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SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH COUNCIL

VOLUME 41 • NUMBERS 112 • JUNE 1987 605 THIRD AVENUE . NEW YORK, N.Y. 10158

Three New Council Publications . LAW and

THE SOCIAL SCIENCES 11f! POPULAnON

o. 11f!

UNITED STATES IN TIl! I,...

A CcnIw MOfJOIt.pb SuJu

edited by Leon Lipson and Stanton Wheekr

THE POLITICS OF NUMBERS William Alonso

AMERICAN WOMEN IN TRANSmON

.,,4

Paul Starr Editors

Suzanne M. Bianchi and

Daphne Spain

for the Nal/anal Committee for Ru~arch an the 1980 ~nsus

fOlthe National CommiIlU for Research on the 1980 CelUw

RUSSELL SAGE fOUNDATION I RUSSllL SAGE fOUNDAnoN I

NEW YORK

NEW YOU

(see page 3) (see page 2)

(see page 4)

For contents of this issue, see the box on page 2


CONTENTS OF THIS ISSUE

6 II 12

15 I 20

Three New Council Publication -Amnuan Womm an Transition, by Suzanne M. Bian hi and Daphn pain (page 2) -Law and tJu ooal Clnlet, edited b Leon Lipson and tanton Wheeler (page !J) - TJu PolulCS of Numbers, edited b William Alon 0 and Paul tarr (page 4) -For noti e of other new publi ati ns, see pages 1:'-17 Re earchen' Acce to .. Federal tatisti -Roben W. P~al'Son Plan for the Appointment of a Joint! - pon red Committee on Confidentiality and Data Acces Current Activiti at the Council -28 award made for re arch on international con met (page 12) -Industrializing elite in Southeast A ia (page 12) -Conference reexamine peace and security tudie (page I!J) -Frederic Wakeman awarded Leven n prize (page 14) Oth r Recent Council Publication Fellow hip and Grants Offered in 19 7Fellow hip and Grants warded in 1986- 7

American Women in Transition, by Suzanne M. Bianchi and Daphne Spain. A publication in the eries "The Population of the United State in the 19 0" pon ored by the Council' Committee for Re earch on the 19 0 Cen us. New York: Ru ell Sage Foundation, 1986. xxii + 2 6 page . Cloth, 32.50; paper, 14.95. This is the fir t in a erie of volume aimed at converting the va t tatistical yield of the 19 0 cen u into authoritative analy e of major change and trends in American life. The serie wa planned, commissioned, and monitored by the Committee for Re earch on the 1980 Cen us, chaired by Charle F. We toff, Princeton University. I The committee i I The other members of the committee are John . Adam , Univer ity of Minne ota; Anthony Down, The Brooking In titution (Wa hington, D.C.); Leobardo Felipe Estrada, Univerity of California, Lo Angele; Reynold Farley, University of Michigan; Victor R. Fuch, National Bureau of Economic Re earch ( tanford, California); Bernard R. Gifford, Univer ity of California, Berkeley; Paul C. Glick, Arizona State University; idne Gold tein, Brown University; Charle V. Hamilton, Columbia Univer it ; Tamara K. Hareven, Clark University; Nathan Keyfitz, Harvard University; Cora B. Marrett, Univer ity of Wiscon in; Robert K. Merton, Columbia University; Isabel V. awhill, The Urban In titute (Washington, D.C.); William H. Sewel\, University of Wi on in; Michael S. Teitelbaum, Alfred P.

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cospon ored with the Rus ell Sage Foundation and the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, with the collabora路 tion of the U.S Bureau of the Censu . This volume traces women's transition from the private domains of marriage and family life to the more public domain of higher education and paid employment. Fertility is at a historic low, while women' educational attainment and labor force participation are at an all-time high. The e trend are the hallmark of an industrialized society and thus omewhat predictable. Yet the timing of the hift is important. In the 20 year between the 1960 and 19 0 cen u e, the average number of children per American woman declined from over three to fewer than two (below replacement level), the proportion of women with a college degree doubled, and the proportion of women in the labor force increa ed dramatically. The greate t change in labor force participation took place among women with chilo dren: In 1960, very few wive with children were in the labor force; by the early 19 0 , one-half of wives with pre choolers and over three-fifth of wive with chool-age children were working outside the home. From both ociety's and the individual's tand路 point, the structure of the family and the labor market have changed. Families are smaller and demand for child care are greater than they were in the pa t. Some traditionally male occupation are increa ingly female. Greater participation in the labor force has re ulted in different expectation and demands by women, which in turn have produced efforts at ocial change. The women's movement of the 1960 gave birth to the Equal Rights Amendment legi lation of the 1970, but the ERA had been defeated by the time this book was completed in 1985. Previous eries of Cen us monograph have not included a eparate volume on women. A wide variety of data for women were available in monograph on the family, education, and the labor force, but not until 1980 were changes in women's roles con idered sufficiently important to warrant the introduction of a specialized volume. Indeed, in the pa t, a woman' arena was primarily in the home and wa almo t ynonymous with "marriage and the

Sloan Foundation (New York); James R. Wetzel, U.S. Bureau of the Cen u ; and Raymond E. Wolfinger, University of California, Berkeley. David L. Sill serves as tafT. VOLUME

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family." But extensive ocial changes have taken place between the monographs written after the 1940 censu and today; much of that change occurred since the la t monographs ba ed on the 1960 censu were published. This book summarizes the major demographic and social changes for women in the po t-World War II period and pre ents them in one integrated reference work. The monograph is organized around the theme of women' tran ition from the private spheres of home and family to the more public spheres of education and work for pay. Chapter 1 through 3 review change in marital tatus, fertility, and household living arrangements, documenting the trend toward delayed marriage, higher divorce rates, lower and later fertility, and greater independence in living arrangements. These chapters cover the roles of wife, mother, and caregiver traditionally held by women. They show that the vast majority of women continue to marry and have children, but do so at later ages than they did in the past. Partly due to delayed marriage and higher divorce rate , more women are maintaining their own households now. While chapter 1 and 2 show upport for continued commitment to marriage and the family, chapter 3 challenges the assumption that most women are cared for by others, first by their fathers and then by their husbands. The increase in the proportion of households maintained by women reflects today's more independent lifestyles. These changes in living arrangements set the stage for chapters 4, 5, and 6, which focus on the increa ingly public roles women are playing by attending college, participating in the labor force, and earning a living. Historically, women have had higher rates of high chool graduation than men, but lower rates of college enrollment and completion. Women have now caught up with men in college enrollment rates and continue their progress in earning degrees (although completion rates are still lower than men's). Partly due to greater educational attainment, women's labor force participation rates have increased dramatically in the past 20 years. Changes in education and the labor force, however, have been more significant than changes in earnings: Women continue to earn considerably less than men, and this earnings difference has a particularly harsh impact on hou eholds in which women are the primary earners. Chapter 7 and 8 examine the outcome of the overlap between women's private and public roles by reviewing the relationship between household living arrangements, income, and poverty and between JUNE

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fertility and labor force participation. The concluding chapter speculates on the balance truck by women in their attempt to integrate private and public roles. The authors say "speculate" becau e the census data which form the core of this book do not address ociological or psychological correlate of the demographic changes summarized. The framework focuse on transition and balance: The ubtitle of the book could be "The Balancing Act" to reflect the challenge of competing roles that women face today.

Law and the Social Sciences, edited by Leon Lip on and Stanton Wheeler. Prepared by the Committee on Law and Social Science (1974-84). New York: Rus ell Sage Foundation, 1987. viii + 752 page. Cloth, 42.50. The Council's Committee on Law and Social Science (1974-84) became convinced that the time wa at hand for an a e sment of re earch in law and the ocial science .1 Although this volume is in a formal en e a committee product, in a larger sen e it is the product of a generation of cholar -mo tly social cientists and law profe ors-who believe that the perspectives, data, and methods of the social sciences are e ential to a better under tanding of the law. The enterprise of law and social cience that is reflected in the e pages is an outgrowth of the enormous expansion of the ocial and behavioral sciences that took place in the 1950 and afterward in the United States, building on wartime and postwar research and training. That general movement brought new funding for social re earch through the establishment of the National Institute of Mental Health and the social science division of the National Science Foundation. It was also marked by a period in which private philanthropy, most notably the Ford Foundation, made ignificant grants for large- cale social research (the most prominent result in law-andsociety work being the jury studies made by Harry Kalven, Jr., Hans Zeisel, and their colleague ). There are many signs of the field's institutionalization. There has been a consistent flow of funding specifically for work in law and ocial science since at 1 The members of the Committee on Law and Social Science were Leon Lipson. Yale University (chairman); Phoebe C. Ell wonh, Stanford University; Lawrence M. Friedman. Stanford University; Marc Galanter. University of Wiscon in; ally Falk Moore. Harvard University; Nelson W. Pol by, University of California. Berkeley; Philip Selznick. Univer ity of California, Berkeley; and Stanton Wheeler. Yale University. David L. Sill served as staff.

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lea t the late 1950 , when the Council-with upport from the Ford Foundation-began to give postdoctoral grants for re earch on American governmental and legal processes. The program ultimately became the respon ibility of a new Council Committee on Governmental and Legal Proce ses (1964-72). In the early 1960 , the Ru ell Sage Foundation began to devote a major portion of its re ources to the law-and- ociety field. Beginning in the early 1960 and continuing for over a decade, Ru ell Sage funding provided the principal re ource for training and re earch in law and the ocial ciences. Also important wa the development of a new program in in law and ocial cience at the ational Science Foundation ( SF). The NSF had been funding ba ic re earch in the ocial cience for many years, but it had never developed a specific program to upport re earch in law and ocial cience. In 1972, uch a program wa initiated, along the line of other NSF programs: the screening and selection of re earch propo al through a ystem of peer review and the award of re earch grants to succe ful applicants. Although the total budget i mall (around 1 million a year), it provide a ba is for the continuity of re earch and of re earch interests. Tho e receiving awards include anthropologi ts, economists, political cienti ts, p ychologi ts, and ociologi ts, along with tho e trained primarily in law. Other patterns of upport have been institutionalized in a number of European countrie : for example, at variou Max Planck in titute in Germany and at the Centre for Socio-Legal tudie at Oxford. The growth of the enterpri e is al 0 reflected in the birth of as ociation and journal devoted pecifically to interdi ciplinary concern. In the United State, the Law and Society A ociation repre ent a large portion of thi intere t. The a ociation' annual meetings are attended by lawyer a well a by ocial cienti ts. The Law & Society Review, the official organ of the a ociation, ha been in exi tence for over 15 year. A trategically important role wa played aloin the late 1960s and early 1970 by the Council on Law-Related Studies under the leader hip of David F. Cavers, who before moving from Duke to Harvard had been active in founding Law & Contemporary Problems. David C. Caver encouraged and, through the Council on Law-Related Studie , took much of the initiative and provided the fund that led to the formation of the Committee on Law and Social cience. The preparation of this book wa upported by a grant to the Council from the Law and Social 4

Science Program of the National Science Foundation. Leon Lipson and Stanton Wheeler, both of Yale Univer ity, edited the book and wrote the introduction. The chapters and their authors are as follow : Legal Y tem of the World: An Introductory Guide to Clas ification, Typological Interpretation. and Bibliographical Resource

ally Falk Moore Harvard University

Law and Normative Order

Richard D. Schwartz yracuse Univer ity

Law and the Economic Order

Edmund W. Kitch University of Virginia

Adjudication, Litigation, and Related Phenomena

Marc Galanter Univer ity of Wi con in

Legi lation

David R. Mayhew Yale University

Implementation and Enforcement of Law

Jeffrey L. Jowell University of London

Puni hment and Deterrence: Theory, Re earch, and Penal Policy

Jack P. Gibb Vanderbilt University

Lawyer

Richard L. Abel University of California. Lo Angele

Private Government

tewart Macaulay University of Wiscon in

Acce to Ju tice: Citizen Parti ipation and the American Legal Order

Au tin D. arat Amher t College

ocial Science in Legal Deci ion-Making

Method for the Empirical tudy of Law

Phoebe C. Ell worth and Juliu G. Getman Stanford University and Yale University hari Seidman Diamond University of IlJinoi , Chicago

The Politics of Numbers, edited by William Alon 0 and Paul Starr. A publication in the erie "The Population of the United States in the 1980s" pon ored by the Council's Committee for Re earch on the 1980 Cen u. New York: Rus ell Sage Foundation, 1987. 480 page. Cloth, 37.50; paper, 18.95. Thi i the econd in a erie of volume planned, commi ioned, and monitored by the Committee for Re earch on the 1980 Censu , chaired by Charle F. VOLUME

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Westoff, Princeton University.' The committee is cosponsored with the Russell Sage Foundation and the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, with the collaboration of the U.S. Bureau of the Census. The chapter in this volume were initially prepared for a conference on "The Political Economy of ational Statistics," held in Washington on October 1~15, 1983. The conference was sponsored by the Social Science Research Council's Committee for Research on the 1980 Census. The conference was chaired by William Alonso, Harvard University, and Paul Starr, Princeton University. They edited the book and wrote the "Introduction," from which the following paragraphs are taken. A central tenet of this book is that statistics cannot be constructed on purely technical grounds alone but require choice that ultimately turn on considerations of purpo e and policy. The point is well illustrated by the three chapters in Part I, The Politics of Economic Measurement. In the first, Raymond Vernon [Harvard Univer ity] first looks at the competing views of tati tic held by professional government statisticians, political leaders and policy makers, and academic ocial cientists. He then considers three cases-comparative figures on economic growth, productivity, and military expenditures-that illustrate the policy choices that inevitably must be made in con tructing statistical information. Christopher Jencks [Northwe tern University] examines the choice in the measurement of income, and asks why official stati tic of family income in the United States in the 1970 continued to be reported in a highly mi leading fa hion when the deficiencies were well known. Mark Perlman [University of Pittsburgh] examine the development of the national income account and finds that the policy interests of Keyne ian economists were critical in shaping the tructure of the accounts in the United States. In the United States as well as Western Europe, the censu ha been the subject of particularly open and trenuou political conflict in the la t decade. Part II, The Politic of Population Mea urement, begin with a chapter by Margo Conk [University of Wisconsin] on the hi torical roots of the controver ies that erupted over the 1980 U.S. census. William Peter en [Carmel, California] takes a broad look at the hi tory and nature of di pute over the definition and mea urement of ethnicity, and Nathan Keyfitz [Harvard Univer ity] examine the political and

social aspects of the inexact art of population forecasting. The constitutional mandate for a census grew primarily out of the need to apportion seats in the House of Representatives and the Electoral College. The functions of government statistics have since expanded, but they continue to be tied closely to the demands of democratic government. Part I II, Statistics and Democratic Politics, deals with those connections. Kenneth Prewitt [The Rockefeller Foundation] puts the problems in the context of democratic theory and argues that, despite its limitations, the nation's number system has become vital to pursuing two e ential goals of a democratic polity: accountability and the representation of diverse intere ts. Steven Kelman [Harvard University] takes up similar themes in providing an explanation for an apparent conundrum: why the federal government in the nineteenth century produced elaborate statistics at a time when theories of minimal government prevailed. Why did Americans make an exception of tati tical inquirie , some of which involved intrusive que tions by government about private activities? Kelman rejects an explanation offered by microeconomic theory, which emphasizes the use of government to overcome problems of market failure, and cite historical evidence to argue that statistics were sought for their use in informing political debate, confirming national identity, and securing group recognition. In the final chapter in Part III, Abigail Thernstrom [Lexington, Massachusetts] offers a omewhat darker view of the use of statistics. She also focu es on an issue relevant to democratic practice-the as urance of minority repre entation-and suggests that statistical tests have served as a form of camouflage for changing political objectives in the enforcement of voting rights over the past two decade . Among their many functions, stati tics al 0 mediate the re olution of conflict. In Part IV, Statistics and American Federali m, three chapter deal with the interplay of statistics and the various level of government in the United State. Richard P. Nathan [Princeton Univer ity] analyzes the "politics of printouts": the u e of statistical formulae to distribute federal aid and the resulting political burden im po ed on the statistics and tatistical agencie. Judith de Neufville [Univer ity of California, Berkeley] looks at the effect on local statistical practice of changing federal policy, particularly the hift from categorical programs to revenue- haring and block grants, which create different demand for data. She empha izes the difficulties of local governments in I For a ro ter of committee members. ee footnote 1. page 2. above. coping with statistical needs, in part becau e of local

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"dependency in stati tical production" and federal greatly altering the mode of tatistical production cutback , but al 0 becau e of the di tinctive problem and di tribution. In Part V, The ew Political of tati tical politic and policymaking at the local Economy of Statistics, Jo eph W. Duncan [Dun & level. Looking in the oppo ite direction-that i , Brad treet (New York)] look at the implication of from center to periphery-Judith Gruber [Univer ity new computer technology and the changing co ts of California, Berkeley] and Janet We is [Univer ity and methods of producing, analyzing, and di emiof Michigan] identify problems in national stati tic nating data. He defend the increasing role of that derive, in part, from the fragmentation of power private industry, which the Reagan admini tration among the tate and localitie . They argue that the now encourage a a mean of cutting back federal efforts to create a Common Core of Data for national tati tical commitments. In the final chapter of the education tati tics failed becau e of the difficultie volume, Paul Starr [Princeton Univer ity] and Ro of overcoming the dis per ed authority for chooling in the federal sy tem and becau e of a lack of political Cor on [Harvard Univer ity] provide an analy i of con en u about how to mea ure education. The the ri e of the private tati tical ervice indu try and di couraging re ult i a public tati tical ystem with its relation to government. They take a critical view limited relevance to the vital problems of public of the privatization of public data, suggesting that it threaten ome democratic political values of fundapolicy. ew technological and political development are mental importance.

Researchers' Access to U.S. Federal Statistics by Robert W. Pearson· DURING THE LA T 20 YEAR , a considerable body of benefit ociety's ability to under tand its people and re earch in the ocial cience ha benefited from in titution . Several factor currently threaten continued redata collected by U.S. federal tatistical agencie . Students of criminology, labor economics, and public earch acce s to the e tatistics: policy, to name but a few uch fields, rely heavily on • Sophisticated and more widely available computhe e tati tics. On the whole, the relation hip of the tational and analytical technologies make it ea ier ocial cience to the federal tatistical system ha to breach the anonymity of the individual and contributed to their mutual development and promin titutions who are the ubjects of publidyise to continue to do o. pon ored surveys and administrative records. ome u er of the e data, however, now fear that • The creation and accumulation of large and the very technologie that facilitate their acce to detailed microdata rue both in government and in them are combining with other force that threaten bu ine s-increa ingly longitudinal in de ignmake the unique "signature" of individual record thi acce . Thi is taking place at a time when the increa ingly difficult to di gui e prior to their availability of more detailed data would greatly di tribution without al 0 degrading the cientific value of the data. Similarly, the increasing po sibil• The author, a political cienti t, i a taff a ociate at the ity of linking discrete data files makes the po sible Council and a vi iting a istam profe or in the Department of di closure of the identity of individual records Political Science at Columbia University for the 1986-19 7 easier in principle; this may al 0 contribute to an academi year. The Council' Committee on the urvey of increasing su picion among the public that the e Income and Program Participation convened, on ovember 21-22, 19 5, a conference on acce to public data to con ider record have indeed been linked. how the re earch and tati tical communitie might improve (or, • A heightened nervousne on the part of tho e at a minimum, not further reduce) re archers' acce to who collect these data that the technology, the publicly-coUected data while at the same time protecting the of record , and the alleged growth in public detail confidentiality of these record . The committee asked Mr. concern about privacy and confidentiality will Pearson to draw inference from the conference discu ion and dimini h the public's trust and cooperation with prepare a conference report. Thi article i based on that report. 6

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these data collection programs. As a result, the quality and u efulness of the data the~ elves will decline as will the ability of the agencIes to fulfill their missions.

member of Congre s feared that such a center would hold altogether too much information about people who e privacy would be greatly threatened (see U.S. Congre s 1965). . The issue of researchers' access to pubhclyU.S. federal statistical agencie (and similar agencollected data is of cour e part of a general concern cies in other Western industrial countries) are throughout ociety for privacy and confidentiality. reexamining their policies (or their interpretatio? of The e emotionally charged-but indeed real-conexisting statutes) toward the release of pubhclycerns often overwhelm the more limited i ue of collected microdata for the purpo e of re earch. whether and how such data can be made available to They voice concern that the factor noted above researchers. A constellation of clo ely related but place increasing pre ure on their agencies to reduce different issue complicate the di cu sion of how the amount and nature of the information they acce s and confidentiality might both be realized. For release. Controversie urrounding the collection of example, mo t of the recent U.S. federal tatutes data by Project Metropolitan in Stockholm in 19~6 concerning privacy and confidentiality that affect this and the public opposition to the May 1987 ce~sus In acce s were de igned to curb administrative-not the Federal Republic of Germany have contrIbuted re earcher '-abuse of these records. And a great to a renewed focus on the e long tanding concerns. deal of the current literature on ethical and legal The concern for protecting the confidentiality of i ues in survey research concerns the protection of responses to public surveys has been w.it~ us f~r s~me researcher' records from judicial, administrative, time. In the United States, exphclt guldehnes and legislative inquiry rather than the protection of concerning the confidentiality of records were issued these records from researchers (cf. Boruch & Cecil to enumerators for the Bureau of the Census in 1979; Dahmann & Sasfy 1982; Knerr 1976; and 1840, and a concern for the disclosure of the name Nelson & Hedrick 1983). of manufacturers from statistical tables was recognized as early a 1910 (Eckler 1972). More contemporary concerns for the e and relat~~ issues. are Criteria for releasing data: "acceptable echoed in such programs as the CouncIl s Co~mJttee disclosure risk" on the Pre ervation and U e of EconomIc Data In U.S. statistical agencies, access to data is (196~5), the Privacy Protection Study Commissi?~ governed by different laws, rules, and regulations (1974-77), and the National ~e~earch Counc~ s including, for example, Title 13 ?f the U.S. C~de, Panel on Privacy and ConfidentIalIty as Factors In the Privacy Act of 1974, the PublIc Health ServIces Survey Re earch (1976-79). Act as amended in 1974, the Controlled Sub tance The Council's Committee on the Use and Pre erAct, and Section 524(a) of the Crime Control Act of vation of Economic Data, for example, was charged 1973. Because of the decentralized and federated with encouraging improvements in the way in which nature of institutional re ponsibilitie , it is generally U.S. federal agencies made available to re earchers the ca e that access to the e data is governed by the their rich-but largely underutilized- urveys and difficult-to-measure concept of "acceptable di cloadministrative records. The emerging computer sure risk." technologies of the late 1950s and early 1960 "Acceptable disclosure ri k" is the ~p~ellation ~or permitted such records to be more easily s~or~d, the subjective as essment made by tatIstIcal agencIes distributed, and analyzed. In an attempt to capltahze concerning what data to relea e-if any-in what on these technologies, the existence of these data form to whom (i.e., including other statistical bases, and the promise they hold for improving our agencies as well as researchers outside of the agency). understanding of important contemporary social and The perceived disclosure or "reidentification" risks economic issues, the committee's chairman, Richard are a function of such characteristics as geographic Ruggles, Yale University, proposed the establishment detail, sample size, population distributions (e.g., of an national data center. The purpo es of the "outliers" are more easily identifiable), and the ability proposed center included the assembly, preparation, to link a file's records to other data. Especially and distribution of such data for research. But the troublesome are data for which disclosure risks may proposal foundered in Congress as a result of a deep be high for a very small-but nonetheless imporconcern that such a center could not adequately tant-subset of records (e.g., large firms, wealthy protect the confidentiality of the e records. Some individuals). The sensitivity (or innocuousness) of the JUNE

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information also plays a role in the concern for "u er friend lines " (i.e., some disguised data require special research competences to analyze).} di closure ri k. Acceptable di clo ure risks are calculated neither • Important data collecting agencies such as the U.S. Bureau of the Census and the Internal Revenue Service easily nor preci ely, but uch agencie as the U.S. Bureau of the Cen u and the Internal Revenue are likely to continue to make ad hoc decisions in judging Service often require (or interpret the laws that whether particular data sets or their information are to be govern the relea e of uch data a requiring) that made availabLe for research conducted outside the agency. Few standards or guidelines for such release are likely to the e risk equal zero. Many program officer of the e agencies fear that the reidentification of a be developed and publicized. "Acceptable disclosure risks" wiLL remain dlffuult to quantify with any precision and single record in a file would discredit the entire data collection program, endanger the release of the the locus for deciding "acceptability" will continue to other data to re earchers, and potentially evoke reside with the program officers of data coLlecting agencies. The overwhelming burden of incentives criminal or civil sanction of the agency or individual that released the data; in this ca e, however, orne within these agencie will continue to insist on such relevant tatute require proof that the disclosure discretion in order to protect the agency from unwanted (and unknown) disruptions to its operacaused "adver e effects" and that the agency acted in a manner that was "intentional and willful" (cf. the tions. • The concern with disclosure risk will continue to Privacy Act of 1974). dominate the decision rules of federal statistical agencies Acceptable di clo ure risks are determined nearly to the near exclusion of (I) attempts to calculate benefits to exclusively by the agency that collects or supports the collection of data. The ab ence of clear criteria and the agency or society from (wider) access to the data; (2) a broadly defen ible thre holds of risk help create an recognition that the extensive use of these statistics by the environment in which the uncertainties of future research community has not resuLted in the harmful di closure appear increa ingly larger than the certaindisclosure of the identity of a single record; and (3) the obligations that could and should be demanded of users of ties (convenience, reduced expen e, and diminished such information (and corresponding sanctions against accountability) of limiting or denying access altotheir harmful misuse). gether. It follows from the e premises that the solution to the problem of access and confidentiality lies (1) in a Premises and assumptions concerning the complicated set of issues concerning laws and access and protection of publicly-collected administrative procedures; (2) in statistical and data technical means for reducing disclosure risks while The conditions and criteria for re earchers' contin- maintaining the u efulness of the data for research ued acces to U.S. federal statistics rest upon several purpo es; and (3) in the means by which the ethics and values of democratic systems inform these laws, premises and assumptions: • It may be impossible to protect with absolute assurance practice, and techniques. Moreover, many of these large and analytically rich data sets from someone who, issue are amenable to and would benefit from with considerable resources, sets out to identify an further research on such topics as (1) the theory and individual record. Indeed, the technical fixes which practice of statutes that explicitly recognize the seek to reduce disclo ure risk carry with them obligations (and liabilities) of secondary users of such challenges and incentive for aspiring computer data in exchange for the privilege of access; (2) "hackers" to overcome; experience suggests that institutional mechanisms for making decisions confurther advances in computing abilities inevitably cerning access (e.g., studies of advisory groups who outstrip available techniques for protecting the include personnel and interests in addition to those of the agency collection data); (3) statistical techanonymity of records. Moreover, many procedural and statistical meth- niques for reducing the probability of reidentificaods for reducing the likelihood of reidentification tion; (4) the public's attitude and likely behavior al 0 appear to reduce the usefulne s of the data by toward data collection programs under various levels (1) reducing the detail of the data; (2) limiting one's of research u e; and (5) the differences and ability to augment or link data unobtrusively with other information (and thus reduce respondent I See Boruch & Cecil (1979) for a fuller discu ion of the burden); and (3) reducing the efficiency of data, its benefits of identifiable records and the analytical costs of many analytical flexibility, exploratory capacities, and its procedural and tati tical devices for protecting confidentiality. 8

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imilarities among such concepts as privacy, confidentiality, and anonymity.

An agenda for improving researchers' access to

data

Several research theme are worth additional con ideration. The e theme suggest that it may be po ible to develop a program that seeks simultaneou ly to increa e scholarly access to detailed individuals records while protecting records from harmful reidentification. 1. Statutes and administrative procedures. One of the mo t promising means for re olving the inherent ten ion that now exists between the public's intere t in cientific inquiry and the equally legitimate intere t in protecting the confidentiality of information lies in statutes and regulations that recognize the re earch u es of data by tho e out ide of the data collecting agency but which al 0 recognize the liability of the harmful mi u e of the e data in exchange for thi acce s. Inherent in the wide variety of statute under which current decisions regarding acce s are made i an opportunity for systematic com pari ons of variations in the legal and admini trative conditions under which re earcher are provided or denied acce s to such record , and their con equences for research acce and the protection of confidentiality. The e statute and regulations vary by whether they (1) explicitly provide for the relea e of information for econdary analysis; (2) protect a re earcher's u e of uch data from administrative, judicial, or legi lative inquiry and subpoena; (3) specify any obligation on the part of secondary users to protect the anonymity of records; (4) require formal confidentiality agreements for the u e of data; and (5) apply anction against researchers who violate their confidentiality. One federal statute-the Crime Control Act of 1973-incorporates many of the e provisions, and a tudy of criminal justice agencie and criminology researchers suggests that "the fir t critical criterion guiding access determination is whether the agency has a statutory or administrative basis for allowing acce s to the requested records" (Dahmann & Sasfy 1982, page 25). There are few uch studies of the statute and administrative procedure under which research access is provided or denied and the empirical conditions under which the competing claim of research and confidentiality can be met. 2. Institutional mechanisms for weighing costs and benefits of access. The locus of decisions about the release or restraint of data resides with program JUNE

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officer of the data collecting or pon oring agency. Propo als to relea e or deny acce s are not vetted, for example, by commi ion who e member hip include broader social interests, e.g., public official outside the agency, scholars, and other member of the public. Enlarging the constellation of intere ts repreented in such deci ions in ofar as the e deci ions affect society, a well a the administration of a particular agency, ha con iderable precedent. The commission that everal European countrie have e tablished to make deci ion about acce and the in titutional review board throughout univer itie in the United State provide clear examples. Unfortunately, re earch on the e institutional mechani m for decision making i not widely known. 3. The analytical technology for disguising data to prevent reidentifuation. Recent advance in statistics promi e to reduce, although not entirely eliminate, the pos ibility of identifying a record from which name and ocial security number have been removed. Unfortunately, orne of thi arne re earch suggest that introducing "noi e" into a data set ufficient to protect the data from reidentification everely impair the quality and integrity of the data for purpo es of re earch (cf. Paass 1985). Blurring techniques often impair cholars' ability to verify and replicate re earch re ults. Moreover, reducing di cloure ri k leaves largely un ettled the level at which tho e ri ks are acceptable. Although it would be valuable to have more rigorou and clearly defined tandards for uch ri k , the interpretation and evaluation of uch indicator would remain largely ubjective. The likely con equence of greater attention to work on the quantification of risk in the face of the changes in technology and data noted above would be to continue to ignore benefits of such acce and the obligations of u ers, while undoubtedly extending restraints on the distribution of information under the gui e of cientific rigor. 4. Public response. Discu ions about privacy and confidentiality often include statements by protagonists about the public's attitude toward the e i ues and what are likely to be (or have been) the public's reaction to various pledges concerning the u e of these data or to the di closure of an individual's identity by the data collector. Many such tatements are merely unsub tantiated a ertions about public opinion, but even the available data are at be t indirect and partial. Conventional survey re earch methods on such topics are likely to be e pecially prone to questionnaire context, wording, and order effects. An 9


incidental que tion or two about acce and confidentiality added to an existing urvey may evokebecau e of the prior que tion context (often not revealed to tho e to whom the e re ults are reported)-image either of government efficiency on the one hand or of Big Brother on the other. A considerable amount of re earch in cognitive p ychology and survey methodology ha demonstrated the effects of apparently imilar que tion on patterns of respon e (cf. Jabine et al. 1984). Although the conceptual di tinction between anonynmity, confidentiality, and privacy can be made, our language and common u e of these terms are 0 overlapping (and often loppy) that one hould not expect the public to be able to respond meaningfully to questions that casually u e the e terms or that evoke such ub tantially different meaning and image a do the e is ue . Previous related re earch uch a Singer (1978) and the National Re earch Council's Panel on Privacy and Confidentiality as Factor in Survey Re ponse (1979) provide intere ting and useful insights into the role played by pledge of confidentiality, informed con ent, and relatively more or Ie s elaborate introduction as to the purpo es and anticipated u es of social surveys. The re ults of this research are both quieting and un ettling for the consideration of acceptable disclosure risk. On the one hand, they suggest that many members of the general public have a poor understanding of what may be implied by confidentiality or doubts that uch pledges can be tru ted. This re earch also sugge ts that uch pledges playa relatively small role in affecting response rates concerning innocuous data. On the other hand, this re earch suggests that a small proportionate difference in pledge of confidentiality may make a large difference to a small but po ibly vocal group who may be able to expo e a data collection program to debilitating public examination. It does not require a majority of the adult U.S. population to decry a data collection program and thus cause it to be discontinued. Moreover, ob erving that small proportions of national surveys object to sharing data for re earch purpo es raise a set of troublesome philo ophical que tions. To find, for example, that 80 per cent of the public is fully supportive of researchers' access to publicly-collected stati tics raises important and longstanding ethical and philosophical que tions concerning the rights and obligations of the other 20 per cent. 5. Conceptual differences and similarities. Considerable confusion and misunderstanding often ari es in 10

di cussions of acce s and confidentiality becau e of the poorly developed and idio yncratic conceptualization and definition of privacy, confidentiality. anonymity, and informed consent. Privacy, in the pre ent context, concerns the withholding of information about the elf from other . In this regard. privacy is u ually not at i ue in the release of publicly-collected data becau e the act of collecting information (ometime voluntarily, ometime under the compulsion of law) i in ome ways already an invasion of an individual's privacy. Violation of the anonymity of the data is more frequently at issue. 2 Anonymity. The concern with anonymity is linked directly to the protection of an individual' identity. Anonymity i not alway linked to the content of information about the per on (although identity and information are clearly related). For example, ome tate permit reporter to protect the anonymity of the source of their information while compelling them to di clo e the information that the e sources reveal. thus damaging the confidentiality of that information even though it may not be possible to a ociate thi information with a particular individual. Reducing the ri k of disclo ing the identity of individual records is more accurately defined as a concern with protecting their anonymity. not their confidentiality, as is frequently asserted. Con[ulentiality is a property inhering in the information and the manner in which it is collected. The information is given with an understanding that it will be cared for by tho e to whom it is entru ted. Confidentiality also embraces the principle of a pecial or privileged relationship 0 important that the state should not force its disclosure. It concludes, for example, information exchanged between a doctor and a patient, and between a clergyman and parishioner. (The privileged tatus of the researcher~u~ ject relationship continues to be adjudicated in U.S. court on a case-by-ca e ba is [Cecil & Griffin 1985]). The overriding concern with confidentiality is with the content of the information. Informed consent directly concerns knowledge about the use of information which is shared between tho e who collect information and those about whom the information is collected. Considerable dispute ari es concerning the extent to which a respondent to a survey could be said to be reasonably informed. Obviously, work on the conceptualization of these and related terms should be conducted within the ! Whether uch disclo ure i (potentially) harmful is another area of contention, but one not con idered here.

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fairly rich social and historical context in which such concepts have been developed and u ed (or mi u ed). Insofar as such re earch can draw on the historical and recent experiences of other countrie , the very a sumptions on which this re earch is based will themselves become more apparent and the focus of more attention. Research should question, rather than make assumptions about, ordinary morality and ethic in making judgments about the apparent conflict between individual rights and information needs. Although que tions such as whether "privacy" is a value or a right may be ultimately unresolvable, it remains important to consider them and to draw on the considerable philosophical discourse that concerns itself with the e que tions.

Conclusion Planning for the conference on which this article is based began with a concern for increasing researchers' access to microdata that are collected by U.S. federal statistical agencies while protecting the confidentiality of those who provide such data. The conference concluded with a concern for maintaining and protecting existing levels of access from further reductions. The e fears are based on known instances of denied or constrained access to such data for re earch purposes, concerns about the likely outcome of advances in computational technologies, and the increasing concern voiced by federal statistical agencies about the uncertain future of researcher • access to publicly-collected data. Few of the benefits and most of the burdens and risks for making data available to others fall to the data collector (for a discussion of issues concerning data sharing more generally, see Hedrick 1985). The burden and risks for releasing data that protect the confidentiality of respondents should be more broadly shared among those in the research community who benefit from such access. Many of the fears expressed about reduced

re earch acce s to microdata are concerns about the future, where uncertainty prevails. It would seem prudent for the social cientific community, however, to take the e concerns seriously and to begin now to lay the neces ary groundwork for satisfying the sometimes competing goals of access and confidenti0 ality. References Boruch, Robert F. and Joe Shelby Cecil. Assuring the Confukntaality of Social Research Data. Philadelphia: University of Penn ylvania Pre ,1979. Cecil, Joe he1byand Eugene Griffin. "The Role of Legal Policie in Data Sharing." In Sharing Research Data. Stephen E. Fienberg, Margaret E. Martin, and Miron L. Straf, editors. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Pre ,1985. Dahmann, Judith and Jo eph Sasfy. "Confidentiality of Criminal Ju tice Re earch Data." Unpubli hed report. McLean, Virginia: The Mitre Corporation, October 19 2. Eckler, A. R. The Bureau of the Census. New York: Praeger, 1972. Hedrick, Terry E. ''Ju tification for and Ob tacle to Data Sharing." In Sharing Research Data. Stephen E. Fienberg, Margaret E. Martin, and Miron L. Straf, editors. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Pre ,1985. Jabine, Thoma B., Miron L. Straf, Judith M. Tanur, and Roger Tournangeau, editors. Cognitive Aspects of Survey Methodology: Building a Bridge Between Disciplines. Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Sciences, 1984. Knerr, Charle R., Jr. "What to Do Before and After a Subpoena of Data Arrive ." In The Ethics of Social &, earch: Surveys and ExperimnllS. Joan E. Sieber, editor. New York: SpringerVerlag, 1976. National Re earch Council. Privacy and Confukntiality as Factors in Survey IUsponse. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Pre , 1979. Nelson, R. L. and Terry E. Hedrick. "The Statutory Protection of Confidential Re earch Data: Synthe i and Evaluation." In Solutions to Ethical and Legal Problems in Social IUsearch. Robert F. Boruch and Joe Shelby Cecil, editors. New York: Academic Pre ,1983. Paas , Gerhard. "Disclo ure Ri k and Disclo ure Avoidance for Microdata." Paper presented at the Conference on Acce to Public Data. Social Science Research Council, November 21-22, 1985. Singer, Eleanor. "Informed Con ent: Consequences for Response Rate and Re pon e Quality in Social Survey." American Sociological Review, 43:144-162,1978.

Plans for the Appointment of a Jointly-sponsored Committee on Confidentiality and nata Access The Council and the Committee on National Statistics of the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council have jointly agreed to seek funds for and sponsor a program of research leading towards recommendations on confidentiality and

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data access. The program will address the problem of how best to maintain and perhaps expand researchers' acce to publicly-collected data, while giving adequate protection to the confidentiality of this information.

11


Current Activities at the Council 28 awards made for research on international conflict

A.

Southeast ian tate, but until recendy the goal eemed elusive. Reflecting on this, specialists on the region have focused on explanations-ranging from cultural characteristics to economic dependence-for the failure of Sou thea t A ian ocieties to "modernize." However, in the pa t decade it has become clear that, in the ASEAN tate at least, a significant tran formation is taking place and an indigenous industrializing leadership is emerging. Recent scholarship suggests that although this leadership is integrated into a world ~ark~t and ofte~ direcdy connected to foreign enterpn e, It cannot simply be dismissed a an adjunct to the interests of the core industrial countries. Though intimately linked with military, bureacratic, and political elites, it is not coterminous with them' . ' nor doe It represent merely an extension of the activities of a commercial bourgeoisie. In ord~r ~o a?dres the "dis~overy" of an indigenou capltahsm m Southeast ASla, the Joint Committee on Southeast A ia convened a conference focu ing. o~ the eme~genc~ of new industrializing l~adersh~p m the reglOn, Its relationship to e tabhshed ehtes, and the ways in which it reflects and gives shape to what appears to be the profound economic, social, and political transformation of Southeast Asia. Organized by Ruth McVey, the conference was cosponsored by the Mansfield Center for Pacific Affairs (Helena, Montana) and held in Sukhothai, Thailand, on December 9-12, 1986. The conference brought together cholar from Southea t Asia, Australia, the United States, and Japan . The participants included:

In the past year, the Council's Committee on International Peace and Security Studie has awarded a total of 1,333,200 to 28 postdoctoral and advanced predoctoral researcher from around the world. The e awards were made in the third and fourth rounds of competition for the Council's MacArthur Foundation Fellowships in International Security; they are supported by a grant to the Council from the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation. These 28 awards bring the total number of research and training fellowships that have been awarded by the Council' Program in International Peace and ecurity Studie to 51. The awards mark a total commitment of 3,021 ,700 made during the past two-and-a-half year to tudies intended to s?mulate criti~l reth~nking of e tablished assumption about mternatlonal ecurity. Some of the re earcher receiving support eek to ask conventional que tions in an unconventional way. Other eek to expand current conceptions of international ecurity by examining nonmilitary threats to the security of states and their citizens. E~c~ fellow will engage in a period of training, con lstmg of formal cour ework, upervi ed reading , or an internship at governmental and nongovernmental agencie to add skills or competences needed to carry out their re earch projects. . The e awards ar~ part of a continuing competi?on; the next deadhne for ubmission of application I October I, 1987, for which awards will be Jean Aden Akira Suehiro announced in February 1988. The Council particularly welcomes proposals for Arief Budiman training and re earch from people working outside the mainstream of ecurity tudie, such as tho e Howard Dick working on nonmilitary conceptions of security and tho e working in world order studies. Applications are al 0 particularly sought from researchers outside Rick Doner Gary Hawe the United States and from individuals who have Heng Pek Koon worked on i sues of peace and security in nonaca- Kevin Hewi on Kenzo Horii demic ettings. The fellow hips awarded during the past year are J. A. C. Mackie listed on pages 29-31, below.

Industrializing elites in Southeast Asia

Ruth McVey

The development of a modern industrial economy ha been an acknowledged ambition of po tcolonial

Richard Robi on

12

Belbe da. Maryland In titute of Developing Economie (Tokyo) Universitas Kri ten Satya Wacana. Indone ia Research School of Pacific Studies. The Au tralian National University Emory Univeaity University of Michigan Bangkok. Thailand Murdoch University In titute of Developing Economie (Tokyo) Research School of Pacific tudie • The Au tralian National University School of Oriental and African Studies. University of London Murdoch Univer ity VOLUME

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David I. Steinberg

Mansfield Center for Pacific Affairs (Helena, Montana) Social Science Research Council Center for Southea t A ian Studies, Kyoto University

and International Cooperation of the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation. Toby Alice Volkman On November 20-23, 1986, the program conYo hihara Kunio vened a group of 22 postdoctoral re earchers from nine countries and six disciplines to take stock of current research on international security. Most of the conferees had conducted research on peace or Conferences reexamine peace and security studies within established lines of inquiry. security studies The conference examined the accomplishments of current approaches and identified a number of areas As part of its effort to encourage the examination for future research. It also discus ed methodological of current frameworks for the study of issue in issues, standards of evidence, and programs needed international security, the Council's Program in to advance understanding of international security. International Peace and Security Studies has launched The participants were selected through an internaa series of conferences and workshops with support tional competition and included: from the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation. The program is staffed by Richard H. Wilhelm Agrell Research Policy In titute Moss and Richard C. Rockwell. University of Lund Department of Strategy The first annual conference of MacArthur Foun- Eliot Cohen U.S. Naval War College dation Fellows in International Security was held at Lynn Eden Center for International the Cascades Conference Center in Williamsburg, Studie , Ma achu ett Virginia, on November 2-5, 1986. The conference Institute of Technology provided an opportunity for the first 27 recipients of Steven Fetter Center for Science & the Council's MacArthur Foundation Fellowships in International Affairs, John F. Kennedy School of International Security to meet and di cuss their Government, Harvard research and other common concerns. It encouraged Univer ity the fellows to examine how their own research Baard Knud en In thute of Political Science projects related to existing research on security i sues University of 0 10 and how they could contribute to expanded concep- Gert Krell Peace Re earch In titute (Frankfort) tions of security both individually and collectively. of Political Science Deborah Larson Department The conference included a presentation by Stephen Columbia Univer ity H. Schneider, National Center for Atmospheric Center for Science & Jennifer Laurendeau Research (Boulder, Colorado), on recent research on International Affair , John F. the nuclear winter hypothesis; remarks by Kenneth Kennedy School of Government, Harvard Prewitt, Vice President for Program of the RockefelUniversity ler Foundation and president of the Council when Zeev Maol of Politics Department this program was initiated; and a talk by Catherine New York Univer ity Kelleher, University of Maryland and chair of the Gale Mattox Department of Political Science Fellowship Selection Committee for the Program in U.S. Naval Academy International Peace and Security Studies. Other Benoit Morel Center for International Security & Arm Control activities included a panel discussion on the "BoundStanford Univer ity aries of International Peace and Security Studies" Center for International with John J. Mearsheimer, University of Chicago; Terumasa Nakani hi Security & Arm Control George H. Quester, University of Maryland; JereStanford Univer ity miah Sullivan, University of Illinois; and Richard H. Barry O'Neill Department of Industrial Engineering, Northwe tern Ullman, Princeton University; and reviews of the Univer ity fellows' projects by Catherine Kelleher, Robert Department of Political Science Osgood, School of Advanced International Studies, Barry Po en Massachusetts In titute of The Johns Hopkins University; Francis X. Sutton, Technology The Ford Foundation (retired); and Frederic E. Robert Powell Center for International Affair Wakeman, Jr., president of the Council. Additional Harvard Univer ity participants included Ruth Adams, George Hogen- David Alan Ro enberg Department of Strategy U.S. Naval War College son, and Thomas Garwin of the Program on Peace JUNE

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Philip abin Ja k nyder Philip Tetlock

Mari 01 Touraine

tephen Van Evera

Lothar Wilker

The International In titute for trategic tudie (London) Department of Political Science Columbia University Department of P ychology Universit of California. Berkeley Department of trategic Affairs General ecretariat of ational Defen e (Pari ) Intemational tcunty

Center for Science & International Affairs. John F. Kenned School of Government. Harvard University Faculty of Political Science Free University of Berlin

Alexander George, Stanford Univer ity, and Robert Art, Brandei University, erved a facilitators at the e ion. An advi ory panel including Helga Haftendorn, The Free Univer ity of Berlin; Robert Jarvi, Columbia Univer ity; Brian Job, University of Minne ota; Theodore Po tol, Stanford Univer ity; and Sidney Winter, Yale Univer ity, a i ted in choo ing the participant and planning the es ion. From July 27 to August 7, 1987, the program will conduct an experimental attempt to cast new light on i ue of peace and ecurity. An extended workshop will involve orne 20 po tdoctoral re earcher and nonacademic policy analysts from the ocial science , the humanities, and the natural cience. For the mo t part, the e re earcher have made sub tantial contribution to their own di cipline and have expre ed an intere t in exploring peace and ecurity tudies. The work hop will provide an opportunity for the e re earcher to become informed about eXlstmg cholarship and explore unconventional approache . The workshop will be held at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences in Stanford, California.

14

Frederic Wakeman awarded Levenson prize Thi i the fir t year that the Jo eph Leven on book prize ha been awarded by the A sociation for A ian Studie (AAS) for the two be t book on China publi hed during the year. There are two categorie : 20th century and pre-20th century. A book by Council president Frederic Wakeman, The Great Enterprise: The Manchu Reconstruction of Imperial Order in Seventeenth-Century China (U niver ity of California Pre ,2 vols., 1337 page ), was given the pre-20th century prize. The citation, which wa pre ented at the AAS meeting in Bo ton on April 11, read in part: The Levenson Book Prize committee judged this book to be a monumental work. ynthe izing a wide range of Chinese. Japanese. and We tern ource. It how extraordinary ope. ambition. and narrative power. The Grtat En1erprist i a true hi tory written with an awarene of world even and global connection .

Jo eph Leven on wa a professor of Chine e hi tory at the Univer ity of California, Berkeley, from 1952 to 1969 and the author of, among other influential works, the trilogy, Confucian China and Its Modem Fate. The Great Enterprise i a study of the Manchu conque t of China. It commences with the ri e of the

Manchu in Northeast A ia in the 1580 and it concludes with the unification of their rule under the new Qing dyna ty in 1684. The book focu e on Chine e reactions to the conquest, and e pecially on the dilemma of loyalism v . collaboration with thi new "barbarian" dynasty. It also shows how the Manchus were able to reform the institutions of the preceding Ming dynasty sufficiently well to recentralize power in the 18th century and extend Chine e territorial sovereignty to the farthest limits in the country' history.

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Other Recent Council Publications Islam and the Political Economy of Meaning: Comparative Studies of Muslim Discourse, edited by William R. Roff. Publication resulting from a conference sponsored by the joint committee on South Asia and Southeast Asia. Berkeley, California: University of California Press, 1987. 295 pages. Cloth, 34.00. Also, for sale outside the United States: London and Sydney: Croom Helm, 1987.295 pages. ÂŁ25.00. To be a Muslim is to be part of a culture with distinct beliefs, ideas, institutional forms, and prescriptive roles. Yet there is a complex interrelationship between a system of knowledge and belief, such as Islam, and the immediate political, economic, and social context of its adherents. This book aims to improve understanding of Muslim social and political action by examining a broad spectrum of Muslim discourse, both written and spoken, to see how meaning is formed by context. It is a broad comparative study and examines discourses produced in opposition to government as well as those produced, in Iran or Pakistan, for example, under an authoritarian Islamic state. Through analyses of sociohistorical contexts and textual materials from East Java, Nigeria, Iran, Pakistan, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Maghreb, and Egypt, the book shows how to "read" a familiar Islamic movement, period of change, or textual source in a newer and more accurate light. The contributors and their papers are: Part One: The Political Economy of Religious Culture Dale F. Eickelman, New York University "Changing Interpretation of Islamic Movements" William R. Roff, Columbia University "Islamic Movements: One or Many?" Robert W. Hefner, Bo ton University "The Political Economy of I lamie Conversion in Modem Ea t Java" Paul M. Lubeck, University of California, Santa Cruz "Structural Determinants of Urban I lamic Prote t in Northern Nigeria" Part Two: Muslim Social Thought and the State Said Amir Arjomand, State University of New York, Stony Brook "Revolution in Shi'ism" Barbara D. Metcalf, Univer ity of California, Davi "Islamic Arguments in Contemporary Pakistan" Jean-Claude Vatin, Mis ion de Recherche et de Cooperation, Cairo "Seduction and Sedition: I lamic Polemical Discourse in the Maghreb" JUNE

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Muhammad Kamal Ha an, International I lamic University, Kuala Lumpur "The Respon e of Mu lim Youth Organization to Political Change: HMI in Indone ia and ABIM in Malay ia" Part Three: Change and the Individual Voice Patrick D. Gaffney, University of Notre Dame "Authority and the Mosque in Upper Egypt: The I lamic Preacher a Image and Actor" Allan Chri telow, Idaho State Univer ity "Three I lamie Voice in Contemporary Nigeria" A. H. John, The Au tralian National University "An I lamic Sy tern or I lamic Value? Nucleu of a Debate in Contemporary Indone ia"

Conceptualizing the Household: Issues of Theory, Method, and Application, edited by Jane I. Guyer and Pauline E. Peters. Proceedings of a workshop sponsored by the Joint Committee on African Studies. Charlottesville, Virginia: Teleprint Co., 1986. xx + 124 pages. Available from the Council. Paper, $5.00 (includes postage and handling). This is the report on a workshop, held at Harvard University in November 1984, organized to explore different disciplinary and theoretical approaches to household dynamics in Africa and their methodological implications. Forty-one cholars from Nigeria, Kenya, Malawi, Lesotho, Senegal, Ethiopia, France, the United Kingdom, and the United States attended the workshop, supported by a grant-in-aid from the Rockefeller Foundation for initial activities on the theme of "Gender, Household, and Association" by the Joint Committee on African Studies Project on African Agriculture: Crisis and Transformation. The 22 workshop presentations summarized in this volume, and preceded by an introductory "Review of Issues and Conclusions" by the workshop organizers, Jane I. Guyer, Harvard Univer ity, and Pauline E. Peters, Harvard University, include: Questions and Methods

Felicia Ekejiuba, University of Nigeria, N ukka, "Contemporary Households and Major Socioeconomic Tran itions in Ea tern Nigeria: Towards a Reconceptualization of the Hou ehold" Colin Murray, University of Liverpool, "Class and the Developmental Cycle: Household Strategies of Survival in the Rural Periphery of Southern Africa" Jean-Marc Gastellu, Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique Outre-Mer (Paris), "Matrilineage, Economic Units and Differentiation" Priscilla Kariuki, University of Nairobi, "Realities of Rural

15


Kenyan Women' Family and Household Activitie : A Methodology to Approach the Problem" Lui ella Goldschmidt-Clermont, Free University of Bru el and International Labour Office, "The Concept of Hou ehold in the Economic Evaluation of Hou ehold Production" Onigu Otite, Univer ity of Ibadan, "Conceptualizing the Hou ehold in Africa" H. W. O. Okoth-Ogendo, Univer ity of Nairobi, "The Hou ehold in African Land Tenure Literature" jane I. Guyer, Harvard Univer ity (discu ant) Flows and Resources Within and Beyond the Household Pepe Roberts, University of Liverpool, "The Sexual Politi of Labor and the Hou ehold in Africa" Ann Whitehead, Univer ity of Su ex, "Beyond the Hou ehold? Gender and Kin hip-ba ed Re ource Allocation in a Ghanaian Dome tic Economy" Diane Kayongo-Male, Univer ity of Nairobi, "Dynami of the Hou ehold Divi ion of Labor" o mund A. C. Anigbo, University of Nigeria, N ukka, "Taxation, a Threat to Traditional Commen al Proce e: A Ca e tudy of Ezeagu Local Government Area" D borah Bryce on, t. Antony' College, Oxford (di u ant) Decision Making: Income, Consumption, and Investment hubh Kumar, International Food Policy Re earch In titute (lFPRI), "Hou ehold and Gender- pecific Preference in Food Con umption and Child Nutrition" Eileen Kennedy, IFPRI, "Effects of Ca h-crop Production on Hou ehold Production, Con umption, and Deci ion Making: Some Theoretical Con ideration" Eleanor Fapohunda, Univer ity of Lago. "The Continued olonial Legacy of the Nuclear Hou ehold Model in Nigerian Public- and Private- ector Policy: Sociopolitical Implication" Gib on Kamau Kuria, Univer ity of Nairobi, "The African or Cu tomary Marriage in Kenya Law Today" Chri tine jone , Harvard In titute for International Development; and Lui ella Goldschmidt-Clermont, Free Univer ity of BTU el and ILO (discu sants) Links to Policy Graham H. R. Chipande, Chancellor College, Malawi, "Innovation Adoption Among Female-headed Hou eholds: The Case of Malawi" Mothokoa Mama hela, Univer ity of Le otho, "The Legal Di abilitie of Married Women under the Current Law of Marriage and Property in Lesotho" Della E. McMillan, Univer ity of Florida, "Monitoring the Evolution of Hou ehold Economic Sy tern Over Time in Farming Sy terns Re earch" joyce L. Moock, The Rockefeller Foundation (New York); and Beatrice Roger, Tuft University (discu sant ) Long-term Change Fatou Sou. In titut Fondamental de I'Afrique Noire, Univer ity of Dakar, "Le Families Musulmanes en Afrique Noire Contemporaine" Lynne Brydon, Univer ity of Liverpool, "Women in the Family: Cultural Change in Avatime, 1880-1980"

16

Megan Vaughan, Univer ity of Cambridge, "Women, Men and Food Supply in the Hi tory of Southern Malawi" William G. Martin and Mark Beittel, State Univer ity of New York, Binghamton, "The Hidden Abode of Reproduction: Conceptualizing Household in Southern Africa" Colin Murray, Univer ity of Liverpool; Elias Mandala, University of Roche ter; and Pauline E. Peter, Harvard University (discu sants)

Other workshop participants included: Eileen Berry, Clark University; Elizabeth Eames, Harvard University; Hilary Feldstein, Harvard Institute for International Development; James Ferguson, Harvard Univer ity; Martha A. Gephart, Social Science Research Council; Mitzi Goheen, Tufts University; Jeanne Henn, Northeastern University; Allan Hoben, Boston University; Fassil Kiros, Organization for Social Science Research in Eastern Africa, University of Addis Ababa; James McCann, Boston University; Katherine McKee, Ford Foundation; Parker Shipton, Harvard University; Leroy Vail, Harvard University. Revi ed papers by William Martin and Mark Beittel, Colin Murray, Lynne Brydon, Eleanor Fapohunda, Della McMillan, Graham Chipande, and Jean-Marc Gastellu, with an introduction by Jane I. Guyer and Pauline E. Peters, are being published by the Institute of Social Studies, The Hague, as a special issue of Development and Change, April 1987 (Vol. 18, No.2). Information on the Project on African Agriculture may be obtained by contacting Martha A. Gephart or Thomas M. Painter, Social Science Re earch Council, 605 Third Avenue, New York, New York 10158, telephone (212) 661-0280.

Eastern European Politics and Societies, Volume 1, Number 1. Winter 1987. Berkeley: University of California Press. Sponsored by the Joint Committee on Eastern Europe of the Council and the American Council of Learned Societies. Personal subscriptions, 25.00; in titutional subscriptions, 40.00.

A new journal, Eastern European Politics and Societies (EEPS), will focus not only on politics, sociology, and economics: its articles will also be by anthropologists, historians, linguists, literary analysts, and philosophers. The EEPS definition of Eastern Europe is broad. Its coverage will include areas now in the U .S.S.R., as well as parts of the West that are in many ways part of a Central Europe that includes countries on both sides of the East-West line. Greece and certain VOLUME

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aspects of Turkish and Ottoman history will also be included. EEPS will not view Eastern Europe as a side show whose primary importance lies in its unlucky strategic location. Because of its diversity, its vulnerability to outside forces, and its historical experiences, it has had a uniquely creative role in contributing to major cultural and ideological movements in the 20th century. The intellectual and social ferment in this area, and the various attempts being made to escape the economic and political stagnation of the 1970s and 1980s, assure Eastern Europe's continuing importance as a closely-watched series of experiments. EEPS is edited by Daniel Chirot, University of Washington. The contents of the first issue are: "Beginning EEPS," by Daniel Chirot, Univer ity of Washington, and Ken Jowitt, Univer ity of California, Berkeley "The First Soviet Sponsored Election in Ea tern Europe," by Jan T. Gro , Emory University "The Social Origin of East European Politics," by Gale Stoke, Rice Univer ity "Economic Adjustment and the Future of Sociali t Economic Integration," by Jozef M. van Brabant, United Nation (New York) "Hungarian Socialism: The Deceptive Hybrid," by Bennett Kovrig, University of Toronto "Is Hungary the Future of Poland?", by Zvi Gitelman, Univer ity of Michigan

Family Change and the Life Course in Japan, by Susan Orpett Long. A publication of the Joint Committee on Japanese Studies. Cornell University East Asia Papers, 44. xvi + 117 pages. Paper, 5.00. Ithaca, New York: China-Japan Program, Cornell University, 1987. In recent years, American scholarship on the family has drawn from diverse disciplinary and theoretical frameworks as researchers have developed a new approach known as the life course perspective. Utilizing this approach, anthropologists, demographers, social historians, and sociologists attempt to link the development of the individual with that of the family and to see both of these processes embedded in the historical and cultural context primarily of American and Western European populations. These studies have also stimulated research on the part of some Japanese scholars specializing in family change and in comparative research on American and Japanese populations. The life course approach holds JUNE

1987

particular promise for American-Japanese comparisons of the family, especially because of the focus on social change, its attention to the timing of transition events, and its consideration of the interplay between individual lives and the household collective. Susan Long, an anthropologist atJohn Carroll University, has written an introduction to the study of family change in Japan. It is intended to familiarize the American participants in a collaborative research project on Japan-U.S. comparisons of the family and life course. This project was supported by the Joint Committee on Japanese Studies, as well as the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science. Support for the American participants was al 0 provided by the Japan-U .S. Friendship Commission. While not a comprehensive review, this es ay introduces the reader to the main currents and important literature on family change in Japan, mostly of materials only available in Japanese. After brief introductory chapters on the life course approach and Japanese conceptions of the family, Long's review describes research on family change in Japan from both a historical and a sociological perspective.

The Vitality of the Lyric Voice: Shih Poetry from the Late Han to the T'ang, edited by Shuen-fu Lin and Stephen Owen. Studies on China 6. Papers from a conference held in June 1982 sponsored by the Committee on Studies of Chinese Civilization of the American Council of Learned Societies, a predecessor of the Joint Committee on Chinese Studies. Princeton University Press, 1986. xiv + 410 pages. Cloth, $50.00. The papers published in this volume provide a theoretical background to the study of shih poetry, review the concepts and contexts of the poetry, and examine its forms and genres. The contributors to the volume are: Kang-i Sun Chang Cheng Han H. Frankel Yu-kung Kao Paul W. Kroll Shuen-fu Lin Lin Wen-yileh James J. Y. Liu Stephen Owen Tu Wei-ming Ching-h ien Wang Zhou Zhenfu Fran~oi

Yale Univer ity University of Pari III Yale Univer ity Princeton Univer ity Univer ity of Colorado University of Michigan National Taiwan University Stanford University Harvard Univer ity Harvard University University of Washington Chung-hua Publishing House (Beijing)

17


Fellowships and Grants Offered in 1987-88* Predoctoral and Doctoral Dissertation Programs PROGRAM

DESCRIPTION

1987-88 DEADUNES

MacArthur Foundation Fellowship in International Security

Two-year training and re earch feUow hip to foster critical thinking about international peace and security

October 1

Fellowships for International Doctoral Research

Africa, Korea, Latin America and the Caribbean, Near and Middle East, South A ia, Southea t A ia, and We tern Europe: upport for doctoral re earch abroad in the ocial science and the humanitie

November 2

Fellowship for International Doctoral Research Administered by the American Council of Learned Societies

China and Eastern Europe: upport for doctoral research in the social science and the humanitie

November 15

Berlin Program for Advanced German and European Studies

Support for doctoral re earch in Germany in the social ience and hi tory

February 29 (1988)

Fellow hips for Predissertation ReIeU'Ch in Africa

Support for predi ertation re earch trip to Africa for graduate tudents in the social science and the humanities

December 1

Dissertation Fellow hips in Japanese Studies

Supports advanced graduate tudents during the writing of their di sertations in the United State

December 1

Graduate Training in Soviet Studies

Support for 3rd and 4th year graduate tudy

December 1

Di sertation Fellowships in Soviet Studies

Support for final year' work on di ertation

December 1

Institutional Support Programs Russian and non-Rus ian Soviet Language Institute Program

Provides in titution with fund to upport Ru ian and non-Ru ian Soviet language ummer in titutes

December 1

Program to Initiate New Teaching Positions in Russian and Soviet Studies

Provide in titution with partial funding for new teaching po ition in Ru ian/Soviet Studie

December 1

• For detail and in truction on how to apply, addre the pecific program at the Council or at the American Council of Learned Societie ,228 East 45th Street, New York, New York 10017.

18

VOLUME

41,

NUMBERS

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Fellowships and Grants Offered in 1987-88 (continued) Advanced Research Programs PROGRAM

JUNE

DESCRIPTION

1987-88 DEADUNES

MacArthur Foundation FeUowships in International Security

Two-year training and re earch fellow hip to foster critical thinking about international peace and ecurity

October I

Grants for International Research

Africa, Japan, Korea, Latin America and the Caribbean, Near and Middle East, South A ia, and Southea t A ia: upport for advanced research in the ocial science and humanitie

December I

Grants for International Research Administered by the American Council of Learned Societies

China and Ea tern Europe: support for advanced re earch in the ocial science and the humanitie

November 15

Berlin Program for Advanced German and European Studies

Support for advanced re earch in Germany in the social science and hi tory

February 29 (1988)

Advanced Research FeUowships in Foreign Policy Studies

One to two year of upport for re earch on economic, cultural, political, and social influence on the making of u.s. foreign policy. Application from non-U.S. cholars encouraged

December 1

Grants for Indochina Studies

For scholarship on Cambodia, Lao , and Vietnam based upon the knowledge of refugee now re iding in North America. Open to re earcher , writer , journali ts, arti ts, and other profe ional .

December 1

Advanced Research Grants for the Comparative Study of Muslim S0cieties

Support for advanced training and re earch

December 1

Project on African Agriculture: Crisis and Transformation

Training and re earch fellowship for individual African or teams of African and non-African for interdisciplinary research on the agricultural cri i

July 31 (1987) February 1

Advanced Grants in Soviet Studies

Support for three ummers and one seme ter of research

December 1

International FeUowship Program for the Development of Soviet Studies

Support for ocial scienti ts who are citizen of the countrie of Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean, South and Southea t A ia, and Southern Europe for training and/or research at a univer ity-based Ru ian and Soviet studies center

To be announced

Grants for Public Policy Research on Contemporary Hispanic Issues Uointly with the Inter-University Program for Latino Research)

Support for 1 to 3 years of individual or group research; po tdoctoral fellow hip; summer workshop in research methods; graduate tudent training seminars

To be announced

1987

(1988)

19


Fellowships and Grants Awarded in 1987 CONTENTS 20

INTERNATIONAL DOCTORAL RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS Africa. China. Eastern Europe. Japan. Korea. Latin America and the Caribbtan. the Near and Middk East. South Asia. Southeast Asia. the oviet Union. WtJtern Europe

24 GRANTS FOR ADVANCED INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH Africa. China. Eastern Europe. Japan. Korea. Latin America and the Caribbtan. the Near and Middk East. outh Asia. Southeast Asia. the Soviet Union. Indochina Stud~s

29

INTERNATIONAL PEACE AND SECURITY ST DIES Predoctoral fellowship Postdoctoral fellowships

31

FELLOWSHIPS FOR FOREIGN POLICY STUDIES

31

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF MUSLIM OCIETIES

31

INSTITUTIONAL S PPORT PROGRAMS

INTERNATIONAL DOCTORAL RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AFRICA The following di ertation fellowships were awarded by the Joint Committee on African Studies-Allen F. Isaacman (chair), Claude Daniel Ardouin, Thoma J. Bierteker, Catherine Coquery-Vidrovitch, Christopher O. Davi -Roberts, Franci M. Deng, Karen E. Fields, Christraud M. Geary, Ivan Karp, Fas il G. Kiros, Randall M. Packard, and Michael J. Watts-at its meeting on March 13-15, 1987. The committee was assisted in the election proce s by a screening committee-Mary Jo Arnoldi, Thomas M. Callaghy, Jonathan Crush, Katherine A. Demuth, and Kathleen A. Staudt. Martha A. Gephart and Susan A. Warga erved as staff for this program.

ELI BENTOR, Ph.D. candidate in art history, Indiana University, for re earch in Nigeria and the United The e page Ii t the name , affiliations, and topic of the Kingdom on the historical dimen ions of Aro rna querindividual who were awarded fellow hip or grants by ade performance Council committee in the mo t recent annual competiJEANNE L. BERGMAN, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, tions for re earch in the ocial sciences and humanitie . Univer ity of California, Berkeley, for research in The foreign area re earch awards were made by Kenya on a comparative analysis of Islam and indigecommittees jointly pon ored by the Council and the nous culture among two Mijikenda ~ople American Council of Learned Societie (ACLS). They are o UMAKA LIKAKA, Ph.D. candidate in hI tory, University of Minnesota, for research in Zaire on cotton ,eroduction in upported by grants from the Ford Foundation, the the Belgian Congo: forced labor, rural differentiation, National Endowment for the Humanitie ,and the William and peasant resistance, 1917-1959 and Flora Hewlett Foundation. Additional funding for the MIROSLAVA PRAZAK, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Yale China, Soviet Union, and Latin America and Caribbean University, for research in Kenya and the United programs is provided by the Andrew W. Mellon FoundaKingdom on cultural expressions of socioeconomic tion; for the Japan advanced re earch program by the differentiation among the Kuria Japan-United State Friendship Commi ion; and for the CHRISTOPHER R. UDRY, Ph.D candidate in economics, Yale University, for research in Nigeria on capital and credit Western Europe predoctoral program by the Frenchin rural northern Nigeria American Foundation. The Indochina Studies Program is supported by grants from the Ford Foundation, the The following predissertation fellowships were also Henry Luce Foundation, and the National Endowment awarded at the committee's meeting on March 13-15, for the Humanitie. Partial funding for the Eastern 1987. European and Soviet programs is obtained from the Department of State under the Soviet and Ea t European PATRICK M. BOND, Ph.D. candidate in geography and Re earch and Training Act of 1983 (Title VIII). environmental engineering, The Johns Hopkins U niverFellowships in international ecurity are supported by a sity, for travel to Zimbabwe grant from the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur NANCY K. DIAMOND, Ph.D. candidate in forestry and Foundation and fellowships for foreign policy studies by a re ource management, University of California, Berkegrant from the Ford Foundation. ley, for travel to Kenya Unles it is specifically noted that a program is ANNE A. HENDRICKSON, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, administered by the ACLS, the programs Ii ted are New York University, for travel to Botswana and Namibia administered by the Council. The Council doe not discriminate on the ba is of age, color, creed, disability, DWIGHT N. HOPKINS, Ph.D. candidate in systematic theology, Union Theological Seminary, for travel to marital status, national origin, or sex. South Africa The programs change somewhat every year, and ELIZABETH A. POPE, Ph.D. candidate in forestry and interested scholars should write to the Council for a copy resource management, University of California, Berkeof the new brochure, available in August. See also the ley, for travel to Botswana and Kenya summary of all current fellowship and grant programs on KATHLEEN RYAN, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Pennsylvania, for travel to Kenya pages 18-19, above. 20

VOLUME 41, NUMBERS 112


CHINA The Grants Selection Committee of the Joint Committee on Chine e Studies (administered by the American Council of Learned Societie )-David John on (chair), Uoyd E. Eastman, Patricia B. Ebrey, Stevan Harrell, John Hay, David M. Lampton, Thoma G. Raw ki, Wei-ming Tu, and Pauline R. Yu-at its meeting on February 27-28, 1987 to award fellowships to the following individuals. ja on H. Parker and Ruth Water erved as staff for this program. NOREEN MEl-LAN CHIN-BENG, Ph.D. candidate in history, Harvard University, for re earch in France on prophesy and the worlds of the "T'ui-pei-t'u" WAN-YAO CHOU, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Yale University, for re earch in Japan and Taiwan on the Kominka movement: Taiwan during wartime Japan, 1937-1945 RAND~LL 1'. DODGEN, Ph.p. C3:ndidate in history, Yale University, for re earch 10 Taiwan on the Yellow River Conservancy in the late Tao-kuan~, 1840-1850 MARK C. ELLIO'IT, Ph.D. candidate 10 hi tory, University of California, Berkeley, for re earch in Japan on japane e studie of the Qing dyna ty (1644-1912) and for advanced training in Manchu-language ource for Qing history HEINRICH FRUEHAUF, Ph.D. candidate in Far Eastern language and literatures, Univer ity of Chicago, for re earch in Japan on Japane e influence on the May Fourth literature JOYCE PING-HUI LI, Ph.D. candidate in music, University of Pittsbur~h, for re earch in Taiwan on the music of "Beiguan" 10 traditional Taiwane e ociety jEF'!'REY WAS ~RST~OM, Ph.D. candidate in hIstory, UniversIty of Cahforma, Berkeley, for re earch in France, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom on Shanghai students and political prote t, 1919-1949 SAND~ 1: WETZEL, Ph.D. candidate in art history, UniversIty of Kansas, for re earch in Taiwan on Shen~ Mou: the relationship between profe sional and literatt painters in the Yuan dynasty EA

TERN EUROPE

~. IRVINE, Ph.D. candidate in ~nlversity, for rese~rch on state

JILL

government, Harvard building and nationalIsm: the Communist party of Yugo.lavia and the Croatian que tion, 1941-1945 ROMAN R. KOROPECKYj, Ph.D. candidate in Slavic language and literatures, Harvard U niver ity, for re earch on the creation of a national icon: biographie of Adam Mickiewicz EVAN KRAFT, Ph.D. candidate in economics, New School for Social Re earch, for an analysi of the Yugo lav economy that synthe izes the elements of state intervention, market mechanisms, and elf-management DANIEL E. MILLER, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Univer ity of Pittsburgh, for re earch on Antonin Svehla and the Czecho lovak Republican party, 1918-1933 VICTOR 0 TAPCHUK, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Harvard Univer ity, for re earch on the naval raId of the Zaporozhian and Don Co saks and the Ottoman defen e of the Black Sea in the first half of the 17th century (with the joint Committee on Soviet Studies) CYNTHIA M. SEMMLER-VAKARELlYSKA, Ph.D. candidate in Slavic languages and literature, Harvard Univer ity, for re earch on reduplicative pronoun and clitic behavior in Bulgarian and Macedonian TADEU Z WITKOWSKI, Ph.D. candidate in Slavic language and literatures, University of Michigan, for re earch on ~ twar Poli h poetry: toward a tradition of morali tic literature The following graduate training fellow hip were also awarded by the committee. LUBov FAjFER, graduate student in political cience, ~niver ity of Califor!lia, Los Angele, for study to IOcrease competence 10 areas of Ea t Europ'ean economic policy, Soviet economic policy, ciVIl-military relations, policy toward the War aw Pact, and the general field of international political economy; preparatory work for a dis ertation on "The Impact of Eastern Europe on Soviet Dome tic and Bloc Policy." GARY LEE GEl PEL, graduate student in political science, Columbia University, for affiliation with the Univer ity of Arizona's working group on Soviet and Ea t European high technology development MARY JANE 0 A, (1986-87 advanced graduate fellow), graduate student in ociology, Univer ity of Chicago, for continued training in East European area studies for re earch on ocial change

The Joint Committee on Eastern Europe (admini tered by the American Council of Learned Societies)-Gale Stokes (chair), Daniel Chirot, Ellen T. Comi so, Zvi Y. Gitelman, Jan T. Gross, Keith A. Hitchins, Gail Kligman, Madeline G. Levine, and Ivan Szelenyi-at its meetings on JAPAN March 6-7 and April 3-4, 1987 voted to award dissertation fellowships to the following individuals. Jason Under a program for the completion of doctoral H. Parker and Ruth Waters erved as staff for this dis ertations sponsored by the Joint Committee on program. Japane e Studies, the Subcommittee on Fellowships-L. Keith Brown (chair), Gary D. Allin on, Carol Gluck, MIC!iAEL H. BE~NHAR.o, ~h.D. candidate in political William LaFleur, and James W. White-voted at its SCIence, ColumbIa Umverslty, for re earch on the rise of meeting on October 16, 1986 to make awards to the public politics in Poland: the history and significance of following individuals. Stefan Tanaka and Anya Grottel the democratic oppo ition, 1976-1980 ANNE E. HENDERSON, Ph.D. candidate in political science, served as staff for this program. Yale University, for re earch on the relations between the International Monetary Fund and Hungary, Roma- SUZANNE C"!.LTER, Ph.D. candid~te in sociolo.gy, University of Hawan, for the completton of a dIS ertation on nia, and Yugoslavia JUNE 1987

21


indu try degeneration, out-migration, and community change: a ca e tud of a Japane e coal-mining city KEVIN M. DOAK, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Univer it of Chicago, for the completion of a di ertation on the ihon Roman-ha and the critique of modernity LA REN J. KOTLOFF, Ph.D. candidate in child development, ornell Univer ity, for the completion of a di ertation on the nature of the group and conception of individuality in a progre ive Japane e preschool ARY P. LE PP, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Univer ity of Mi hi~an, for the completion of a di ertation on urban labor m Tokugawa Japan KOREA The Joint Committee on Korean tudie -Hagen Koo (chair), Jo eph C. Chung, Laurel Kendall, B. C. Koh, ung-bae Park, Mar hall R. Pihl, Michael Robin on, and Edward W. Wagner-voted at its meeting on February 13, 19 7, to award a fellow hip to the following individual. tefan Tanaka and Anya Grottel erved a taff for thi program. MIWHA STEVEN ON, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Columbia Univer ity, for re earch in Korea and Ja{>an on the emergence of the kingdom of Ko~uryo: an mterpretive nthe i of textual and archeologJcal evidence LATIN AMERICA AND THE ARI8BEAN The following fellow hip were awarded by the International Doctoral Re earch Fellow hip Selection Committee for Latin America and the aribbean-Margaret Crahan (chair), Francine Ma iello, Carmelo Me a-Lago, Lar houltz, and Carol mith-at i meeting on March 16, 19 7. The election Committee wa a i ted by a screening committee-Benjamin Orlove, Eric Van Young, Samuel Morley, Barbara tailing, and Dori Sommer. Joan Da in, Martha Rodriguez-Pantoja, and Rebecca Nichol erved a taff for thi program. JUDITH ALLEN, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Univer ity of Wi on in, for re earch in Brazil on free labor in the lave ociety of rural Bahia, 1790-1860 COREEN CHI WELL, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Univer ity of California, Lo Angele, for re earch in Peru on the relation hip between ocial integration and architectural function at the ite of Pacatnamu PA L GELLE , Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Harvard Univer ity, for re earch in Peru on the ideology and ocial organization of irrigation in the Andes ARTURO GRUN TEIN, Ph.D. candidate in history, Univer ity of California, Lo Angele, for research in Mexico on the emergence of the national railways FABRICE LEHOUCQ, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Duke Univer ity, for re earch in Co ta Rica on the origin of democracy in Co ta Rica JEFFREY LES ER, Ph.D. candidate in history, New York Univer ity, for re earch in Brazil on communal conflict and economic integration among Brazilian Jewry,

1918-1948 WILLIAM NYLEN, Ph.D. candidate in political science,

22

Columbia Univer ity, for re earch in Brazil on mall bu ine a ociation in Brazil and their integration into the political y tern DAVID PARKER, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, tan ford U niver ity, for re earch in Peru on the political and ocial hi tory of the Peruvian white-collar worker,

1920-1980 S

A A ROTKER, Ph.D. candidate in literature, Univer ity of Maryland, for re earch in Argentina, the United tate, and Venezuela on the cr6nicas of Jo ~ Martf TIMOTHY SULLY, Ph.D. candidate in political cience, Univer ity of California, Berkeley, for re earch in Chile on political competition and regime tability JAVIER URCID, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Yale Univer ity, for re earch in Mexico on the writing y tern of outhwe t Me oamerica ELAYNE ZORN, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Cornell Univer ity, for re earch in Bolivia on the textile y tern in Andean Bolivia NEAR AND MIDDLE EA T The following di ertation fellow hip were awarded by the Joint Committee on the Near and Middle Ea t-Peter von Siver (chair), Leonard Binder, Abdellah Hammoudi, Michael C. Hud on, uad Joseph, Jean Leca, Afaf Lufti al- ayyid Mar ot, Roger Owen, Alan R. Richard, and John Waterbury-at its meeting on February 27, 19 7. P. Nikiforo Diamandouro, Chri tina Dragonetti, and Trenholme Junghan erved a taff for the program. RAGUI A. A AAD, Ph.D. candidate in city and regional planning, Cornell Univer ity, for re earch in Egypt on egmentation and mobility in the Egyptian labor market EVA R. BELLIN, Ph.D. candidate in politics, Princeton Univer ity, for re earch in Tuni ia on the chansing nature of tate- ociety relation in Tuni ia mce independence RUDOLPH PETER MATTHEE, Ph.D. candidate in I lamic tudie, Univer ity of California, Lo Angele, for re earch in England, France, Holland, Iran, and Italy on the ocioeconomic foundations of late Safavi Iran D. FAIRCHILD RUGGLES, Ph.D. candidate in the hi tory of art, Univer ity of Pennsylvania, for re earch in Al~eria, England, India, Iraq, Morroco, Pakistan, and Spam on the formative period of the I lamic garden OUTH A IA The following di ertation fellowships were awarded by the Joint Committee on outh Asia-Bernard S. Cohn (chair), Arjun Appadurai, Clive Bell, Jan C. Breman, Richard Eaton, Ronald J. Herring, Barbara S. Miller, Harold S. Power, and Su an S. Wadley-at its meeting on March 13-14, 1987. Toby Alice Volkman and Lori McGrogan erved a staff for thi program. A IF AGHA, Ph.D. candidate in linguistics, Univer ity of Chicago, for re earch in Nepal and Tibet on case marking and predicate tructure in Lha a Tibetan VOLUME 41, NUMBER 112


Columbia University, for training in preparation for a tudy of adaptation of Ru ian literary cIa ic to film ROBIN M. BI HA, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Indiana Univer ity, for training in preparation for a tudy of marriage and the family in Imperial Ru ia GREGORY M. GRAZEVICH, Ph.D. candidate in Slavic and Baltic language and literature, Univer ity of Illinoi , Chica~o, for training in preparation for a synchronic and dIachronic tudy comparing the major Slavic and SOUTHEA TAlA Baltic languages JOEL HELLMAN, Ph.D. candidate in political science, The following di ertation fellowships were awarded by Univer ity of Oxford, for training in preparation for a the Joint Committee on Southeast Asia-John R. W. Smail study of the nature of political change in the Soviet (chair), Shelly Errington, Gillian P. Hart, Charle F. Keye , Union using the debate over peace as a ca e tudy Ruth T. McVey, David Marr, Renato Ro aldo, Chai-anan WILLIAM W. JARO z, Ph.D. candidate in government, Harvard Univer ity, for training in preparation for a Samudvanija, and Peter S. Xeno -at its meeting on study of international relations theory and approache March 23-27, 1987. Toby Alice Volkman and Lori to the tudy of Soviet foreign policy McGrogan served a taff for thi program. BETH A. MITCHNECK, Ph.D. candidate in geography, Columbia Univer ity, for training in preparation for a UNFRANCO BLANCHETTI-REvELLI, Ph.D. candidate in of demographic and ocioeconomic developments study anthropology, The Johns Hopkin Univer ity, for in Soviet ociety, with an empha i on ethnic differenre earch in the Philippine on eaweed production and tials ocial process in a Tausug/Samal community MAR HALL POE, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Univer ity of DANIEL DHAKIDAE, Ph.D. candidate in government, CorCalifornia, Berkeley, for training in preparation for a nell University, for re earch in Indonesia on the political study of Mu covite political culture, political ritual, and economy of the Indone ian news indu try symbolism BRUCE M. LocKHART, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Cornell University, for research in France and Thailand on WILLIAM WOOD, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Indiana Univer ity, for training in preparation for a monarchy and monarchi m in Siam and Vietnam, study of the hi tory and culture of Central A ia, 1925-1946 concentrating on the 19th century SUMIT K. MANDAL, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Columbia University, for re earch in Singapore, Indone ia, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom on the Al Irshad The following di ertation fellow hip were also awarded movement, 1900-1942 at the committee' meeting on April 3-4, 1987. SARAH H. MAXIM, Ph.D. candidate in history, Cornell University, for re earch in Burma, India, Malaysia, and the United Kingdom on the British colonial cities of CLARE A. CAVANAGH, Ph.D. candidate in Slavic langua~e Kuala Lumpur and Rangoon and literatures, Harvard University, for a di ertaUon CHIRANAN PRASERTKUL, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Coron 0 ip Mandel'stam and the modernist creation of nell University, for re earch in France and Thailand on tradition the Luang Prabang Kingdom (Laos) prior to French ALAN J. CIENKI, Ph.D. candidate in Slavic language and colonization, 1828-1888 literatures, Brown University, for a di ertation on a SARASWATI SUNINDYO, Ph.D. candidate in sociology, comparative linguistic study of Ru ian, Poli h, and University of Wisconsin, for re earch in Indone ia on Engli: h pro titution and the in titutional subordination of STEPHEN M. KOTKIN, Ph.D. candidate in history, Univerwomen in Java ity of California, Berkeley, for a dis ertation on urbanization in the USSR, 1926--1939: Magnitogorsk and the problem of ocialist cities attached to factorie OVIET UNION JAMES C. MOLTZ, Ph.D. candidate in political science, University of California, Berkeley, for a dis ertation on The following graduate trammg fellowship were U.S.-Sovlet space competition and future superpower awarded by the Joint Committee on Soviet Studie -Loren relations Graham (chair), Jo eph Berliner, Jeffrey Brooks, Timothy VICTOR 0 TAPCHUK, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Harvard Colton, Sheila Fitzpatrick, Edward L. Keenan, Gail University, for a dis ertation on the naval raids of the Lapidus, Robert Legvold, Herbert S. Levine, William Mills Zaporozhian and Don Cos acks and the Ottoman defense of the Black Sea in the first half of the Todd, III, and Heinrich Vogel-at its meeting on April 17th century (with the Joint Committee on Eastern 3-4, 1987. The committee was assisted by a screening Europe) committee-Abbott Gleason (chair), Nancy Condee, Leslie DAVID R. SHEARER, Ph.D. candidate in history and the O'Bell, Martha Brill Olcott, Daniel Orlov ky, Thomas sociology of science and technology, University of Remington, and Robert Stuart. Blair A. Ruble, Kristin Pennsylvania, for a dissertation on the making of the Antelman, and Regina Smyth erved as staff for this Soviet industrial system: factory work, technological program. chan~e, and industrial management in the Soviet machme-building branch, 1926--1934 ALEXANDER BATCHAN, Ph.D. candidate m film studies, ELIZABETH A. WOOD, Ph.D. candidate in history, UniverYAEL BENTOR, Ph.D. candidate in Uralic and Altaic tudie , Indiana Univer ity, for re earch in Nepal on the Nep~lese Buddhist ritual for the con ecration of stilpas and Image KATE GILBERT, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Yale University, for re earch in Ne{>al on dispute re olution in a Brahmin-Limbu commumty

JUNE 1987

23


ity of Michigan, for a di ertation on women, work, and welfare in NEP Rus ia, 1918-1928 WESTERN E ROPE The following di ertation re earch fellow hip were awarded by the Joint Committee on We tern EuropePeter A. Gourevitch (chair), Victoria de Grazia, Helga M. Herne, Victor Perez-Diaz, Charle F. Sabel, and Fritz W. Scharpf-at its meeting on March 23-25, 1987. It wa a i ted by a creening committee-Caroline Brettell, Robert Fi hman, John T. S. Keeler, Herbert Kitschelt, Mary McLeod, Peter Mandler, Robert Moeller, and Eli a B. Weaver. P. Nikiforo Diamandouro and Chri tina Dragonetti erved a taff for thi program.

and the reorganization of work telecommunication ervice indu trie

10

the auto and

GRANTS FOR ADV A CEO INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH AFRICA The following grants for advanced international reearch were awarded by the Joint Committee on African Studie -Allen F. Isaacman (chair), Claude Daniel Ardouin, Thoma j. Bier teker, Catherine Coquery-Vidrovitch, Chri topher O. Davi -Roberts, Franci M. Deng, Karen E. Fields, Chri traud M. Geary, Ivan Karp, Fa il G. Kiro , Randall M. Packard, and Michael j. Watts-at its meeting on March 13-15, 1987. Martha A. Gephart and Su an A. Warga erved as taff for thi program.

JULIA P. ADAM, Ph.D. candidate in ociology, Univer ity of Wi on in, for re earch in the Netherland and KATHERINE A. DEMUTH, a i tant profe or of African France on the reciprocal impact of international trade lan~age and modern foreign language, Bo ton and colonial expan ion on the tate and elite during the Umver ity, for re earch in Le otho on tonal acqui ition in Se otho early modern period, 1500-1 00 JOHN H. AL ORN, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Columbia JACQ ES M. F. DEPEL HIN, a ociate profe or, Centre of Univer it ,for re earch in Italy on the Sicilian Worker' African Studie ,Eduardo Mondlane University (Maputo), for re earch in Belgium and the United State on League in the 1890 NIGELj. BOYLE, Ph.D. candidate in political cience, Duke Zairian economic hi tory, 1968-1974 Univer ity, for re earch in the United Kingdom on VICTORIA EBIN, educational coordinator, Primary Care labor market policie in Britain ince 1979 Divi ion, New York Univer ity Medical Center, for PAOLA CIARDI, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, The re earch in France on the role of an I lamic brotherhood in enegale e migration to New York and Paris Graduate Center, City Univer ity of New York, for re earch in Italy on clas , gender, and the production of RI HARD ELPHICK, profe or of hi tory, We leyan Univerocial identitie in northern Tu cany during the po twar ity, for re earch in South Africa and the United State period on Chri tianity and South African ocial thought, PATRI I H. CRAIG, Ph.D. candidate in ociology, Yale 1904-1960 Univer ity, for re earch in Spain on the orgamzational INA L. ETKIN, a ociate profe or of anthropology, tructure and member hip of the Spani h Sociali t Univer ity of Minne ota, for re earch in Nigeria on health-related behavior in rural northern Nigeria: Worker' party SARAH B. FARMER, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, University indigenous and We tern medicine in tran ition of alifornia, Berkeley, for re earch in France on the JANE I. GUYER, a ociate profe or of anthropology, French commemoration of World War II and the role Bo ton Univer ity, for re earch in Nigeria on agriculthat commemoration play in the haping of hi torical tural change and the divi ion of labor in we tern Nigeria memory and the creation of national hi tory MARGARET JEAN HAY, publications editor, African Studie CAROL j. FRESIA, Ph.D. candidate in art hi tory, Yale Center, Bo ton Univer ity, for re earch in Kenya for an Univer ity, for re earch in the etherland on 17th economic and ocial hi tory of cloth in we tern Kenya century depictions of the medical profes ion and the NORMA j. KRIGER, a i tant profe or of political ience, changing ocial and economic tatu of phy ician The John Hopkin Univer ity, for re earch in ZimKATHERINE j. GILL, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Princeton babwe on po twar rural politics Univer ity, for re earch in Italy on pinzocchere, the RAYMOND A. SILVERMAN, vi iting lecturer in art history, emireligiou women of late medieval Italy Univer ity of California, anta Cruz, for re earch in Ghana on hi tory, art, and religion in We t Africa: an EDUARDO GLAS, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Columbia Univer tty, for re earch in Spain and England on Islamic Mande pre ence among the Akan of Ghana and the Ivory Coa t Ba que entrepreneurs during the Restoration, 1875-1923 NI HOLA TOTH, a i tant profe or of anthropology, Indiana Univer ity, for re earch in Zambia on an CA ANORA W. POTT , Ph.D. candidate in history, Univerity of California, Santa Barbara, for re earch in France archeological inve tigation of the middle-late Stone Age transition in central Africa on the revival of mona tici m among the Norman ari tocracy, 911-1087 DANIEL WEINER, a i tant profe or of geography and o LCE M. SOARES, Ph.D. candidate in ociology, Brown planning, Univer it of Toledo, for re earch in ZimUniver ity, for research in Portugal on the con ebabwe on labor migration and agricultural growth quences of the breakdown of tate corporatism WILLIAM H. WORGER, Andrew W. Mellon po tdoctoral fellow in the humanitie, Stanford Umversity, for LOWELL R. TURNER, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Univer ity of California, Berkeley, for research in We t re earch in South Africa on big bu ine s and racial Germany and the United State on industrial relations discrimination

J.

24

VOLUME 41, NUMBERS 112


CHINA The Grants Selection Committee of the Joint Committee on Chine e Studies (administered by the American Council of Learned Societie)- David John on (chair), Uoyd E. Ea tman, Patricia B. Ebrey, Stevan Harrell, John Hay, David M. Lampton, Thomas G. Rawski, Wei-ming Tu, and Pauline R. Yu-at its meeting on February 27-28, 1987 awarded grants to the following individual in the categorie listed. Ja on H. Parker and Ruth Waters erved a staff for thi program. Research in Chinese Studies

TERRY SICULAR, assi tant profes or of economic , Stanford University, for re earch on plan and market in China The following awards were made by an ad hoc election committee of the Joint Committee on Chine e Studies. Mellon Program for Summer Language Training at the InterUniversity Program for Chinese Language Studies (Taipei)

PATRICIA EBREY, profe or of hi tory, Univer ity of Illinois SUZANNE P. OGDEN, a ociate profe sor of political science, Northeastern University BURTON PASTERNAK, profes or of anthropology, Hunter College, City University of New York LINDA ANN WALTON, as ociate profes or of history, Portland State University

IRENE BLOOM, assistant profe or of East A ian and Chine e thought, Barnard College, for re earch on emotion in the thought of the Ch'eng-Chu School of the Sung Mellon Program in Chinese Studies China Conference Travel KATHERINE CARLITZ, as i tant profe sor of Chinese literaGrants ture, University of Pittsburgh, for re earch on the lives of exemplary women in the late Ming To attend the fir t international symposium on the BERNARD FAURE, as istant profes or of Asian religions, history of the Yuan dyna ty, Nanjing, September 22-26, Cornell Univer ity, for re earch on Chan Buddhism and 1986 pol?ular tradition: textual and spatial strategies in Chmese religion SHUEN-FU LIN, profe sor of Chine e literature, University YUAN-CHU RUBY LAM, as ociate profes or of Chinese hi tory, Welle ley College of Michigan, for a literary study of the "Inner Chapters" of the "Chuang Tzu" MAURICE J. MEISNER, profes or of hi tory, University of To attend a conference on Lu Xun and Chinese and Wisconsin, for re earch in Chine e Marxism in the foreign culture, Beijing, October 19-23, 1986 post-Maoist era: a study in ideological deradicalization WILLIAM L. PARI H, professor of ociology, University of Chicago, for research in family organization and change JAMES R. PUSEY, profes or of Chine e history, Bucknell University in Taiwan MARYLIN M. RHIE, professor of Chine e art history, Smith To attend an international cholarly conference on College, for research on early Chine e Buddhist art: 1st to the 5th centuries Huang Zongxi, Ningbo, October 20-26, 1986 CARL RISKIN, profe or of economics, Queens College, City UniverSIty of New York, for re earch on China's LVNN A. STRUVE, associate profes or of hi tory, Indiana development strategies and the poor University ELLEN WIDMER, as istant professor of Chinese literature, Wesleyan University, for re earch on fiction and the To attend an international sympo ium to commemorate world of letters in 17th century China: the case of the 360th anniversary of the birth of Bada Shanren, a 17th "Xiyou zhengdao shu" century painter, Nanchang, October 22-28, 1986 Mellon Fellowships for Research, Training, and Language Study

JAMES CAHILL, professor of the history of art, University of California, Berkeley

TIMOTHV C. CHEEK, assistant profes or of history, Bowdoin To attend a conference on "The Achievements, CharacCollege, for research on life in China's revolutionary elite: Deng Tuo and the Beijing party teristics, and Trends in the Development of ContempoT. GRIFFITH FOULK, doctoral candidate in Buddhist rary Chine e Literature," ponsored by the Chine e studies, University of Michigan, for re earch on Bud- Writers' Association, Shanghai, November 4-U, 1986 dhist monastic institutions in the Sung and Yuan dynasties EDWARD A. MCCORD, assistant profes or of history, TSE-TSUNG CHOW, professor of history and of Chinese, University of Wisconsin University of Florida, for re earch on local militarization JEFFREV C. KINKLEV, associate professor of Asian studies, in Republican China: militia organization, local society, St. John's University and the state in Hunan Province ScOrf A. PEARCE, doctoral candidate in history, Princeton University, for research on the nature and fate of the To attend the Han Yu (a Tang dynasty scholar-official) 6th century Chinese military aristocracy sympo ium, Shantou, November 30-December 3, 1986 JUNE 1987

25


CHARLES HARTMAN, a ociate profe or and director of JAPAN Chine e tudie, State Univer ity of New York at Albany Under a program pon ored by the Joint Committee on DAVID R. KNECHTGES, profe or of Chine e, Univer ity of Wa hington Japane e Studie, the Subcommittee on Grants for Re earch-L. Keith Brown (chair), Gary D. Allin on, To attend an international academic ympo ium on Carol Gluck, Koichi Hamada, William LaFleur, and Jame Chine e traditional opera arts, Beijing, April 14-22, 1987 W. White-voted at its meeting on February 26, 1986 to award grants to the following individual . Stefan Tanaka CYRIL BIRCH, profe or of Chine e and comparative and Anya Grottel erved a taff for thi program. literature, Umver ity of California, Berkeley To attend the econd Harbin conference on generative grammar, Harbin, May 24-30, 1987 EDWIN L. BATTI TELLA, a i tant profe or of Engli hand lingui tic, Univer ity of Alabama at Birmingham GRANT T. G ODALL, a i tant profe or of lingui tic , Univer ity of Texa at EI Pa 0 To attend the founding meeting of the Huai Nan Tzu ociety, Huainan- hih, Anhui, May 2-7, 1987 ROGER T. AMES, profe or of philo ophy, Univer ity of Hawaii To attend a conference on Huang Binhong (1865-1955), Shexian, May 16-24, 1987 JA ON C. Kuo, a i tant profe or of art, William College To attend the international ympo ium on Zheng Chenggong tudie, Xiamen, July 19-22, 1987 JOHN E. WILLS, JR., profe or of hi tory, Univer ity of outhern California EA TERN EUROPE The Joint Committee on Ea tern Europe (admini tered by the American Council of Learned Societie )-Gale toke (chair), Daniel Chirot, Ellen T. Comi 0, Zvi Y. Gitelman, Jan T. Gro , Keith A. Hitchin, Gail Kligman, Madeline G. Levine, and Ivan Szelenyi-voted at it meeting on March 6-7 and April 3-4, 1987 to award grants to the following individual. Ja on H. Parker and Ruth Water erved a taff for thi program. STANI LAW BARANCZAK, profe or of Poli h language and literature, Harvard Univer ity, for the preparation of a hi tory of po t-1944 Poli h poetry HALINA FILIPOWI Z, a i tant profe or of Slavic language , Univer ity of Wi con in, for re earch on the Poli h theatre and paratheatre ince 1956 MICHAEL D. KENNEDY, a i tant profe or of ociology, Univer ity of Michigan, for re earch on profe ional, olidarity, and power in Poland NEAL PEA E, a i tant profe or of hi tory, University of Wi on in, Milwaukee, for re earch on church and tate in Poland, 1918-1939 MARILYN RUESCHEMEYER, a i tant profe or of ociology, Rhode I land School of De ign, for re earch on new town in the German Democratic Republic: a study of m organization, neighborhood pattern ,and private lives 26

ANNE ALLI ON, lecturer in anthropology, Univer ity of Chicago, for re earch on dome ticity and the Japane e women JAM C. DOBBIN, a i tant profe or of religion, Oberlin College, for re earch on the letter of E hinni, a Buddhi t woman in medieval Japan WALTER EDWARD, a i tant profe or of anthr0.e?logy, Univer ity of Michigan, for re earch on ocial dIfferentiation and integratIon in early Japan: a reexamination of the Toro archeological site HELEN HARDACRE, a ociate profe or of religion, Princeton Univer ity, for re earch on Shinto and the tate: 1868-1945 CORNELl J. KILEY, a ociate profe or of hi tory, Villanova Univer ity, for re earch on local elite in HeianJapan MIKE M. Mo HIZUKl, a i tant profe or of political science, Yale Univer ity, for re earch on di engaging the Iapane e tate: the admini trative reform campaign of tile 1980 MICHAEL REICH, a ociate profe or of international health, Harvard chool of Public Health, for re earch related to the Japane e pharmaceutical indu try: the conflict between health and economic policy JENNIFER ROBERT ON, vi iting a i tant profe or of anthropology, William College, for re earch on the gender attribution proce in Japan THOMA C. SMITH, emeritu profe or of hi tory, Univerity of California, Berkeley, for re earch on the changing conception of the worker in Japan, 1890-1920 KOREA The Joint Committee on Korean Studie - Hagen Koo (chair), Jo eph C. Chung, Laurel Kendall, B. C. Koh, Sung-bae Park, Mar hall R. Pihl, Michael Robinson, and Edward W. Wagner-voted at its meeting on February 13, 1987, to award gran to the following individual. Stefan Tanaka and Anya Grottel erved a taff for thi program. LARRY L. BURMEI TER, a i tant profe or of ociology, Univer ity of Kentucky, for re earch on agricultural cooperation and indu trialization in Korea: the macromicro relation of inter ectoral linkage ROBERT E. Bu WELL JR., a i tant profe or of Buddhist studie, Univer ity of Cali forma, Lo Angeles, for re earch on the Korean origin of Vajrasamadhl-sutTa and its imrlication for the early hi tory of the Korean Son schoo GARY A. GEREFFI, as ociate profe sor of ociology, Duke Univer ity, for re earch on development patterns in Latin American and Ea t A ian newly-indu trializing countrie VOLUME 41, NUMBER 112


JAM B. PALAIS, profe or of history, Jack on School of International Studie and Hi tory, Univer ity of Wa hington, for re earch on the political economy of 17th century Korea ROBERT C. PROVINE, lecturer in music, Univer ity of Durham, for re erach on Korean court mu ic of the 15th century and its relation hip to Chine e mu ical precedents LATIN AMERICA AND THE ARIBBEAN The Joint Committee on Latin American Studie -John Coatsworth (chair), Lourde Arizpe, Paul Drake, Jo e Murilo de Carvalho, Alejandro Porte , Adam Przewor ki, ohra Rey de Marulanda, Frank Salomon, and Beatriz Sarlo-at its meeting on March 26-28, 1987, awarded grants to the following individual. Joan Da in, Martha Rodriguez-Pantoja, and Rebecca Nichol erved a taff for thi program. THOMA ABER ROMBIE, vi iting lecturer of anthropology, Cornell Univer ity, for re earch in Bolivia on the repre entation of ethnicity and domination in Bolivian calendrical fea ts CHRI TOPHER BIRKBECK, a ociate profe or of criminology, Univer ity of the Ande (Caraca), and GARY LA FREE, a ociate profe or of ociology, Univer ity of New Mexico, for comparative re earch 10 Venezuela and the United State on the effects of per onal attribute and life tyles on criminal victimization HERBERT BRAUN, a i tant profe or of hi tory, Univer ity of Virginia, for re earch in Mexico on the hi tory of the 1968 prote t movement in Mexico JOHANNA BRODA, profe or of hi tory, National Univer ity of Mexico, for re earch in Mexico on ideology and ociety in ancient Mexico RALPH DELLA CAVA, profe or of hi tory, Queen College, City Univer ity of New York, for re earch in Brazil on Vatican policy toward the Roman Catholic Church in Brazil under Pope John Paul II, 1978-1986 S AN ECKSTEIN, profe or of ociology, Bo ton Univerity, for re earch in Cuba on the relation hip between tate and market force in po trevolutionary Cuba DIAMELA ELTIT, profe or of literature, Profe ional In titute of Santiago, for re earch in Chile on the earch for feminine identity in the writing of the Chilean writers Marfa Lui a Bombal, Marta Brunet, and Gabriela Mi tral ALBERTO FLORES GALINDO, profe or of hi tory, Catholic Univer ity of Lima, for re earch in Peru on racism and violence in Peru, 1850-1870 STEPHEN HABER, as i tant profe or of hi tory, Columbia Univer ity, for re earch in Brazil on productivity chan~e in the cotton textile industry, 1840-1930: BraZIl, Mexico, and the United State JAVIER IZKO, profes or and a ociate investigator of rural sociology, Center for the Study of Economic and Social Reality (CERES), for re earch in Bolivia on the relationship between the ocioeconomic and cultural conditioning of fertility and the modalitie and cau es of mortality in three Bolivian rural communitie FRIEDRICH KATZ, profe or of history, Univer ity of Chicago, for re earch in Mexico on the Great Powers and Revolutionary Mexico, 1934-1940 JUNE 1987

ELIZABETH LEED , visiting scholar, Boston Univer ity, for re earch in Brazil on quatter- tate relation in postauthoritarian Brazil LIZABETH PARAVI INI, a i tant profe or of Puerto Rican tudie , Lehman College, City Univer ity of New York, for re earch in Puerto Rico, the Dominican Republic, and Jamaica on approache to hi tory in the contemporary Caribbean novel LUI ALBERTO PRIAMO, Bueno Aire, for re earch in Argentina on 19th century photography in the province of Santa Fe HERMES TOVAR PINZ6N, profe or of hi tory, National Univer ity (Bogota), for re earch in Colombia and Spain on the economic and ocial problem of the War of Independence in Colombia, 1810-1821 ALFON 0 WALTER Q IROZ, a i tant profe or of hi tory, Baruch College, City Univer ity of New York, for re earch in Peru on credit and finance in Peru, 1930-1985 DAGMAR RACZYN KI, Corporation for Latin American Economic Re earch (CIEPLAN), Santiago, for re earch in Chile on ocial ervice and the municipal y tern: Ie on for the de ign of politic a a re ult of the Chilean experience ROB RUCK, a i tant profe or of hi tory, Chatham College, for re earch in the Dominican Republic on the ocial hi tory of Caribbean ba eball IRENE SILVERBLATT, a i tant profe or of anthropology, College of Charle ton, for re earch in Peru on Andean symbol of colonization: the hi tory of Santiago and the Peruvian mountain god ALLYN STEARMAN, a ociate profe or of ociology, Univerity of Central Florida, for re earch in Bolivia on ocial change and adaptation in two lowland Bolivian foraging ocieties a AR TERAN, profe or of philo ophy, National Univerity of La Plata, for re earch in Argentina on interpretation of Argentinian ociety and mentality, 1880-1910 LUIS MIGUEL GLAVE TESTINO, profe or of humanitie , Univer ity of Lima, for re earch in Peru on internal colonial markets and regional formation from the 16th to the 17th century ROBIN WRIGHT, profes or of anthropolo~, State University of Campina , for re earch in BraZIl on a comparative and long-range hi torical tudy of the Indian people of the north we t Amazon regIon NEAR AND MIDDLE EA T The following advanced re earch grants were awarded by the Joint Committee on the Near and Middle Ea tPeter von Siver (chair), Leonard Binder, Abdellah Hammoudi, Michael C. Hud on, Suad Jo eph, Jean Leca, Afaf Lufti al-Sayyid Mar ot, Roger Owen, Alan R. Richard, and John Waterbury-at it meeting on February 27, 1987. P. Nikiforo Diamandouro, Chri tina Dragonetti, and Trenholme Junghans served as taff for the program. EVELYNE ACCAD, a ociate profe or of French, African tudie ,women's tudie, comparative literature, and Southwe t A ian tudies, University of Illinoi, for 27


re earch on exuality, war, and literature in the Middle Bate Collese, for re earch in Sri Lanka on a hi tory of Ea t repre entaUon through the Mahavamsa LEILA S. AL-IMAD, vi iting scholar, Kevorkian Center for DAVID E. LOPEZ, a ociate profe or of ociology, UniverNear Eastern Studies, New York University, for ity of California, Lo Angele, for re earch on the re earch on the ocial hi tory of the Druzes in the 19th organization of ethnicity through Asian Indian as ociaand 20th centuries tion in the United State RIFA'AT ALI ABOU-EL-HAJ, profe or of hi tory, California MORGAN D. MACLACHLAN, profe or of anthropology, State Univer ity, Long Beach, for re earch on Ottoman Univer ity of South Carolina, for research on the exual political thought between the 16th and 18th centurie divi ion of farm labor in India TERRY A. ALLEN, a istant profe or of the hi tory of art, PATRICK A. PEEBLES, a ociate profe or of history, Univer ity of Michi~n, for re earch on the integration University of Mi ouri at Kan as City, for re earch on of regional tyle In the architecture of the Levant the population hi tory of Sri Lanka, 1796-1921 between the 7th and 13th centurie BRYAN L. PFAFFENBERGER, a i tant profe or of humaniMARGOT BADRAN, fellow, In titute for Re earch in Hi tory, tie , Univer ity of Virginia, for re earch in the United ew York City, for re earch on women femini ts and Kingdom and the United State on the ocial hi tory of fundamentali ts in Egypt in the 1930 , 1940s, and 1950 indu trial manufacturing in ri Lanka MARTI W. DALY, a si tant profe or of hi tory, Arkan as GYAN PRAKA H, Mellon po tdoctoral instructor, Divi ion of State U niver ity, for re earch on the political, economic, Humanitie and Social Science, California In titute of and ocial hi tory of the Sudan during the last two Technology, for re earch in the United Kingdom on decade of colonial rule cycle of regularity and the reproduction of power and HAHLA HAERI, po tdoctoral fellow, Pembroke Center for re i tance in agrarian north India, 1850-1950 Teachins and Research, Brown Univer ity, for re earch DAVID PROCHA KA, as i tant profe or of hi tory, Univeron ambIvalence toward women in I lamic law and ity of Illinoi , for re earch on the colonial city in the ideology Third World ILlYA F. HARIK, profe or of political science, Indiana HOLLY BAKER REYNOLD, a i tant profe or of religion, Univer ity, for re earch on privatization development Welle ley College, for re earch on South Indian trategie in Tuni ia and Egypt and their effects on women's religion economic growth and equity H. L. SENEVIRATNE, a ociate profe or of anthropology, CLEMENT M. HENRY, vi iting profe or, In titut d'Etude Univer ity of Virginia, for re earch on the organization Politique (Pari), for re earch on economic reform and of the Sangha (Buddhi t monkhood) of Sri Lanka politic in Algeria, Egypt, Morocco, Tunisia, and LEE A. SIEGEL, profe or of religion, Univer ity of Hawaii, Turkey for re earch on Indian magic ROBERT F. HUNTER, a ociate profe or of hi tory, Tulane HOWARD SPODEK, profe or of hi tory and urban tudie, Univer ity, for re earch on European influence on the Temple Univer Ity, for re earch on Ahmedabad, India precolonial tate in Egypt and Tuni ia between 1 00 in the 20th century and 18 2 JAMES CLYDE WOODWARD, re earch scienti t, Center for PA LA. KAY, a ociate profe or of geography, Univer ity A e ment and Demographic Studie , Gallaudet Uniof Utah, for re earch on agricultural productivity and ver ity, for re earch in epal on ign language water u e in Israel HE RY L. M N ON, a i tant profe or of anthropology, OUTHEA5T A IA Univer ity of Maine, for re earch on a ocial and cultural hi tory of Morocco The Joint Committee on outhea t A ia-John R. W. RADWAN A. SHABAN, a i tant profe or of economics, Univer it}' of Penn ylvania, for re earch on the di tribu- Smail (chair), Shelly Errington, Gillian P. Hart, Charle F. tion of e onomic welfare in Jordan between 19 0 and Keye, Ruth T. McVey, David Marr, Renato Ro aldo, 19 6 Chai-anan Samudvanija, and Peter S. Xeno -awarded BIROL A. YESHILADA, a i tant profe or of political grants to the following individual at its meeting on March ience, Univer ity of Mi ouri at Columbia, for re- 23-27, 1987. Toby Alice Volkman and Lori McGrogan earch on a macroeconomic and behavioral tudy of erved a taff for thi program. Turke' economic integration efforts with the European Economic Community (EEC) G. CARTER BENTLEY, a i tant profe or of anthropol0sY' Univer ity of Wa hington, for re earch in the Philippine on the practice theory of ethnic political mobiliza50 TH IA tion in relation to the Bang a Moro movement in the outhern Philippine Th Joint Committee on outh A ia-Bernard . Cohn JAMES F. EDER, a ociate profe or of anthropology, (chair), Arjun Appadurai, Clive Bell, Jan C. Breman, Arizona State Univer ity, for re earch in the Philippine Richard Eaton, Ronald J. Herring, Barbara S. Miller, on agricultural development and ocial inequality In an upland farming community Harold . Powers, and Su an S. Wadley-awarded grants to the following individual at its meeting on March JEAN FRA COl G ERMO PREZ, re earch a ociate, Department of Anthropology, ational Center for cientific 13-14, 1987. Toby Alice Volkman and Lori McGrogan Re earch, France, for re earch in Wa hington, on the erved a taff for thi program Mead-Bate on material on BaJi WARD W. KEELER, a i tant profe or of anthropology, TEVE E. G. KEMPER, a ociate profe or of anthropology, Univer ity of Texa , for re earch in Indone ia on the 2

VOLUME 41, N MBER 112


ritual uses of shadow plays in Baline e and Javane e March 26-29, 1987 awarded grants for the following culture individual and collaborative projects. Toby Alice VolkJOEL C. KUIPER, a istant profe or of anthropology, man, Mary Byrne McDonnell, and Mintari Preston erved Seton Hall Univer ity, for re earch in Indonesia on a staff for this program. ritual speech and the poetic of elf in Weyewa, Sumba J. STEPHEN LANSING, associate profe or of anthropology, CAROL IRESON, RANDALL IRESON, KHAM-ONE KEOPRA University of Southern California, for research in the E TH, Tou MEKSAVANH, AND CHAN OUK MEKSAVANH, Netherland on the colonial records of the Baline e Willamette University, for re earch on traditional temple, Ulun Danu Batur pattern of cooperation in rural Lao ociety PHEUIPHANH NGAO YVATHN, Director of the Political Department, Mini try of Foreign Affair, Lao, for JUDY L. LEDGERWOOD AND SIVANE BRAHM, Cornell Univer ity, for re earch on Khmer conceptions of re earch in France, Thailand, and the United States on gender: the female in literature and daily life the ettlement of the French-Indochina-Thailand terriTHUYET PHONG NGUYEN, Kent State Univer ity, for torial dispute by the Wa hington Conference (1946) and re earch on Vietname e mu ic in the refugee communithe Washington Conciliation Commi ion (1947) tie of the United States: an as e ment of genre and GLORIA RI ER POEDJO OEDARMO, Jogyakarta, Indone ia, performers for re earch in Indone ia on the u e of voice to convey SALLY PETER ON, PANG XIONG SIRITHA UK, PHUA AND MAl emotive-expres ive meaning in Javane e VANG XIONG, Univer ity of Penn ylvania, for re earch JAMES T. SIEGEL, profes or of anthropology and A ian on principle and proces e of White Hmong paj ntaub tudie , Cornell Univer ity, for re earch in Indone ia on de Ign: relations of meaning, method, and memory the cultural dimensions of Indone ian metropolitan life HERBERT PURNELL, Cornell Univer ity, for re earch on a fragile treasure: ong and torie of the Iu Mien Yao SAM-ANG SAM, We leyan Univer ity, for re earch on the OVIET UNION pin peat en emble: its hi torical development, music, and context The following advanced research grants were awarded WILLIAM A. SMALLEY, Bethel College, for re earch on the by the Joint Committee on Soviet Studie -Loren Graham life and teaching of Yang Shiong Lue (chair), Jo eph Berliner, Jeffrey Brooks, Timothy Colton, CHANNY SAK-HuMPHRY, University of Hawaii, for re earch Sheila Fitzpatrick, Edward L. Keenan, Gail Lapidu, on a grammatical inve tigation of the Khmer Krom Robert Legvold, Herbert S. Levine, William Mill Todd, dialect III, and Heinrich Vogel-at its meeting on April 3-4, 1987. The committee wa a i ted by a creening Publi hed and unpubli hed material generated and committee-Jo eph Berliner (chair), Abraham Ascher, collected by the e grantees will be placed in an archive at Jeffrey Brooks, Deming Brown, and Tere a Rakow ka- the Library of Congre and made available both to Harm tone. Blair A. Ruble, Kri tin Antelman, and Regina member of the Indochine e communitie and to re earch Smyth served as taff for this program. scholar. MICHAEL L. BERBAUM, a istant profe or of l>sychology, Brandeis University, for re earch on the OClal p ychology of Soviet work CHRJ TINE R. HINSHAW, a istant profe or of hi tory, Getty burg College, for re earch on the profe ionalization of urban schoolteacher in St. Peter burg and Moscow, 1890-1914 STEVEN L. HOCH, a i tant profe or of hi tory, Drew Univer ity, for re earch on rural Ru ia during the emancipation, 1860-1880 HEIDI KROLL, a i tant profes or of economic, Univer ity ofTexa , for re earch on law, economic, and organization in the Soviet economy VLADIMIR PADUNOV, re earch scholar, In titute of Current World Affair (Hanover, New Hamp hire), for re earch on cultural politic and production in the Soviet Union under Gorbachev INDOCHINA STUDIE The Subcommittee on Indochina Stu die of the Joint Committee on Sou thea t A ia-Charle F. Keye (chair), Amy Catlin, Carol Compton, May Ebihara, Donald Emmer on, John Hartmann, Gerald Hickey, Hue-Tam Ho Tai, David Marr, Bounlieng Phomma ouvanh, William S. Turley, and Alexander Wood ide-at its meeting on

J

NE 1987

INTERNATIONAL PEACE A D SECURITY STUDIES The Committee on International Peace and Security Studie -Catherine M. Kelleher (chair), McGeorge Bundy, A hton B. Carter, Richard A. Falk, John Lewis Gaddi , Arnold L. Horelick, Robert Jervi, Robert W. Kate, Richard R. Nelon, Uwe Nerlich, Robert O'Neill, Michel Ok enberg, Judith V. Reppy, Condoleezza Rice, and Gene Sharp-voted at its meeting on June 11-12 and December 15-16, 1986 to award both predoctoral and po tdoctoral fellowship to the following individual. It wa a i ted by a creening committee-Barton J. Bern tein, Stephen P. Cohen, Karen Dawi ha, Michael W. Doyle, Lynn Rachele Eden, George A. Lopez, William P. Snyder, Stephen W. Van Evera, and Raimo Vayrynnen. Richard H. Mo , Richard C. Rockwell, Su an McLaughlin, and Marci Notton on erved a taff for thi program.

Predoctoral fellowships DOUGLAS W. BLUM, Ph.D. candidate in political cience, Columbia Univer ity, for (1) training in cognitive 29


P ychology and (2) re earch on Soviet mode of trategic and the influence of Soviet and American percepuon of one another's behavior on their policie toward each other TAMI R. DAVI , Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Yale Univerity, for (1) training in public policy and organizational theory and (2) re earch into the extent to whi h ~merican nation~. ecurity policy during the 1950 wa mfluenced by Bnu h trategy and the extent to which ~e fundamental a umption and perception underly109 We tern trategy at that time continue to hape trategic debate in the 19 0 RI HARD A. DECK, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Stanford Univer ity, for (1) trainin~ in Sou thea t A ian tudle and (2) re earch on the creation of emiautonomou regional 路economic and ecurity regime among newly-indu trialized countrie , focu ing on ASEAN a a potential model for the future of the Third World DAVID R. FA ELSON, Ph.D. candidate in politics, University of Oxford, for (1) the tudy of the formulation and implementati~n of U .S. trat~gic military policy and (2) re earch eekmg to determme whether the right to ~i ~be~ military policy exi ts, by examining how the !n tltutlonal truct.ure of military policy formulation fit !nt~ ~e d~moc~atl~ and legal ~roce e upon which the mdlVldual obhgatlon to obey IS predicated MICHAEL B. FROMAN, Ph.D. candidate in international rel~?on '. Unive.r it~ of Oxford, for (1) training in Bntl h dlplomauc hI tory and European hi tory of the late 19th and early 20th centurie and (2) re earch on the evolution of the concept of d~tente, from the Cuban mi sile cri i to the pre ent LAURA G AZZONE, trainee in international ecurity tudie In .ti~ute .of Internati?nal Af~air (Rome), for (1) trammg 10 comparative pohtl and the political economy of the Middle Ea t and (2) re earch on the ecurity perception underlying the pOlitical behavior of the Arab tate RONALD ERJ HERRING, Ph.D. candidate in international poli.tics, ~niver itY.C:;ollege of W~le , for (1) the tudyof SoY!~t hI tory, pohtl ,and foreIgn and defen e policy decI Ion makmg and (2) re earch on "nuclear blackmail" a~d related concepts referring to imilaritie and dIfference between U.S. and Soviet perspective and behavior THOMA F. HOMER-DIXON, Ph.D. candidate in political sci~n~e, ~a a~hu etts In titute of Technology, for (1) trammg 10 OClal P ychology and (2) the exploration of a pects of pa t and current U .s.-Soviet relation par?cu~arly how the culture, ideology, and politicai 10 tltutlon of each uperpower have affected the formation of its collective identity GILBERT KHADIAGALA, Ph.D. candidate in international relation, The John Hopkins Univer ity, for (1) the tudy of international diplomacy and alliance behavior and (2) re earch on the role of Africa's o-called "Frontli.ne State" (!,-n~ola, Botswana, Mozambique, Tanzama, and ZambIa) 10 the management of regional conflicts in Southern Africa ince 1975 KATH.RIN ~ECKER LAT H, Ph.D. candidate in p ychology, Un!,:erslty of Hamburg, for (1) the study of party pohucs and method of media analy is in the United State and (2) comparative re earch on American and We t German views of the Atlantic Alliance as affected by their perceptions of the USSR and the Warsaw Pact thmkin~

30

nation , by perception of their allie , and by their people' concepts of ecurity and national identity RODG.ER ~AYNE, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Umver Ity of Maryland, for (1) training in hi torical analy i and (2) re earch on the effect of the Ie on of hi tory upon p?li y makers, focu ing upon the recurrence of trategtc defen e debate in the United tate in the nuclear era

Po /doctoral fellow hips SERGIO AGU~ ".0, ~Ii.tical ci~nti t, EI C?legio de M~xico, for (1) tram!ng I~ I~tern~uonal ecunty tudie and (2) re ear~h whIch WIll Identify threats to Mexican ecurity a~d. WIll define Mexican national ecurity intere ts a dl tinct from tho e of the United State and other nation JAVIER G. ALCALDE, political scienti t, Univer ity of Lima, for (1) the tudy of the economic and technical aspects of development trategie followed by the Third World after 1945 and (2) an examination of typical problem of eve:al mall-debtor natio~ in La.tin Am~rica, focu ing on hnk between economIc malal e, OCtal decompo ition, and revolutionary activity in an effort to identify the components e ential to a ucce ful development trategy MOHAMMED AYOOB, political ienti t, The Au tralian ational University, for (1) the tudy of the evolution of the uperpower' trategic balance, their projection of power in the Third World, their arm tran fer and military a i tance to Third World nation and their economic influence over the Third World' ince 1945 and (~) re earch on the interaction of the global dynaml of uperpower competition with the internal dynamic of crucial Third World region TIMO!HY 'I. BRAC, biologi t, Cancer Re earch Laboratory, ~mver !ty of We ~ern Ontario, for (1) the tudy of mternatlonal ecunty and arm control i ue and the techn!~1 aspects of biologi~1 weapon and (2) re earch exammm~ the .nature of bIological weapon and how change 10 theIr technology may affect international peace and ecurity NANCY ~R!C~OU E, phy icist, Univer ity of Hawaii, for (1) tra.mmg 10 U.S. nuclear weapon policy and (2) an analy I of the effects of technological imperative uch a SDI upon arm control PAUL.J\. C~IL:ON, lin~i t, Univer ity ofWarwi k, for (1) trammg 10 mternatlonal relation theory and trategic thought and (2) re earch on lingui tic and discourse a pects of the formulation of nuclear doctrine JAVIER A. ELGUEA, 'philo opher, EI Colegio de M~xico, for (1) the tudy of mternational ecurity, moral aspects of ~ace and war, and recent Central American political hi! tory and (2) an examination of the ways in which orgamzed violence has been ju tified in Latin American thought .on development and social progre ince 1945 and the mfluence of Latin American '~ust war" theories upon conception of national and international security in Central America JOANNE GOWA, political cientist, University of Pennsylvania, for (1) training in the history of international secu.T?ty ys~ms and (2) an explanation of the relative tabihty of bIpolar and multipolar international political y tern VOLUME 41, NUMBERS 112


RICHARD IMMERMAN, hi torian, Univer ity of Hawaii, for (I) training in political p ychology and (2) re earch on the management of nauonal ecurity policy during the Ei enhower administration STEVEN G. KULL, P ychologist, Stanford Univer ity, for (1) training in international relation, ecurity policy, and Soviet foreign policy and (2) re earch on ychological ob tacle to potential for enhancing tabllity, uch a restructuring military forces, creating binding agreements, and developing ethical tandards for international behavior ANNE-MARIE LE GLOANNEC, political scientist, National Foundation for Political Science (Pari) for (I) training in military doctrine and technologie and (2) a comparative study of ecurity intere ts and goal in Ea t and West Germany JACK S. LEVY, political cienti t, Univer ity of Texa , for (I) interdi ciplinary training in decision theory and (2) re earch on the cau e of war in general and "inadvertent war" in particular BARRY O'NEILL, mathematician, Northwe tern Univer ity, for (1) the tudy of international ecurity policy and (2) re earch on new problems in e calation from a game-theoretical per pective ATHANA 10 G. PLATIA , Ph.D. candidate in government, Cornell Univer ity, for (I) the tudy of modern weapon technologie and (2) re earch on the extent to which technology determine the election of a military trategy in small state ; technologies will be compared to international and dome tic tructures a influence upon trategy STEPHEN D. SHENFIELD, mathematician, Univer ity of Birmingham, for (I) training in Soviet military doctrine, Soviet foreign and defen e policy, and strategic tudie and (2) research on the development of Soviet doctrine concerning the threat of nuclear war during the pa t 30 years ROBERT H. SPRINKLE, phy ician and Ph.D. candidate at the Woodrow Wilson School of Public Affair, Princeton University, for (I) the tudy of foreign and human rights policies and (2) re earch on the strategic im}?li.cauons of human rights and human welfare poliCIes YAGIL WEINBERG, political scientist, Univer ity of Maryland, for (I) the study of the tructure and operation of multinational corporations and the way in which they are influenced by foreign inve tment and national governments and (2) re earch on the role multinational corporations play in bilateral relations between adver arial states and the extent to which they promote the nonviolent resolution of interstate ten ions

e

ROBERT O. KEOHANE, profe or of government, Harvard Univer ity, for re earch on the changing significance of overeignty in United State foreign policy ALEXANDROS KITROEFF, adjunct a i tant profe or of hi tory, Queen College, City Univer ity of New York, for re earch on the evolution of the Greek-American community into an ethnic lobby group RICHARD P. MAD EN, profe or of ocio[ogy, Univer ity of California, San Diego, for re earch on the role of moral vi ion in the making of U.S. foreign policy towards China JOHN S. ODELL, profe or of political cience, Univer ityof Southern California, for re earch on U.S. foreign policy making a a proce of simultaneou bargaining at home and abroad BRENDA GAYLE PLUMMER, a i tant profe or of AfroAmerican hi tory, Univer ity of Minne ota, for a hi torical rea e ment of the political participation and intere t of Black American in foreign affair ROBERT S. Ro ,lecturer in political cience, Columbia University, for re earch on the international and domestic influences on the making of U.S. policy toward China ince 1971 CHARLES DEBENEDETTI (decea ed), profe or of hi tory, Univer ity of Toledo, for re earch on elite di ent during the Vietnam War and the ub equent evolution of p?Iitical and intellectual oppo ition to U.S. foreign pohcie COMPARATIVE STUDY OF MUSLIM SOCIETIES The Joint Committee on the Comparative Study of Mu lim Societie -Barbara D. Metcalf (chair), Said Benaid, Dale F. Eickelman, Gille Kepel, M. Khalid Masud, Jame Pi catori, William R. Roff, Charle C. Stewart, and Nurcholi h Madjid-voted at its meeting on December 15-17, 1986 to award an advanced re earch grant to the following individual. David L. Szanton and Sandra Barrow erved as taff for this program. GREGORY C. KOZLOW KI, as ociate professor of hi tory, DePaul Univer ity, for re earch on Mu lim endowments in the ocial, religiou , and political hi tory of Iran, Turkey, and India

INSTITUTIONAL SUPPORT PROGRAMS

In its third national competition for grants to American in titution that offer inten ive training in the Russian and FELLOWSHIPS FOR FOREIGN POLICY STUDIES non-Rus ian languages of the Soviet Union, the Joint Committee on Soviet Studie , at its meeting on April 3-4, The following postdoctoral fellowship were awarded by 1987, made awards to nine institutions. In the Ru sian the Committee on Foreign Policy Studies-Carl Kay en language competition, awards were made to the Ru sian (chair), I. M. Destler, Miles Kahler, Ernest R. May, at Bo ton University, the Ru ian Language School Guillermo A. O'Donnell, Janice Gro s Stein-at its at Bryn Mawr College, the Rus ian Institute at Institute meetings on July 31,1986 and January 16, 1987. Richard Indiana University, the Russian School at Middlebury H. Mo s and Lisa A. Ryan served as staff for thi program. College, the Rus ian School at Norwich University, and JUDITH L. GOLD TEIN, a si tant profes or of political the School for Advanced International Studies at the science, Stanford University, for re earch on the role of Johns Hopkins University. In the non-Russian language competition, awards were made to the Georgian Language ideas and institutions in U.S. trade policy JUNE 1987

31


Program at the Univer ity of Chicago, the Ukrainian In titute at Harvard Univer ity, and the Uzbek Language Program at the University of California, Lo Angeles. The committee was assisted by a screening committee- William Mill Todd, III (chair), II e Cirtautas, Daniel Matu zew ki, Sandra Ro en grant, John Schillinger, and Charle Townend. The econd awards under the Joint Committee on Soviet Studies' program to initiate new teaching positions

In Ru ian and Soviet Studies were al 0 made at the committee's meeting on April 3-4, 1987. The committee made three awards: the University of Arizona received an award for partial funding of a po ition in ociology and demography; the University of Southern California received an award for partial funding of a po ition in economics; and the Univer ity of Wa hington received an award for partial funding of a ocial cience po ition specializing in Central Asian affairs.

SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH COUNCIL 605 THIRD AVEN

E. NEW YORK. N.Y. 1015

The Counetl was incorporatLd in the SIQU of IUinois, IHcnnINr 27, 1924, for the PUrposL of advancing rLuarch In the social scienas. NongoWTTImLntal and inkTdisciplinary in nature, the Council appoints committus of scholars whICh mit to achIeVe the Councal's Purpou through the gemration of mw ickas and the training of scholars. The activities of the Council art suf1JKn1Ld primaril, by grants from pnvatt foundations and gowrnmtnt agtncits. Directars, 19 6-19 7: SUZANNE D. BERGER. Massachusetts In titute of Technology; RICHARD A. BERK, University of California, Santa Barbara; HOWARD GARDNER, Harvard niversity; E. MAVIS HETHERINGTON, University of Virginia; ROBERT W. KATES, Brown University; GARDNER LINDZEY, Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences; BEVI loNG TRETH, Debevoise and Plimpton; HUGH T . PATRICK, Columbia University;Jo EPI! A. PECHMA , The Brookings In titution; CoNDOLEEZZA RICE, Stanford University; WILUAM H. SEWELL, JR., University of Michigan; SYDEL F. SILVERMA ,The Graduate Center, City University of New York; RoDOLFO STAVENHAGEN, EI Colegio de M~xico; STEPHEN M. STIGLER, University of Chicago; FRAN I X. SUTTON, Dobbs Ferry, New York; FREDERIC E. WAKEMAN, JR., Social Science Research Council; HERBERT F. YORK, University of California, San Diego. OffICers and Staff: FREDERIC E. WAKEMAN,JR., PrLSidenl; DAVID L. SILLS, Executive Associate; RONALD J. PELECK, Conlroller; DoRIE SINOCCHI, As.rutanl to the PrLSicknl; JOAN DASSIN, P. NIKIFORO DIAMANDOURO , YA MINE ERGA , MARTIIA A. GEPHART, RICHARD H. Moss, ROBERT W. PEAR ON, RICIIARD C. ROCKWELL, BLAIR A. RUBLE, DAVID L. SZANTON, STEFAN TANAKA, TOBY ALICE VOLKMAN.

This publication is available in Microform. University Microfilms International 500 OM ZÂŤb Road. Dept. P.R.. Ann Arbor. Mi. 48106

Social Science Research Council 605 Third Avenue New York, N.Y. 10158 ADDRESS CORRECTION REQUESTED

32

VOLUME

41,

NUMBER

112

Items Vol. 41 No.1-2 (1987)  
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