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The Social Consequences of the AIDS Epidemic A challenge for the social sciences lly Yasmine Ergas* RE PONDING TO THE HALLENGE THAT AIDS PRESENTS, effects while encouraging the positive innovations to the Council is developing a re earch program which health cri es ometime give rise. While the centered on the epidemic' projected ocial con e- preci e outlines of the Council's future activities in quence . The program will eek to inform society's this area are not yet decided, the importance of coping trategie and, if po ible, to fore tall negative turning the attention of the social ciences to the ocial effects of the di ea e i becoming more evident every day.l This article attempts to et a framework • Ya mine Erga. a ociologi t. i a taff a ociate at the Council. In 1987-88. he i on leave at the In titute for for studying the ocial con equences of the epidemic Advanced tudy (Princeton. New Jer ey). Thi article draw on by highlighting the kind of problems on which the contribution of other Council taff member • in particular re earch and theoretical work must focus. It does not Richard C. Rockwell and David L. ill. It ha al 0 benefited presume to pre cribe the content of appropriate from the formulation of the problem rai ed b AID that were propo ed in the cour e of everal ouncil meeting and re earch or ocial theory. All forms of HIV infection raise pre sing policy di cu ion attended b Richard A. Berk. Univer ity of California. Lo Angele; France P. onant. Hunter ollege. City Uni- i sue , ranging from the promotion of public health ver it of ew York; HarJon Dalton. Yale Univer ity chool of to the protection of civil libertie , from the provision Law; ictor de Gruttola. Harvard Univer ity hool of Public of medical and ocial ervices to the coordination of Health; Daniel Fox. tate niver it of ' ew York. ton Brook; internationally- an~tioned mea ure. Furthermore, H. Jack Geiger. Cit Univer it of ew York Medical hool; Larry Go tin, American ociety of Law & Medicine (Bo ton); David Jenne ,Con ortium of ocial ience A ociation (Washington, D. . ); Ji1l G. Jo eph. chool of Public Health, Univer it of Michigan; Ronald C. Ke ler, Univer ity of Michigan; David Kirp, Univer ity of California, Berkeley; Kenneth C. Land. Duke Univerit; heldon L. Me inger, Univer it of California. Berkeley; Doroth ' elkin, Cornell niver ity; June E. 0 born, School of Public Health. University of Michigan; Beth hneider, Univerityof alifornia, anta Barbara; tephen H. chneider. National Center for Atmo pheric Re earch (Boulder, Colorado): Richard ennett. New York niver ity; Eleanor inger, Columbia Univerity; 1ichael toto, John F. Kenned hool of Government. Harvard niver it ; Ro mary Taylor. Tufts University; and David , illi • The Milbank Quarterly ( ew York). Al 0 attending a taff were Ya mine Erga , Richard C. Rockwell. David L. i1l, Franci X. utton, and Frederic E. Wakeman Jr. Richard A. Berk ha been the leading proponent of an approach focu ing on the ocial con equence of the AIDS epidemic and much of thi article i indebted to him (see Berk 19 7).

I Before examining orne of the e effects in greater detail, a caveat i in order. "AID "-"Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome"-ha come to denote, both in ca ual conver ation and, to a ignificant degree, in cientific di cu ion, HIV infection in general. A medical re earcher have hown. infection with HIV proceed on a continuum, although progre ion from one tate to the next i not automatic. Many individual, in the United tate and el ewhere, are and may remain at the fir t tage of thi infection. It i now expected, however, that a ignificantly large proportion of tho e infected wi1l develop Aid Related Complex (ARC) and that many others will go on to uffer from AID

For contents of this is ue, see the box on page 34

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ial on equen e of the I D Epidemi : hallenge for the ial ien es- l'asmlnt Ergas \ orld With I 0 olor Line-RryllOlds Farll) and Walur R. /tUm ew Ma nhur Foundation Fellow in International urit} Pea and Grants Recei\ed bv the Council in 19 6- 7 urrent cthitie at the un il - The pre n 'ation of book (page 4 ) - The cognition and mea urement of pain (page 4 ) -Computers and con temporal) iet (page 49) - The role of the inten"i wer in line measurement (pag 49) - ummer minar on contemporary viet culture and iet, (page 50) - ummer workshop on \i t and Ea t European economi (page 50) hinese scholars of lith ia (page 51) -Re arch workshop on international pea e and urit) tudie (page 51) ouncil Per nnel -Pendleton Herring receive merican Political ience - ew directors and officer - taff appointment Recent un il Publication 19 0 Cen u Monograph rie

the all po e the potential to pro oke ignificant ocial and cultural change. It i with thi broad range of i ue -and with the implication of different tage and manife tation of infection and illne that we need to be and, indeed, are concerned.

The social consequences of AIDS: an overview Hi torically, epidemic have both haped and been haped b the tructure of 0 ial, economic, and political life. Their cour e ha been affected b behavioral pattern, popular belief, health care ervice, and governmental re pon e. And their demographic, economic, legi lative, and cultural effect have often outlived the di ea e which created them. Smallp x, cholera, tuberculo i , polio, and the bubonic plague are, in a en e, with u till even though, in the We tern world, the number of the tricken have been dra ticall reduced. The legacie of di ea e inform the knowledge on which a ignificant amount of medical cience, a well a man con titutive feature of contemp rar ietie , now re t. From the immunizati n routinel performed to the power of public health authoritie , from common under tanding of "purit 34

and danger," to hared a umption regarding health and illne ,from the ethic of the healing profe ion and the organization of medical care to the regulation of immigration, the great epidemic of the pa t tructure our experience of the pre ent. 2 In thi legacy, the accumulation of cientific knowledge play a pecial role. uch knowledge a ha been po e ed ha generally been mobilized to cope with di ea e. In turn, thi knowledge ha been profoundl affected by the i ue which di ea e have placed on the cientific agenda. From both a ocietal and a cientific per pective, AIDS promi e to be no different. Exacting a ignificant toll in term of human live , threatening a irtual decimation of population which engage in "high ri k behavior ," the current epidemic i already meting out tragedy and engendering ocial change. It i al 0 prompting new public and private policie and generating cientific breakthrough. Until now, the mobilization of cience eem to have e peciaUy involved biomedical and epidemiological re earcher , while the potential contribution of the ocial cience -and the ignificance for them of confronting the que tion the current epidemic rai e appear to have received relativel canty and generally fragmentary attention.!! Yet the ocial implication of AID -its epidemiological dependence on particular pattern of ocial behavior and it potential impact on the organization of ociallife-have been recognized a being of paramount importance. The tran mi ion of AID take place through pecific beha ioral route. Infection pread a a re ult of exual, parenteral, and perinatal contact. Acknowledging that "neither accine nor ati factor drug therapie for HIV or AID are likely to be available in the near future," the ati nal Academ of cience and the In titute of Medicine have urged that a erie of ocial mea ure be taken to urb the pread of the epidemic and to deal with it effect". Referring explicitly to the potential contribution of the ocial cience , the National Academ and the Intitute of Medicine report tre ed: ial ience re earch can help develop effective ducation program . . . (that) on tribute to the de ign of policie that reduce the public' fear of AID and that help eliminate di criminator practice toward AID patients. nd it can

2 The phra e "purit and danger" i borrowed from Doug'" (1966). On epidemi , their "social con truction," and theIr hi tori al effe ts, Brandt (19 7); armi hael (19 6); Me. "eill (1976); and Ro enberg (1962). , For an important r vi \\ of the potential contribution of the ocial cien e to coping with the pidemi, ee Nelkin (19 7).



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hape the e tabli hment of health care and ocial ervice for AID patients. 4

Thi i but an initial ugge tion of the way In which the ocial cience can contribute to the development of coping trategie. A the Academy report ugge ts, the ta k before the social cience i urgent and exacting. It require mar halling ex perti e that i pre ently cattered acro a multiplicity of di cipline ; it require developing a dialogue capable of extending beyond the border of the ocial cience to engage policy maker , epidemiologi ts, and biomedical re earcher ; and it requires a e ing the change which the current epidemic ha already et in motion and tho e which it i likely to produce. The effects of AIDS determine the context within which the efforts of the ocia} cience mu t be ituated and provide important data on which to ba e further re earch. Viewed in an international per pective, AIDS threaten entire ocieties. In orne parts of Africa, for in tance, where the di ea e affects both exe in approximately equal number, the effects of AIDS are already wide pread. But even in countrie where the epidemic ha been characterized by a "We tern" epidemiological pattern-largely confined to male homo exual ,intravenou drug abu er , and their exual partner and children-the con equences of AIDS are ignificant. In the United State, the e effect are beginning to be di cernible in the cultural and behavioral pattern of pecific ocial group and in the in titution that bind ociety together. Culturally, AIDS ha called renewed attention to ex and exuality, awakened fears of contagion and epidemic di aster, and in pired a new literature of di ea e. 5 In titutionally, AIDS has become a factor influencing international a well a dome tic policy and politic . Both culturally and in titutionally, the epidemic ha highlighted exi ting fault line in American ociety while provoking new ten ion and prompting new choices. It has, for in tance, reinforced the In titute of Medicine (19 6a), page 27. The network and pre till provide almo t daily coverage of the AIDS epidemic, often tre ing the implications of the di ea e for exual practice and more. uch coverage ha the collateral effect of giving both ex and exuality greater alience in public di course. For example and analy e of thi coverage, ee Singer et al. (1987); Lei hman (19 7); and "AIDS: What You Need to Know, What You Should Do and What the Government Hasn't Done" (1987). An example of the literature of di ea e i Larry Kramer' play, TM Normal Heart, produced in New York City in the 19 5 season. 4




tigma and di crimination experienced by tho e group among whom the di ea e ha been e pecially virulent: male homo exual and intravenou drug abu er.6 And ince inner city minoritie are di proportionately repre ented among AI D ufferer , the epidemic ha al 0 given renewed alience to the racial cleavage which divide American ociety, for AIDS occur nearly three time a frequently among black and Hi panic men as it doe among white men, and 73 per cent of the women and 79 percent of the children with AIDS are black or Hi panic.' While AIDS i po ing an e pecially eriou threat to population which have hi torically been everely di advantaged, it ha al 0 rai ed que tion which both polarize and reorder ocietal priori tie and belief. Should ex education be provided in chool ? Should exuality that deviate from the canonical model of hetero exual matrimonial monogamy be publicly acknowledged and perhap implicitly condoned? Proponent of differing view form oppo ing camp, while new alliance are forged between traditional "liberal "-like Repre entative Waxmanand equally traditional "con ervative "-like SurgeonGeneral C. Everett Koop. A debate touching upon theme uch a the e unfold, catalyzing wide pread public attention, AIDS alter the feature of everyday life-and death-for tho e population which are mo t dramatically affected. In New York and San Franci co, among the minoritie which live in the inner citie , but aloin the art world and the de ign indu try, AIDS is a daily experience-of 10 ,fear, tigmatization, de titution, 6 On the p ychological and ocial tre e a ociated with AID , with particular referen e to homo exual men, ee Emmon et al. (19 6); Jo eph et al. (19 4; 19 7; n.d.); Ke ler (19 6); and Ke ler et al. (19 6). Furthermore, in reference to the impact of AID on exual behavior among male homo exual , ee "Declining Rate of Rectal and Pharngeal onorrhea among Male - ew York ity" (19 4); " If-Reported Behavioral Change among Homo exual and Bi exual 1en- an Franci 0" (19 6); and Kotarba & Lang (19 6). 7 A of last fall, 60 per cent of reported AID ca e in the United tate were white, 25 per cent were black, and 14 per cent were Hi panic. It ha been ugge ted that the particular vulnerability of blacks to AID may be linked to the prevalen e of intravenou drug abu e in thi population. While blacks compri e 13 per cent of the American population, they account for nearly 40 per cent of the intravenou drug u er (ee In titute of Medicine (19 6a, page 72,60). However, it hould be noted that even among intravenou drug abu ers, blacks and Hi panics eem to uffer from HIV infection in di proportionate numbers. Thu ,according to one tudy, 42 per cent of black and Hispanic intravenou drug abu ers, but only 14 per cent of white one, were infected with HIV. e Rogers & ~ illiam (19 7).


and di crimination; and, too rarely, olidarit and community upport. At the arne time, AIDS ha appeared on the agenda of the major in titution of American ociety, affecting the way in which ervice are provided and governance i en ured. AID ha become an i ue for private enterpri e a well a for national and local government, for the health y tern and the in urance indu try, for the educational y tern and the court, for the armed force and the foreign ervice. Within each in titutional arena, the epidemic elicits policy re pon es, often provoking change which have exten ive ramifications. The e policie ometime take the finding of the ocial cience into account. More often, they evolve in a piecemeal manner and, becau e data regarding their characteri tics and effects are not y tematically gathered, they yield little information which may be of u e in future decision making. Foremo t on the publi agenda i the i ue of effective education. Health official , private enterpri e , and agencie of the federal government are engaged in a myriad of activitie de igned to promote awarene and behavioral change while fore tailing panic. The e initiative are rarely monitored for their ability to achieve their aim , yet the belief that information-or education- uffice to affect behavior i eriou ly open to que tion. Reearch on the effects of fear, like that on ri k taking, belief about health, and the factor that lead from knowledge to awarene and action, mu t be garnered. If it i imperative that neither the public nor polic maker uccumb to illu ion regarding the import of information, it i equally important to under tand which campaign have ucceeded, and when, how, why, and which are likel to do 0 in the future. At the arne time a the que tion of education i being broached, public health official and ho pital admini trator are developing trategie de igned to meet the multiple demand AID place on medical facilitie . AID generate pre ure for bed , trained profe ional taff, and adequately prepared volunteer per onne1. 9 Public health official and admini trator mu t decide whether AID ufferer hould be placed in "dedicated" ward or integrated with Through April 4, 19 6, of all AID ca e reported to the enter for Di ea e ontrol, 33.5 per cent were from ew York and 22.9 per cent wer from alifornia. e data provided in In titute of Medicine (19 6b), page 2. 'I e Fox (19 6). On the e i ue, ee In titute of M dicine (19 6a), page 150-157.


other patients. They mu t also deal with the growing demand AIDS produces for mental health ervice, and with the type of coun eling thi epidemic require, for AIDS entail coping with both 10 and danger-a ituation which can create complex anxiety and depre ion reaction that are particularly difficult to treat. Public health officials, ho pital admini trator , and the ociety a a whole must confront the economic burden that AIDS impo e . Estimate of the average lifetime cost of the care required by an AIDS ufferer, from diagnosi to death, range from 27,600 to 150,000 (in 1986 dollar ).'0 The U.. Public Health Service ha e timated that in 1991 the total co ts of care for the anticipated 174,000 AIDS ufferer will range between billion and 16 billion. I I The direct co ts of thi di ea e are partially financed by in urance companie . But AIDS ufferer are frequently required to pay for a ignificant portion of their care and they often cannot do o. AIDS generally impair the ability to maintain employment, thu impo ing evere financial hardhip on the ill and a general 10 of productivit . on the economy. And ince, for many, the 10 of employment pell the 10 of health in urance. Medicaid and local government revenue mu t cover the unreimbur ed co ts of medical care for AID ufferer .12 The epidemic ha therefore contributed both to timulating the earch for new olution to the financing of health care and to renewed debate over the adequacy of pre ent arrangements. The e debate have led in two direction : on the one hand, in urer have pre ed for the right to te t in urance applicants for HIV eropo itivity; on the 10 Variation in e timate reflect difference in the methodologie employed as well as in the medical ite examined. The co ts of care also appear to vary in relation to the particular ymptomatology of the AID case (patients with Jnuumocy lis carini appear to incur higher co ts than tho e with Kapo zi' arcoma) and to the ocial characteri ti of the patient. On the co of health care for AID ufferers, ee In titute of Medicine (19 6a), page 155-175; itov ky & Cline (19 6); and Thomas & Fox, unpubli hed paper. II In titute of Medicine (19 6a), page 159. 12 itov ky et at. have e timated that private in urance covers from 13 per cent to 65 per cent of the co ts of AID care. It hould be noted, moreover, that in urance coverage frequentl . terminate with job 10 . tudi have hown that AID ufferer can often work I than half the work year. They con equentl often lose their job and their medical coverage. It appears that, in orne ho pital , the uncompen ated co of AIDS patients have been four time gr ater than tho e of other patients. Medicaid reimbursement i e timated to be a much as 60 per cent below the actual treatment co ts for an AID patient. See In titute of Medicine (19 6a), page 164-165, 16 .


41, N



other, CrItiC of the current y tern have called attention to the re pon ibility of public in titution for en uring adequate health care for the entire population. I S The di cu sions which have developed on the i ue of health care financing may fore hadow change which would dovetail with other tran formative proce e that AIDS appear to have already et in motion. When the AID epidemic began, historian have noted, the health policy wa in a tate of flux, hifting attention from infectious di ea e to chronic degenerative di ea e ; from the promi e of cience to it unrealized potential; from comprehen ive ervice provi ion to co t control. I" At a minimum, AIDS ha redirected attention to infectiou di ea e, and, therefore, to the public health measure which such di ea e require. It i prompting a critical reexamination of exi ting legi lative and admini trative mea ure, uch a tho e regarding communicable and exually-tran mitted di ea e .15 At a more general level, AIDS is timulating a far-reaching di cu ion over the relation hip between public health and individual libertie, with ignificant implications for the relation hip between the tate (under tood in its broade t en e) and civil ociety.1 6 The exerci e of compul ory public health power for the good of the community involve a potentially rna ive infringement of individual liberty, autonomy, and privacy. Yet public health juri prudence ha been a relati ely neglected area of the law. Addre ing the cIa ic que tion for public health juriSprudence-to what extent may the tate require its citizen to ubmit to re traint or 10 of right in order to interrupt the pread of di ea e?-man have expre ed the fear that AIDS may occa ion new, and coercive, mea ure for the "policing of ociet ." Other ha e empha ized the attention which public 15 e Fox (19 6); Hammond & hapiro (19 6), page 143-167; and Oppenheimer & Padgug (19 6). 14 The term "h alth polity" i u ed in the en e defined in Fox (19 6), page 7, to mean "the wa a community . . . con eive of and organize its re pon e to health and illne ." The de cription of the tran formation the health polit i undergoing i al 0 derived from thi article by Fox. ee al tarr (19 2). IS On legi lation regarding public health and its application with re pect to AID, ee Kuller & King Ie (19 6); Go tin (19 6); and Mu to (19 6). 16 Out of a rapidl developing literature on the i ue of the relation hip between civil libertie and public health a the e pertain to the AID epidemic, e Reiman et a\. (19 5); Levine et al. (19 6); Bayer et al. (19 6); and Bayer (19 6). On the effect of quarantine, ee Mu to (19 6). A an example of the ocial mobilization which can be generated b publi health regulation , ee WalkowiLZ (19 0).


19 7

health official and legi lature have thu far given to individual right .I' Concomitantly, the way in which the demand for ervice for AID ufferer are being addre ed, and the importance attributed to olidary organization and to the mobilization of voluntary group are placing the nece ity for complementing and u taining uch ervice-providing group on the public agenda. Already, the e tabli hment and con olidation of advocacy organization concerned with the way in which the epidemic i being confronted have added to the panoply of pre-exi ting intere t, ocial movement organization , and voluntary a ociation a new et of actor who e influence may well continue to be felt even after the epidemic i halted. 18 But the organization that have developed thu far may not corre pond to the need of all population . The inner city minoritie among whom the epidemic i attaining particular virulence, for in tance, may be under erviced by organization who e original impetu came from within other commumtle. ocial cienti ts concerned with the organization of American politic , the role of ocial mo ement, and the importance of the voluntary ector in the provi ion of ocial ervice can offer u eful ugge tion on the way in which the AID organization can be upported. Policy i ue are al 0 rai ed a exi ting differentiation in the di tribution of civil libertie and ocial right be orne accentuated. Branche of the federal government, for in tance, have initiated y tematic creening of their per onnel. In 19 5, the Department of Defen e b gan te ting all applicant for entry into the militar er ice. creening wa then extended to all active duty per onnel. creening ha 17 In thi context, holar and a tivi ts have drawn attention to the wa in which publi health measure relating to venereal di ease have been u ed to control pro titution. "Quarantine," write Mu to, "i a re pon e not onl to the a tual mode of tran mi ion, but al 0 to a popular demand to e tabli h a boundary between the kind of person so di e ed and the re peetable people who hope to remain healthy." Mu to (19 6), page 10 . Alo ee Go tin (19 6) , e pecialJ page 7- ,and Brandt (19 7). I An impre ive number of organization ha ari en in the wake of the AID epidemi . Among them are the American Foundation for AID Re ear h (AMFAR), the ay Men' Health etwork. On the Cri i of ew York, and the National AID way in which voluntary ociation can outlive their original purpo e and yet con olidate their organization b developing new goal , ee ill (1957). On the far-rea hing impact of ocial move men as ociated with health, ee i enbaum (19 0); th e a in Levitt & umber (19 5); and Ro enberg (1962); e peeiall page 213-225.


led to a reduction in the population of po ible recruit. Nationally, eropo itivity among applicant average 1.6 per 1,000, but the military ervice are finding that up to 20 per 1,000 recruit applicants from high incidence area are eropo itive.I 9 creening may al 0 affect po ting deci ion , for the military ervice tationed over ea have been perceived a tran mitter of the di ea e. Thu ,allegation that the American armed force have pread AID to the local population have entered into di cu ion regarding the renewal of the Ameri an ba e in the Philippine and have provoked angr polemic in Japan. Concern with con ide ration linked to international relation ha al 0 led the Foreign ervice to creen its per onnel. I n De ember 19 6, the tate Department announced that ate t for HIV eropo itivity would be required of all its emplo ee and their dependent over the age of 1 who are tationed over ea. ropo itive emplo ee -or emplo ee with erop itive dep ndent -would b re tricted to certain po t 0 a to prevent potential damage to foreign relation. And, a ha alread begun to happ n with the armed force , te ting in the Foreign er ice rna have repercu ion on re ruitment p I a well a on the character of the relation that develop between eronegative and erop itive individual. The current epidemic call, then, for critical choice and ha the p tential for provoking ignificant change . From the military to the chool, from pri on to ho pital, from civil right and the enforcement of law to the emplo ment relation hip, from exual more and even the under tanding of exualit to the abilit of people to travel freely both acro and within national boundarie -AID ha exerted or rna n exert a powerful influence. It can al 0 promote innovation, a ociet come to grip with the challenge thi dreadful di ea e po e . It ha led to the formation of new organizational tructure and to new olidaritie. It rna yet lead to new definition of right and obligation , to new under tanding of death and ding, and to new ritual for coping with di ea e. 20 It ha led, and will in all likelihood continue to lead, to new cientific re earch and di coverie .21 Ultimatel its effects will

e In titute of Medicine (19 6a), page 6 . On thi point, ee Mu to (19 6) , pag 115. 21 0 born (19 6) , pag 779-7 2; and a110 (19 7), page 47-56. On th impa t of the AID epidemi on hi torical under tandings of di ea e, ee Ro enberg (19 6). The AID epidemic ha al 0 given new impetu to re earch regarding both xual behavior and I drug abu e. 19



reflect ociety' ability to mar hall the knowledge at it di po al and to generate new type and ource of knowledge in order to limit the pread and the damage of di ea e. The ta k before the ocial cience i complex. It require under tanding to what extent and how thi epidemic will (1) affect the tructure of everyday life, (2) reorder ocial grouping, (3) harden boundarie , (4) redefine gender and ex role, (5) affect life c cle and family cycle, and (6) exert an impact on ba ic ocial in titution , from the health care y tern to the labor market. Without uccumbing to the illu ory appeal of ocial engineering, and aware of the unintended con equence of ocial action, one i prompted to a k: What can be done to curtail thi epidemic and to cope with it effect? The Council' program will eek to provide an wer to thi que tion. 0

Bibliography "AID : What You eed to Know, What You hould Do and What the Government Ha n't Done." U. . Ntw and World Rtport, January 12, 19 7, page 60-70. Bayer, Ronald. "AID , Power and Rea on." TIlL Mil/Hmk Quarttrly, 64:168-1 2, upplement I, 19 6. Ba er, Ronald, arol Levine, and u an M. Wolf. "HI\' Antibody r ening: A Ethical Framework to Evaluate Propo ed Program ." JAMA, (256-613): 176 1774, tober 3, 19 6. Berk, Richard A. " nticipating the Social on quence of AID : A Po ition Paper." TIlL Amtrican ociologist, I (3):3-33, 19 7. Brandt, Alan M. No Magic Bulltt: A ocial History of \'tIImal Distast in tIlL Unittd taU inct J O. ew York: 0 ford niversit Pre ,19 7. armi ha I, nn G. Plague and the Poor in Rtnaissanct Flortnu. Cambridge: ambridge niversit Pre ,19 6. "Declining Rate of Rectal and Pharngeal norrhea among Male -New York Cit ." Morbidity and Mortality Wukl路 Rtport, 33:296-297, 19 4. Dougla , Mary. Purity and DangtT: An Anal is of Conctpts of Pollution and Taboo. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1 6. Emmon, arol-Ann et aI. "P cho ocial Predi tors of Reponed Behavior hange in Homo xual Men at Ri k for AID ." Htalth Education QuarttTly, 13(4): 331-345, Winter 19 6. Fox, Daniel M. "AID and the American Health Polit : The Hi tory and Pro peeLS of a ri i of Authority." TIlL Milbank Quarttrly, 64:7-33, upplement I, 19 6. a110, Roben . "The AID Viru." citnti[1C Amtrican, 256(1):47-56, January 19 7. Go tin , Larry. "The Future of ommunicable Di ea e ontr I: Toward a ew Con ept in Public Health Law." TIlL Illbank QuarttTly, 64:79-96, upplement I, 19 6. Go tin, Larry, and William J. Curran, editors. "AID: ience and Epidemiology." Law, Mtdicint, and Htalth Cart, 14 (5-6): December 19 6. Hammond , J. D., and Arnold F. hapiro, "AID and the Limits VOLUME




of In urability." The Milbank Quarterly, 64: 143-167, upplement I, 19 6. In titute of Medicine- ational Academy of ience. Confronting AIDS: Directions for Public Health, Health Care and Re earch. Wa hington D.C.: National Academy Pre s, 19 6a. In titute of Medicine-National Academy of ience. Mobilizing AgaiT짜t AIDS: The Unfinished tory of a Virus. Cambridge, Ma achu etts: Harvard Universit Pre ,19 6b. Jo eph, Jill G. et al. .. oping with the Threat of AID : An Approach to P ycho ocial A e ment." American P chologist, 39(11):1297-1302, ovember 19 4. Jo eph, Jill G. et al. "Magnitude and Determinant of Behavioral Ri k Reduction: Longitudinal Anal i of a ohort at Ri k for AID ," P 'choloKJ and Health, forthcoming, 19 7. Jo eph, Jill G. et al. "Perceived Ri k of AID : A e ing the Behavioral and P ychosocial Con equence in a Cohort of Ga Men." Mimeo, no date. Ke ler, Ronald C. et al. "Effects of HI Infection: Perceived Health and Clinical tatu on a Cohort at Ri k for AID ." Mimeo, October 19 6. Kotarba, Jo eph A., and Norri C. Lang. "Gay Life t Ie hange and AID: Preventive Health Care." In Dougla A. Feldman and Thoma M. John on, editor, The ocial Dimensions of AIDS. New York: Praeger, 1986, page 127-143. Kuller, Lewi H., and Lawrence A. King ley. "The Epidemic of AID : A Failure of Public Health Policy." The Milbank Q!.Ulrterly, 64:56-7 , upplement I, 19 6. Lei hman, K. "Hetero exual , and AID : The Second tage of the Epidemic." The Atlantic, 259(2):39-5 , February 19 7. Levine, Carol et al. "AID : Public Health and Civil Libertie ." Hastings Cmter Report, ptcial UPPWnt1lt. December 19 6. Levitt, Judith Walzer, and Ronald L. umber, editors. ickne and Health in America: Readings in the History of Medicine and Public Health. Madi on: Univer ity of Wiscon in Pre ,19 5. Mc eill, William H. Plagues and People. Garden Cit: Anchor Pre ,1976. Mu to, David F. "Quarantine and the Problem of AID ." The Milbank Q!.Ulrterly, 64:56-117, Supplement I, 19 6. elkin, Dorothy. "AID and the ocial ience: Review of U eful Knowledge and Re earch Need ." Review of Infectious Diseases, 9(5):9 ~9 6, eptember-October 19 7. Ni enbaum, tephen. ex, Diet and Debility in Jaclcsonian America:



ylvester Graham and Health Reform. We tport, Connecticut: Greenwood Pre ,19 O. Oppenheimer, Gerard M., and Robert A. Padgug. "AID: The Ri k to In urer , the Threat to Equity." Hasting Center Report, October 19 6, page 18-22. o born, June E. "The AID Epidemic: An Overview of the ience." NtUJ England Journal of Medici,u, March 20, 19 6, page 779-7 2. Reiman, Arnold . et al. "AID: The Emerging Ethical Dilemma ." Hastings Center Report, ptcial upplnnt1!t, (15-4) Augu t, 19 5. Roger, Martha F., and Walter W. William . "AID in Black and Hi pani : Implication for Prevention." Issues in cience and Tech1lO10KJ, pring 19 7, page 9-94. Ro enberg, harle E. The Cholera Years: The United tate in 1832, 1849, and 1866. niversity of Chicago Pre ,1962. Ro enberg, harle E. "Di ea e and Social Order in merica: Perception and Expectation ." The Milbank QtUlrterly, 64:34-55, upplementl, 19 6. itov ky, Anne A. and M. Cline. "Medical Care Co t of Patients with AID in an Franci 0." JAMA, 256(3):3107-3109, December 12, 19 6. " elf-Reported Behavioral hange among Homo exual and Bi exual Men- an Franci co." Morbidity and Mortality Wulcly Report, 34 (40). Atlanta: Centers for Di ea e ontrol, 19 5. Reprinted in JAMA, 254:2537-253 , 19 5; al 0 in Helen M. ole and George D. Lunberg, editors, AID from the Beginning. Chicago: American Medical A ociation, 19 6, page 31-32. ill , David L. The Volunteers: Means and Ends in a National Organization. New York: Free Pre ,1957; Arno Pre ,19 O. inger, Eleanor, There a F. Rogers, and Mary orcoran. "The Poll - A Report." Public Opinion Q!.larterly, 51, Winter 19 7. In pre. tarT, Paul. The ocial TransfonTUltion of American Medicine. ew York: Ba ic Book, 19 2. Thomas E., and Daniel M. Fox. "An Exploratory tudy of the Co t of Treating Patients with AID in elected Ho pita! in Metropolitan ew York." Unpubli hed paper. Walkowitz, Judith R. Prostitution and Victorian ocitty: Womt1I, Class, and the tate. Cambridge: Cambridge Univer it Pre , 19 O.


A World With No Color Line A research agenda by Reynolds Farley and Walter R. Allen¡ BLACK LIFE IN THI COUNTRY ha alway been characterized by an existence on the periphery. Black American were denied the mo t fundamental human rights; indeed, the Supreme Court' 1857 Dred Scott decision proclaimed that black po essed "no rights which white were bound to re pect." The result has been a pattern of sy tematic underdevelopment. Although the mo t oppre ive aspects of black ubjugation have been eliminated, the legacy remains. The legacy i evident in the per i tent racial inequities in educational achievement, family structure, occupational attainment, pattern of unemployment, income levels, re idential egregation, and the distribution of wealth. Continuing di crimination, together with accumulated di advantage, u tain black deprivation. After a wide-ranging tudy of the urban rebellion during the 1960 , the Kerner Commi ion concluded that "our nation i moving toward two ocietie, one black, one white- eparate and unequal."1 Our findings upport thi conclusion to a large extent. Detailed examination of empirical data how that for the majority of black American life continue to be experienced a "eparate and unequal." The ba ic finding from this tudy of race differences in ocial and economic tatu are ummarized below. The e finding reveal area of con iderable gain a well a areas of considerable 10 . Black American continue to be ub tantially di advantaged relative to white in thi country. Since 1940, death rate have fallen for both race . The decline have been lightly greater for blacks, but there i till a major racial di crepancy in • Reynold Farley i a re earch ienti t at the Population tudie Center, University of Michigan, and a member of the Council' Committee for Re earch on the 19 0 Cen u . ~ alter R. Allen i a profe or of sociology at the Center for Afro-American and African tudie, University of Mi higan. Thi article i adapted from the last chapter of their book, The Color Line and the Quality of Life in America ( ew York: Ru sell age Foundation, 19 7). C Ru ell age Foundation 19 7. Thi book i one of a ponsored by the Council' erie of cen u monograph Committee for Re earch on the 19 0 en u , chaired by Charle F. We toff, Princeton Univer ity. See page 5 , below, for a fuller de ription of the book. 1 U.S. ational Advi ory omm' ion on Civil Di order . Report of the National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders. New York: Bantam Book, 1968, page 1.


mortality ince white live about ix year longer than blacks. Racial differences in mortality are much smaller among women than among men; early in the next century, the life span of black women may equal that of white women. However, at current rates uch a convergence will not occur among men until well after 2050, if at all. Birth rate ro e rapidly among both race between 1940 and the late 1950 . Since that time, birth have fallen at a imilar rate for both race. everthele, the fertility level of black remains about 30 per cent higher than that of white . The race are becoming increasingly di tinct as regard the timing of childbearing and the marital tatu of mother . White women become mother at later age, while black women concentrate their childbearing in their teen and early 20 . The shift toward a higher proportion of birth "out of wedlock" i evident among both race but i much more pronounced among black . About 60 per cent of black children compared with 12 per cent of white children are delivered to unmarried women. On all indicator of marital and family tatu, we find that both races are moving away from a traditional pattern of early marriage, fertility within marriage, and the rearing of children by both parents. The hifts have been much greater among blacks, and racial difference in the proportion of young women who are married, the proportion of adult women who are wives, and the proportion of children living with both parents have grown larger. A minority of black children now live with a father. In term of chool enrollment and years of chooling completed, racial difference have narrowed ub tantially ince 1940. The racial gap in attainment ha certainly not been eliminated but a continuation of recent trend offer hope that young blacks will oon complete a many year of chooling a white. In the 1970, racial difference on tandardized te ts of academic achievement narrowed lightly, but black youth continue to core lower on the e te ts than white youth. Our tudy recounts dramatic change in the spatial di tribution of black . During the 1940 , 1950 , and 1960 there wa a sub tantial flow of black migrants from the outh to the orth and We t. The migrants tended to have had fewer years of chooling than VOLUME




native-born black; a a result, they held Ie pre tigiou job and had lower earning . In the 1970 , we find evidence of a mode t tream of black migrants from the North into the outh. They tended to be better educated and thu held better job and earned more than native-born black in either the North or the South. Indeed, the e black migrants to the South compared favorably with the native white population of the outh. In the 1970s-for the fir t time-there wa a ub tantial migration of black from central citie into the uburban ring. In many urban area the black population i declining in the central city, but growing rapidly in the uburb. However, levels of black-white re idential egregation declined little in the 1970 . De pite black economic advance , more liberal white attitude , and federal fair hou ing laws, blacks and white remain egregated. Re idential egregation continue to affect racial pattern in chool. In many mall and medium- ized metropolitan area ,public chool have been racially integrated. But in the large metropolitan area where the majority of black live-little progres has been made toward integrating elementary and econdary chool. In many large citie black and white tudents are a egregrated now a they were before the Brown v. Board of Education ruling. With regard to the labor force participation of men, rate are down for both race but the decline has been much greater among black. For the fir t time in the nation's hi tory a ub tantial percentage of adult black men are neither working nor looking for a job. In 1985, 13 per cent of black men aged 35 to 44 were not participating in the labor force; for white men, the figure wa 5 per cent. 2 Labor force participation rate have ri en for both black and white women, but more rapidly among white in recent time . In the pa t the proportion of women employed wa greater for black women than for white . This ha changed and white women have "caught up" with black women with regard to labor force participation. Black women, however, have per i tently higher unemployment rate. ince the mid-1950 , black male unemployment rate have been double tho e of white men, and there i no evidence ugge ting convergence on thi important indicator of tatu . Both economic expan ion and civil rights law have failed to lower the two-to-one ratio. In term of employment, there i no evidence of any improvement in the tatus of black men. 2 u. . Bureau of Labor tati ti . EmplO')'1nmt and Earnings, 33:( I), January 19 6, table 4.


19 7

If we look at the occupations of employed men, we find a very clear and eemingly uninterrupted trend toward a racial convergence. Black men are clearly moving into the more attractive and higher-paying occupations once re erved for white . De pite the obvious and ub tantial progre , however, racial difference in the occupational di tribution of men remain large. When the occupation of employed women are con idered, we find that a recently a 1960 black women were concentrated in dome tic ervice. There has been a major upgrading of the job held by black women, and their occupational di tribution are al 0 converging with tho e of white women. In 19 0, black male and female each had occupational di tributions that were imilar to tho e achieved by white in 1950, a full generation earlier. The alarie of employed black men have risen more rapidly than tho e of white men, although black continue to earn Ie than whites. Model that eek to mea ure racial di crimination in pay rates sugge t that there ha been a ub tantial decline ince 1940. Neverthele ,black men in 19 5 could expect to earn about 16 per cent per hour Ie s than o ten ibly imilar white men, a difference orne would accept as a rough e timate of the co t of racial di crimination in pay rate . Black women, on the other hand, have attained earning parity with white women. It may be di advantageou to be a woman in today' labor market, but black women are not at any more of a di advantage than white women. ince the turn of thi century, commentator have pointed to the economic ucce of black We t Indian migrants in the United State and taken thi a evidence of an ab ence of racial di crimination. They believe that the achievements of the We t Indian demon trate what black may accompli h. Our anal is of thi topic reveal that foreign-born black in 19 0 were ju tone tep ahead of native-born black on mea ure of educational attainment, occupational achievement, and earning. In particular, the economic characteri tic and achievements of foreign-born black re emble tho e of native-born black much more than they re emble tho e of white . Mo t claim concerning the achievement of We t Indian black in the United State are greatly exaggerated.

A research agenda for the future The comprehen ive tudy of racial tratification require the development of more ophi ticated models. uch model need to incorporate a focu on societal-level factor (for example, economic rela41

tion, ocial hi tory), middle-range or in titutionalThe racial hierarchy theorie e pou ed by the level factor (for example, labor force participation, Social Darwini t nine decade ago no longer have family tructure), and individual-level factor (for cholarly defender , but their legacy per i ts. Our example, attitude , behavioral pattern ). The com- ociety continue to accept tereotype that stre plex of variable and relation hip implicated in black limitation in ability and kills. A DuBoi racial tratification mu t be y tematically outlined. ob erved, blacks in the United tate view themIdeally, any empirical inve tigation of the e relation- elve ,in orne degree, through the tereotype that hould employ a multi method approach, white believe. 4 Quite likely, many young blacks till ship collecting data from government tati tics, ocial receive, and accept, the me sage from the chool and from the media which ay that they maya pire to surveys, and field tudie. In recommending the y tematic tudy of racial become mu ician or athlete , but that they hould stratification, we al 0 ugge t an agenda for re earch. not hope to become mathematician or phy ician . Thi Ii t i not a ambitiou a the 100-year re earch plan for the tudy of black life and culture outlined Middle-range research issues by W. E. B. DuBoi during hi year at Atlanta Racial tratification and health in the United tate. Univer ity (1897-1910).!I The re earch topics we ugge t are neither exhau tive nor detailed. They The y tern of health care i changing rapidly; indicate avenue for inquiry into the connection therefore, it is important to examine how the delivery of medical er ice will be influenced by between race and economics in American life. racial tratification. For in tance, how will the per i tent racial gap in morbidity and mortality be Macrolevel research issues affected by the current co t containment movement Racial division of labor in the changing U.S. economy. in health care or by the increa ing privatization of There i need for y tematic, empirical tudy of health care delivery? Racial tratification and education. Educational attaintran ition in the economic ba e of the United State a related to patterns of racial tratification. Specifi- ment i one of the primary determinants of economic cally, the nation' economy ha hifted from a focu and occupational mobility in America. Re earch that on labor-inten ive, agricultural activitie to capital- examines the relation hip of racial tratification to inten ive, ervice-financial activitie. We need re- educational option , experience , and outcome is earch that detail the changing pattern of black required. A vitally important que tion a ks whether partic-ipation in the American econom and the educational opportunitie , the quality of chooling, and return for inve tment in chooling are compaimplication of the e change. North-South economic relations and racial stratifuation rable for black and white . More y tematic racial in America. The world' industrialized, developed compari on of educational progre are required. northern hemi phere ha tended to dominate recent Race and family organization in America. The organieconomic relation hip with the preindustrial, devel- zation of black family life ha changed dramatically oping outhern hemi phere. Coincidentally or not, over the pa t 25 year , and a continuation of current the North-South pi it roughly corre pond to a trend will lead to even larger racial difference in white-nonwhite di tinction. Re earch hould inve ti- family tructure. Re earch is needed to clarify the gate the contribution that the United State make to ource and implications of change in black family the operation of the international ystem of racial tructure. For example, how i the trend toward stratification. What implication doe this stratifica- female-headed hou ehold related to trend in black male unemployment, female employment, and black tion system hold for dome tic racial i sue ? The ideology of racial stratifuation. Around the end of marginality in the labor market? Do changes in black the 19th century in the United State, and earlier in family organization pre age similar changes for Europe, a sy tematic doctrine ju tifying racial strati- white and other race/ethnic groups? Occupational mobility and race in America. We fication cry tallized and wa institutionalized. The process by which the e ideologie were articulated, de cribed two important, but contradictory, trends in propagated, and accepted into the ociety's mores the working live of blacks. A group of highly educated blacks has found unprecedented opportushould be investigated.

'w. E. B. DuBoi . The Autobiography of W.E.B. DuBois. New York: International Publi hers. 1968. page 205-35. 42

• W. E. B. DuBoi . The Souls of Black FolJc. New York: Fawcett World Library. 1961 (1903). page 17. VOLUME




nities for occupational mobility, but at the ame time a sizable proportion of the black population is mired in crisis-level unemployment. Re earch needs to be conducted into the pattern of employment opportunitie available to blacks. What are the implications of chronic exclusion from the labor force for the work attitudes of young blacks (many of whom have never been gainfully employed) as they enter adulthood? What combination of factors explain the chronic unemployment of black males since World War II and the faster expansion of white female employment relative to that of black females? The "black underclass" and American society. The "black underclass" resemble the rural, Southern peasantry-white and black-of the late 19th century and early 20th century. Re earch is needed to describe the characteristics of thi population. How are they connected to the larger society? What proportion are able to break the vicious cycle of poverty? How do they do o? Is the "black underclass" only the most visible egment of a larger multiracial "underclas " in America? Racial egregation of residence in America. Re idential segregation ha per isted stubbornly in this country. Research hould focus on the complex of attitude and economic relationships through which this racial isolation i maintained. It is important to as e s the difference that racial segregation makes in opportunities for schooling, interracial contact, employment, and quality of life is ues. Black community institutions. Research is required to determine the organization and operation of indigenous institutions in the black community. To what extent are these institutions engaged in "self-help" activities? How was the place of the e institution in black community life redefined because of desegregation? What has been the effect of the changing role of black community institutions on community cohesion? Are low-income, urban black communities in fact disorganized-that is, lacking in in titutional organization?

Microlevel issues Racial and economic attitudes in America. Racial attitudes in this society have changed considerably but, given the per istent economic deprivation of blacks, it is impos ible to eparate racial attitudes from economic attitudes. It become critical, therefore, to examine attitudes in the United States concerning affirmative action, social welfare policie , and the distribution of wealth. What trategie, if any, are considered appropriate approache to the DECEMBER


red res of historic patterns of di crimination? I there a national con ensus on what repre ents rea onable or tolerable levels of deprivation? To what extent are economically deprived people considered to be re ponsible for their own tatus? Black self-concept, motivation, and cultural values. Life as a di criminated minority affects the elf-concept, motivation, attitude , and cultural values of black Americans. Yet for all of the theorizing about the e i sue ,systematic studies of black self-esteem, achievement, motivation, attitude , and values are limited. More research along these line is indicated if we are to clarify the human respon e to oppre sion and di crimination.

Race and social policy in America Confronted with the e research findings, the perceptive policy analyst que tions their meaning for ocial policy. William Wil on has uccinctly summarized the two major competing ideological perspectives from the area of race and social policy in American scholarship: Liberal have traditionally empha ized how the plight of di advantaged group can be related to the problem of the broader ociety, including problem of di crimination and ocial cia subordination.... Con ervative , in contra t, have traditionally tre ed the importance of different group value and competitive re ource in accounting for the experience of the di advantaged. s

He then goes on to relate these different ideological positions to predictable differences in the ocial policy recommendations advanced by the competing group. The different schools of thought result in profoundly different propo als for the resolution of economic and social inequities by race in the society. Writing from the "con ervative" position, Charles Murray recommends: The propo ed program . . . con i ts of crapping the entire federal welfare and income- upport tructure for workingaged per on, including AFDC, Medicaid, Food Stamp, Unemployment In urance, Workman' Compen ation, ub idized hou ing, di ability in urance and the re t. It would leave the working-aged per on with no recour e whatsoever except the job market, family member ,friend and public or private locally funded service .6 5 William Juliu Wil on. "Cycle of Deprivation and the ndercla Debate." Social Service Review, 59:541-559, December 19 5. 6 Charle Murray. Losing Ground: American Social Policy: 1950-1980. New York: Ba ic Book, 19 4, page 227-228.


Writing from the oppo ing "liberal" view, Robert Hill conclude: Our tudy ha indicated that the popular generalization "government program have not worked for mo t poor blacks" need to be ignificantly modified. . . . M t government program for the poor have only reached a fra tion of tho e who needed them. But the record how that tho e low-income black who were rea hed did benefit from mo t of them. . . . A major priority hould be given to providing meaningful employment opportunitie to female-headed familie before they go on welfare or are in dire economi traits. Secondl • all government policie . . . hould be periodically evaluated and modified to en ure that they are complementing and reinforcing family trength. 7

Thi dialogue lead u to acknowledge the conflicting interpretation , policy pre cription , and po ition for which our finding potentially provide upport. On the one hand, tho e who are 0 inclined might look into these finding and ee evidence of black failing. As the argument goe , black American have not achieved economic parity despite constitutional guarantees banning di crimination and greater acce to opportunitie in education, the labor market, and hou ing becau e of counterculturalthat i, "culture of poverty" -values, which are elf-limiting. For rea on of lazine or pride, black men refu e to accept the job that are available, and black women are content to rely on AFDC to support them elves and their illegitimate children. The very fabric of the black community ha come apart, and black life has become socially disorganized. Thi line of argument conclude by uggesting that until black American adopt the value of the majority regarding hard work, deferred gratification, frugality, and elf-re pect, they will continue to lag behind. Black Americans have the same chance a other immigrant group to pro per; why must they rely on pecial government favor? To succeed, black Americans need only take advantage of the many opportunitie which our great country offers. Thi argument effectively summarizes the conclusions that many endorse. A contra ting view points to the ab ence of empirical upport for the notion that blacks are lacking in the core value of American culture. Further, thi argument goes, the legacy of thi restrictive ystem persists today under the guise of de facto re idential egregation and racial di crim7 Robert B. Hill. "The Economi Statu of Black American ." In Jame D. WiUiam • editor. TM State of Black America: 1981 . Washington. D.C.: ational Urban League. 1981.


ination in education and employment, with the result that black efforts at elf-improvement and community development continue to be y tematically undermined. The fact that black American were able to manage any progre whatsoever in the face of uch awesome odds is te tament to their determination. It i likely that elements of the black American experience, culture, and character combine with racial di crimination and tratification to effectively account for per istent racial inequalitie in American ociety. However, to sugge t that black American bear major re pon ibility for their own plight i to ignore history and denies the reality of race di crimination. Charles S. Johnson, writing about the bloody racial riot in Chicago in 1919, ob erved: It i important for our white citizen alway to remember that the egroe alone of all our immigrants came to America again t their will b the pedal compelling invitation of the white ; that the in titution of lavery wa introduced. expanded. and maintained in the United State b the white people and for their own benefit; and that they likewi e created the condition that followed emancipation. Our egro problem. therefore. i not of the Negro' making. No group in our population i les re pon ible for its exi tence. But every group i re pon ible for its continuance.

History how that when opportunitie for black advancement became available, black people moved wiftly to take advantage, often at great personal risk and acrifice. The historical record al 0 reveals this ociety' di comfort with sustained black progre , particularly when thi progress re ults in any diminution in the economic status of whites. Thu , the pattern has traditionally been one where "window of opportunity" were promptly clo ed ju t a the gains began to produce significant reductions in black-white economic disparities. The challenge that confronts this country involves the ta k of arriving at conditions that allow blacks and white to live equitably. Clearly we are clo er to uch equality now than we were 30 years ago, yet vast difference persist in the quality of life experienced by American due to racial and economic stratification. In a ociety dedicated to the norm of equality, significant deprivation in the midst of pro perity repre ent a con tant potential for explo ion, since a 0 failed promi e is like a time bomb ticking. Charle S. Johnson. The Negro in Chicago: A Study of Roce &laJions and a Race Riot. University of Chicago Pres. 1922. page XXIII.





New MacArthur Foundation Fellows in International Peace and Security THE COUNCIL'S PROGRAM IN INTERNATIONAL PEACE AND ECURITY TUDlE, e tablished with funds provided by the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, seeks to focu cholarly attention upon the factors which influence nation ' use of violence or its alternative in confronting threats to their ecurity. It eek both to add to cholar hip and to contribute, through innovative re earch, to the pro pects for peace an? the ~volutio~ ~f. an international sy tern in whIch the nghts of mdIVIdual and nation can pro per. The Council' program began with the e tabli hment of di ertation and po tdoctoral fellow hip for training and re earch and ha ince grown to include a erie of re earch planning conference . The e activitie eek to fo ter re earch that challenge e tabli hed a umption about international peace and ecurity. The Committee on International Peace and ecurity Studie -Catherine M. Kelleher, Univer ity of Maryland, chair; McGeorge Bundy, New York Univer ity; Richard A. Falk, Princeton Univer ity; John Lewi Gaddi, Ohio Univer ity; John Kenneth Galbraith, Harvard University; David Holloway, Stanford University; Richard R. el on, Columbia Univer ity; Uwe Nerlich, Science and Politic Foundation (Ebenhau en); Michel Ok enberg, Univer ity of Michigan; Robert O'Neill, Univer ity of Oxford; Judith V. Reppy, Cornell Univer ity; Gene Sharp, The Albert Ein tein In titution (Cambridge, Mas achusetts); Jeremiah D. Sullivan, Univer ity of Illinois; and Herbert F. York, Univer ity of California, San Diego-voted at its meeting on May 18-19, 1987 to award a total of 630,000 to eight advanced graduate tudents and ix po tdoctoral re earcher for training and re earch. De cription of the project are given below. The committee wa a i ted by a creening committee-Barton J. Bern tein, Stanford Univerity; tephen P. Cohen, Univer ity of Illinoi ; Karen Dawi ha, University of Maryland; Michael W. Doyle, The Johns Hopkin Univer ity; Lynn Rachele Eden, Carnegie Mellon U niver ity; George A. Lopez, Univer ity of Notre Dame; William P. Snyder, Texa A&M University; Stephen W. Van Evera, Harvard Univer ity; and Raimo Vayrynen, University of Helsinki. Richard H. Mo , Richard C. Rockwell, Susan McLaughlin, and Marci Notton on erved a staff for this program. The next application deadline for the Council's DE EMBER


MacArthur Foundation Fellow hip in International Peace and ecurity is October I, 1988. For further information and application material , contact the Program in International Peace and Security Studie at the Council.

Dissertation award s CARY F. FRA ER [Guyana], Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Graduate In titute of International Studie (Gene a). Mr. Fra er will tudy theorie of ocial change. Hi re earch, on U.S. policy toward Third World nationali t movements, will focu on ocial reform movement in the anglophone Caribbean and will al 0 examine the Cuban revolution's impact on the U.S. political y tern. YUFAN HAO [China], Ph.D. candidate in international relation, The John Hopkin Univer ity. Mr. Hao will study American bureaucratic politics and examine the variou dome tic political force that influenced the normalization of U .S.-Chine e relation and the signing of the Taiwan Relations Act in the late 1970 . ELI A D. HARRI [United State ], Ph.D. candidate in international relations, U niver ity of Oxford. M . Harri will train in biochemi try and microbiology. Her re earch will examine everal attempts to control chemical and biological weapon and will attempt to identify the technical and political preconditions e ential to the achievement of multilateral agreements on the po e ion and u e of uch weapons. ILJA K NES [Czech emigre], Ph.D. candidate in political cience, Institute of Political Studie (Pari). Mr. Kunes will tudy trategic i ue in East-West relations and the political and philoophical origins of the "Green" movement in We t Germany. Hi re earch will explore the relationhip between political change and di armament in Central Europe, comparing the "Greens" with di sent movement in Ea tern Europe. DAVID M. ROWE [United State ], Ph.D. candidate in political cience, Duke Univer ity. Mr. Rowe will train in economics, and his re earch will investigate the extent to which economic anction create dome tic political pre sure that cau e anctioned governments to change their policies. 45

CELE TE A. WALLANDER [United tate], Ph.D. Center for the tud of tate and ociety (Bueno Aire ). Mr. Fontana will tudy international and candidate in political cience, Yale Univer it . M . civil-militar relation. Hi re earch will a e the oviet hi tory, politics, and Wallander will tud pro pects for the urvival of civilian government in foreign policy. Her re earch will eek to identify Brazil and Argentina and the potential for military the political goal and con traints that figure in cooperation to enhance mutual ecurity. oviet deci ion-maker' deci ion about where and DIANA M. LIVERMAN [United Kingdom], geographer, when to u e force. MORIO WATANABE [Japan], Ph.D. candidate in Univer ity of Wi con in. M . Liverman will tudy economic and political development and the political cience, Univer ity of Wi con in. Mr. pani h language. Her re earch will addre the Watanabe will tud literary theory; hi re earch will examine the way in which audiovi ual media peace and ecurity implication of environmental were u ed to reinforce public p rception of trend in de eloping countrie , with a focu on threat, fear, and in ecurity by mean of a Mexico. comparative tudy of Japane e and U.S. film THOMA E. SHEETZ [United State ], economi t, The produced during the World War II period. World Bank. Mr. cheetz will tudy defen e SH GUANG ZHANG [China], Ph.D. candidate in hi economic and the in titutional hi tory of the tor, Ohio Univer it. Mr. Zhang will tudy military in Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Paraguay, deterrence theory and U.S. cholar hip on China; and Peru. He will conduct comparative re earch hi re earch will analyze U.S. trategic doctrine and on defen e p nding in the e nation , with the goal practice in the A ian Pacific region, focu ing in of developing model of the opportunity co ts of particular on the role of Taiwan in U. . trategy. defen e expenditure in the e nation . WILLIAM O. WALKER [United State ], hi torian, Ohio We Ie an Univer ity. Mr. Walker will receive Postdoctoral awards training in outhea t A ian tudie and internaorr ATRAN [United State ], anthropologi t, cientional relation . He will do comparative re earch tific Council of the Ethnobiology Laboratory, on U. . narcotic control policy in Sou thea t A ia French ational Mu eum of atural Hi tory. Mr. and Latin America, drawing upon his previou Atran will tudy Middle Ea tern politic and work on Latin America, and will examine the international relation . He will conduct re earch extent to which narcotics control ha been inteon the ocioeconomic roots of the variou local U.S. national ecurity con ideration . grated into political group that play a central role in the conduct of war in the Middle Ea t but who e DAVID C. WRIGHT [United States], phy ici t, Univerity of Penn ylvania. Mr. Wright will tudy internabehavior i hard to control, predict, or under tand, relation, hi tory, and military planning. Hi tional with the goal of providing a conceptual framework re earch will examine the role of cientific input in for attempts to comprehend the e group and the the nuclear arm debate, exploring development implication of their local conflicts for regional and and deployment decision which have a e ed the global ecurity. ANDRE M. Fo TANA [Argentina], political cienti t, validity of cientific and technical arguments. 0







Grants Received by the Council in 1986-87 A summary ot grants received during the year ending June 30, 1987* Bank of Japan Project LINK (Committee on Economic tability and Growth) Exxon Education Foundation General upport of the Council Ford Foundation Award and re earch planning b foreign area re earch committee Program upport (Committee for Public Policy Re earch on Contemporary Hi panic I ue) Program upport (Committee on tate and ocial Structure) Third annual ummer work hop on Soviet and Ea t European economic (joint Committee on oviet Studie ) Work hop on female health care and mortality in outh A ia (joint Committee on outh A ia) Stipend for minority re earch a i tants (Committee on Foreign Policy Studie ) William and Flora Hewlett Foundation Predoctoral fellow hip awarded by foreign area re earch committee Japan Foundation Regional eminar (joint Committee on Japane e Studie ) Japan-United States Friendship Commission Advanced re earch grants (joint Committee on Japane e Studie ) Korea Research Foundation Survey of Korean tudie in the United State (joint Committee on Korean Stu die ) Henry Luce Foundation Program support, for three year (joint Committee on Sou thea t A ia) Conference on Chri tianity in Southea t A ia (joint Committee on Southea t A ia)

15,000 20,000


269,000 100,000










• Doe not include "in-kind" grants; that i, upport of travel, hotel, conference, and imilar expen es received by Council committee in the form of direct payments by other organization . t Repre ents thi year' allocation of revenue from a multipleyear grant.



John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation Fellow hip and program upport (Committee on International Peace 1,777,560t and ecurit tudie) Mansfield Center for Pacific Affairs Conference on indu trializing elite in outhea t A ia (joint Committee on 10,000 outhea t A ia) Andrew W. Mellon Foundation Planning for a U .S.-Soviet program on book pre ervation (joint 9,000 Committee on oviet Studie ) National Endowment for the Humanities Grants awarded by foreign area 960,000t re earch committee Indochina tudie program (joint 1 O,OOOt Committee on outhea t A ia) National Science Foundation Program upport and a conference on longitudinal anal i (Committee on the Survey of Income and Program 119,00 Participation) Christopher Reynolds Foundation Support for peciali t to attend conference on Vietname e diacritic 6,000 (joint Committee on Sou thea t A ia) Rockefeller Foundation International Fellow hip Program for the Development of oviet Studie , for five year (joint Committee on 874,453 Soviet Studie ) Spencer Foundation Program upport, for three year 60,000 (Committee on ew York City) United Nations Project LINK (Committee on Economic 70,000 Stability and Growth) U.S. Department of State Fellow hip and grants, for three year (joint Committee on oviet 780,000 Studies) Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research Conference on agricultural terminology (joint Committee on South A ia) 5,000




Current Activities at the Council T he preservation of books The Council i involved in two activitie related to the pre ervation of book, pamphlet, drawing, and map . (Million of book and other printed material in librarie throughout the United State and the world are in variou tage of di integration becau e of the acidic content of mo t paper pr duced ince the mid-19th centur .) The fir t of the e activitie i the Council' participation on the National Advi ory Council on Pre ervation. David L. ill, the Council' Executive A ociate, erve a it repre entative on the National Council, which i advi ory to the Commi ion on Pre ervation and Acce , an agency e tabli hed with the encouragement and upport of the Council on Librar Re ource . Among its other activitie, the Commi ion i a i ting in the di tribution of a quite wonderful documentary film- low Fires: On the Pre ervation of the Human Record. Reader intere ted in renting or purcha ing thi film, or in learning more about the Commi ion' program, hould write to the Commi ion, do Council on Library Re ource , 17 5 Ma achu etls Avenue, N.W., Wa hington, D. . 20036. The film will be hown on mo t Public Broadca ting tern televi ion tation on Frida , December 11, at 10 p.m. The econd activity in which the ouncil i involved i a program pon ored b the joint committee on Ea tern Europe and oviet tudie. The pre ervation of publi hed and unpubli hed bibliographical material from the viet Union i a particularl vexing problem, e peciall a nearly all viet-period ource are printed on paper with a ver high acidic content. Con equentl , the knowledge generated by oviet ociety during the pa t 70 year i quite literally turning to du t. The problem i a global one a the proce of di integration i occurring in all librarie regard Ie of geographic location: ever copy of a book publi hed in Mo cow in 1926 can be expected to elf-de truct at approximately the arne time. Unle tep are taken to pre erve at lea t one copy, the world cholarly community will find it elf ignificantly poorer in ju t a few year . Therefore, the two joint committee and their Subcommittee on Bibliography, Information Retrieval, and Documentation, are working with various Slavic collection in thi country to a i t in pre ervation efforts. The committee and IREX are 4

exploring various po ibilitie for joint U .s.-Soviet pre ervation activitie a well.

T he cognition and measu rement of pain The recall of ymptom i an important ingredient in variou health status survey . Among all ymptom , pain may be one of the mo t widel experienced. It may al 0 be one of the mo t elu ive to tudy. It ha numerou dimen ion including, for example, inten ity, location, and quality (e.g., burning, aching). It may be sen ory, affective, or cognitive. It may be measured subjectively (e.g., by a king omeone to report hi or her experience of it); objectively (e.g., through a pre ure algometer); or by its operant manife tation (e.g., ob erving the gait of patients or the manner in which a patient ari e from a chair). Pain i e pecially difficult to mea ure becau e an important part of it appear not to be as ociated with damaged tissue. On April9-11, 1987, the Committee on Cognition and Survey Re earch ponsored a work hop on the cognition and mea urement of pain in Re ton, Virginia. The workshop brought together a variety of di ciplinary per pective 0 that each tradition could interrogate the other' under tanding of and mea urement of pain and 0 that efforts currently under consideration by the National Center for Health Stati tic for a national urvey of chronic pain might be enriched. The per pective repre ented at the work hop ranged from clinically-ba ed tudie of population undergoing acute pain (e.g., tho e undergoing chemotherapy) to national urvey of the incidence of pain (e.g., the Nuprin Pain Survey). An article ba ed on thi meeting, "Toward an Epidemiology of Chronic Pain," is currently under preparation by Stephen E. Fienberg and Robert W. Pear on. The article eek to draw on our knowledge of cognitive a pects of urvey re earch and on an under tanding of the trength and weakne e of different urvey de igns to inform current propo al for a national pro pective urvey of chronic pain. The participant at the work hop included: tephen E. Fienberg Dalla Anderson Lawren e Bradley C. Richard Chapman Kathleen Danchik

Carnegie Mellon Univer it , chair ational In titute of Health Bowman Gra hool of Medicine, Duke Univer it Universit of Washington National Center for Health tati ti VOLUME





Robyn M. Dawe Vi ki Dorf Thomas Drury Eric Eich JaredJobe Harold Mer ky Robert W. Pear on Marian 0 terwei Denni Turk Nancy Mathiowetz Judith M. Tanur Dewey Ziegler David Mingay Thomas F. Rudy

Carnegie Mellon Univer ity U.S. Social ecurity Admini tration National Center for Health tati ti University of Briti h olumbia National Center for Health Stati ti London P ychiatric Ho pital (London. Ontario) Social Science Re earch Council In titute of Medicine University of Pittsburgh National Center for Health Service Re earch State University of New York. tony Brook Univer it of Kan a Medical Center National enter for Health tati tic University of Pittsburgh

much larger group of tho e who were planning research or were reviewing other' re earch. The program upported a conference on ocial cience re earch in computing on June 21-26, 1987, at ags Head Conference Center (Nags Head, North Carolina). Special attention wa directed to the theme of learning and communication. The participants included: ara Kie ler Paul Attewell Joel Cooper Brigitte Jordan Bibb Latane Charle Kadu hin John L. King Rob Kling Mark R. Lepper Tom Malone Paula Newberg

Computers and contemporary society The Council has ought during the pa t year to facilitate the development of a social cience undertanding of the ocial and p ychological aspects of computing in contemporary Western society. Almo t daily accounts of computers in the media hail or condemn thi technology and its effects on human interaction and elf perception; only recently has a relatively small number of social scientists ought empirically and systematically to inform the e discusions. The Council's program has sought to assist the development of scholarship on computers by providing a forum in which cholars may exchange and critique this recent and ongoing work. During the pa t year, the Council's program ought to nurture the development of the small community of tho e who eek to (1) use computers as a window through which to ob erve fundamental issues in the social ciences (e.g., learning motivation, the ocial context of communication) and (2) use concepts and theories in the ocial sciences to understand the role, function, and con equences of computers for individuals, organizations, and social and economic processes. The scholars the Council sought to bring together are those who join an interest in its practical consequences to an interest in the more fundamental social and behavioral theories and concepts that the study of computers helps illuminate. The program placed an emphasis on bringing together those who were conducting empirical re earch on these questions, as contrasted to a DECEMBER


Roy Pea Robert W. Pearson Jame B. Rule Lee Sproull Lucy A. Such man

Carnegie Mellon Universit • chair tate niver ity of New York. tony Brook Princeton niversity Michigan tate niver ity niver ity of North Carolina The Graduate Center. Cit University of New York niversit of California. Irvine niver it of alifornia. Irvine tan ford niversity Ma achu etLS In titute of Technology The John & Mary R. Markle Foundation New York niversity Social ience Re earch Council tate Univer ity of New York. tony Brook Carnegie Mellon Univer ity Xerox Palo Alto Re earch Center (Palo Alto. California)

The role of the interviewer in survey measurement On June 7-9, 1987, the Committee on Cognition and Survey Re earch convened a work hop on the role of the interviewer in urvey mea urement. The goal of the workshop wa to pre ent in a ingle forum different per pective on the effects of the interviewer, the clinician, and the peaker on the respondent' interpretation of que tion , the formulation of answers, and the delivery of responses. Participants at this meeting represented two major approaches: (1) adherents of the tandardization of interview "stimuli" as the preferred procedure for improving the quality of survey data and (2) the "interviews as discour e" tradition, which questions the suppression of conversational norms and rules in the interview (e.g., asking and receiving clarification of the meaning of a que tion, answering que tions with one's own categories rather than tho e provided by the questioner). The workshop sought to identify re earch that could be profitably undertaken to unite these perspectives for the purpose of improving the quality of data on which a considerable body of 49

re earch re ts. In the coming year, the committee hope to a i t participant at the work hop prepare re earch propo al to answer the que tion that aro e. The participants included: Robert M. Grove Robert Krau Herbert H . Clark Elliott Mi hler Paul Biemer Floyd Fowler Nancy Fultz Raymond Gibb

niver it of Michigan, chair olumbia Univer it tan ford niver ity Harvard Medical hool New Mexico tate Universit of Ma achu ens of Michigan of alifornia, anta

am luck berg Robert L. Kahn Jon A. Kro nick Elizabeth F. Loftu David Minga

Princeton Univer ity Unive it 路 of Michigan Ohio tate niver ity Universit of Washington ational Center for Health tati ti Bolt, Beranek, and ewman Labs ( ambridge, Ma sachu ett ) Universit of Wi on in Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (Palo Alto, California) tate Universit of ew York, ton Brook

Livia Polanyi

Nora haeffer Luc A. uchman Judith M. Tanur

Summer seminar on contemporary Soviet culture and society: literature and film in the 1980s The Joint Committee on oviet tudie pon ored a econd eminar on oviet literature and ociety at Yale Univer ity onJul 5-17,19 7. The eminar wa initiated b the ubcommittee on oviet Literature and Popular Culture, chaired b Jeffrey Brook, niver it of Minne ota. Katerina Clark, Yale Univer ity, and Maurice Friedberg, Univer ity of Illinoi , erved a the eminar' codirector. Primary funding wa provided by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation. The eminar brought together 13 junior faculty and two doctoral candidate to participate in a erie of inten ive es ion devoted to recent developments in Soviet literature and film under the new oviet policy of glasno t' (openne ). Each participant delivered a paper ba ed on one of the reading or films on a common reading Ii t. Among the major areas di cu ed were nationali m and patrioti m, reevaluating the pa t, ocial ethics and ocial malai e, technological progres , and the individual and the collective. Ms. Clark and Mr. Friedberg were joined on the faculty by Nancy Condee, Wheaton College (Norton, Ma achu ett ); Vera Dunham, Columbia Univer ity; 50

and Vladimir Paduno , Institute for Current World Affair (Hanover, New Hamp hire). Lev IvanovAnnin ky, a well known Soviet critic and editor of the literary journal, Druzhba narodov, joined the eminar a gue t faculty. Franti ek Galan, Georgia In titute of Technology, erved as gue t lecturer. The participants in the eminar were: Carol Avin Adele Barker Yitzhak BTUdn Maria Carl on Emil Drai er Betty Forman Vida John on ata ha Ko1chev ka Ilya Levin igrid McLaughlin Ronald Meyer Jo eph Mozur adya Peterson Carol Ueland Tomas Venc10va

Northwe tern Univer ity University of Arizona Princeton University Univer ity of Kan a Hunter College, City Universit ' of New York Harvard Univer ity Tufts Universit Univer ity of ew Mexico Voice of America (Washington. D.C.) University of California. anta Cruz Ardis Pre (Ann Arbor. Michigan) Univer it of uth Alabama Goucher College Columbia Univer ity Yale Universit

Kri tin Antelman erved a


Summer workshop on Soviet and East European economics The Joint Committee on Soviet Studie pon ored its Third Annual ummer Work hop on Soviet and Ea t European Economics in Wa hington, D.C. on Jul 12-23, 19 7. The program wa conducted in cooperation with the Ru ian Area Studie Program of Georgetown Univer ity. Primary funding wa provided by the Ford Foundation. The work hop brought together 21 doctoral candidate and junior faculty member to partlCIpate in a erie of inten ive eminar intended to fo ter and u tain high quality re earch on the economie of the oviet Union and Eastern Europe. A great deal of attention was paid during the work hop to the nexu of politic and economics. Pre entation focu ed upon uch is ue a the politic of economic reform in China, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and the Soviet Union; banking reform; price reform; the internal organization of the indu trial enterpri e; the innovation deci ion; investment trategie ; and worker participation in management. Regional inve tment pattern , re ource allocation in comparative per pective, foreign trade and international economic relation , and multiobjective programming practice were al 0 di cu ed. VOLUME




A number of guest lecturer addre ed the group. Jo eph Berliner, Harvard Univer ity; John Hardt, Library of Congress; Peter Hauslohner, Yale University; Richard Kauzlarich, Office of Policy Planning of the U.S. Department of State; and Andrew Mar hall, Office of the U. S. Secretary of Defen e, di cu ed their research and perspective with workshop participants. In addition, Oleg Bykov, Institute of the World Economy and International Relations (Mo cow); Nikolai Petrakov, Central Economic-Mathematical In titute (Mo cow); and Rair Simonian, Institute of the World Economy and International Relation (Mo cow), shared their views on the continuing economic reform process in the Soviet Union. The participation of Profe or Bykov, Petrakov, and Simionian wa sponsored by the International Reearch & Exchanges Board (IREX). Herbert S. Levine, Univer ity of Pennsylvania, directed the workshop. He was joined on the faculty by Jo ef Brada, University of Arizona; Richard Eric on, Columbia University; Murray Feshbach, Georgetown Univer ity; and Ed A. Hewett, The Brooking Institution (Washington, D.C.). The participants at the workshop were: Michael Alexeev David Bartlett Judy Batt Daniel Berkowiu Cynthia Buckley tuart Brown Deborah Kaple Heidi Kroll Elliot Lieberman Ronald Liebowiu Judith McKinney Mieke Meur Janet Mitchell Michael Murphy Mark Reiman Libor Roucek Randi Ryterman-Taccardi Mark Schaffer Michael pagat Robert White ell Le la Wood

D.C.); and Zhang Yu Yan, Institute of World Economic and Politics, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, ob erved the work hop proceedings. Blair A. Ruble and Regina Smyth served as taff.

Visit by Chinese scholars of South Asia On April 13, 1987 the Council wa vi ited by a even-member delegation of speciali ts on South Asian tudies from the People's Republic of China. Led by Sun Peijun, professor and director, Institute of South A ian Studie , Chine e Academy of the Social Sciences, the delegation met with Toby Alice Volkman, staff as ociate of the Joint Committee on South Asia, to di cuss the Council' role in South A ian studie, the ub tance and organization of South Asian studie in China, and areas of shared concern. Part of a long-term Ford Foundation effort de igned to aid in developing experti e and in building area tudie programs in China, the delegation al 0 attended the annual conference of the As ociation for Asian Studie in Bo ton and vi ited univer ities, farm , foundation , and government agencie . The delegation included:

George Mason Univer ity Universit of alifornia, an Diego Univer ity of Leice ter Columbia Universit University of Michigan Georgetown Univer ity Princeton University University of Texas The John Hopkin University Middlebury ollege Hobart and William Smith College University of Ma sachu etts niver it of Southern California Northwe tern niver ity Univer it of Washington University of ydney Univer ity of Maryland London School of Economi Harvard University William College U. . Department of Commerce

Jeanine Braithwaite, Duke University; Carolyn Duff, Economic Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture; Bozena Leven, The Ford Foundation; Xiao Lian, Institute of Soviet and East European Studies, Chine e Academy of Social Sciences; Kimberly Cox Neuhau er, Center for Strategic and International Studie (Wa hington,

un Peijun (delegation leader), profe sor and director, In titute of outh A ian tudie , Chine e Academy of the Social Science (Beijing) Huang Xingchuan, profe or and re earch fellow, In titute of South A ian tudie, Chine e Academy of the Social Science Yang Ruilin , profe or and research fellow, In titute of South A ian tudie, Chine e Academ of the Social Science Liang Jiejun, as ociate re earch fellow, In titute of Contemporary International Relation (Beijing) Zhao ui heng, a i tant profe or and re earch fellow, In titute of outh A ian Studie , Beijing Univer ity; vi iting scholar, Univer it of California, an Diego Zhu Changli, a sociate research fellow, In titute of outhea t A ian Studie , Yunnan Academy of the Social Science Fang Qian, program officer, In titute of South A ian Studie , Chine e Academy of the Social Science ; vi iting scholar, tan ford University ( ecretary and interpreter) Sidney Greenblatt, National Committee on U.S.-China Relation (escort)

Research workshop on international peace and security studies The Council's Program in International Peace and Security Studies held a re earch workshop to encourage critical thinking about ~ace and security and to stimulate the re-examin~ion of accepted assumptions through re earch un-aertaken from a variety of disciplinary per pectives. The workshop wa held at the Center for Advanced Study in the 51



--------------------------------- -

--- -

Behavioral cience, tanford, California, from July 26 to August 7, 1987, upported with fund from the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation. It wa organized by Richard H. Mo and Richard C. Rockwell, taff of the Council' Program in International Peace and ecurity, and i part of a larger program at the ouncil which eeks to place peace and security i ue on the main tream re earch agenda of the entire ocial cientific community. The work hop provided an opportunity for a diver e group of e tabli hed re earcher from the ocial and behavioral cience to begin to addre i ue related to international peace and ecurity. Participants were encouraged to explore the application of re earch approache which have been found u eful in working on other i ue. Toward thi aim, the work hop wa de igned to give participants a en e of the character and complexity of international ecurity i ue and to provide them with re ource for elf-directed study. Participant were encouraged to develop propo al and idea for further re earch, not to produce fini hed re earch project or reports. In advance of the work hop, participant were a ked to read a diver e et of book, article, and other material intended to familiarize them with a range of ecurity topic and ~ith the way that current re earch addre e the e 1 ue. The work hop began with brief tatements by the participants regarding the specific topics on which they hoped to work during the work hop. An expanded di cu ion of everal of the e topi followed, largel built around linkage that the participant had di covered among everal of the re earch projects they were contemplating. One uch di cu ion focu ed on defen e spending, particularly on the proce e which lead to allocation of fund among and within the branche of the U.S. military a well a the broader question of how the overall level of defen e pending i determined in the United State . Thi led to an extended di cu ion of how one would a e whether uch expenditure increa e ecurity, and whether it i the ecurit of the tate, of civil ociety, or of individuals that i being increa ed by particular expenditure . The question wa then rai ed a to whether the placement of United tates troop and/or weapon in other countrie both increa e the ecurity of the e coun-


trie and decrea e the ecurity of potential adver arie . The wide variety of re earch topic taken up during the econd week included: • the impact of change in governance in Third World countrie on international ecurity • the influence of dome tic political, economic, and ocial factor on the Ie el and mix of military expenditure within a ociety • a formal analy i of the rule of evidence and of methodological practices in ecurity tudie • the po ibility of de eloping a ecurity accounting index or y tern • the relation hip between dome tic politic and perception of threat to national ecurity • everal theoretical and practical i sue related to the verification of arm control agreement • the ecurity implication of interaction between natural (environmental) and ocial phenome~ • the effect of the tructure and genderedne of the language of ecurity tudie on the range of i ue addre ed in thi field • the impact of private and often ecret knowledge held within a narrow circle of experts in ecurity tudie on the outcome of public debates about ecurity policy. The participants included: B~njamin

Benneu, erman literature, niversity of Virginia Richard A. Berk, sociology, Univer ity of California, Lo Angele Margaret M. Bray, economi ,Univer ity of ambridge Lewi F. Carter, sociology, Wa hington tate Univer ity Carol E. ohn, di course analy i, enter for P chological tudie in the Nuclear Age Kathy E. Fergu on, political science, Univer ity of Hawaii Richard E. Feinberg, economi ,Overseas Development ouncil Michael H. Freedman, mathemati ,Universit of alifornia, an Diego Ja k A. Gold tone, ociology, orthwe tern Univer ity Eric . Ma kin, economi ,Harvard University Ha an Minor, Jr., organizational tudie, The Partnership, Inc. Charle E. Nathan on, ociology, University of California, an Diego Roger G. Noll, economi , tanford University ancy M. O'Fallon, phy i ,Univer ity of Chicago Walter W. Powell, ociology, Yale Univer ity all K. Ride, ph i , National Aeronautics and Space Admini tration Donald B. Rubin, tati ti ,Harvard University David C. Unger, hi tory. New fori Timn





Council Personnel Yale U niver ity, from the American Stati tical A 0ciation. Newly-elected to three-year terms a director at-large were Claude Ake, Univer ity of Port HarAt the annual meeting of the American Political court, Alan S. Blinder, Princeton Univer ity, and Ralf Science As ociation, on September 3, 1987, in Dahrendorf, St. Antony's College (Oxford). The following officers were re-elected for 1987-88: Chicago, Pendleton Herring-pre ident of the Council from 1948 through 1968-received the James Hugh T. Patrick, Columbia Univer ity, ch.air ~f the Madi on Award. This is the highest award of the board of director; Richard A. Berk, Umver Ity of A ociation, given every three year to an American California, Lo Angele, vice-chair; Suzanne D. political cientist who has ~ade ~ distingui ~ed Berger, Mas achu etts Institute of Technology, ecscholarly contribution to pohtlcal clence. Prevlou retary; Howard Gardner, Harvard Univer ity, treawinner of the award were Robert A. Dahl (1978), surer; and Ronald J. Peleck, Social Science Re earch Gabriel Almond (1981), and Herbert A. Simon Council, a i tant treasurer. Gardner Lindzey, Cen(19 4). The citation de cribed Mr. Herring as not ter for Advanced Study in the Behavioral cience only a political cientist, an admini trator, and a (Stanford, California), wa elected chair of the re earch entrepreneur, but a a poet a well. Executive Committee and Su anne Hoeber Rudolph, "Di tinguished Americans of the eighteenth ce~- Univer ity of Chicago, was elected chair of the tury," it was noted, "including the one for whom thIS Committee on Problems and Policy. prize i named, would be at home in hi sitting room )( in Princeton and in the adjacent garden." Staff appointment The next day, Mr. Herring delivered the Madi on Rachel Ovryn Rivera joined the Council as a taff Lecture, which he entitled "The Ultimate A et." It a ociate on Augu t 24, 1987; her primary re pon iwill be published in the fall 19~7 i su~ .of PS: the bility will be to erve a taff for the Commit~ee f~r profe ionaljournal of the Amencan Pohtlcal SCIence Public Policy Re earch on Contemporary HI pamc A ociation. Issues. Prior to joining the Council a .presiden.t in 1948, Ms. Ovryn Rivera received a B.A. in p ycholo~ Mr. Herring had been an executIve as OClate at the from York College, City Univer ity of New York, In Carnegie Corporation of New York and had erved 1979. She received a Ph.D. in sociology from the a director of the United Nations Atomic Ener~ Graduate Center, City Univer ity of New York, in Commission Group. Prior to that, he had taught In 1986' the title of her di ertation was "A Que tion of the Department of Government at Harvard Univer- Con ~ience: The Emergence and Development of ity from 1928 to 1946, and had erved a the the Sanctuary Movement in the United State ." ecretary of the School of Public Admini tration She has taught at both Queen College and City during its fir t nine. y~ars. He had also been a College, City Univer ity of New York, an? ha erved director of the CounCIl since 1946 an.d a membe: of a a lecturer in the Department of P ychlatry, Downits Committee on Problem and Pohcy (P&P) Ince tate Medical School. She ha received a National In1942. In fact, he contributed an article to the fir t stitute of Mental Health predoctoral fellowship, a i ue of Items (March 1947), "The Social Science in Woodrow Wil on Charlotte Newcombe Fellow hip, a Modern Society." In 1979, Mr. Herring .receive~ ~he Danforth-Compton Fellowship from the In titute for Charle E. Merriam Award of the Amencan Pohtlcal the Study of World Politics, and a grant from the cience A ociation. Ferry Foundation for dis ertation re earch in Central America, Mexico, and the United State. In 19 6 he wa a Vi iting Scholar in the Chicano Studie ProNew directors and officers gram, University of California, Berkeley. The Committee for Public Policy Re earch on The Council' board of directors, at its meeting on June 9, 1987, elected five new director to replace Contemporary Hi panic I sue is co pon ored with director who e term had expired. Elected for three- the Inter-University Program for Latino Re earch year term as member-directors were Emily Ma~tin, (IUP); Harriett Romo, Univer ity of Texa, erves as The Johns Hopkins University, from the Am~ncan taff from the IUP. The program i funded by a Anthropological A ociation, and Burton H. Singer, grant from the Ford Foundation.

Pendleton Herring receives highest award of the American Political Science Association




Recent Council Publications Contents The African Bourgeoisie: Capitalist Development in Nigeria, Kenya, and the Ivory Coast, edited by Paul M. Lubeck (page 54) African Population and Capitalism: Historical Perspective, edited b Denni D. Cordell and Joel W. Gregory (page 55) Another HaT'T1UJn : New Essays on the Folklore of India, edited b tuart H. Blackburn and A. K.

Dakar, enegal, pon ored by the Joint Committee on African Studie , the Council for Economic and Social Re earch in Africa, and the Environment and ational Development in Africa Program. Boulder, Colorado: Lynne Rienner Publi her, 19 7. Cloth, 30.00.

Since the on et of the tran Itlon to national independence in Africa after World War II , both theori ts and policy maker have debated the Ramanujan (page 56) and potential of indigenou African cia e capacity Changing Boundarie of the Political: E ay on the for extending and deepening capitali t economic Evolving Balance Between the State and ociety, Public development. For mo t ocial cienti t , the critical and Private in Europe, edited b Charle . Maier (page 56) debate ha focu ed on the degree of autonom Child Abuse and Neglect: Bio ocial Dimensions, edited b po ible for indigenou accumulator under the Ri hard J. Gelle and Jane B. Lanca ter (page 57) external tructural con traints impo ed by the capiThe Color Line and the Quality of Life in America, by tali t world economy and the tate y tern. In or~er Reynold Farley and Walter R. Allen (page 58) to advance the debate 0 er whether the determining Conceptuolizing the Household: I ues for Theory and factor affecting the nature of capitali t development Policy in Africa, edited by Jane I. Guyer and in African tate are primarily internal or external, Pauline E. Peter (page 58). Democratizing japan: The Allied Occupation, edited by this volume a e e the role of indigenou accumuRobert E. Ward and akamoto Yo hikazu (page lating cia e and the state in the tran ition to 59) capitali m in three of Black Africa's mo t developed Directory of Europeanist Anthropologists in North America, tate: Nigeria, Kenya, and the Ivory Coa t. compiled by Su an Carol Roger, David D. The book argue that although each of the e three Gilmore, and Meli a Clegg (page 59) tate po e e a di tinct hi tory, each repre ents a Dollars and Dreams: The Changing American Income more generalized proce s of capitalist development. Distribution, by Frank Levy (page 60) Nigeria, for example, reflects the experience of Food, tates, and Peasants: Analy e of the Agrarian Question in the Middle East, edited by Alan Richard re ource-rich, agriculturally diver e and highly pop(page 61) ulated tate that a pire to exerci e regional hegeThe Nationalization of the Social cienee, edited by mony. Kenya i a maller, agricultural exporting tate amuel Z. Klau ner and Victor M. Lidz (page 61) that ha evolved from white- ettler agriculture to Repr!! ion, exilio, y democracia: La cultura uruguaya African control of the rich and productive agricul[Repre ion, Exile, and Democracy: The Culture tural ector. The Ivory Coa t, the final ca e, typifie of Uruguay], edited by aul 0 now ki (page 63) francophone tate that have maintained clo e Social Legislation in the Contemporary Middle East, edited by Laurence O. Michalak and Je wald W. elacu e economic tie with France and remained within the (page 63) franc monetary zone. State, Oil, and Agriculture in Nigeria, edited by Michael The argument for focusing analysis on the J. Watts (page 64) indigenou bourgeoi ie re ts in part upon the role Southeast Asia in the 9th to 14th Centuries, edited by that the capitali t clas e play in the ocial divi ion of David G. Marr and A. C. Milner (page 65) labor and in the proce s of capitali t accumulation. In The State, Religion, and Ethnic Politics: Afghanistan, addition, they play a crucial role either within the Iran, and Pakistan, edited by Ali Banuazizi and Myron Weiner (page 65) state apparatu or in formulating state policy. Finally, at a theoretical level, it i important to understand the way in which the capitali t clas e contribute to explanations for either dynamic and accumulating or tagnating and dependent form of African capitalThe African Bourgeoisie: Capitalist Development i m. In the fir t e ay. Paul Lubeck focu e on the in Nigeria, Kenya, and the Ivory Coast, edited by ue • theory. and method for analyzing the role of Paul M. Lubeck. Paper from a 19 0 conference in 54





through the 1970. This book i the result of a three-year multidi ciplinary international effort ponored by the Joint Committee on African Studie . Although the author come from different chools of thought, a well a from eight different di ciplines, their e ay hare a dynamic approach to demographic change, and all of the authors anchor their analy e in the material ba e of ocial and economic tran formation. Demographic phenomena-fertility, mortality, and migration-are tudied a both independent and dependent variable . Two broad conclusion emerge from the 17 chapter that make up the book. Fir t, contact with Europeans dramatically restructured the logic and the dynamic of African demography; in thi context, Thomas J. Bier teker, Univer it of Southern California, orne African re i ted, other collaborated, and all "Indigenization and the Nigerian Bourgeoi ie: Dependent invented new respon e to the labor demand of Development in an African Context" lavery and coloniali m. Second, the demographic Bonnie Campbell, Univer it of Quebec, "The tate and and re pon es differed markedly in implication Capitali t Development in the Ivory oa t" Tom Forre t, Univer ity of Oxford, " tate Capital, Capitali t different populations and in different time period , Development, and Clas Formation in Nigeria" re ulting in the wide range of fertility, marriage, David H. Groff, Reed College, "When the Kn e Began Wearing mortality, and migration pattern characteri tic of the Hat: Commercial Agriculture and ocial Tran formation Africa today. in A ikas 0, the Ivory Coa t, I 0-1940" An introductory chapter written by the editor Gavin Kitching, Polytechnic of North London, "The Role of a 'ational Bourgeoi ie in the Current Pha e of Capitali t along with Victor Piche of the U niver ity of Montreal de cribe the theoretical framework. The remainder Development: Some Reflection " teven Langdon, International Development Re earch Center of the book is divided into five part. The fir t (Ottawa), "Indu try and Capitali m in Kenya: Contribution to focu e on the demographic characteri tic and a Debate" Paul M. Lubeck, Univer ity of California, Santa Cruz, "The effect of slavery, with one chapter providing an African Bourgeoi ie: Debate, Method, and Units of Analy- overview and com pari on of the local and regional i "; "The Future of the African Bourgeoi ie" impacts of lave exports. Two other chapter are ca e Peter Anyang' Nyong'o, Economi Commi ion for Africa, "The tudies of the Western udan in the late 19th century Development of Agrarian Capitali t Cia e in the Ivory Coa t, and of Kasar Kano (Northern Nigeria) to the Briti h 1945-1975" Okello Oculi, Ahmadu Bello Univer ity, "Green Capitali m in colonial conque t. The contributor and their paper are: igeria"

the African bourgeoi ie. In the econd, Gavin Kitching examine the major theoretical po ition in thi debate. The remaining papers are arranged thematicall . Watt, Groff, and Swain on focus on a pect of the historical development of capitalist cia e in igeria, the Ivory Coa t, and Kenya, re peclively. Oculi and yong'o con ider the agrarian origin of African capitali t clas e , and Bier leker and Campbell examine the role of the tate, in igeria and the Ivory Coa t, respectively. In the final eClion, Forre t, Langdon, and Lubeck con ider the tran ition to indu trial capitali m in Nigeria, Kenya, and in Africa more generally. The contributor and their paper are:

'i ola wain on, niver ityof u ex, "Indigenou Capitali min Po tcolonial Kenya" Mi hael J. Watts, Univer ity of California, Berkeley, "Pea antry, Merchant Capital, and the Colonial tate: Cia in Northern igeria, 1900-1945"

African Population and Capitalism: Historical Perspectives, edited by Denni D. Cordell and Joel W. Gregory. Paper from a May 1985 conference in Montreal pon ored by the Joint Committee on African Studie . Boulder, Colorado: Westview Pres, 1987. Cloth, 38.50. The e ays contained in this collection add historical depth to understandings of demographics and demographic change in Africa, addre sing population i ue from the period of the Atlantic slave trade

Charle Becker, National Center for ientifi Re earch (Pari ), Mamadou Diouf, Univer ity of Dakar, and Mohamed Mbodj, niver it of Dakar, "L'evolution demographique regionale du senegal et du ba in arachidier ( ine- aloum) au vingti~me i~de, 1904-1976" Denni D. Cordell, Southern Methodi t University, "Extracting People from Precapitali t Production: French Equatorial Africa from the 1890 to 1930 " Marc H. Daw on, Union College, "Health, Nutrition, and Population in Central Kenya, I 90-1945" Myron Echenberg, McGill Univer ity, " 'Faire du n~gre': Military A pects of Population Planning in French We t Africa, 1920-1940" Raymond Gervai , Univer ity of Pari VII, "Creating Hunger: Labor and Agricultural Policie in Southern Mo i, 1919-1940" Joel W. Gregory, University of Montreal, and Elia Mandala, Univer ity of Roche ter, "Dimen ion of Conflict: Emigrant Labor from Colonial Malawi and Zambia, 1900-1945" Linda Heywood, Howard University, and John K. Thornton, University of Virginia, "Demography, Production, and Labor: Central Angola, 1890-1950"



Bogumil jew iewicki, Laval University, "Toward a Hi torieal Sociology of Population in Zaire: Propo al for the Analy i of the Demographic Regime" Martin A. Klein, University of Toronto, "The Demography of Slavery in We tern Soudan: The Late Nineteenth Century" Abdullahi Mahadi and J. E. Inikori , Ahmadu Bello University, "Population and Capitalist Development in Precolonial We t Africa: Kasar Kano in the Nineteenth Century" Patrick Manning, Northeastern Univer ity, "Local Ver u Regional Impact of lave Exports on Africa" Lututala Mumpa i, University of Kin hasa, "i.e origine de migration mod erne dan l'ouest du Zaire" jay O'Brien, Lawrence Univer ity, "Differential High Fenility and Demographic Tran ition: Peripheral Capitali m in Sudan" Thoma M. Painter, Social Science Research Council, "Making Migrants: Zarma Peasants in Niger, 1900-1920" Michael P. Proctor, University of the Witwatersrand, "Capital, State, and the African Population of johann burg, 1921-19 0" Meredith Turshen, Rutger Univer ity, "Population Growth and the Deterioration of Health: Mainland Tanzania, 1920-1960"

Another Harmony: New Essays on the Folklore of India, edited by Stuart H. Blackburn and A. K. Ramanujan. Paper from a 1980 conference sponored by the Joint Committee on South Asia. Berkeley: U niver ity of California Pre ,1986. xii + 387 page. Cloth, 42.50. In cholar hip and popular thought, India has usually been identified with its cla ical traditions and culture. But, as the editor of thi volume point out, "there is another harmony, ometimes in counterpoint and ometime autonomous, found in India's folk tradition ." It i thi other harmony that i explored in the e ay in this book, which analyze a variety of genre (myth, songs, epic, game , tale , legends) in everal language (Telugu, Hindi, Tulu, Tamil, and Kannada). Although each tand by itself, collectively the e ay approach Indian folklore from two perspective: its po ition within a complex civilization, and it internal patterning in relation to the immediate ocial and performance context . The relation between orality and literacy, text and performance, and narrative form and ideology are analyzed in a multiplicity of folk traditions. The paper were pre ented at a conference held in Berkeley, California, in 1980, pon ored by the Joint Committee on South A ia and upported by grants from the National Endowment for the Humanities and the Center for South and Southeast Asian Studies at the University of California, Berkeley. Six months later, revi ed papers were discus ed at a 56

conference in My ore, India, arranged by the Central Institute of Indian Language . The papers in thi volume are the outcome of tho e two conference and panel held at meetings of the American Folklore Society and the As ociation for A ian Studies. In addition to the editor' introduction and a elect bibliography of Indian folklore, the paper in the volume include: A. K. Ramanujan, University of Chicago, "Two Realm of Kannada Folklore" Brenda E. F. Beck, University of Briti h Columbia, "Social Dyad in Indic Folktale" David D. Shulman, The Hebrew University of jerusalem, "Battle as Metaphor in Tamil Folk and Clas ieal Tradition " Vel heru Narayana Rao, Univer ity of Wi on in, "Epi and Ideologie: ix Telugu Folk Epi " tuart H. Blackburn, San Franci 0 Univer ity High School, "Performance Marker in an Indian tory-Type" usan S. Wadley, Syracu e University, "The Katlul of Akat: Two Telling" George L. Han, University of California, Berkeley, "The Manikkuravan tory: From Ritual to Entertainment" Peter J. Clau , California State Univer ity, Hayward, "Playing Cenne: The Meaning of a Folk Game" Margaret T . Egnor, Hoban and William Smith College, "Internal Iconicity in Paraiyar 'Crying Song ' "

/ Changing Boundaries of the Political: Essays on the Evolving Balance Between the State and Society, Public and Private in Europe, edited by Charles S. Maier. Publication sponsored by the Joint Committee on We tern Europe. New York: Cambridge Univerity Pre , 1987. ix + 417 pages. Cloth, 49.50; paper, 14.95. Among the most striking transformation that We tern nations have undergone in the last two decade ha been the redefinition of what i political. Whether in the realm of family and welfare policie , budgetary commitment and economic intervention, or international relations, the political agenda ha hifted drastically, incorporating i ue once thought private, and re tricting intervention into phere once deemed public. In thi volume, a group of European and American economist, hi torians, political cientists, and ociologists probe the ways in which the boundaries of the political have changed ince the 1960s in the countries of We tern Europe. Setting the contemporary situation again t it longerterm historical background, the contributor examine the early establishment of the political sphere, the VOLUME




relation hip between religious impulse and political militance, and changing concepts of public and private time under liberal and postliberal regimes. They al 0 treat the shifting balance between traditional political partie and new social movements; examine changing priorities for family policy, public health, and the progre s of re earch; as es to what degree the modern nation- tate has given up or reclaimed its overeign power in the international arena; and di cus the extent to which fi cal choices lead to the expansion or contraction of tate activity. The volume a a whole attempts to go beyond the u ual di ciplinary approache, in order to ask innovative que tion about historical and contemporary developments in We tern politics during the last generation. The contributor to the volume are: Laura Balbo

uzanne D. Berger Gerald D. Feldman John H. Goldthorpe Ellen Immergut Mile Kahler Charle S. Maier Clau Offe Ma imo Paci Jan Pen Ale andro Pizzorno

Paul tarr

Univer ity of Milan and Member of the Chamber of Deputie of the Italian Parliament Massachusetts In titute of Technology Univer ity of California, Berkeley Nuffield College (Oxford) Ma achu etts In titute of Technology University of California, San Diego Harvard Univer ity University of Bielefeld Univer ity of Ancona Universit of Groningen Harvard University and the European University In titute (Florence) Princeton University

group (including biological, behavioral, and social scientists). The committee eek to promote an exchange of concepts, method , and data acro s discipline on a variety of sub tantive is ue on which the group shares intellectual and policy concern . The goals of the committee's program are: to develop conceptualizations of ocial phenomena relying on bio ocial science, to explore the interface between biological and ocial phenomena, and to advance our understanding of human ocial behavior. The fir t volume of the serie, School-Age Pregnancy and Parenthood: Biosocial Dimensions, edited by J. Lanca ter and B. Hamburg (Aldine, 1986) focuse on a particular segment of the life span and the challenge , problem , and opportunitie inherent in parenthood during such an early pha e of the reproductive years. The econd volume, Parenting Acro the Life Span: Biosocial Dimensions, edited by J. Lanca ter, J. Altmann, A. S. Ro i, and L. R. Sherrod (Aldine, 1987) sweep acros the life span, examining parenthood as a commitment involving the entire life cour e. Of particular concern i the impact of modern changes on the timing, di tribution, and inten ity of the commitment to parenthood for both parent and child behavior and experience. The current volume draws on a bio ocial perspective to examine what has become a major concern of modern ociety, both for scientific inquiry and ocial policy formulation: child maltreatment. The contributors to the volume are:


Lawrence Aber Karen G. Braunwald Larry D. Byrd Vicki Carlon John P. Capitano Dante Cicchetti Martin Daly Byron Egeland Jame Garbarino Richard J. Gelle Sarah Blaffer Hrdy Deborah Jacobvitz Sheila Ryan Johan son

Child Abuse and Neglect: Biosocial Dimensions, edited by Richard J. Gelles and Jane B. Lancaster. Ba ed upon a 1984 conference sponsored by the Committee on Bio ocial Perspectives on Parent Jill E. Corbin Behavior and Offspring Development. Hawthorne, New York: Aldine de Gruyter, 1987. Cloth, 42.95; Jane B. Lancaster Carolyn Moore Newberger paper, 21.95. Thi volume i the third in a series sponsored by the Council' Committee on Biosocial Perspectives on Parent Behavior and Offspring Development. The committee, formed in 1980, is a multidisciplinary DECEMBER


Kathleen Papatola Martin Reite Euclid O. Smith Margo Wilson

Barnard College Harvard Univer ity Emory University Harvard University Univer ity of Ma achu etts, Bo ton Mt. Hope Family Center (Roche ter, New York) McMa ter Univer ity University of Minnesota Erikson In titute (Chicago) Univer ity of Rhode I land University of California, Davi Univer ity of Minne ota University of California, Berkeley Ca e We tern Re erve University Univer ity of New Mexico Judge Baker Guidance Center (Bo ton) University of Minne ota University of Colorado School of Medicine Emory University McMa ter University


The Color Line and the Quality of Life in America, by Reynold Farle and Walter R. Allen. A publication in the erie "The Population of the United tate in the 19 0" pon ored by the Council' ommittee for Re earch on the 19 0 Cen u. ew York: Ru ell age Foundation, 19 7. xxiv + 493 page. Cloth, 37.50.

fertility, mortality, and migration; family tructure and educational attainment; employment and earning . The author al 0 refine their de cription of black/white difference to reflect the internal diverity of the black population, comparing native-born and foreign-born black . Above all, Farley and Allen are en itive to the powerful nexu between economic tatu and racial identity in the United State. Thi i the third in a erie of volume aimed at In thi book, the have produced a vital new converting the va t tati tical yield of the 19 0 cen u a e ment of the ocial reality of race for black and into authoritative anal e of major change and white American . trend in American life. The erie wa planned, Reynold Farley i a re earch cienti t at the commi ioned, and monitored by the Committee for Population Studie Center of the U niver ity of Re earch on the 19 0 Cen u , chaired b Charle F. Michigan. Walter R. Allen i profe or of ociology at We toff, Prin eton Univer it .. The committee i the Center for Afro-American and African tudie, o pon ored with the Ru ell age Foundation and Univer ity of Michigan. the Alfred P. I an Foundation, with the collaboraAn adapted ver ion of the ummar chapter of The tion of the U. . Bureau of the en u . Color Line and the Quality of Life in America may be Twent ear ago, racial conflict in Watt ignited a found on page 40-44, above. national conflagration-over 50 citie burned in what might have been the opening allie of a prolonged, violent truggle between black and white . De pite the Miami riot of 19 0, that di maying cenario did Conceptualizing the Household: Issues for Theory not materialize. But the undeniable reality of an and Policy in Africa, edited by Jane I. Guyer and aggrieved bla k minorit pre ents a palpable, per i - Pauline E. Peter. A publication of the Joint tent contradiction to the ideal of an egalitarian Committee on African Studies. Sp cial i ue of ociet . Development and Change, 1 (2), April 19 7. Available I the United tate indeed a nation divided b the from age Publication Ltd., 2 Banner t., London "color line," a W. E. B. Duboi tated? pecificall, ECI OE, United Kingdom. Paper, ÂŁ6.50 ( 9.75) plu what can the late t cen u data tell u about the 70p po tage for individual order, ÂŁ13.00 ( 19.50) impact of race on the live of American today? plu 70p po tage for in titutional order . Clearly and meticulou I, Re nold Farley and Walter Allen compare demographic, ocial, and economic characteri tic of black and white to Thi i ue of Development and Change contain di cover how and to what extent racial identity paper from the Work hop on Conceptualizing the influence opportunitie and outcome in our ociety. Hou ehold: I ue of Theor , Method, and ApplicaThi landmark anal i of the comparative tatu tion, held at Harvard Univer ity in ovember 19 4, of black and white encompa e uch dimension a upported by a grant-in-aid from the Rockefeller Foundation, and pon ored by the Joint ommittee I I The other member of the ommittee are John . Adam , on African Studies' Project on African Agriculture: niversity of Minne ota; Anthony Down, The Brooking Cri i and Tran formation [ ee Items, 41(112):15-16, In titution (' a hington, D. .); Leobardo Felipe Estrada, Univer- June 1987]. it of California, Lo Angele; Re nold Farle, niver it of Paper in thi pecial i ue include: Mi higan; Vi tor R. Fuch, National Bureau of Economic Re earch (tanford, alifomia) ; Bernard R. Gifford, Univer it of alifornia, Berkeley; Paul . lick, Arizona tate Univer ity; idne Gold tein , Brown Univer ity; harle V. Hamilton, Columbia niver ity; Tamara K. Hareven, Clark University; Nathan Ke fitz, Harvard Univer it; ora B. Marrett, Univer it of Wi con in; Robert K. Merton, olumbia Univer it ; I abel V. awhill, The Urban In titute (Wa hington, D.C.); William H. Sewell, Univer it of Wi con in; Michael . Teitelbaum, Alfred P. loan Foundation (New York); Jame R. Wetzel, U.S. Bureau of the Cen u ; and Raymond E. Wolfinger, Univer ity of CaJifornia, Berkeley. David L. ill erve as taff.


Jane I. Guyer, Bo ton Univer it ,and Pauline E. Peter, Harvard University, "Introduction" William G. Martin, University of II1inoi , and Mark Beittel, State University of New York, Binghamton, "The Hidden Abode of Reproduction : Conceptualizing Hou ehold in uthern Africa" Colin Murray, University of Liverpool," la ,Gender and the Household: The Development Cycle in Southern Africa" Lynne Brydon, University of Liverpool, "Women in the Famil : Cultural Change in Avatime, Ghana, 1900- 0" Jean-Marc Gastellu, Office de la Recherche Scientifique et VOLUME




Technique Outre-Mer (Pari ). "Matrilineage. Economic Group and Differentiation in We t Africa: A Note" Eleanor R. Fapohunda. Univer ity of Lago. "The udear Household Model in Nigerian Public and Private ector Polic : Colonial Lega and ociopoliticallmplication" Della E. 1cMillan. Univer ity of Kentucky. "Monitoring the Ev lution of Hou ehold Economic tern over Time in Farming y tern Re earch" G. H. R. Chipande. Chancellor ollege. Malawi. "Innovation Adoption Among Female-Headed Hou e: The Ca e of . (ala~i "

Democratizing Japan: The Allied Occupation, edited by Robert E. Ward and Sakamoto Yo hikazu. Paper from a conference pon ored by the Joint Committee on Japane e Studie . Honolulu: Univerity of Hawaii Pre , 19 7. xv + 456 page . Cloth, 29.95. Article on Japan today, implicitly or explicitly, comment in orne way on the United State' role in haping that country after the deva tation of World War II. Mo t writing in the United State empha ize the American contribution . Democratizing Japan: The Allied Occupation, a product of a binational project of Japane e and American cholar, examine the American role and influence in Japan' po twar political structure. The focu i on the political in titution ; article focu primarily on the formulation of the new con titution and the major in titutional and procedural reform. The value of thi book re ides in the interweaving of Japane e and American cholarship and viewpoint on a number of a pects of the Occupation. In thi way, the articles provide both a u eful hi torical de cription and text on contemporary Japane e and American ideal . On balan<:e, the contributor agree that the Occupation wa in many way succe ful, but they differ widely-and in thi book along national line -a to the degree to which it realized its full potential in orne critical respects. The principal is ue that divide them is what has become known as the "rever e course"-the period in 1949-50 when Occupation authorities are alleged to have abandoned or everely modified their earlier efforts to implement democratic reform and to have substituted more con ervative, repressive, discriminatory, and democratically-retrogre ive policie and program. The contributors and their papers are Amakawa Akira, Yokohama National University, "The Making of the Postwar Local Government System"; Hans H. Baerwald, University of California, Los Angele, DECEMBER


"Early SCAP Policy and the Rehabilitation of the Diet"; Theodore H. McNell , Univer ity of Mar land, " 'Induced Revolution': The Policy and Proce of Con titutional Reform in Occupied Japan"; Ota Ma ahide, Univer ity of the Ryukyu , "The U.S. Occupation of Okinawa and Po twar Reform in Japan Proper"; Otake Hideo, Tohoku Univer ity, "The Zaikai under the Occupation: The Formation and Tran formation of Managerial Council "; T. J. Pempel, Cornell Univer ity, "The Tar Baby Target: 'Reform' of the Japane e Bureaucracy"; Su an J. Pharr, Harvard Univer ity, "The Politi of Women' Right"; Sakamoto Yo hikazu, Tokyo Univer ity, "The International Context of the Occupation of Japan"; Kurt Steiner, Stanford Univer ity, "Tht Occupation and the Reform of the Japane e Civil Code"; Takemae Eiji, Tokyo Keizai Univer ity "Early Po twar Reformi t Partie "; Tanaka Hidec Tokyo Univer ity, "The Conflict b tween Two Leg 11 Tradition in Making the Con titution of Japan"; Uchida Kenzo, Ho ei Univer ity, "Japan' Po twar Con ervative Partie "; and Robert E. Ward, Stanfont Univer ity, "Pre urrender Planning: Treatment of the Emperor and Con titutional Change ." The bibliographical project and the ub equent conference on the impact of the Occupation which preceded this publication were pon ored jointly by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science and the Joint Committee on Japane e tudie, with upport from the National Endowment for the Humanities.

Directory of Europeanist Anthropologists in North America, compiled by Susan Carol Roger, David D. Gilmore, and Meli a Clegg. A publication supported by the Joint Committee on We tern Europe. Wa hington, D.C.: American Anthropological A ociation, 1987. vi + 106 pages. Paper, 6.00. In the past decade or two, intere t in European studie has increa ed dramatically among North American anthropologists. This undoubtedly reflects new or renewed attraction within the discipline to the tudy of complex societie, relatively nonexotic cultures, and applied policy issue facing the po tindustrial world. Simultaneously, a growing intere tin anthropology has appeared among scholars in those si ter disciplines which have older and larger niche in European studies. Social history is one obvious, though not unique, example. This directory contains a comprehensive listing of 59

individual holding or working toward a graduate degree in anthropology, ba ed in anada or the United tate, who have an active re earch intere tin Europe. The directory i divided into four ection. The main ection Ii t individual , including information about: doctoral univer it , date of conferral of Ph.D., current addre , geographical or country pecialty(ie), ite() of field re earch, and topical pecialtie . The econd ection contain a elected bibliography, with up to four publication by each indi idual Ii ted in ection one. Thi bibliography provide omewhat more detail about individual re earch intere t than could be specified in the main ection, and i al 0 intended a a tarting point for bibliographie incorporating anthropological material on pecific geographical or topical area . The third ection contain a erie of map howing the approximate location of the re earch ite of the anthropologi t Ii ted in ection one. The final ection include indexe, orting the anthropologi t Ii ted by country focu , European regional focu ,and topical pecialtie. The e indexe rna be u ed to identify individual (with reference to ection one) or literature (with reference to ection two) dealing with particular geographical or topical area. Al 0 included i an index f non-European area in which the e Europeani t anthropologi ts have worked, in order to identify the kind of cro -area experti e being brought to bear on the field.

Dollars and Dreams: The Changing American Income Distribution, b Frank Levy. A publication in the erie "The Populati n of the United tate in the 1980" pon ored b the Council' Committee for Re earch on the 19 0 Cen u. ew York: Ru ell age Foundation, 19 7. ix + 259 page. loth, 27.50.

Thi i the fourth in a erie of volume aimed at converting the va t tati tical ield of the 19 0 cen u into authoritative analy e of major change and trend in American life. The erie wa planned, commi ioned, and monitored b the ommittee for Re ear h on the 19 0 en u , chaired by Charle F. We toff, Princeton Univer ity.1 The committee i I The oth r member of the committe are John . Adam â&#x20AC;˘ Univer it of Minne ota; Anthon Down. The Brooking In titution (Wa hington. D. .); Leobardo Felipe trada. Univerity of alifornia. Lo Angel ; Re nold Farl â&#x20AC;˘ Universit of


pon ored with the Ru ell Sage Foundation and the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, with the collaboration of the U.S. Bureau of the Cen u . At the end of World War II, average family income in the United tate wa 14,0 0 (in today' dollar). For nearly three decade, family income grew teadily, doubling by 1973. Then, with the fir t OPEC oil price increa e, wage uddenly topped growing and productivity faltered. The current average family income i actually no higher than it wa 14 year ago. And during thi period of stagnation, some troubling contention about the American economy have gained wide pread currency-that income inequalitie are becoming more i extreme, for example; that the middle cla vani hing and a permanent undercla i forming; that the ri e of the ervice ector po e a threat to long-term economic tability. What i the truth of the e contentions, and how doe America' po twar economic hi tor help explain today' economic anxietie ? In thi timely and authoritative tudy, Frank Levy probe cen u and other national data to put the current economic ituation into focu . He tie together, vividly and convincingly, uch recent ocial and economic trend a the baby bu t, deficits in Wa hington, ingleparent hou ehold, income growth among the elderly, the ri e of the uburb, and the fall of the teel indu try. The re ulting picture how that while income inequality per se ha changed relatively little ince 1947, we face a new inequality of pro peets, an increa ingly unequal di tribution of the chance to purcha e the middle-cla dream. For cholar, journali t , policy maker, and general reader ,Dollar. and Dreams provide a livel and indi pen able per pective on current American economic life, its roots in the recent pa t, and it implication for the future. Frank Levy, an economi t, i profe or of public affair at the Univer ity of Maryland. Michigan; Victor R. Fuch. National Bureau of Economic Re earch ( tanford. California); Bernard R. ifford. niver it of California. Berkele ; Paul C. Gli k. Arizona tate Universit ; . Hamilton. idne Gold tein. Brown University; harle Columbia Univer it ; Tamara K. Hareven. lark Univer ity; athan Keyfitz. Harvard Universit; ora B. Marrell. niversity of Wi con in; Robert K. Merton. Columbia Univer it ; I abel V. awhill. The rban In titute (Washington. D. .); William H. well. Univer it of Wi con in; Mi hael . Teitelbaum. Alfred P. loan Foundation ( ew York); Jame R.' etzel. .. Bureau of the en u ; and Ra mond E. , olfinger. University of California. Berkele . David L. ill erves as taff. VOL ME




This volume is simultaneou ly three quite different books. It fir t of all contains the initial publication of a 71-page report prepared by the Harvard ociologi t Talcott Par on (1902-79) at the reque t of the Council' Committee on Federal Government and Re earch (1945-1949). Second, it i a historical account of the events that led both to the commi ioning of this report and to its rejection by the Council One of the mo t eriou problems facing the when it was submitted in 1948. Third, it contains a Middle Ea t and orth Africa i the region' growing erie of e ays by contemporary social cienti ts on inability to feed its expanding population. Rapidly the relation hip between the ocial ciences and the escalating demand ha made the area highly depen- federal government. It thus repre ents the fir t dent on food import ; policy initiative intended to publication of an important paper by a major increa e dome tic production have met with mixed American ociologist, an epi ode in the history of the ucce at be t. The contributor to the pre ent ocial ciences, and an examination of one of the volume examine the hi torical origin of tate policies major contemporary policy i sue facing the ocial toward agriculture, recent policy change and their effect on dome tic upply, and the ocial and cience . The volume i edited by Samuel Z. Klausner and political implication of the e hift. Focu ing in particular on the region's large t agricultural econo- Victor M. Lidz, both ociologists at the Univer ity of mie ,contributor analyze Turkey' trong perfor- Penn ylvania. The paragraphs that follow are adapted mance a well a Egypt' weak re pon e to its from the "Introduction" by the editor. The manu cript "Social Science: A Ba ic National agricultural problem . Pricing, inve tment trategie, Re ource" wa buried in 194 . Member of a Social irrigation policie , and the impact of large- cale labor Re earch Council committee, who had Science migration on agricultural ector are di cu ed. The interplay between politic and economic run a a commissioned Talcott Par on to write it, were tunned when they recei ed it. The draft manuscript unifying theme throughout the book. not re pon ive to what they under tood to be the wa The contributor to the volume are: mandate they had given the author. They had expected a document that could persuade lay Harvard University A. To un Ari anli International Food Policy political leader to favor go ernment upport of the Richard H. Adam, Jr. Re ear h In titute ocial cience and Par on' manu cript seemed (Wa hington, D.C.) illuited to that end. Aggravated by their rejection International Food Policy Harold Alderman and bu y with other item on hi profe iona! Re earch In titute (Wa hington, D.C.) agenda, Par on never prepared it for publication. Middle Ea t Technical Haluk Ka nakoglu The i ue which prompted the paper wa now moot. . niver it (Ankara) During the inordinate delay in preparing the report, t. Anton ' College (Oxford) Roger Owen the congre ional attitude toward ocial cience had International Labor mir Radwan crystallized. Social cience would not, initially, be part Organization (Geneva) Univer ity of California, anta Ian Ri hard of the National Science Foundation. Cruz The committee wa correct in judging that the niver it of East Anglia David eddon report wa not appropriate for circulation to political International Center for Kutlu ome1 leader. Par ons' report had been written for Agricultural Re earch in Dry Areas ( leppo) cienti ts, and philo ophicall ophi ticated one , at Hacettepe University uday ner that. The member of the committee failed to appreciate that they had received a major tatement on ocial theory, its relation to empirical ocial re earch, and the potential contribution of ocial cience to the formation of national dome tic and The Nationalization of the Social Sciences, edited by Samuel Z. Klau ner and Victor M. Lidz. Philadel- foreign policy. We call thi book The Nationalization of the Social phia: Univer ity of Penn ylvania Pre ,19 6. xiv + Science in recognition that Par on' document al 0 296 page. Cloth, 34.95.

Food, States, and Peasants: Analyses of the Agrarian Question in the Middle East, edited by Alan Richard . Paper from a conference held in Rome in 1984 pon ored by the Joint Committee on the Near and Middle Ea t. Boulder, Colorado: We tview Pres, 1986. xvii + 282 page. Paper, 27.00.


appealed for a tronger bond between polity and academ in America. Natural and ocial cienti t , newl fulfilled by their part in a world war, would not retreat to mona tic contemplation. A we hall ee, the ocial cience community wa not united regarding the nature of the tate-academy relation. Par on conceived of ocial re earch supported by a new cience agency, offering operational advice for governmental program . Hi Chicago colleague would have ocial cienti t diffu ed throughout government, influencing high policy from nearl e er quarter. The a umed that, in either ca e, the political independence of cholar hip could be maintained without eriou difficulty. cienti t , by and large, had been employed by univer itie, upported by endowments, tate allocation , federal land grant fund, tudent fee and, here and there, a grant from a private foundation. Thi ituation would change a the government a umed a major re pon ibilit for funding the growth of knowledge. The Congre , envi ioning mo tly technical knowledge, wa convinced that cience had proved crucial to victory and would be critical in America' new role a a world power. A period of major government inve tment in the natural and ocial cience followed. Thi book evaluate the relation between politic and cholar hip in the 0 ial cience three decade later. We ha e little to ay about ocial cience contribution to the polit . They have been treated in recent report by the ational cience Foundation and the National Academ of ience. We will a k about the ignificance of the relation for the ocial cience and for the univer itie . After thi review, ocial cienti ts may want to revi e orne term of the relation hip. Thi i a b ok of three citie . We call its major section ew York, ambridge, and Wa hington after the 10 i of the e ents the de cribe. The opening chapter deal with the debate in New York at the ocial cience Re earch ouncil which gave RC' ri e to the Par on report and with the reaction to e ent in the ongre. The text of Par on' hitherto unpubli hed paper follow . The manu cript, a found in Par on' paper and in the file of the ocial cience Re earch Council, wa con idered b Par on to be an earl draft. We have poli hed the draft, checking and completing hi citation and reworking orne opaque and orne cryptic entence. We have tried to be true to Par on' intention a embodied in the draft, alth ugh we cannot know what revi ion he might have made had hi initial effort not received uch a


di couraging reception. The manu cript i followed by a vignette from John W. Rile [currently a con ulting ociologi t in Wa hington, D.C.], eyewitne to the events in ew York and a per onal friend of the Par on e , who wa invited to revi e Par on ' document and eventually produced one of hi own for the Ford Foundation. We then turn to Cambridge to review a fertile event in American ocial cience, the building of the interdi ciplinary ocial relation department at Harvard Univer ity. Par on and hi di tingui hed colleague con tructed a pecial intellectual milieu which i reflected in hi manu cript. Bernard Barber [currently profe or of ociology, Columbia Uni erity] wa Par on' tudent, a were Benton and Miriam John on [currently profe or and a ociate profe or of ociology, Univer ity of Oregon], during tho e exciting time of the etting up of the department. Barber review orne of the origin of Par on' thought. The John on recall the interdi ciplinary culture of the ocial relation group, the milieu in which the general theory of action took hape. Victor Lidz then trace the methodological background of Talcott Par on' work, pointing to ienti ts and philo 0the influence of Harvard' pher of cience, and citing the e idence for Par on' commitment to empirical ocial re earch. The third ection return to developments on the national cene after the ubmi ion of the report. Dael Wolfle [currently profe or emeritu of public affair, Univer it of Wa hington] i the only contributor to have been both in the RC circle and active on the Wa hington cene at that time. A long-time executive ecretar of the American A ociation for the Advancement of cience, he witne ed the truggle around government- cience relation. Gene Lyon [currently profe or of government, Dartmouth College] i the outside ob erver and analy t of the e relation . Henry W. Riecken [currently a con ultant at the Council on Librar Re ource (Wa hington, D.C.)], who had tudied ociology at Harvard, ro e to be the man in charge of ocial cience at the ational Science Foundation. He de cribe the trategie for promoting ocial cience in an envir nment dominated b natural cienti ts. Kenneth Prewitt [currentl vice pre ident for program, The Rockefeller Foundation], writing from the vantage point of the then pre ident of the Council, enlarge the cope of inquiry. He extend it to the many agencie of government that eek out ocial cienti ts to evaluate program mandated b Congre in health,ju tice, tran portation, labor, and o forth. Alex Inkele [currently profe or of VOL ME




sociology. Stanford Univer ity], an acute ob erver of funding relation between government and ocial science throughout thi period, as e es the effects of government upport on the ocial cience a balanced again t the many local ource of influence and upport. Dean Ger tein is the tudy director of the Committee on Ba ic Re earch in the Behavioral and ocial Science, located in the National Re earch Council. He review the 1982 report of the committee, written before he joined its taff, which a e e the relation of ocial cience and go ernment and, quite remarkably, repeats orne of the arguments and recommendation Par on made orne 35 year earlier. The book clo e with an editorial on the nationalization of the ocial cience and judge orne of it effect on cience and on the univer itie . The editor ugge t orne new policie for univer itie and for the ocial cience community.

Brazilian, and Chilean cultural production under recent military regime . The contributor to the volume are: Hugo Achugar Alvaro Barro -Umez Amanda Berenguer Li a Block de Behar Hiber Conteri Juan Corradi Joan Da in Jo ~ Pedro Draz Eduardo Galeano Ed Kaufman Leo Ma liah Carina Perelli Tere a Porzecan ki Juan Rial

Represi6n, exilio, y democracia: La cultura uruguaya [Repre ion, Exile, and Democracy: The Mauricio Ro encof Culture of Uruguay], edited by Saul So now ki. Jorge Ruffinelli aul now ki Paper from a 19 6 work hop pon ored b the Bernardo ubercaseaux Vniver ity of Mar land and the Joint Committee on Martin Wein tein Latin American Studie . College Park: Univer it of Ruben Y~fiez Maryland and Montevideo: Edicione de la Banda Oriental. 363 page . Paper, no price indicated. In a conference held at the Univer it)' Mar land in larch 19 6, Uruguayan intellectual and other scholar met to analyze the effect of repre ion under the Uruguayan military regime on variou kind of cultural activit and the pro pect for cultural renewal under the current democratization. The re ulting volume, RepresiOn, exilio, y democracia: La cuLtura uruguaya, explore the interpla of creativity and repre ion in arti tic work produced b exile, political pri oner , and per on in inxelioarti ts who remained within the country but drew heavily on fanta y to e cape trict official cen or hip. In addition to an introduction by the editor, the book include five ection. The fir t, "Contexts," analyze the political and hi torical feature of the Uruguayan military regime, particularly the role of the political partie in the current redemocratization, the political and ocietal myth that have haped Uruguayan hi tory, and the Ie on to be drawn from the collap e of Uruguayan democracy. Other ection examine "Culture and Power," "Literature and Repre ion," and "The hore of Exile". The volume conclude with comparative tudie of Argentine, DECEMBER


orthwe tern University Montevideo Montevideo Univer idad de la Republica (Montevideo) Montevideo New York niver it ocial ience Re earch Council Univer idad de la Republica (Montevideo) Montevideo The Hebrew niversit of Jeru alem Bruha (Montevideo) niver idad de la Republica (Montevideo) Escuela Universitaria de Servicio Social (Montevideo) Centro de Informaci6n y Estudio del Uruguay (Montevideo) Montevideo niver idad Veracruzana Univer ity of Maryland CE ECA ( antiago) William Patter on College El Galp6n (Montevideo)


Social Legislation in the Contemporary Middle East, edited by Laurence O. Michalak and Je wald W. alacu e. Publication pon ored by the Subcommittee on Law and ocial Structure in the Middle Ea t of the Joint Committee on the Near and Middle Ea t. Berkeley: In titute of International Studie , Univer ity of California, 19 6. xii + 381 page. Paper, 15.50. For at least four millennia, the peoples of the Middle Ea t have had a pecial preoccupation with the law. Relation within and among the region' diver e group have found expre ion in equally diver e law , which were committed to writing earlier and more full than in any other part of the world. Yet de pite the importance of law in the region, its ignificance in Middle Ea tern ociety i not well under tood. Thi volume repre ents an attempt to formulate a plan of action to fo ter new in ights into the way in which law relate to the proce e of ocial 63

differentiation, change, modernization, and development in the Middle East. The author and their paper are: Nermin Abadan-Unat, Ankara Univer ity, "Turki h Migration to Europe and the Middle Ea t: Its Impact on Social tructure and Social Legi lation" Hamid Algar, University of California, Berkeley, "Social Ju ti e in the Ideology and Legi lation of the I lamic Revolution of Iran" Ali E. HiUal De ouki, Cairo Univer ity, "Technology Tran fer and Social tructure in the Arab World" Raymond A. Hinnebu h, College of St. Catherine, "Syria Under the Ba'ath: Social Ideology, Policy, and Practice" uad Jo eph, University of California, Davi , "Ruling Elite and the Young: A Comparison of Iraq and Lebanon" Laurence O. Michalak, University of California, Berkeley, and Je wald W. Salacuse, Fletcher hool of Law and Diplomacy, Tufts University, "Social Legi lation in the Contemporary Middle East: Tool for Development, Tool for Domination" Je wald W. alacuse, Fletcher hool of Law and Diplomacy, Tufts Universit , "Foreign Inve tment and Legi lative Exemption in Egypt: eeded timulu or New Capitulation ?" Jame Socknat, The World Bank, tace Birk , and I mail Serageldin, "International Labor Migration in the Middle Ea t and Nonh Africa: Current and Pro pective Dimen ion , 1975- 5" Jean-Claude Vatin, Centre National de la Recherche cientifique (Pari ), and Centre d 'Etude et de Documentation Economique, Juridique et Sociale (Cairo), "The tate Apparatu and Social Legi lation in the Maghreb" Mira Zu man, an Jo e tate Univer ity and University of California, Berkeley, "Pendulum wings in Land Law and Rural Development Policie in Tuni ia: Hi tory and Con equence "

State, Oil, and Agriculture in Nigeria, edited by Michael J. Watts. Paper from a work hop on agricultural change in Nigeria pon ored by the Joint Committee on African Studie and the In titute of International Studie , Univer ity of California, Berkeley. Berkeley: In titute of International Studie, Univer ity of California, 1987. 327 page. Paper, 16.95.

out a bourgeoi impul e, and an uncaptured pea antry, linked to international forces incapable or unwilling to revolutionize primoridial African production relation, imply reproduce hi torical backwardne s. The other pole of the debate, which might be de cribed a "public ector decon tructioni t," argues that the tate i imultaneou ly an avenue for personal accumulation and a sy tematic blockage of di ciplined national growth. The essay in this volume argue that the proliferation of oil rents generated not 0 much particular change a general ones, and that as a re ult, oil-ba ed accumulation illuminates with particular clarity proce e and change pre ent not only in Nigeria prior to the petroleum era, but al 0 endemic to many other nonoil (or non mineral) exporting African tate. The focu on agriculture, moreover, affords an opportunity for examining everal ba ic i sue . One concern the nature of the agrarian crisis-its character, extent, and effects on particular clas e , region , and localities. A econd major i sue concerns accumulation and the role of the tate. Included here are que tions of macroeconomic performance, the contradictory nature of Nigerian oil-ba ed accumulation a gra ped through an examination of its effects, and the nature of the state formed and con tructed in the process of petrolic accumulation. Two line of inquiry organize the contributions to thi volume. The first focu e on oil-ba ed accumulation and its impact on agriculture both directly (for example, labor migration from the rural area ) and indirectly (that i ,through tate mediation and public in e tment). The second concerns the agrarian que tion. One a pect of the agrarian question i empirical and quantitative; everal of the author contribute directly to the debate over agricultural performance (output of food and export crop, for example) during the oil boom. Another part, however, pertain to the changing ocial relation of production in the country ide a ociated with variou form of tate intervention, pattern of inequality, and form of popular truggle and re i tance. The contributor and their paper are:

The es ay in thi collection addre i ue of agricultural performance and tran formation in Nigeria ince the 1973 oil boom. They are placed in Bjorn Beckman, Ahmadu Bello niversit , "Public Inve tment the context of a major theoretical debate concerning and Agrarian Tran formation in orthern igeria" the per i tence and deepening of poverty in Africa. ara . Berry, Bo ton University, "Oil and the Disappearing Pea antry: Accumulation, Differentiation, and UnderdevelopOne pole in that debate, the "primordial" argument, ment in , e tern Nigeria" a ert that e entially weak African tate, decentralized pea ant economie , and the pre ervation of Paul Clough and Gavin 'illiam , University of Oxford, "Decoding Berg: The World Bank in Rural onhern precapitali t commodity exchange produce a fragile igeria." and chaotic y tern incapable of mobilizing urplu e Loui e Lennihan , Hunter College, Cit Univer ity of ew York, for u tained accumulation. A powerful tate, with"Agricultural Wage Labor in orthern igeria" 64





J. G. de Ca pari, Univer ity of Leiden "Some ote on Relation between Central and Loca1 Government in Ancient Java" Jan Wi eman-Chri tie, niversity of Hull "Negara, Mandala, and De potic State: Image of Early Java" Michael Vickery, Univer ity of Adelaide "Some Remarks on Early tate Formation in Cambodia" John K. Whitmore, Univer ity of Michigan "'Elephants Can Actually wim': Contemporary Chine e View of Late Ly Dai Viet" Keith Taylor, National Univer ity of Singapore "Authority and Legitimacy in 11th Century Vietnam" E. S. Unger, The Au tralian National Univer ity "From M th to Hi tory: Imagined Politie in 14th Century Vietnam" Pierre-Yve Manguin, tcole Fran~i e d'Extreme Orient "Ship hape ocietie: Boat Symboli m and Political Sy tern in In ular Southea t A ia" C. C. Macknight, The Au tralian National University "Changing Perspective in I land Southeast A ia" Southeast Asia in the 9th to 14th Centuries, edited Sri akra Vallibhotama, Silpakorn Univer ity by David G. Marr and A. C. Milner (with an "Political and Cultural Continuitie and Dvaravati ite" introduction by Wang Gungwu). Papers from a Helmut Loof -Wi sowa, The Au tralian National Univer ity conference pon ored by the Joint Committee on "The True and the Corbel Arch in Mainland Southeast A ian Southea t A ia and the Re earch School of Pacific Monumental Architecture" Studie , The Australian National University. Sin- John . Guy, Victoria and Albert Mu eum (London) "Vietname e Cerami and Cultural Identity: Evidence from gapore: In titute of Southea t A ian Studie; the Ly and Tran D nastie " Canberra: The Au tralian National University, 1986. Tran Quoc Vuong, Hanoi Univer ity xviii + 416 pages. Cloth and paper. No price "Tradition , Acculturation, Renovation: The Evolutional Patindicated. tern of Vietname e Culture" Pamela Gutman, Department of Prime Mini ter and Cabinet, Canberra Southea t A ia in the 9th to the 14th centurie was " ymboli m of Kingship in Arakan" a lively place. The region experienced extensive Ian Mabbett, Monash Univer ity trade, bitter war , the ri e and fall of kingdom , the "Buddhi m in Champa" movement of ethnic groups, the construction of Jame J. Fox, The Au tralian National Univer ity "The Ordering of Generation : Change and Continuity in Old impre ive monuments, and profound debate about Javane e Kin hip" religiou i ue. Yet our under tanding of this Claude Jacque, tcole Pratique de Haute ttude complex period rests on fragmentary written source "Source on Economic Activitie in Khmer and Cham Land " and often puzzling archeological material. Of Peter Wor ley, University of Sydney nece ity, the writing of uch hi tory must draw upon " arrative Bas-Relief at Candi urawana" the kill not only of historians, but at 0 of O. W. Wolters, Cornell Univer ity "Po ibilitie for a Reading of the 1293-1357 Period in the anthropologists, archeologists, linguists, and art Vietname e Annal "

Paul Lubeck. Universit of California. Santa Cruz, "I lamic Protest and Oil-Based Capitali m: Agriculture, Rural Linkages. and Urban Popular Movements in Northern Nigeria" Richard Palmer-Jone , University of Oxford, "Irrigation and the Politi of Agricultural Development in Nigeria" Alan Richard, University of California, anta Cruz, "Oil Boom and Agricultural Development: Nigeria in Comparative Perspective" Paul J. Ro, niversity of Minnesota. "Land a a Right to Member hip: Land Tenure Dynami in a Peripheral Area of the Kano Clo - euled Zone" Robert henton, Univer ity of Toronto, "Nigerian Agriculture in Hi torieal Perspective: Development and Cri i , 1900-60" MichaelJ. Watts, niversity of California, Berkeley, "Agriculture and Oil-Based Accumulation: tagnation or Tran formation?"

hi torians. A conference convened in May 1984 at the Au tralian National Univer ity, joindy pon ored by the Re earch School of Pacific Studies and the Joint Committee on Sou thea t A ia, provided an arena for The State, Religion, and Ethnic Politics: Afghanidebating recent re earch, evaluating the tate of the stan, Iran, and Pakistan, edited by Ali Banuazizi and field, and engaging in interdi ciplinary and cro - Myron Weiner. Publication re ulting from a Novemregional discourse. This volume i ba ed on papers ber 1982 conference spon ored by the joint committees on the Near and Middle East and South A ia. pre ented at that conference. Syracu e Univer ity Pre s, 1986. xi + 390 pages. The paper and their author are: Cloth, 35.00.

Hermann Kulke, Univer ity of Heidelberg "The Early and the Imperial Kingdom in Southeast A ian Hi tory" Janice targardt, niver it of Cambridge "Hydraulic Works and South Ea t A ian Politie " DE EMBER


In no region of the world have changes in religion and ethnic identity had a greater impact on political life than in the three countrie that are the ubject of 65

this volume. The book examines the changing relationship of the state, religion, and ethnicity in three contiguous, non-Arab Muslim countrie in Southwest Asia. Each country has experienced a major political upheaval in the la t two decades: the 1979 revolution in Iran, the 1979 Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, and the 1971 partition of Pakistan. In Iran, the Pahlavi regime ought for more than half a century to build its foundations and its claim to legitimacy mainly upon a pre-I lamic, Per ian heritage. That endeavor collapsed in a religiouslyinspired popular revolution. In Afghanistan, a Soviet-dominated Afghan state replaced a weak secular, tribal-ba ed regime and has been promoting a Marxist political ideology a a means of creating greater loyalty to the state. In Pakistan, one ethnic group, the Bengalis, successfully tore the Paki tan state in two. A central theme of the book is the importance of ethnolinguistic and religious identities, and the corresponding weakne of nationalism as the basi of civil society in all three countries. To what extent the present ruling elites-the military in Pakistan, the People's Democratic Party in Afghani tan, and the clerical establishment in Iran-will succeed in their efforts to create strong state in societies where political institutions do not cut across diverse

religious, ethnic, and cia s divi ions is a major question rai ed by this volume. This collection of es ays by anthropologists, hi torians, political cientists, and Islamicists is one of the first attempts to look at the issues of the state, religion, and ethnic politics from a comparative and historical perspective. The contributors to the volume are: hahrough Akhavi Ali Banuazizi Leonard Binder Robert L. Canfield Stephen P. Cohen John L. E po ito Selig S. Harri on

Patricia J. Higgin Nikki R. Keddie Eden Naby Richard S. Newell M. Nazif Shahrani Ali Reza Sheikhole lami Myron Weiner

University of South Carolina Bo ton College Univer ity of California, Lo Angele Wa hington University University of IlIinoi College of the Holy Cro Carnegie Endowment for I nternational Peace (Wa hington, D.C.) tate University of New York, Plattsburgh Univer ity of California, Lo Angele Center for Middle Ea tern Studie , Harvard Univer ity University of Northern Iowa Univer ity of California, Lo Angele Independent re earcher Ma achu etts In titute of Technology





1980 Census Monograph Series A 19 0 Cen u monograph erie called "The Population of the United State in the 1980" ha been commi ioned by the Council' Committee for Re earch on the 19 0 Cen u , chaired b Charle F. \\e toff, Princeton Univer it . Thi erie repre ents an important epi ode in 0cial cience re earch and revive a long tradition of independent cen u analy i . Fir t in 1930, and then again in 1950 and 1960, team of ocial cienti t worked with the U. . Bureau of the Cen u to inve tigate ignificant ocial, economic, and demographic development revealed by the decennial cen u e . The e cen u project produced three landmark erie of tudie , providing a firm foundation and etting a high tandard for the pre ent undertaking. There i , in fact, more than a theoretical continuity between the earlier cen u project and the pre ent one. Like the previou effort, thi new cen u project ha benefited from do e cooperation between the Cen u Bureau and a di tingui hed, interdi ciplinary group of cholar . Like the 1950 and 1960 rePublished WllU .~ I

LON 0, Harvard niver it , and PA L rARR, niver ity Thf Politic of umbers (1987) SlI\". M. BIANCIII, . . Bureau of the Cen u, and DAP .. ' . I' I, niver it of irginia :\mrrican Women in TrallSition (1987) RH.oLDs FARLEY NO WALTER R. LLE niversity of \Ii higan Thf Color Line and thf Quality of Life ill America (19 7) FR. 'K LE:vy, niver ity of Mar land Princeton

Dollar. and Dreams: The Changing American Income Distribution (19 7)

To be Published in Early 1988 .lOll .



niver it of Minne ota

Hou.smg Amfrica in thr 19 0' MICII



\\'IIIH, Princeton

niver it}

Ammcan NfighborhoodJ and Re idmtial Differmtiation J \u .. A. \\U I "NO LARRY L. B MPA s, nive it on i on in American Familie and HOllSl'hold

In Press; To be Published in Mid-1988 FRA K D. Bt.A , Vniver ity of Texa , and MARIA TIFSDA, niver it} of Chicago "The Hi panic Population"


19 7

earch project , re earch on the 1980 cen u wa InItiated by the Council and the Ru ell Sage Foundation. In deciding once again to promote a coordinated program of cen u anal i, Ru ell age and the Council were mindful not only of the evere budgetary retriction impo ed on the Cen u Bureau' own pubIi hing and di emination activitie in the 19 0 , but aloof the extraordinary change that have occurred in 0 many dimen ion of American life over the pa t two decade. The tudie con tituting "The Population of the United tate in the 19 0 " were planned, commi ioned, and monitored b the Committee for Reearch on the 19 0 en u ,a committee pon ored by the Council, the Ru ell age F undation, and the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, with the collaboration of the U.S. Bureau ofthe Cen u . It wa the committee' ta k to elect the main topic for re earch, obtain highly qualified peciali t to carry out that re earch, and provide the tructure nece ary to facilitate coordination among re earcher and with the Cen u Bureau. WILLIAM H . FRF.Y, Univer it of 1ichigan, and ALDt ' JR., Brown niver it} " Regional and letropolitan Growth" r ' LEY LIEBFRSON, Univer it of alifornia, Berkele , and MARY . \ 1 fRS, Harvard niver it "Ethnic and Racial Group" LARRY LONG, . . Bureau of the ensus " eographical 10bilit} and 1igration"

In Preparation ALVI L. BEALt., .. Department of gri ulture, and GLEN ' V. F ('l..ITr, niver it of Wiscon in "Rural and mall Town merica" LEl\ . AI, ' ni\'er it of Wi con in "Work in the meri an Econom ." DONALD J. H ERNA Dt.Z, .. Bureau of the en u , and DA\ID E. hER, Deci ion Re our e , Inc. (Washington, D. . ) "Children" M RK R. Rll~.路 SZWHG NO ILLERMI A JAS 0 , niver it} of linnesota " Immigration" JACOB . IE('EL, eorgetown niver ity " ging" . 1 n IIEW . 11'1', nivel it of farland " l':ative mericans" PETER . Xt. 'OS, Ea t-We t Center (Honolulu), HERBERT BARRINGFR, niver it 路 of Hawaii, ROBERI' W. GARDNtR, Ea t-We t enter (Honolulu), and 1ICIIAt.L LEVI " Bureau of the en us "The ian and Pa ific I land Population"



E, NEW YORK, N.Y. 1015

Tlu CounaJ was mcorpoTaUd m 1M late of Illinois, lHcnnbn- 27, 1924, fOT tlu purpost of advancing TtstaTch in tlu oelal cinuts. NongovtTnTlltlltal and mttTduelplmary m natuTt, 1M CounaJ aP/KJmts Ctmlmittus of scholars which suit to achirw tht Council's purpost through tlu gtntTation of ntUJ was and tlu tramang of scholars. Tlu aclnnllt of 1M CounCil aTt suP/KJrUd primarily by grants fTom privatt foundations and govtTnmtnt agroclt . Drrtclors, 19 7-19 : CLA DE AKE, niversity of Pon Harcoun; UZA NE D. ~ERGER, fassachu ens In titute of Technology; RI ItARD A. BERK, University of California, Lo Angele; ALAN S. BLINDER, Prin eton niversit; RA路LF DAItRE DORF, t. Antony' College (Oxford); HOWARD GARDNER, Harvard niversity; E. MAVIS HETHERINGTON, Uni\'ersity of Virginia; ROBERT W. KATES, Brown niversity; GARDNER LINDZEY, Center for niversit; HUGH T. Advanced tud in the Behavioral Science; BEVIS LoNGSTRETIt, Debevoi & Plimpton; EMILY MARTIN, The John Hopkin PATRICK, Columbia University; CONDOLE拢ZZA RICE, tanford niversity; W,LL,AM H. EWELL, JR., University of Mi higan; B RTO H. INGER, Yale Vniver ity; FRANCI X. S TTON, Dobbs Ferry, ew York; FREDERle E. WAKEM ,JR., Social ience Research Council.




This publication is available in Microfomi. University Microfilms I nternational 300 'l;onh Z~b Road . ~P' P R .

nn Arbor. fo.







Items Vol. 41 No.3-4 (1987)  
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