42, NUMBERS 112

Drake, Edmond Valpy Knox FitzGerald, Jo ~ Antonio Ocampo Gaviria, Alejandro Porte, Frank Salomon, Beatriz Sarlo, and Lourde Arizpe Schlo er-at its meeting on March 24-26, 1988 awarded grants to the following individual . Joan Da in, Martha Rodriguez, Segundo Pantoja, and Manley Williams erved as taff for thi program.

NEAR AND MIDDLE EAST The following advanced re earch grants were awarded by the Joint Committee on the Near and Middle Ea t-E. Roger Owen (chair), Talal Asad, Leonard Binder, Hu~i足 cihan t lcimo~lu-tnan, Jean Leca, Afaf Lutfi al-Sayyld Marsot, Gha an Salam~, and John Waterbury-at its meeting on March 22, 1988. P. Nikiforo Diamandouro, Chri tina Dragonetti, and Shira Flax erved a taff for the program.

SAMUEL L. BAILY, profe sor of history, Rutger Univer ~ty, for re earch in Argentina on descendants of Ital~an immigrants in Bueno Aire and New York City, LISA SCOTT ANDERSON, a ociate profe or of political 1925-1975 science, Columbia University, for re earch on legal HERACLIO BONILLA, profe or of his.tory, Univer ity ?f oppo ition in five Middle Ea t countries . California, San Diego, for re earch 10 Peru on the shift HAMIED ANSARI, independent re earcher, Chicago, for of power from landowner to civil ervan~,.1895-:1985 re earch on tate formation, political stability, and ocial DAVID COLLIER, a ociate profe or of pohucal .sclenc~, change in the Middle Ea t and North Africa University of California, Berkeley, for re earch 10 La~n KJREN AZIZ CHAUDHRY, Ph.D. candidate in government, America and the United State on the comparauve Harvard Univer ity, for ~e earc~ on cha~ge in th~ method in Latin American tudies private and public ectors 10 the Oil economle of Saudi STEPHANIE C. KANE, re earch as ociate, Philadelphia Arabia and Iraq Folklore Project, for re earch in Panama on kinship, HALA M. FATTAH, United Nation (New York), for race, and gender re earch on political change underlying the had ow HERBERT S. KLEIN, pro.fe or . of hi tory, .Co.lum.bia economy of 19th century Iraq, Arabia, and the Gulf Univer ity, for re earch 10 BraZil on wealth dlstnbuuon PETER GRAN, profes or of hi ~ory,. Temple Uni,:er ity, for in the 19th century re earch in Jordan on hi toneal cholar hlp of the ROBERT M. LEVINE, profe or of hi tory, Univer ity of modern Arab world Miami, for re earch in Brazil on the Canudo pea ant MARY ELAINE HEGLAND, visiting a i tant profe or of upri ing anthropology, Franklin & Marshall College, for re earch HUGO LOPEZ profe or of economics, University of on the role of religion and culture in Iranian local-level Antioquia, Colombia, for re earch in Colombia on labor politics mobility and ocial ecurity CLEMENT MOORE HENRY, profe or of government, UniPETER McDONOUGH, profe or of political science, Univerver ity of Texas, for re earch on financial reform ity of Michi~an, for re earch in ~hile and El ~alvad?r political change in Algeria, Egypt, Morocco, Tum la, on democrauzation and the Society of Je us 10 Laun and Turkey America RONALD ALBERT MESSIER, profe sor of hi tory, Middle ARTHUR G. MILLER, profe or of art history .and ar~heol足 Tenne see State University, for an archeological survey ogy, University of Maryland, for re earch 10 Me~{lco on of Sijilma a, Morocco Native American encounters with European hteracy, PHILIP DANIEL SCHUYLER, a sistant profes or of mu ic, 1500-1700 Columbia University, for re earch on the ocial implicaANNE C. PAUL, re earch a ociate, In titute of Andean tions of Yemen traditional singing Studie (Berkeley, California), for re earch i~ Peru <;)0 ALI REZA SHEIKHOLESLAMI, research a ociate, Center for images of fabric elements and tructure 10 textile Middle Eastern Studie, Harvard Univer ity, for reiconography earch on revolutionary legali m in Iran MARIFELI PEREZ-STABLE, a si tant profe or of politics, MARGARET LEIGH VENZKE, as i tant profe or of history, economics, and ociety, State Umversity of New York, Loyola College, for re earch on 16th century economic Old Westbury, for re earch in Cuba on reformi t life in the Ottoman province of Aleppo nationalism between revolutions, 1930-1950 I. WILLIAM ZARTMAN, profe or of politics, School of JUAN CARLOS PORT~TEIRO, profe o~ of ociol~gy, UniverAdvanced International Studies, The John Hopkins ity of Buenos. Aires, for re ea~ch 10 ~r.genuna on state University, for re earch on the politics of succes ion in reform in penods of democrauc t.ran lu.on . . . Tuni ia KNUT WALTER, Fulbright scholar m re Idence, MillIkin University, for re earch in Nicaragua on the state and revolution, 1956-1979 SOUTH ASIA loRNA V. WILLIAMS, associate profe or of modern foreign language, Univer ity of Mi ouri, Saint .Louis, The Joint Committee on South A ia-Bernard S. Cohn for re earch in Washington on the repre entaUon of (chair), Arjun Appadurai, Clive Bell, Jan C. Breman, lavery in Cuban fiction Richard Eaton, Ronald J. Herring, V. Narayana Rao, PETER E. WINN, a ociate profe sor of history, Tufts Su an Wadley-awarded grants to the following individuUniversity, for research in Chile on parucipatory al at its meeting on March 4-5, 1988. Toby Alice socialism in a Chilean factory LEON ZAMOSC, associate profe or of ociology, Univer ity Volkman and Lori McGrogan erved a taff for this of California, San Diego, for re earch in Peru, Ecuador, program. and Colombia on chan~e in the political role of the national peasant federauons JAMES FI HER, profe or of anthropology, Carleton ColJUNE 1988



lege, for re earch in epal on life hi torie of the MAYOURY NGAO YVATHN, Vientiane, Lao , for re earch in Lao and Thailand on the tatu of Lao women Nepale e Brahman revolutionarie, Tanka Pra ad RONALD PROVENCHER, {>rofe or of anthropology, NorthAcharya and hi wife ern Illinois Univer Ity, for re earch in Malay ia on ROBERT FRYKENBERG, profe or of history and South A ian tudie, Univer ity of Wi on in, for re earch in humor magazine a cultural commentary the United Kingdom on the e tabli hment of modern JAMES RAMSAY, profe or of government, St. Lawrence University, for re earch in Thailand on the developmen"Hindui m" in South India from 1801 to 1858 TODD LEWIS, re earch a ociate, Southern Asian Institute, tal role of bu ine as ociation CHOU MENG T ARR, a i tant profe or of anthropology, Columbia Univer ity, for re earch in the United State Univer ity of Sydney, for re earch in the United State on mapping and analy i of the cultural geography of on Democratic Kampuchea' policie toward its ethnic the Himalayan region BARBARA S. MILLER, profe or of Oriental tudie, BarnChine e minority ard College, for re earch in epal and the United ANNA LoWEN HAUPT TSING, a i tant profe or of anthropology, Univer ity of Ma achu etts, for re earch in Kingdom on the San krit epic poem Buddhacarita Indone ia on contra ting understanding of land rights SATYA MOHANTY, as i tant profe or of Engli h, Cornell Univer ity, for re earch in the United Kingdom on and re ource u e in the Meratu mountain of South Kalimantan modalitie of "the imperial ubject" in the writing of E TA UNGAR, vi iting fellow in Far Ea tern Hi tory, The Kipling, Curzon, and Conrad Au tralian National Univer ity, for re earch in Au traMAUREEN PATTERSON, Seba topol, California, for re earch lia, the United State, and Vietnam on ethnic Chine e in the United State on the hi tory of South A ian communities in 20th century tudie from 1947 to 1987 CARLA PETIEVICH, vi iting a i tant profe or of Middle MICHAEL VICKERY, re earch fellow in A ian tudie, Univer ity of Adelaide, for re earch in France on Ea t language and culture, Columbia Univer ity, for Cambodian hi tory during the Angkor period, 9th-13th re earch in the United tate on four of India's Dakkani centurie poets HAROLD POWERS, profe or of mu ic, Princeton Univerity, for re earch in the United Kingdom on relationOVIET UNION hlp among de cri{>tive ver e, melodic type , and North Indian ragamali.i palOting The following advanced re earch grants were awarded MARTHA PRICKETT, re earch a ociate, Peabody Mu eum, Harvard Univer ity, and field director, Mantai Excava- by the Joint Committee on oviet Studie -Loren Graham tion , Sri Lanka, for re earch and archeological inve ti- (chair), Jeffrey P. Brook, Timothy J. Colton, Sheila gation in the United Kingdom and Sri Lanka on the Fitzpatrick, Nancy Shield Kollmann, Gail War hof: ky ancient city of Anuradhapura Lapidu, Robert Legvold, Herbert S. Levine, Michael VERNON CH BEL, a i tant profe or of religion, Central Swafford, William Mill Todd, III, and Heinrich VogelMichigan Univer ity, for re earch in the United tate at its meeting on March 1S-19, 1988. The committee wa on the religiou life of immigrant outh A ian Mu lim a i ted by a screening committee-Herbert S. Levine in ew York City YLVIA VATUK, profe or of anthropology, Univer ity of (chair), Maurice Friedberg, Abbott Glea on, Paul Gregory, IIlinoi , for re earch in the United Kingdom on the DanielOrlov ky, and Brian Silver. Blair A. Ruble, Sandra re pon e to its minority tatu of a Mu lim de ent Barrow, and Regina Smyth erved a taff for thi group in colonial and po tcolonial outh India program. VALERIE A. KIVELSON, hi torian, Stanford Univer ity, for re earch on the provincial gentry of 17th century Moscovy and its relation with the state The Joint Committee on Southea t A ia-Charle F. Keye (chair), Gillian P. Hart, Karl L. Hutterer, Yoneo JOHN M. LITWACK, a i tant profe or of economic, Stanford Univer ity, for re earch on the po ibilitie and I hii, Ruth McVey, David G. Marr, Renato Ro aldo, limitation in the u e of material incentive in a Anthony J. S. Reid, Chai-anan amudvanija, and Peter . centrally-planned economy, with application to the Xeno -awarded grants to the following individual at its USSR meeting on March 21-23, 1988. Toby Alice Volkman and LoUI E McREYNOLD, a i tant profe or of hi tory, Lori McGrogan erved as taff for thi program. U niver ity of Hawaii, for re earch on the commercially ba ed ma -circulation pre following the Great Reform of the 1860 through the Bol hevik revolution RICHARD DONER, a i tant profe or of political cience, Emory University, for re earch in Thailand on the KEVIN Mos ,a i tant profe or of Rus ian, Middlebury College, for research on and tran lation and annotation developmental role of bu ine a ociation of Olga Friedenber~' Image and Concept Hy VAN LUONG, a i tant profe or of anthropology, The John Hopkin Univer Ity, for re earch in Vietnam on RANDI RYTERMAN, a I tant profe or of economics, University of Penn ylvania, for re earch on relative inflexidi our e, ideology, and relation of rroduction in bility as an incentive for centrally planned economie to mall-scale manufacturing enterpri e 0 20th century engage in international trade Vietnam ALFRED McCoy, a ociate profe or of hi tory, Univer ity MARK L. VON HAGEN, a i tant profe or of hi tory, Columbia Univer ity, for re earch on the political and of ew South Wale , for re earch in the Philippine on a social hi tory ofthe Ukranian military di trict, 1917-1941 hi tory of Philippine politic ince 1965 OUTHEA TAlA




Predoctoral fellow hips

The Subcommittee on Indochina Studie of the Joint Committee on Southea t A ia-Charle F. Keye (chair), Amy Catlin, Carol Compton, May Ebihara, Donald Emmer on, John Hartmann, Gerald Hickey, Hue-Tam Ho Tai, David G. Marr, Bounlieng Phomma ouvanh, Yang Sam, William S. Turley, and Alexander Wood ideat its meeting on March 19-20, 1988 awarded grants for the following individual and collaborative projects. Toby Alice Volkman, Mary Byrne McDonnell, and Michelle emer erved a taff for thi program.

ANDREW M. CARPENDALE (United tate). Ph.D. candidate in politic, Univer ity of California. Berkeley. He will tudy the evolution of U.S. and Soviet nuclear trategy. U ing the European theater from 1954 to 1972 a a ca e tudy, he will examine how the United State and the Soviet Union developed different trategic theorie ba ed upon their culture and military doctrine. ALA TAIR I. JOHN TON (Canada), Ph.D. candidate in political ience, Univer ity of Michigan. He will tudy cla ical Chine e and pur ue hi toricaJ re earch on the Chine e u e of military force to determine whether there are per i tent behavioral pattern which might con titute elements of a di tinctive Chine e trategic culture. He will examine archival material in Taiwan and China. NAOKI KAMIMURA ~apan), Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Univer ity of California, Lo Angele. He will tudy comparative political analy i in foreign relation and in dome tic influence on United State foreign policy. He will examine United State policy toward the Bolivian Revolution of 1952-64 and a k why the United tate a i ted the revolutionary regime in Bolivia at a time when U.S. policy maker identified Third World revolutionary movements with communi m and oviet expan ion. Hi re earch will include ix month in Bolivia. AUDIE J. KLOTZ (United State), Ph.D. candidate in government, Cornell Univer ity. She will tudy international and regional politics in outhern Africa and will carry out re earch on the ability of the Southern African tate to i olate South Africa from the international community. CARINA C. PERELLI (Uruguay), re earcher at the ociety of Political Analy i and profe or of political science, Univer ity of the Republic, Urusuay, and Ph.D. candidate in political ience, Univer Ity of Notre Dame. She will tudy the impact of culture on thought and perception, a well a European military doctrine that have had an influence on the armed force of Argentina and Uruguay. She will focu her re earch on the "military mind" in the e two countrie and conduct field re earch in both. LISA YONEYAMA (United tate), Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Stanford Univer ity. She will tudy the ocial, p ychological, and political effects of the dropping of the Japane e atomic bomb upon Japan. Drawing upon her background in ymbolic anthropology, he will pur ue re earch on the development of a Japane e national po twar ideology with pecial reference to the way that ideology ha been haped by the fir t u e of the atomic bomb on Hiro hima.

WILLIAM COLLIN AND DOLLARD PHAR, Univer ity of California, Berkeley, for re earch on the Cambodian Cham KATHERINE C. BOND AND KING AVANH PATHAMMAVONG, Fall Church, Virginia, for re earch on traditional contexts of lowland Lao cla ical mu ic KATE G. FRIESON, Ph.D. candidate in Sou thea t A ian tudie, Mona h Univer ity, for re earch on Khmer communi t trategie of control and rural re pon e, 1970-1975 GUYEN VAN HANH, Sacramento, California, for re earch on indu trial development and ocioeconomic impacts in outh Vietnam, 1955-1975 T A VAN TAl, Harvard Law chool, for re earch on lawyer and the rule of law in South Vietnam, 1954-1975 FRANK HANTHO TOUNEH, Sacramento, California, for re earch on the role of the Montagnard leader in the central highland of outh Vietnam, 1954-1975 Publi hed and unpubli hed materials generated and collected by the e grantee will be placed in an archive at the Library of Congre and made available both to member of the Indochine e communitie and to re earch scholars.

INTERNATIONAL PEACE AND SECURITY STUDIES The Fellow hip Selection Committee of the Program in International Peace and Security Studie at its meeting on January 22-23, 1988 awarded training and re earch fellow hip to ix advanced graduate tudents and nine po tdoctoral cholars. The committee i compo ed of Catherine M. Kelleher (chair), McGeorge Bundy, Richard A. Falk, John Lewi Gaddi, John Kenneth Galbraith, David J. Holloway, Richard R. Nel on, Uwe Nerlich, Michel Ok enberg, Robert O'Neill, Judith V. Reppy, Gene harp, Jeremiah D. Sullivan, and Herbert F. York. The committee i a i ted by a screening committee compo ed of George A. Lopez (chair). Gordon F. Adam. Barton J. Bern tein, Stephen P. Cohen. Sou ad Dajani. Karen Dawi ha, Jack Gold tone, Benoit P. Morel, Stephen W. Van Evera, and Mario Zucconi. Richard H. Mo , Richard C. Rockwell, Michael Gro • Carmen Diaz, and Marcia Mitchell erve a taff for thi program. JUNE 1988

Po tdoctoral fellow hips BIFIKU BAHARANYI (Zaire), political cienti t and a ociate profe or, Univer ity of Lubumba hi, Zaire. He will tudy Zaire' relation with Angola, Congo, and Zambia. Hi re earch will inve tigate the cau e of the per i tence of conflicts and ten ion between Zaire and its neighboring tate. BRAHMA CHELLANEY (India), corre pondent for the Christian Science Monitor and a columni t for the Indian


Express. He will tudy the theoretical, technological, and legal a pects of nuclear weapon development and proliferation. Hi re earch will explore and a e models for a table and non-nuclear outh A ia with an empha i on Paki tan and India. FRANCES V. HARBO R (United State), J;><>litical ienti t and faculty research a ociate, Univer Ity of Maryland. She will pur ue tudie in ethical theory. In her re earch he will evaluate the ethical dimen Ion of deci ion made in the United State and other We tern nation concerning chemical and biological warfare. he will propo e ethical and trategically ound policy guideline for the u e of the e weapon . KATHERIN H.R. LAT CH (Federal Republic of Germany), Ph.D. candidate in p ychology, Umver ity of Hamburg. he will tudy United States-NATO relation and United tate foreign and de fen e policy concerning the Federal Republic of Germany. In her re earch, he will employ a ocial-p ychological approach to an examination of the different attitude of the Federal Republic and the United State toward NATO and toward the need to define a common value y tern in a comprehenive concept of ecurity. GEORGE LEwl (United State), phy ici t and re earch a ociate in the Peace Studie Program, Cornell Univerity. He will tudy international relation and the politi of verifying compliance with international arm limitation treatie . Hi re earch will focu on the implication of ad ance in urveillance technology and the lOcrea ed u e of on- ite monitoring. He will ug~e t how monitoring can be t be u ed to enhance ecunty. FERENC MI ZLiVETZ (Hungary), ociologi t and re earch fellow at the In titute of Sociology of the Hungarian Academy of Science . Mr. Mi zlivetz will tudy po twar regional political cri e in Ea t Central Europe. He will focu hi re earch on emerging ocial movements in Hungary a expre ion of the need for autonomy, participatory democracy, and elf-governance, conduct109 field re earch in everal Ea t European nation . LARS SCHOULTZ (United State), profe or of political science and director of the In titute of Latin American tudie , U niver ity of orth Carolina. He will receive training in the methodology of cultural anthropology. Hi re earch will examine whether U.S. policy maker' belief about .Latin Ameri~n political cultur~ infl,:,~nce their percepuon of ecunty threats and theIr deCl Ion to u e force to implement policy. ILAN SEMO (Mexico), re earch a ociate, Univer ity of Chicago, and Ph.D. canc:Iidat~ in poli~cal hi torr., National Autonomou Umver Ity of MeXICO. He will tudy contemporary U.S. foreign and dome tic pol!cy. Hi re earch will focu on the changes in U.S. forel~n policy toward Mexico provoked by the cri e 10 Guatemala (1952-54), Cuba (1958-64), and the Dominican Republic (l96~7). He will a e the extent to which the e change trengthened or weakened authoritarian feature of the political y tern in Mexico. WILL D. SWEARINGEN (United State), geographer and re earch a i tant profe or, Technological Application Center and Department of Geography, Univer ity of ew Mexico. He will tudy ecurity i ue related to demographic growth, modernization, and cultural change. He will pur ue re earch in North Africa on food and on food policie which are growing ource of political in tability in orth Africa.


FELLOWSHIP FOR FOREIGN POLICY TUDIES The following po tdoctoral fellow hip were awarded by the Committee on Foreign Policy Studie -Carl Kay en (chair), Philip E. Conver e, I.M. De tier, Mile Kahler, Erne t R. May, Guillermo O'Donnell, Janice Gro teinat its meeting on February 4-6, 1988. Richard H. Mo and Li a A. Ryan erved a taff for thi program. Ivo H. DAALDER, re earch a ociate, International In titute for Strategic Studie (London), for re earch on the extent of influence exerted by European member of ATO on U.S. national security policy making JEFFRY A. FRIEDEN, a i tant profe or of political cience, Univer ity of California, Lo Angele, for re earch on the relauon hip between international capital movements and the making of U.S. foreign economic policy JUDITHANNE Ju TICE, a i tant profe or of health policy and medical anthropolo~, In titute for Health Policy Studie , School of MediclOe, Univer ity of California, San Franci 0, for re earch on the importance of dome tic political priori tie and value ,a expre ed through gra roots political movements, on the making of U. . foreign aid policy JAMES D. MORROW, as i tant profe or of political cience, Univer ity of Michigan, for re earch on the impact of electoral and congre ional politics on the executive branch' conduct of arm control negotiation ROBERT D. PuTNAM, profe or of government, Harvard Univer ity, for the application of "two-level" game theory to everal in tance of bargaining in area uch a economic coordination, arm control negotiation , and conflict re olution, to model the increasing entanglement of dome tic and international affair THOMA A. SCHWARTZ, a i tant I?rofe or of hi tory, Harvard Univer ity, for an inve ugation of the role of tran national relation , including relation hip among private organization and individual , in creating the climate that led to the re-integration of the Federal Republic of Germany into the We tern political, economic, and ecurity y tern after World War II COMPARATIVE STUDY OF MUSLIM SOCIETIE The Joint Committee on the Comparative Study of Mu lim ocietie -Barbara D. Metcalf (chair), Dale F. Eickelman, Gille Kepel, Nurcholi h Madjid, M. Khalid Ma ud, William R. Roff, and Charle C. Stewart-voted at its meeting on December 19, 1987 to award advanced re earch grants to the following individual . David L. Szanton and Su an Rubino erve a taff for thi program. JOCELYNE N. DAKHLlA, Ph.D. candidate in politics, Univerity of Pari , for Ottoman Turki h language training for re earch on ymbol of power and legitimacy in the Ottoman Empire and the Maghreb DRU C. GLADNEY, Ira Kukin po tdoctoral cholar, Harvard Univer ity, for re earch on Uigur ethno-religiou identity in the context of Turki h nationali m, Central A ian hi toriography, and I lam GREGORY C. KOZLOWSKI, a ociate profe or of hi tory, DePaul Univer ity, for re earch on Mu lim endowments VOLUME 42, NUMBERS 112

in the ocial, religiou , and political hi tory of Iran, Turkey, and India VERNON J. CHUBEL, a i tant profe or of religion, Central Michigan Univer ity, for inten ive Arabic training for the comparative tudy of Mu lim immigrant communitie

INSTITUTIONAL SUPPORT PROGRAMS In its fourth national competition of grants to American in titute that offer inten ive training in the Ru ian and non-Ru ian language of the Soviet Union, the Joint Committee on Soviet Studie -Loren Graham (chair), Jeffrey P. Brook , Timothy J. Colton, Sheila Fitzpatrick, ancy Shield Kollmann, Gail War hoi: ky Lapidu, Robert Legvold, Herbert S. Levine, Michael Swafford, William Mill Todd, III, and Heinrich Vogel-at its meeting on March 18-19, 1988 made 12 award to nine in titution . The committee wa a i ted by a creening committee- William Mill Todd, III (chair), Victor Friedman, Frank Miller, A ade-Ay e Rorlich, Sandra Ro engrant, and John A. Schillinger. Blair A. Ruble, Sandra Barrow, and Regina Smyth erve a taff for thi program.



In the Ru ian language competition, award were made to the Ru ian School at Bo ton Univer ity, the Ru ian Language In titute at Bryn Mawr College, the Ru ian In titute at Indiana Univer ity, the Ru ian chool at Middlebury College, the Ru ian Program at the In titute of International Affairs, the Ru ian School at Norwich Univer ity, the School for Advanced International Studie at the John Hopkin Univer ity, and the Ru ian School at Yale Univer ity. In the non-Ru ian language competition, award were made to the Ukrainian language program at Harvard Univer ity, the Georgian and Uzbek program at Indiana Univer ity, and the Uzbek language program at the Univer ity of California, Lo Angele. In the third national competition under the Joint Committee on Soviet Studie ' program to initiate new teaching po ition in Ru ian and Soviet Studie at American in titution , grants were al 0 made at the committee' meeting on March 18-19, 1988. The committee made two award: American Univer ity received an award for partial funding of a po ition in geography; and the Univer ity of Wi con in received an award for partial funding of a po ition in either anthropology or ociology.


Council Fellowship and Grant Programs,

1988-89 Predoctoral and Dissertation Training and Research PROGRAM



SSRC-MacArthur Foundation Fellowships in International Peace and Security

Two-year predoctoral training and re arch fellow hip to fo ter critical thinking about international peace and ecurit

October 3

Doctoral Research Fellowships for Area Studies

Africa, Korea, Latin America and the Caribbean, ear and Middle East, uth A ia, Southeast A ia, and " e tern Europe: upport for doctoral re earch abroad in the ocial science and the humanitie

ovember I

Doctoral Research Fellowship for Area Studies Admini tered by the American Council of Learned Societies-

China and Eastern Europe: upport for doctoral re arch in the ocial science and the humanitie

ovember 15

Berlin Program for Advanced German and European studies

upport for doctoral research in German in the ocial ience, hi tory, and cultural tudie

To be announced

Fellowships for Predissertation Research in Africa

upport for predi ertation re earch trip to Africa for graduate tudents in the ocial ience and the humanitie

December I

Fellowship for Training and Dissertation Research on Agriculture and Health in Africa

upport for natural or technical science training and di ertation re earch for ocial ience Ph.D. candidate who e re earch topi are related to agriculture or health

ptember 1

Graduate Training in Soviet Studies

upport for 3rd, 4th, and 5th 'ear graduate tud

December I

Dissertation Fellowships in Soviet and Japanese Studies

upport for the final year write-up work on di sertation

December 1

Undergraduate Research A istantships for Research on the Urban Underclass

upport for undergraduate re earch projects that are conducted in collaboration with faculty members during the ummer or an academic year

To be announced

Doctoral Fellowships for Research on the Urban Underclass

Support for doctoral re earch on the urban undercIas

To be announced

- For detail and in truction on how to apply for these fellow hip and gran ,addre the American Council of Learned Societie ,22 East 45th treet, New York, New York 10017. For all others, addre the pecific program at the Social Science Research Council.



42, Nu



Council Fellowship and Grant Programs 1988-89 (continued) Advanced Postdoctoral Training and Research PROGRAM




SSRC-MacArthur Foundation Fellowships in International Peace and Security

Two-year po tdoctoral training and re earch fellow hip to fo ter critical thinking about international peace and ecurity

October 3

Grants for Area Studies Research

Africa, Japan, Korea, Latin America and the Caribbean, Near and Middle East, South Asia, and Southea t A ia: upport for advanced re earch in the ocial science and the humanitie

December 1

Grants for Area Studies Research Administered by the American Council of Learned Societies路

China and Ea tern Europe: upport for advanced research in the ocial cience and the humanitie

November 15

Berlin Program for Advanced German and European Studies

Support for advanced re earch in Germany in the ocial science, hi tory, and cultural tudie

To be announced

Research Fellowships in Foreign Policy Studies

One to two year of upport for research on economic, cultural, political, and social influence on the making of U.S. foreign policy. Application from non-U.S. scholars encouraged

December 1

Grants for the Comparative Study of Muslim Societies

Support for advanced training and research

December 1

Grants for the Study of African Agriculture

Training and research fellow hip for individual African or team of African and non-African for interdisciplinary re earch on the agricultural cri i

Grants for Soviet Studies

Support for three ummers and one erne ter of research

December 1

International Fellowship Program for the Development of Soviet Studies

Support for ocial scienti ts who are citizens of the countrie of Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean, South and Southeast A ia, and Southern Europe for training and/or re earch at a university-based Ru ian and Soviet tudie center

May 1 (1989)

Grants for Public Policy Research on Contemporary Hispanic Issues Uointly with the Inter-University Program for Latino Research)

Support for 1 to 2 year of individual or group re earch; po tdoctoral feUow hip; ummer workshop in research methods; graduate tudent training eminar

January 16 (1989)

Research Grants for Research on the Urban Underclass

One year of re earch upport

To be announced






SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH COUNCIL 605 THIRD AVENUE, NEW YORK, N.Y. 10158 The Couru;il was incurporatd in the State of IllinoIS, IN~ 27, 1924, for the fruryose of advancing rrs~arch in the social sciences. Nongowrnmrntal and mtndlSClplmary in nature, the Couru;il appoints committees of schaum which seel! to achinJt the Couru;il's fruryose through the g~ataon of mw !Mas and the trammg of scholars. The activities of the Council are supported primarily by grants from private foundalaons and gowrnmt1lt agt1lcits.

DIrectors, 19 7-19

: CLAUDE AIlE, University of Port Harcourt; UZA E D. BERGER, Mas chu ellS Institute of Technology; RICHARD A. BERK, niversity of California, Lo Angeie; ALAN S. BUNDER, Princeton niversity; RAu DAHRENOORF, St. Antony' College (Oxford); HOWARD GARDNER, Harvard niversity; E. MAVI HETHERINGTON, University of Virginia; ROBERT W. KATES, Brown niversity; GARDNER LINDZEY, Center for Advanced tudy in the Behavioral Sciences; BEVI loNGSTRETH, Debevoi Be Plimpton; EMILY {ARTlN, The John Hopkin University; HUGH T. PATRICK, Columbia niversity; CoNOOLEEZZA RICE, tanford niversity; WILUAM H. EWELL, JR., University of Michigan; BURTON H. SI GER, Yale University; FRANCI X. U"ITON, Dobbs Ferry, New York; FREDERIC E. WAKEMAN, JR., Social Science Research Council.


The Social Science Research Council upports the program of the Commi ion on PTe ervation and Acce and is represented on the National Advisory Council on Preservation. The paper used in thi publication meets the minimum requirements of American National tandard for Information Science -Permanence of Paper for Printed Library Materials. ANSI Z39.48-19 4. Thi infinity ymbol placed in a circle indicates compliance with thi tandard: Til

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