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OCIAL CIENCE RE EARCH COU CIL

VOLUME 40 • NUMBER 2 • JUNE 1986 605 THIRD AVENUE . NEW YORK, N.Y. 10158

Personal Testimony: Narratives of the Self in the Social Sciences and the Humanities by Vincent Crapanzano, Yasmine Ergas, and Judith Modell* THE Co NCIL PLAN TO APPOINT, jointly with the American Council of Learned ocietie, a Committee on Per onal Te timony. The Council ha had a longtanding intere t in per onal te timony, in tho e elfreflective fir t per on narrative which declare a their purported ubject matter the narrator' peronal experience and on which 0 much re earch i ba ed. 1 everal recent development warrant the Council' return to thi topic of inquiry. Advance made in numerou area have broadened the range of approache and information that can be brought to bear in the elicitation and interpretation of fir t per on accounts. Furthermore, in the u e of uch accounts, di ciplinary demarcation have declined a it ha become clear that each di cipline can benefit from a common confrontation of hared dilemma. Finally, the term of the debate over narrative of the elf have hifted a a re ult of the epi temological and methodological di cu ion that have occupied a central place in the contemporary ocial cience. Over the pa t two decade ,the ocial cience have • incent rapanzano i profe sor of anthropology and comparative literature at the Graduate Center and at Queen College, City Univer ity of New York. Ya mine Ergas, a ociologi t, i a staff a ociate at the ouncil. Judith Modell i vi iting a i tant profes or of anthropology at Carnegie-Mellon niver ity. I The Council' publi ation in thi area include: Gordon W. lIport, Tht t of Ptr: ollal DOCllmtllls ill P 'chological cimet. Bulletin 49. ew York: 'ocial cience Re arch Council, 1942; Herb rt Blumer, Critiqut of Rt tarch in tht ocial cimet : An Appraisal ofThomru and Znanitcki' "Tht Polish Ptasant ill Europt and America." econd edition with a new introduction by th author. ew Brun wick, New Jer ey: Tran action Book, 1979 (Fir t publi hed in 1939 b the 'ocial ' ien e Re earch Council); and Loui GOlt chalk, Clyde Kluckhohn, and Robert ngell, Tilt USt of Ptronal Docummls in History, Allthropology alld ociology. Bulletin 53. ew York: ocial ience Re earch ouncil, 1945.

que tioned their underlying premi e in important way. Inten e theoretical di cu ion have accompanied increa ing technical ophi tication. Mathematical and tati tical methodologie have permitted increa ingly fine-grained data analy i . Large- cale data ba e have provided information on a variety of phenomena in diver e context. At the arne time, re earch in lingui tic , literary analy i , philo ophical inquiry, p ychological under tanding, and ocial theory have all contributed to the refinement of interpretive trategie. Although the e advance have trengthened pecific direction and chool of thought within the ocial cience, they ha e rarely generated cumulative in ight capable of bridging intradi ciplinary divi ion. In fact, divi ion linked to di ergent epi temological orientation may have been reinforced even a interdi ciplinary di tinction appear to ha e weakened. Thi legacy of di agreement notwith tanding, que tion have ari en which tran cend the e theoreti-

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CONTENTS OF THIS ISSUE Personal Te timony: arrative of the elf in the Social Science and Humanities-Vinctnt Crapanumo, Yasmint Ergas, and Judith ModtU

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Explanation of Fertility Decline in Latin

merica-

Jo tPh E. PoUlT 35 36

Research in Rural China: Five-Year Program C Prepare Guide to Federal Funding for

ial

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taff Appointment Council Hold Exploratory ~eeting to Di us ' ial ience Re earch on 10 Fellow hip and Grants for International Re earch Awarded in 19 6 Council Fellow hip and Grant ffered in 19 6

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cal divi ion . And "per onal te timony" ha emerged a an arena within which convergent under tanding may be fo tered, bringing ariou tradition clo er while clarifying their difference and com pie mentaritie . Whether the u e large number of que tionnaire or collect detailed ethnographic de cription , ocial cienti t eeking to learn how the world work , or once did 0, grapple with difficultie inherent in under tanding and decoding meaning. The tudy of per onal te timony draw attention to the con truction of meaning in autobiographical narration even a it focu e upon the information provided. The information which emerge when people recount their experience differ from the kind elicited when individual an wer precodified que tion . Life hi torie , memoir , diarie , and the like characteri tically adopt freer form than do tightly tructured que tionnaire . The narrator may mold the tale to a much greater extent in the former ca e than in the latter. The tandardization of re pon e achieved through rigidly tructured inquiry facilitate the application of tati tical technique by ensuring comparability and conequently al 0 favor the development of generalization , replication , and prediction . Comparability, generalization, and prediction appear more difficult in reference to the open narrative emerging from per onal te timony. But in the flow of autobiographical accounts, the connection that cement the many dimen ions of experience emerge more clearly. By allowing the narrator freer rein, then, uch narrative potentially yield in ight into unfore een or mi apprehended facets of individual and collective experience while providing the grounding for refined analy e at numerou levels-the tructural, interactional, and rhetorical, for example. A a concern of ocial cience, "acce ing" experience ha led to a earch for new ource and for new analytical method . Data-collecting in titution are a king increa ing number of people to record behavior and experience in diarie . And notwith tanding its long-term he itation about adopting a diary-ba ed methodology, for over a decade the U. . Government ha u ed controlled diary collection a one ource upon which to build the Con umer Price Index. Diarie -like letter, memoir , and oral hi torie -<an perform a "recording function." But they can al 0 be tudied for the ubjective perception they convey. uch perception are of equal importance to re earcher engaged in analy e of both the pa t and the pre ent and erve to define per onal te timony a a meeting ground for "po itivi t" and "critical" ocial cienti ts. Moreover, cientific ocial inquiry increa ingly ad26

dre e methodological problem created by particular kind of variable . The way in which a que tionnaire i ordered and worded, and the ituation in which it i ad mini tered, affect the an wer given to que tion eliciting 0 ten ibly objective re pon e .1 Appropriate control mechani m can correct the reulting di tortion . But uch di tortion may al 0 be u ed to advantage in re earch: to gain in ight into the workings of language and the functioning of memor , into the contextuality of accounts, and into the wa . in which variou ituation tructure information. In deriving uch in ight, urvey re earcher , and those adopting imilar approache , can benefit from exchange with ocial cienti ts working in the interpretive tradition, a well a with humani ts for whom the analy i of the functioning of language, memor', ymboli m, contextuality, and the relation hip of interpretation to ob ervation, like the framework organizing belief and knowledge, have traditionally been of central importance. Per onal te timony rai e a major que tion: What i it that we learn when people peak about them elve ? Thi que tion become of immediate concern to the general public when debate, like tho e recently parked by trial related to child abu e and to children' exuality, revolve around the value inherent in the declaration of witne e and deal with i ue of wide pread concern. Beyond the fluctuation of public intere t, thi que tion i of central importance to humani ts and ocial cienti ts of differing per uaion. The problematic relation hip that bind perception, memory, and the interpretation of ocial event and proce e i central to novelists like Milan Kundera and to ocial scientists like AlbertJ. Rei ,Jr. While Milan Kundera wrote, in TM Book of Laughttr and Forgtlting: Mirek i a much a rewriter of hi tory as the Communist Party, all political partie, all nation, all men. People are alway houting they want to create a better future. It' not true. The future i an apathetic void of no interest to anyone. The pa I i full of life, eager to irritate u , provoke and in ult u , tempt u to de troy or repaint it. The only reason people want to be ma ters of the future i to change the pa t. They are fighting for acce to the laboratorie where photograph are retouched and biographie and hi torie rewritten. 3

Albert J. Rei ,Jr. tre ed that: ... theorie about human behavior uch a how we cognize, tore, and recall information or of how organization lect, 2 Howard human and tanley Pre r, Qut Iio and AnJUJm in Attittuh uroty : Exptriments on QUi lion Form. Wording, and COlI-

tnt. New York: cademic Pre , 1981. 3 Milan Kundera. Tiu Book of Laughttr and Forgttting. 'ew York: Penguin Book, 19 I, page 22. VOLUME

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tore, and proce information are more critical kind of theory for the development of our discipline than are theori about how nation develop their economi or of how people vote. It i far more critical in thi ense to develop theorie about per onal and ocial deception that will underlie method of inquiry than to develop th orie that rely upon those method for their te t. 4

The new Joint Committee on Per onal Te timony will provide a forum in which repre entative of parallel concern uch a the e, who rarely find occasion for direct dialogue, can engage in y tematic, focu ed, and on-going di cu ion. In 0 doing, the committee will generate interpretive and analytic trategie for coming to an under tanding of per onal te timony; it will elaborate methodologie for eliciting, recording, and pre enting uch te timony; and it will explore the way in which the u e of per onal te timonie contribute to the ocial cience and the humanitie at large.

The definition of personal testimony The committee' objective emanate from the meeting of a working group that met three time during 1984-85 and who e participants included: Daniel Bertaux, ational Center for cientific Re earch (C R), Pari I abelle Bertaux-Wiame, Univer ity of Pari Bertram Cohler, Univer ity of Chicago Vincent Crapanzano, Graduate Center and Queen Colel~e, City Univer ity of ew York Benjamin De Mott, Amher t College Ya mine Erga, ocial cience Re earch Council Chri tina Gilli , American Council of Learned ocietie Ronald Grele, Columbia Univer ity Tamara Hareven, Clark Univer ity Judith Modell, Carnegie-Mellon Univer ity idney Morgenbe er, Columbia Univer ity Peter B. Read, ocial cience Re earch Council Richard chlatter, American Council of Learned ocietie Howard chuman, Univer ity of Michigan Roger Tourangeau, ational Opinion Re earch Center (Chicago) "Per onal te timony" wa cho en a the focu of the ' working group' di cu ion becau e the phra e i conceptually more comprehensive than life hi torie ,oral hi torie ,diarie ,or autobiographie . (It wa of cour e recognized that "te timony" and, for that matter, "per onal," were by no mean without cultural implication; both concept mirror We tern religiou , juridical, and p ychological tradition .) After di cu ion, the group arrived at a preliminary definition of 4 Albert J . Rei , Jr., "Exploring the Central Paradox in Method of 'ocial ' ience Inquiry." Unpublished paper preented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Augu t 30, 19 1.

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per onal te timony a a elf-reflective, fir t per on narrative which declares as its purported ubject matter the narrator' per onal experience_" arrative" i not re tricted here to a coherent and complete tory a it would be, ay, in an autobiography, a memoir, or any "completed" account. Rather, narrative i al 0 meant to encompa fragmentary accounts which do not fit into predefined clo ed-an wer ets or tandard literary and conver ational genre . "Peronal experience" i not een a nece arily "hi torical" in nature, and" elf" i under tood a being recreated in the proce of narration. The working group empha ized that there are sub tantial cro cultural variations in notion of elf, experience, hi tory, and narrative. In the working group' undertanding, then, per onal te timony comprehend a broad range of elf-accounts, including the pontaneou , the formally and informally elicited, the confe ional, the didactic, and the therapeutic, and thu encompa e many literary and quasi-literary narrative including autobiographie, memoir, diarie, and letter.

Personal testimony as process and product: an outline of the issues In the e many form, per onal te timonie provide narrative autobiographical accounts upon which both ocial cienti ts and humani ts rely. Yet they al 0 po e numerou interpretive and methodological problem . For example, con ider an autobiographical narrative provided by a former activi t in the tudents' ational Coordinating Committee a he recounted hi life to hi torian engaged in the Columbia Univer ity Oral Hi tory Re earch Project. Thi document prompts many que tion which exemplify the i ue rai ed by per onal te timony, and to which there are in fact no conventionally accepted an wer . hould thi one interview be compared with another five, another 100, or none? What difference did it make to the tory the activi t told that he wa black, while hi interviewer were white? What difference that he wa interviewed two time , tape recorder in evidence, rather than a ked to write his own tale? And how hould the raw tran cript be treated? hould its grammar be corrected, it redundancie eliminated, or its "re tricted code"-which ignore the informational need of the audience not immediately pre ent-tran lated into an elaborated form? The e que tion are perhap be t under tood a indicating po ibilitie, rather than a defining binary alternative according to who e logic one an wer i correct and the other mi taken. Studie of urvey

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hm that racial differen between interviewer and re pondent can have an impact upon re earch reul .5 Yet the implication of thi finding rna differ, depending on whether the purpo of the interview i to provide information ~ r generalization concerning a large population, to in pire literary writing, or to furni h the ba i for the portrayal of a given encounter. The que tion ocial cienti t and humani t confront a the dra\ on per onal te timonie to inform their work are, therefore, open ended. But a cholar identify the variou alternative according to which re earch can be tructured, and explore their implication, the analy i of pecific theoretical and methodological i ue related to per onal te timony can clarif the available option . Con ider, for in tance, the harply contra ting theorie that govern the u e of per onal te timon in p choanal tic and legal practice. To orne extent, theorie uit etting: p choanal tic theorie revolve around the fragilitie of the elf, and eek path to i (re)con titution, while legal theorie pre ume the elf' abilit to bear witne and delineate trategie to tap it e identiary potential. Currently available theorie of per onal te timony do not, however, imply reflect a contextually determined divi ion of lab r. Their ba ic orientation al 0 conflict. In a trial ituation, cro -examiner probe witne e for detail, often etling up confrontational ituation in which more than one er ion of the "facts" i pre ented. Te timon i then tructured a a dialogue in , hich narration i mea ured again t parameter of valid it which require it to be clear, coherent, complete, verifiable, and elf-confident. P ychoanal , on the other hand, tre intraper onal, rather than interper onal, confrontation. Beneath the urface clarity, coherence, elf-confidence, and completene of a te timony, the eek ambiguitie , ambival nce, fragmentation, and uncertaint . For in lacunae and lap e the find clue to the p chological drama re-enacted through tran ference. Wherea courtroom te timony reults-or ought to re ult-in a reliable account of pa t events, p ychoanalytic te timon re ults-or aim to re ult-in a recon tituted elf. ocial cienti t and humani t working with peronal te timony are confronted, moreover, with the problem of the per ua ivene and ignificance of a particular te timony. Are the ae thetic and literar components which characterize a per onal te timon text related to i reliabilit? What auxiliar ' knowlI Howard human, Charlotte teeh, and Lawrence Bobo, Racial Attitruh in Ammca. Cambridge, Ma sachu ellS: Harvard Univer ity Pre ,19 5, page 65.

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edge i required if one rhetoricall per ua ive te timony i to permit generalization about a broad clas of phenomena? Mu t le timony be con idered "typical"-of a particular cla of te tifier, for example-to be ignificant? How do the rule of interpretation var when te timonie are collected from a random ample, repre entative in the aggregate, or from a ingle individual? Couldn't one argue that even the mo t ingular te timonie help to illu trate the range of experience which mu t be taken into account for a general explanation of a particular moment? The Italian high middle age cannot be under tood by looking olely at the heretic miller, Menocchio, who e vici itude Carlo Ginzburg ha recounted. 6 But an interpretation of the period that did not allow for wandering heretic uch a Menocchio would be eriou Iy flawed. The committee propo e to addre the e and imilar i ue b examining per onal te timony a a multidimen ional proce and product in which the provi ion of particular information i tied to the autobiographical con truction of meaning. Of the everal dimen ion along which per onal te timony i ocially and culturally con tructed-and mu t be read-the following appear to be central: (1) it interlo utory dynamic; (2) its language; and (3) it latent political agenda.

Interlocutory dynamic The interlocutor dynamic involved in per onal te timon may be regard d in term of a communication model. 7 The te tifier addre e an audience which ha both ocial and ymbolic value for him. Hi me age become op rative through contact and through context. both of which are in part conventionally given and in part created b the ongoing te timony. The me age i formulated in a culturall given code which indicate the way or the way the mage hould b read (a factual de cription or a fiction, a parable. or a allegory). If not initially under tood by the "addre ee" or audience, an accommodation or compromi e may en ue: the te tifier may alter the code, the audience may learn the code. or both. A "contract to communicate" implicitly bind them: for communication to occur, the code mu t, at lea t in part, be hared. â&#x20AC;˘ rio Ginzburg,ll Fonnaggio t i Vmni ["The Chee and the Worm "]. Turin: Einaudi, 1976. 7 For elaboration, e Roman Jakob on, "Clo ing tatement: Lingui ti and Poeti ," in Thoma A. beok, tylt iT' Languagt. Cambridge, Massachu ett : MI Pre ,1960, page 350-377. VOL ME

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Per onal te timony can al 0 be under tood a a performance. Te timony inevitably produce an effect upon both te tifier and audience. Thi rhetorical dimen ion exi ts whether or not the audience i immediately pre ent (there i rhetoric in a diary a well a in a peech). The te tifier create ver ion of a elf, in a narrative that i con trained by its context. From a confe ional autobiography to a que tionnaire repon e, the "narrator" re pond to the condition of telling-that i , to the culture which provide language, metaphor, and tructure for the te timonyand to the audience with its own demand for comprehen ibility and narrative per ua ivene . Per onal te timony i a di cour e through which the elf icon tituted. At one level-the referential or the informative-per onal te timony ay omething about the elf of the ayer. At another level-the pragmatic-per onal te timony erve to con titute the elf dialectically.s The audience perform a ymbolic a well a a ocial role in thi interactive proce . The te tifier "create " an audience a he "create " him elf. 9 Thi creation may provoke the audience' acquie cence or its re i tance. The audience' repon e in turn affects the te tifier' ver ion of a elf. In a parallel fa hion, the audience "create" the te tifier in order to "create" him elf. The experience of per onal te timony for te tifier and for audience mu t be een in both its informative and its pragmatic dimen ion if we are to appreciate its full ocial and p ychological import. Indeed, both the informative and the pragmatic dimen ion of the te timony are peculiarly intertwined within the "performance" of per onal te timony, and thi intertwining complicate the interpretation of uch te timony at all stage of the proce .

8 U e i made here of a di tinction between two function of language that ha gained wide acceptance in lingui tic and philoophical circle. The referential or informative function of language refer to denotation, which may be independent of the context of utterance and which i encoded in the tructure of language. The pragmatic function relate an utterance to its context of utterance in both pa ively reflective and actively creative way . Pragmati ,defined by Levin on a "the tudy of tho e relation between language and context that are grammaticalized, or encoded in the tructure of language," includes in its purview peech acts, diarie ,the u e of honorific ,and pre uppo ition. ' ee 'tephen C. Levin n. Pragmatic. Cambridge. England: Cambridge Univer ity Pre ,19 3; and M. i1ver tein. "Shifter. Lingui tic Categorie , and Cultural De cription," in K. H. 8 0 and H. A. elby, editor, .'Wtaning in Anthropology. Ibuquerque: Univer ity of ew Mexico Pre ,1976, page 11-55. t ee Vincent Crapanzano, Tuhami: Portrait of a .\10roccall. nJver ity of Chicago Pre , 1980.

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Language The language in which te timony i expre ed upplie clue to its po ible reading. But lingui tic and narrative tructure al 0 provide information that mu t be analyzed on its own term . A narrative' internal, formal component reflect the literary conventions to which it conform and the idio yncratic innovation it introduce . A narrator' adaptation of available device relate to hi or her creativity and ability to me h culturally grounded convention with per onal experimentation into an individual tyle. 0 matter how te timony i directed and formulated, its interpretation play a role at every tage of its production, from the initial deci ion of an individual to initiate or participate in an expre ive performance to its final pre entation. Each interpretation i inextricably connected to previou one. At the arne time, interpretation i influenced by a multiplicity of factor : from the working of individual and collective memory to the cognitive capacity for tory telling, from the p ychological and ituational dynamic to the cultural and ocial determinants of a tatement, from an individual' willingne ,or reluctance, to te tify to the purpo e for which a tatement i given and received.

Latent political agenda Te tifier and audience are caught up in the dynamic of hifting relation of power. A te tifier can withhold information, evade di cu ion, or lant interpretation. An anthropologi t Ii tening to an informant, like an editor of a et of memoir or a biographer who u e diarie, can do 0 a well. Recall i alway elective; in an interactive context, it i ubject to con ciou manipulation. Here rhetorical and ocial power interdigitate in complex pattern. For a narrator' u e of per ua ion and ability to act kill fully on the tage which the interlocutory ituation con tructs may well invert the hierarchical relation inherent in, a ,the differential tatu commonl attributed to an anthropologi t and an informant. From the per pective of the cholar, the differential di tribution of power rai e ethical que tion . ero cultural re earch "intrude ," and ea il "take advantage" of other . All elf-accounts open the te tifier to the exploitation of hi interpreter, annotator, or reader. But a oral hi torian have been eager to point out, re earch ba ed upon per onal te timony may have po itive ramification a well. Per onal te timony can pre erve memory; it can re tore "voice" to the " ilenced"; it can reconcile individual to moment from the pa t. The ethical que tion per onal te 29


timony rai are compounded by its exemplary clinical record ,autobiographie ,and oral hi torie . It function, for per onal te timon can illuminate the might be po ible to compare te timonie provided by proces e ,hereby a en e of elf i created (generat- the ame per on but at different times: thi would ing an empowered mode of being) or undermined urely illuminate ome of the working of memory (eroding a per on' capacity for purpo i e exi tence). and of mnemonic electivity. Although a wealth of material relating to the war already exi ts, if the committee felt the need to do 0, it might engage in new re earch, u ing oral hi torie or urvey of peThe committee and its program cific population to view the tran formation of recall The Joint Committee on Per onal Testimony will over time. The committee might al 0 promote upbe concerned with both intellectual and field devel- plementary re earch which, coupled with the analy i opment. The committee' member hip will be mul- of exi ting oral hi torie or autobiographie , would tidi ciplinary, for recour e to per onal te timony i enable one to compare the way in which events are common to a variety of cholar: political ienti t reported when varying kind of material , narrative tyle , and time frame are adopted. In its variou who question a ample of tho e eligible to vote; hi torian who interview civil rights militants; literary cri- activitie , the committee would draw upon the practic who annotate noveli ts' memoir; ocial p ycholo- tice ucce fully adopted by the working group of ubmitting the arne material to interpretation gi ts who recon truct the lap e and rigiditie of collective memorie a German and Jewi h urvivor through different len e . come to term with the azi pa t; legal cholar who Examining per onal te timonie, the committee analyze record concerning litigation; ociologi ts might inquire into the way in which ocially inew York City inhabitants; and anwho urve titutionalized memory become a part of individual thropologi ts who "tran late" the world view of experience. It could look, for example, at the" ocial Moroccan villager. Each di cipline offer a pecific memory" embodied in popular culture ( ong , film , vantage point from which to view per onal te timony. graphic imagery); in ritualized practice, like comAnd each now eem willing to enter into dialogue memoration of victorie , martyr , and heroe ; in the with other tradition . The committee member hip, organization of certain phy ical pace and their moreo er, will include cholar from other countrie dedication to a mnemonic function ( quare, monua well a from the nited tate. ment); or in education (textbook hi tory, for inIn work hop and eminar, the committee will ad- tance). Doe "ocial memory" figure in per onal te dre pe ific theme, examining, for in tance, the timonie ? I it mentioned explicitly, or do it pertheorie and proce e implicated in the con truction meate them in more ubtle way : by providing imof per onal te timonie ; the contribution of p cho- age , metaphor , narrative ,and ets of practice that more or Ie uncon ciou Iy color the narrator' tale? logical, autobiographical, and life-hi tory per pective And do pecific per onal te timonie inform collective to the tudy of per onal te timonie ; and the interaction that relate --or may relate--collective memory recall? Addre ing que tion uch a the e, the comand indi idual account of the elf. For the ake of mittee will focu on the proce e whereb people di cu ion, let u illu trate a hyp thetical activit fo- both recount their experience and con truct meancu ed on thi la t theme. Were the committee to ing in their own live a they engage in autobiof u upon particular national experience of World graphical narration. Taking per onal te timony a an War II, it could then examine material from three area within which diver e di ciplinary, epi temologidifferent chronological period; during the war, im- cal, and methodological concern can productivel be mediatel after the war, and everal decade later. For drawn together, the committee will addre a que tion each time period, numerou per onal te timonie are of fundamental importance: What do we learn when D now available: diarie , letter , memoir , legal record , people peak or write about them elve ?

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Explanations of Fertility Decline in Latin America A report on an International seminar

IJy Jo eph E. PolleT¡ 1979, the Joint Committee on Latin American tudie -with upport from the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation-ha ought to upport new reasearch initiative in demography. The committee ha ponored a project on the family and hou ehold a uni of demographic analy i , which explored new theoretical and methodological work on demographic change, and a conference on a pects of kin hip in Latin America, which po ed que tion about the cultural norm and economic factor which influence reproductive choice . In 1985, the committee ponored a ne~ project on fertility decline in Latin America, which led to the international eminar reported on in thi article. Major decline in the crude birth rate and other demographic indicator of fertility have taken place ince the 1970 throughout Latin America. Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Co ta Rica, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Mexico, and Peru provide orne of the better documented example. While there have been important difference between countrie in the peed of the fertility decline and the level of current fertilit , in virtually all countrie the decade of the 1970 proved to be one of remarkably rapid change. What i more, thi change eem to have occurred in countrie that vary greatly with re pect to level of development, political y tern, ethnic compo ition, and population policy. What brought about the e dramatic change in reproducti e behavior? Explanation of Latin American fertility de line put forth from within the region have been, for the mo t part, focu ed on particular country experience . The e efforts repre ent a ignificant departure from previou thinking in the region about the determinants of reproductive behavior and their cope extend beyond the re tricted range of que tion that can be an wered on the ba i of cen u or urvey data. It wa to focu attention on uch analy e that the Council' Joint Committee on Latin American tudie pon ored a eminar on May I CE

â&#x20AC;˘ he author, a demographer, i affiliated with the Center for Population 'tudie at Harvard Univer ity. He erved a the oordinator of the eminar upon whi h thi article i ba ed. h Council, the Center, and the Harvard Committee on Latin Ameri an and Iberian ' tudi were co pon r ' of the eminar,

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2-4, 1985 in Cambridge, Ma achu etts. The eminar examined the experience of Brazil, Cuba, and Mexico to a e current ocioeconomlc mterpretation of fertility decline in three diver e contexts and to broaden the debate to include cholar who have not peciaJized in the tudy of demographic variable . The participants in the eminar are Ii ted in the box on page 32.

Brazil Fertility decline in Brazil was recognized by demographer ome time after the fact. It wa only with the re ults of a erie of hou ehold urvey conducted in the late 1970 and the 1980 cen u that demographer could be ure that a large decline had taken place tarting in the mid-1960 . International reports uch a the World Bank' monograph on PopuLation Change and Economic DeveLopment [Wa hington, D.C., 1984] are prone to repre ent Brazil erroneou Iy a a country where fertility change i lagging becau e of the unequal di tribution of income, a lack of ocial ervice , and the ab ence of a government- pon ored national family planning program. The paper preented at the eminar, on the other hand, attempted to how how it wa that the Brazilian model of development had given ri e to condition propitiou for a fertility decline. Three broad and complementary influence were di tingui hed. Paulo Paiva, focu ing on hou hold economic in rural Brazil, advanced the hypothe i that the in titutional change that had taken place in agriculture removed familie from a ituation in which they were in ulated from market fluctuation in the co ts of food and hou ing and in which table high fertility made economic en e. To illu trate hi ca e, he referred to the ituation of laborer on coffee farm in the tate of ao Paulo and on ugar plantation in the Northea t. Up until the late 1950 and early 1960 , mo t laborer were contracted a harecropper , on term that included provi ion for hou ing, land on which to grow food, and the opportunity for women and children to make an economic contribution to the hou ehold. When the e arrangements became unprofitable becau e of the opportunity to mechanize certain ta k and the exten ion to agriculture of labor legi lation mandat31


economic benefits that parents could expect to derive from their children, but it al 0 introduced a large amount of uncertainty into the economic of the hou ehold. Coupled with the fact that food and Jo eph E. Potter, Center for Population tudie, Harhou ing now had to b paid for in ca h wa the pro vard Univer ity, project organizer pect that the price of both would fluctuate harply. Lui a Alvarez, Mim try of Publi Health (Havana) Parents were thru t into a ituation in which the co ts William Alon 0, Harvard Univer ity of rai ing children were both variable and competitive Jorge Babin, Center for the tud of tate and ociety (CEDE ), Bueno Aire with other expenditure . P dro Luiz Barro il a, Foundation of Admini traWhile Paiva' the i focu ed on the objective tive Development (FU , DAP), iio Paulo, and change in markets and their bearing on the ecoBrazilian Center of Anal i and Planning (CEBRAP), iio Paulo nomic calculu of hou ehold , the paper by ViI mar Jaime Benavente, Uni er ity of Michigan Faria and Pedro Luiz Barro wa concerned with the Raul Benitez Zenteno, In titute of ocial tudie, aocial dimen ion of the tran formation taking place tional Autonomou Univer ity of Mexico Elza . Berquo, Brazilian enter of Analy i and in Brazil, and the influence of the e a pects on reproPlanning (CEBRAP), iio Paulo, and Univer ity of ductive behavior. They argued that Brazil, even though Campina it till pre ented elevated indice of poverty, wa by lara underland Correa, Harvard Univer ity 19 0 very much a rna ociety thoroughly penetrated ergio Diaz-Briquets, Duque ne Univer ity Martin Di kin, Ma achu etts In titute of Technology by con umeri m. fter noting the change between u an Eck tein, Bo ton Univer ity 1950 and 1980 in female labor force participation Vilmar Evangeli ta Faria, Univer ity of Campina rate and in the con umption of durable good by Alfon 0 Farno , Univer it of Havanna amuel Fridman, Cornell Univer ity Brazilian hou ehold ,the proceeded to analyze both Jo . Gomez de Leon, EI Colegio de Mexico the reach and influence of the rna media. The ecoDaniel Hernandez, Me ican Academ for Re earch nomic b om of the 1960 and 1970 wa fueled by a in M dical 0 mograph (Mexico City) Robert A. LeVine, Harvard Univer it tran formation in th pattern of con umer exarah LeVine, Harvard Univer ity penditure, a tran formation that wa inten ively David Maybur -Lewi , Harvard Univer ity promoted by the media. In addition to timulating Thoma W. Merri k, The Population Reference Bureau (Wa hington, D. .) demand for item uch a refrigerator and televitavio Mojarro Davila, Me ican cademy for Reion , the media tran mitt d new notion concerning earch in Medi al Demography (Mexico City) medicine, exuality, women' role, and famil ize. A el I. Mundigo, World Health rganization In the third paper on Brazil, Elza Berqu6 took up Leopoldo uiiez F rnandez, Me ican Academy for Re earch in Medical 0 mograph (Mexico CIt) p pulation polic and the pread of contraceptive Paulo Paiva, enter of Development and Regional ervice. he reviewed both the changing tance of the Planning of the Federal Univer ity of Mina Gerai military government (1964-1985) on demographic ( EDEPLAR), Belo Horizonte Alberto Palloni, Univer ity of Wi on in i ue -which became progre ively Ie pronatali t in Am Ri hman, Harvard niver it its pronouncements but never committed i elf to Eduardo Lui G. Rio - eto, enter of Development providing family planning er ice -and the evolving and Regional Planning of th Federal Univer ityof efforts to promote and deliver famil planning erMina Gerai (CEDEPLAR), Belo Horizonte, and Univer ity of alifornia, Berkele vice b externall -funded private a ociation. After Carlo Welti, In titute of ocial tudie, ational looking at trend in contraceptive u e in the tate of Autonomou Univer it of Mexico ao Paulo up until 19 0, h pre ented re ult from a tud conducted in four municipalitie of the tate. The proportion of married women currently practi ing contraception varied from 53 per cent to 80 per ing ial curity coverage and other righ , they ent in the four municipalitie , with oral contracepwere replaced by a ver different y tern of contract- ti e and terilization accounting for about 90 per ing farm labor. Com pen alion wa entirely cent of all u e. The unu ual predominance of the e monetar. 0 longer did the laborer and hi family two method i attributed to the ready a ailabilityof Ii e on the farm and have the opportunit to grow birth control pill at an pharmacy and to the action their own food. And much of the contracting wa of the private famil planning a ociation in prodone on a temporary ba i through intermediarie . moting terilization. More women reported themPaiva argued that not onl did thi hift increa e the elve a having undergone t rilization for healthco ts of providing for a large famil and decrea e the related rea on rather than in order to avoid having Participants in the "Explanations of Fertility Decline in Latin American Project

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more children, and 74 per cent aid the operation had Where the two paper differed wa in regard to the been recommended b a doctor. tate of mind of Cuban couple. Diaz-Brique emWhile the paper did not offer much ba i for de- pha ized the influence on fertility of what he pertermining the relative importance of the different ceived as fru trated a pi ration for con umer good factor affecting reproductive behavior-indeed in and hou ing. The a pi ration were the product of the the di cu ion it wa ugge ted that perhap the long tanding materiali t influence of being 0 clo e to weighting might vary con iderably acro place and the United tate and of the promi e made in the ocial group -they did identify the factor that could early tage of the revolution coupled with the initial explain the decline in fertility. Proletarianization and ucce at income redi tribution. The fru tration rethe incorporation of women in the labor force af- ulted from the price of con umer good in relation fected the economics of childbearing; the related but to wage and from the general carcit of hou ing. neverthele remarkable development of the rna Alvarez and Farno , in contra t, empha ized the media during the e year exerted an important ucce e of the revolution in improving the populaideological influence; and, finally, in pite of the ab- tion' acce to medical care and education and in ence of a national family planning program, at lea t improving the living condition and in changing the orne contraceptive method were readily available life tyle of the rural population. In their view, there and medical per onnel were there to pre cribe them. wa little incentive for couple to want large familie , but it wa not becau e they were di enchanted with the re ults of the revolution. Cuba An intere ting ob ervation made b u an Eck tein Of the three countrie , Cuba now ha much the wa that during the 1970 the Cuban government had lowe t level of fertility. Women in thi ociety are now implemented a number of mea ure to induce women having, on the average, fewer than two children, and to enter the labor force. The com pari on of data from the level of fertility approximate that found in the the 1981 and 1970 cen u e demon trating that parUnited tate and in many European countrie . Two ticipation rate had more than doubled during the papers on Cuba were pre ented. ergio Diaz-Briquets decade (from about 25 per cent to more than 50 per updated an influential article he had publi hed ev- cent in the central age group) howed ju t how uceral year ago reflecting the view of Cuban who had ce ful the policie had been. Eck tein went on to immigrated to the United tate. The paper by Lui a peculate that there would be back peddling on the e Alvarez and Alfon 0 Farno , on the other hand, rep- policie becau e of their co t , increa ing unemployre ented the point of view of two leading Cuban de- ment, and the likelihood that very low level of mographer , and incorporated the mo t recent data fertility would eventually lead to a large number of on the very low level of Cuban fertilit . There wa aged dependents. agreement between the two paper concerning the fact of the ca e. Cuban fertility had declined to a Mexico moderately low level before the revolution, had ri en harply in the immediate aftermath, and then after Mexico wa the only one of the countrie con idfalling lowly in the late 1960 , plummeted to below ered at the eminar to have had an explicit governreplacement level in the 1970 and early 1980. ment policy to promote family planning and reduce The ewing aro e from a marriage boom following the rate of population growth. The impact of thi the revolution and from harp fluctuation in the u e policy wa con idered in everal different contex . of contraception and the prevalence of abortion. The The fir t and mo t general of the three paper on change to ociali t relation of production and the Mexico dealt with the relation hip between reprorapid pread of education were thought to have dra - ductive behavior and the cri i of the Mexican model tically reduced the economic contribution that could of development from the late 1960 onward. Raul be expected from children, while the tate pen ion Benitez Zenteno and Carlo Welti argued that in y tern dimini hed the importance of the family a a pite of continuing economic growth up until 19 1, ource of upport in old age. At the arne time, greatly throughout mo t of the 1970 there had been little increa ed employment opportunitie for women con- improvement (and perhap orne deterioration) in flicted with their role a both hou ewive and moth- the living tandard of the bulk of the population. It er . In thi regard, the official ideology concerning wa a period of ri ing expectation. Promi e of both family life and the equality of opportunity be- " hared development" and, later, of benefits from the tween the exe wa al 0 con idered to be important. di covery of petroleum had been extended, but mo t

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hou ehold achieved higher level of con umption only b way of having more member engage in wage labor. Poor household benefited the least in that they pro ed unable to retain their off pring. The mo t dramatic queeze on hou ehold budge occurred in the 1982-1984 period, when real wage actually declined by 30 per cent. While Benitez and Welti credited the impact on hou ehold of difficult economic condition with changing coupl 'attitude about the number of children they could afford, they attributed the go ernment' effort to legitimate and di tribute contraception with making it p ible for Mexican couple in all ocial group actually to have fewer children. Octavio Mojarro, Leopoldo uiiez, Jo eph Potter, and Daniel Hernandez focu ed pecifically on rural Mexico and the fertility change taking place there ince 1969. Making u e of a erie of four fertility urvey , they documented the decline in the level of marital fertility from the very high level found at the tart of the period, as well a the increa e in contraceptive practice directly re pon ible for the change. They u ed the urvey to how fairly dramatic hifts in the compo ition of the population according to ocial group (the proportion ofhou ehold who e head wa engaged in nonagricultural wage labor increa ed dramatically) and educational attainment, and a large increa e in the u e of the modern medical y tem (public and private). everal type of change were hypothe ized to have led to fertility decline. The fir t change wa the hrinking proportion of hou ehold who e head i engaged in ub i tence agriculture-the economic value of children in dome tic production would be Ie if the family were dependent on wage labor or on mechanized farming. More important, in their view, may have been the increa ed diffu ion of a piration for higher level of con umption and education. Both the chool and the medical in titution were credited with changing the way people thought about family ize, while the latter played a direct role in tran mitting knowledge about contraceptive method , not only making them acce ible but actively combating the rumor and taboo urrounding their u e. The la t paper to be di cus ed at the eminar wa a preliminary report on an anthropological study of the influence of education on reproductive behavior in Mexico. It wa undertaken by Robert and ara LeVine, Amy Richman, and Clara underland Correa in two low-income neighborhood of Cuernavaca, Morelo. hi re earch had been ba ed on the premi e that education led women to have a heightened en e of control over their live and an increa ed 34

awarene of their option . Educated women would not only have high a piration for their children; the would al 0 de elop relation with them uch that the children would make greater demand for care and attention. In their re earch on girl in econdary chool, to their urpri e the inve tigator did not find that the chool tended to make girl more a ertive; they did find that younger, more educated women tended to communicate more readily with their hu band and were more likel to re i t demand for additional children. From the interview ,it eemed that women in the e communitie were extremely con ciou of the co ts of rai ing children and recognized that, much to their regret, they could not afford to have a family a large a the one in which they them elve had been rai ed.

Explanations of fertility decline Throughout the eminar, but e pecially in the eion held after the initial pre entation and di cu ion of the paper , there were attempts to ynthe ize the re ults and to draw com pari on with earlier Latin American thinking about the determinants of fertility and with the explanation of fertility decline that have been offered for other parts of the world. It eemed clear that even though there were important difference among the interpretation , fertility decline eemed to be re pon ive to the following broad type of determining factor in all three countrie : A change in the economic oj chiLdren. Thi wa occa ioned by the breakdown of in titutional arrangements and the di appearance of agricultural context in which children con tituted an important economic re ource to their parents. Included would be the tran formation of coffee farm and ugar plantation in Brazil, the dimini hing importance of ub i tence farming on mall plo in Mexico, and the elimination of poverty and the provi ion of ocial ervice in rural Cuba. A transfonnation in women' roLt . The re ult of trong ideological influence pread through the ma media in Brazil and Mexico and by the tate organ in Cuba ha been a major change in ideal and a piration encompa ing the epa ration of exuality and reproduction, and new idea concerning elf-fulfillment. hi change, together with an increa e in the opportunity to enter the paid labor force, placed multiple and conflicting demand on women, but increa ed their willingne to take the initiative in controlling their reproduction. The notion that it wa women more than men who led the change in reproductive ideal i pre ent in the accounts of all three ca e . VOL

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The creation of a consumer ociety. The tran formation of pattern of con umer expenditure together with greatly heightened a piration for durable good i een a increa ing the ubjective "opportunity co ttl of rai ing a large family. The marketing tactic of indu trial firm , and the portrayal of the life tyle of the upper and middle cla e on televi ion, are een a the dominant influence in Brazil, while proximity to the United tate and the initial promi e of the revolution are empha ized in Diaz-Briquets' interpretation of the Cuban experience. The pread of contraceptive technology. An increa e in acce to modern contraceptive method i een a being important in all three countrie. Only in Mexico, however, wa thi change part of an official population policy with explicit demographic objective . The diffu ion of contraception and progre ive medicalization appear to be related in all three ca e . Doctor rather than prie ts are given the authority to provide coun el on uch matter. And the population wa increa ingly expo ed to doctor becau e of the increa ing coverage of ocial ecurity program in Brazil and Mexico. In Mexico, rural health clinic were e tabli hed by public agencie . In Cuba, a national health y tern wa e tabli hed. Contributing to the pread of a "rational medical" attitude toward childbearing wa the increa e in the number of deliverie by Cae arean ection in Brazil, and, perhap , the increa ed u e of induced abortion and an empha i on preventing high ri k pregnancie 10 Cuba. en or fifteen year ago, mo t Latin American 0cial cienti ts were not predicting fertilit decline of the magnitude of tho e witne ed ince 1970. Faced with the neo-Malthu ian explanation of underdevelopment emanating from the United tate, and the propo al that birth control wa the olution for the e onomic and ocial problem of the region, man cholar argued that imply introducing technology would have little impact unle there were important change in the ocial and economic context in which reproduction took place. In retro pect, it eem that the role of technolog wa greater than expected, and that idea about reproduction changed in re pon e to a much wider ariety of timuli, and at a fa ter pace than had been anticipated. Ha Latin American thinking about fertility decline now converged with what might be called the international main tream? On the one hand, it could be argued that there i nothing exceptional about the four type of determinants ju t di tilled from the paper presented at the eminar-the can be quickl recogniz d a the gri t of mo t po t hoc theorizing

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Research in Rural China: A Five-Year-Program Invitation for Proposals The Committee on cholarly Communication with the People' Republic of China- pon ored by the Council, the American Council of Learned ocietie, and the ational Academy of ciences-announce a new opportunity for American cholar to study the proce of change and development in the Chine e country ide. Pro po al are invited for re earch projects involving periodic vi it during the period 1987 to 1992 to field re earch ite in handong Province. The C CPRC will con ider propo al of variou deign including: (I) a ingle re earcher propo ing a di crete topic; (2) a re earch director either working with, or willing to incorporate, other individual projects a appropriate into the field ite; or (3) a multidi ciplinary team of three to five cholar who wi h to pur ue an integrated re earch project. In reviewing propo al , the C CPRC will give preference to applicants who have had prior field reearch experience in China or in other countrie with imilar re earch condition . For group projects, preference will be given to multidi ciplinary propo al which include both a trong training component and a commitment of at lea t one member of the group to learn the local dialect. October 1, 1986 DeadLine for appLications December 1986 Announument of awardu

For further information and application form and a detailed de cription of the re earch ite, write the C CPRC, ational Academy of cience, 2101 Contitution Avenue, Wa hington, D.C. 20418, or call (202) 334-271 .

about fertility change in other parts of the world. till, one of the ju tification for organizing the eminar wa the notion that the explanation being offered b Latin American were different. In com pari on with explanation recentl offered for comparable fertilit decline in A ian countrie uch a Thailand, Korea, or ingapore, perhap the di tingui hing feature of the analy e pre ented at the eminar i the effort to locate the different factor within the logic of the prevailing tyle of development. Thi concern lead naturall to an intere t in the influence of in titution and their agent, rather than to an exclu ive focu on the attitude and behavior of individual. Women and couple are till een a re ponding to the influence

35


and incentive pre ent in their environment, but the focu i on that en ironm nt and how it aro e a much a on the re pon e to it. One of the objective of the eminar wa to enga th intere t of cholar who had not previou Iy been involved in the di cu ion of population i ue. On uch participant, David Ma bury-Lewi , quickly dubb d thi effort a politica de abertura (politic of liberalization). It wa pur ued both b inviting a "nondemographer" to act a one of the two di cu ant of the pap r pre ented on each countr ,and b holding a aturda e ion at which the re ults of the eminar

were pre ented to and di 'cu ed by people in the Bo ton academic communit with an intere t in Latin merica. Raul Benitez andJo eph Potter are planning to edit a pani h language volume containing revi d verion of the manu cript pre ented at the eminar. Other re ult of thi re earch planning activity include a number of application to the Joint Committee on Latin American tudie for advanced re earch grants and a collaborative project to be undertaken in the 19 6-19 7 academic year b ViI mar Faria, u an Eck tein, and Jo eph E. Potter. D

COSSA Prepares Guide to Federal Funding for Social Scientists (.E, IE., â&#x20AC;˘ OOEPARTME TS of the federal government are major upporter of reearch in the ocial and b havioral cience. But until now, no comprehen ive guide to federal grant, contra t , and fellow hip in the e field ha been a ailable. he Guide to Federal Fundingfor ocial dentists, p n r d b the Con ortium of ocial cience A 0ciation ( A) and edited b u an D. Quarle of the 0 taff, de crib 0 er 3 federal proram of intere t to re earcher in the ocial and behavioral Clence and related area of th humanitie. h Guide, which include funding prioritie , appli ati n guideline, and example of funded rear h, i unique in more wa than it cop. The pro ram de ription, ba ed largel on per onal intervi w with agenc director and taff, have b en carefull tailored f r th reate t p ible relevance n ern of ocial and b ha ioral ienti t . ial uch a David Jenne ,th e e uti e director of 0 A; Feli e J. Levine of the â&#x20AC;˘ ati nal ience Foundation; and Janet M. uca of the National In titute of Health, provide important ont xtual information ab ut th organization of 0cial cience funding and in ide iew of federal fundin practice. Finall ,the Guide furni he a Ii t of other information our e and an exten i e index. he Guide wa produ ed with th a i tance of lh THE MYRI OOFFI ES,

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following advi ory committee: tephen . Bru h, Univer it of Maryland; amuel ammon, American Hi torical A ociation; France Degen Horowitz, niver it of Kan a ; David Jenne ,Con ortium of ial cience A ociation; Thoma E. Mann, American Political ien e A iation; Roberta Bal tad ational ience Foundation; Lawrence Mill r, Rhoade, ational In titute of Mental Health; Howard chuman, urve R earch enter, niver it of Michigan; and David L. ill, ocial cience Re earch unci!. The 512-page volume will be publi hed b th Ruell age Foundation in July 19 6; it i di tributed by Ba i Book. Th co t i 19.95 for individual; 24.95 for librarie and in titution. Member of o A affiliate rna purcha e the Guide at a pial di count price of 14.95. (Be ure to indicate what affiliate ou are a memb r of.) rder hould bent to th addre b low; plea e include pa ment or purcha e order. Po ta e will b paid on prepaid order. ew York re idents plea e add ale tax. Allow 3-4 \ eek for deli ery.

on ortium of ocial cience A ociation Department -5 0 12 0 17th tre t, .W., uite 520 Wa hington, D. . 2 36

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Recent Council Publications Child Development and Education in Japan, edited by Harold teven on, Hiro hiAzuma,and Kenji Hakuta. Ba ed on a conference pon ored by the Center for Advanced tudy in the Behavioral cience; the japan ociety for the Promotion of cience; and the joint Committee on japane e tudie of the American Council of Learned ocietie and the ocial cience Re earch Council. Oxford, England: W. H. Freeman and Company. x + 315 page. Cloth, 24.95; paper, 14.95.

va need tudy in the Behavioral cience, where the editor were in 19 2-19 3. Through man dicu ion of children in japane e and American ocietie , the content of thi volume began to take hape. It rapidl became evident that there i a great di parity between what japane e behavioral cienti t and educator know about We tern writing and reearch literature and what We terner know about i ue being di cu ed in japan. Wherea man japane e cienti ts have a go d reading knowledge of Engli h, few We terner are ufficiently fluent in japane e to read japane e journal and book. Further, there i active tran lation of important We tern writing into japane e, but few japane e book dealing with children and familie have been tran lated into Engli h. It wa hoped that a volume uch a thi would help overcome the e di paritie . The editor and contributor have attempted to avoid technicaljargon and tati tical di cu ion 0 the book can be read, not onl by profe ional in related field , but al 0 by per on who are intere ted in japane e ociet or who eek new in ight about child development and education. The olume pre ent a comprehen ive coverage of cultural and hi torical background, a well a contemp rary re earch and thinking. he c ntributor are from everal di cipline , including anthropolog , education, p ycholog ,and ociology, who are involved in re earch in japane e child de elopment, education, and famil life. The japane e contributor are peciali t in the field and the American author have conducted reearch in japan. he fir t ection of the volume provide information aboutjapane e children and their role in ociety and in japane e culture; about how children are reared; and about the japane e famil , education, and language. In the econd ection, ummarie of a number of empirical tudie are di cu ed. In everal ca e , the development of japane e children i contra ted with that of American children. The contra ts between japane e and American children appear, not becau e of electivity, but becau e the major cro cultural tudie involving japane e children frequently include compari on with American children. everal chapter dealing primaril with conceptual i ue complete the olume. The contributor to the volume are:

The inten e intere t in compari on between Ea tern and We tern approache to bu ine practice, religion, and dail life ha recently been extended to include an intere t in the rearing and education of children. Part of thi intere t i a re ult of reports of children' academic achievement, where japane e and Chine e children have been found to outperform American children in international compari on of achievement in area uch a mathematic and cience. Intere t come, too, from the de ire to undertand the per onal component of the a tounding economic, cientific, and technological ad ance that have b en made in parts of A ia during the pa t three decade. Perhap by knowing more about the rearing and education of children in a countr uch a japan, We terner can obtain new in ights and per pective on the rearing and education of their own children. How adults re pond to children involve practice, belief, and exp ctation deeply embedded within a culture, and there i no ready tran fer of uch repon e from one culture to another. everthele, one of the be t avenue to under tanding the trength and problem within uch a complex domain a the rearing and education of children i through knowing how member of another culture have coped with the e problem. For thi purpo e, Japan i e pecially important. Among contemporary indu trial ocietie, it i the one that differ mo t completely from the other ocietie in its hi tory and culture. Open to interaction with other countrie for little more than a centur after everal centurie of i olation, much of the traditional culture of Japan remain . The approache to child rearing and education that have continued and the change that have been initiated in japan hould be e pecially informative to member of other indu trial ocietie and Hiro hi zuma ocietie currently undergoing indu trialization. Harumi Befu Plan for thi volume began at the Center for Ad- Loi Bloom

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niver ity of Tokyo 'tanford niver ity Columbia niver ity

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Donna L. Brad haw Jo ph Campo ' ing-jen Chen George DeVo W. Patrick Dick on Kenji Hakuta Giyoo Hatano Robert He u an Holloway Kayoko Ingaki Tadahiko Ingaki Jerome Kagan Keiko Ka hiwagi Tadahi a Kato eiro Kitamura Hideo Kojima 'u umu Kuno hin-ying Lee Robert . LeVine Catherine Lewi Teresa McDevitt Kazuo fiyaki Kiyomi Morioka higefumi agano

Gary Price Harold ' tevenson Jame ' tigler M. uarez-Orozco Keiko Takaha hi Merry I. White Yo haiki Yamamura

U niver ity of Denver Univer ity of Denver Hokkaido University Univer ity of California, Berkele Univer it of Wi con in Yale Univer ity Dokkyo Univer ity ' tanford Univer ity ' tanford University Chiba Univer it Univer it of Tokyo Harvard Univer ity Tokyo Women' Univer ity Tohoku Fuku hi Univer it Tohoku Fuku hi Univer ity agoya Univer ity Harvard Univer ity Univer ity of Michigan Harvard Univer ity Univer ity of California, an Franci 0 tanford niver ity Hokkaido Univer ity eijo Univer ity ational In titute for Educational Re arch (Tokyo) Univer ity of Wiseon in Univer ity of Michigan Univer ity of Michigan Univer ity of California, Berkeley , ka Unive ity Harvard Univer ity T ukuba Univer ity

Survey of Income and Program Participation, pecial i ue ofJournaL of Economic and ociaL Mtasurtment (Volume 13, umber 3 and 4, 1985), edited by Martin H. David. Paper from a conference pon ored by the Committee on the urvey of Income and Program Participation. Publi hed by El e ier cience Publi hing Compan , Inc., 52 Vanderbilt Avenue, ew York, ew York 10017. 1 4 page. Paper, 37.00. he paper in thi volume, which offer a con tructive critique of the de ign and content of a major new ocioeconomic urvey, were pre ented at a conference held at the Brooking In titution in Wa hington, D.C. o ember 11-13, 19 4. The urveyofIncomeand Pro ram Participation ( IPP) i a ample urvey of about 16,000 U. S. hou ehold . The field taff of the United tate Bureau of the Cen u conducts interview every four month. Except in limited circumtance , each per on in the hou ehold aged 15 or older i interviewed, even if that per on ha moved

38

Staff Appointment tefan Tanaka, a hi torian, will join the taff in jul , to erve primarily a taff for the joint committee on japan and Korea. He will replace Theodore C. Be tor, who re igned to accept a po ition in the Department of Anthropology, Columbia Univer it . Mr. Tanaka i currently teaching cour e in japane e hi tory and ci ilization at the Univer it of Iowa. He graduated from Linfield College in 1974 and received a M. A. in hi tory from the Univer ity of Wa hington in 1977. He obtained a Ph. D. earlier thi year from the Univer ity of Chicago. Hi the i wa on the political and intellectual meaning of the word and concepts u ed by japane e cholar to refer to China and the Chine e; hi majop re earch intere t are in modern japane e intellectual hi tory.

out of the hou ehold during the term of the urve '. Per on remain in the ur ey for more than two year , during which period they are interviewed eight time. The fir t "wave" of interview began in October 19 3; the final interview for thi 1983 "panel" will be conducted in Augu t 1986. Que tion a ked of re pondents deal with income, labor force activity, hou ehold compo ition, and participation in federal income tran fer and ervice delivery program uch a Medicare, ub idized hou ing, and food tamp. Man item of information are collected on a month 1 ba i , with re pondents a ked to recall income and other data for the recent period following the prior interview. The urvey al 0 periodically collects information on a ets and liabilitie , hou ehold and work expen e , di ability, taxe , penion coverage, child care, and marital and work hi tor. The 19 paper begin with an introduction to the IPP by the editor, Martin H. David, and include analy e of its cientific p tential as a tool for tudying (1) demographic dynami : living arrangement for familie and hou ehold , marriage, eparation, divorce, family relation hip over time, a longitudinal definition of hou ehold , and the Panel tudy of Income Dynamics' experience with longitudinal hou ehold definition ; (2) major ocial i ue involving race, women, and children; and (3) human capital: labor market analy i , fringe benefits and noncash income, health care, and education. In addition to ugge tion made b author of the aforementioned paper for improvements to the urve ' longitudinal de ign and content, other author offer ugge tion focu ed on VOL ME

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orne po ibilitie for improving the de ign of the Sheldon E. Haber, George Wa hington niver ity and Bureau of the Cen u IPP by changing the rule for interviewing per on " Per pective on Linking IPP to dmini trative and 'tati tiwho moved from the hou ehold, linking IPP with cal Record" admini trative and tati tical record , and collecting Jame D. mith, Univer ity of Michigan richer data on the di tribution of wealth, income, and " Little ' IPP: Old Wine in . ew Bottles-Let' Reca k It" liabilitie . The volume conclude with ummarie of David Byron fcMillen and Roger Herriot, U.. Bureau of the Cen u recommendation made by participant in the "Toward a Longitudinal Definition of Household" â&#x20AC;˘ 0 ember conference and in a follow-up conference Greg J. Duncan and Martha '. Hill, Univer it of Michigan al 0 held in Wa hington, June 28-29, 1985. "Conception of Longitudinal Hou ehold : Fertile or Futile?" Re earcher intere ted in exploring whether thi Martin H. David, niver ity of Wi con in, Richard C. Rockwell, new urvey ha any potential for contribution to 'ocial ' ience Re earch Council, lice Robbin, niver it of their own re earch agenda will find the e paper Wi con in, and Franklin W. Monfort, Univer ity of Wi conIII helpful in identifying both the trength and " ' ummar of the ' IPP Conference and Recommendation of weakne e of the urvey for a wide range of re earch the Conferee" problem . They will be alerted to analytical difficul- Martin H. David, niver ity of Wi con in, lice Robbin, nivertie to be anticipated ( uch a tho e ari ing from limity of Wi con in, and Richard C. Rockwell, 'ocial ' ience ited ample ize for certain ubgroup of the populaRe earch Council tion and inadequate detail in certain re pon e "Summary and Recommendation: ' econd S ' R S mpo ium categorie ). And they will be able to determine if they? on the ' ientific and Re earch Potential of IPP" concur in the ugge tion made for change to the ~/ IPP, orne of which are till under di cu ion witlVSchool-Age Pregnancy and Parenthood: Biosocial Dimensions, edited by Jane B. Lanca ter and Beatrix the taff of the Bureau of the Cen u . The contributor and their paper are: A. Hamburg. Paper from a conference pon ored by the Committee on Bio ocial Per pective on Parent Martin H. David, Univer ity of Wi on in Behavior and Off pring Development. Hawthorne, "Introduction: The De ign and Development of ' IPP" Harold W. Watts, Columbia Univer ity ew York: Aldine de Gruyter, 1986. xvii + 386 "The Scientific Potential of IPP for Analy e of Living Ar- page. Cloth, 39.95.

J

rangements for Familie and Hou ehold " Thoma J . E pen hade and Douglas A. Wolf, The Urban In titute (Wa hington, D.C.) "SIPP Data on Marriage, eparation, Divorce, and Remarriage: Problem, Opportunitie , and Recommendation" Greg J. Duncan, Univer ity of Michigan " Framework for Tracking Family Relation hip Over Time" Reynold Farley, Univer ity of Michigan "Under tanding Racial Difference and Trend: How ' IPP Can A it" Carolyn ' haw Bell, Welle ley College " IPP and the Female Condition" Mar Jo Bane and Jame Wei h, New York tate Department of ocial 'ervi e "IPP' Potential Contribution to Policy Re earch on Children" Gary '. Fi Id and George J . Jakub on, Cornell niver ity "Labor Market Analy i U ing SIPP" Timothy f. meeding, Univer ity of Utah "The ' ientific Potential of ' IPP: Its Content and Method Regarding Fringe Benefit, onca h Income, and the alue of Government ' ervice " Gail R. Wilen ky, Project HOPE (Wa hington, D.C.) " ' IPP and Health Care I ue" Mi hael R. Olneck, Univer ity of Wi on in "Critique of Que tion Pertaining to Education in ' IPP" \{artin H. David, Univer ity of Wi con in "The Di tribution of Income in the United tate: Implication for the De ign of the ' IPP Panel" Graham Kalton and Jame Lepkow ki, Univer ity of Michigan "Following Rules in IPP"

J .'E 19 6

Increa ing number of very young American adoIe cents (15 year and younger) are becoming pregnant, carrying their children to term, and keeping them after birth, Although re earch and programmatic attention to the problem have increa ed dramatically in recent year , the focu ha been on the re ults-health outcome for mother and children, and long-term economic con equence for the "family"-rather than on the cau e . De pite con iderable re earch and policy attention, few olution are available. The volume and the conference on which it i ba ed were intended to bring a fre h per pective. chooL-Agt Prtgnancy and Partnthood offer , for the fir t time on thi topic, a bio ocial analy is-which provide a cro -temporal, cro - pecie , and cro cultural per pective. Thirty-two cienti ts from the di cipline of anthropology, developmental p ychology, hi tory, human evolution, pediatric, primatology, p ychiatry, public health, ocial work, and ociology have contributed 19 chapter di cus ing their own re earch and the knowledge of their re pective di cipline . By exploring the range of reaction for the human pecie and the complex interaction of biology and behavior, we can recognize that many (but not all) of the e phenomena are novel. Biological and cultural 39


factor ha e interacted to tabli h the wide t epara- Ph iii B. Eveleth tion between biological maturation and ocial mat- Tiffan Field uration known in human hi tor . Radical change in F. Fur tenberg, Jr. human life tyle have produced a large pool of re- Frank tanle M. Garn productively mature adole cents at ri k for pregnancy Ri hard J . GelJe in a contemporary climate of exual permi ivene . Beatrix A. Hamburg At the arne time, however, ocial and economic upports of adole cent parenthood are dimini hing, and David . Hamburg the importance of training and education before the Roberta Herceg-Baron a umption of adult role i increa ing. Lorraine V. Klerman Written in a tyle that i acce ible to ocial, beha - Melvin J. Konner ioral, and medical cienti ts a well a to the intere ted Jane B. Lanca ter la per on, chool-Agt Prtgnancy and Parmthood i an Mi hael Lamb helly D. Pe ick example of the po ibilitie opened to the ocial ciAnne C. Peter n ence by u ing a bio ocial per pective. It i the fir t Audrey . Petzold publication to be pon ored by the Committee on Mitchell . Ratner Bio ocial Per pective on Parent Behavior and Off- Edward O. Reiter Judy hea pring Development. Marjorie ho tak The contributor to the volume are: ' herilyn toller

Jeanne Itmann Vi toria K. Burbank Catherine ' . hilman Li a rockett Mercede de Cuba Arthur B. EI ter

Univer it of Chicago Harvard Univer ity Univer ity of Wi con in Penn ylvania tate Univer ity Univer ity of Florida Medical Center Univer ity of Utah Medical Center

Chari

M. uper

fari A. Vinov ki David Webb John W. M. Whiting u an Widmayer Carol M. Worthman

, ational In titute of Health Univer ity of Florida Medical hool niver ity of Penns I ania Univer it of Michig-cln Univer ity of Rhode I land Mt. inai hool of iedicine ( ew York) Carnegie Corporation of â&#x20AC;˘ ew York Univer it of Penn ylvania Yale Univer it Univer it of . w Me ico Univer ity of tah Univer ity of fichigan Penn ylvania tate Univer it Univer ity of Michigan Harvard Univer it Bay ' tate Medical Center Univer ity of Penn ylvania Emory Univer it U niver ity of Florida 1edical Center Harvard hool of Public Health Univer ity of Michigan niver it of Penn ylvania Harvard Univer it University of Florida M dical Center Harvard Medical hool

Council Holds Exploratory Meeting to Discuss Social Science Re earch on AIDS n May 13, 19 6, the ouncil convened a meeting to review the tatu of ocial cience re arch on AID and to id ntif que tion of general relevance for the ocial cien e which the AID epidemi ha rai ed. It wa a erted b a number of parti ipan that it i unlik Iy that either a vaccine again t or a cure for AID will be developed in the next five to ten year; that there i ever rea on to e pect the epidemic to continue to increa e e ponentiall for a numb r of year; and that re arch on behavioral and organizational change eem the m t hop ful direction for the imm diate future. The meeting wa chaired b Franci X. uUon, acting pre ident of the ouncil. Participan included Harlon Dalton, Yale Law chool; Jack Giger, ity Univer ityof ew York Medical hool; David Jenne ,Con ortium of ial ience A ociation (Wa hington, D.C.); Ronald Ke ler, Univer it of Michigan; Dorothy . elkin, Cornell Univer it ; June 0 borne, hool of Public Health, Univer it of Michigan; Richard nneu, . ew York Univer ity; Eleanor inger, PubLic Opinion QuaTl~rl ; Michael toto, Harvard Univer it ; Ro mary a lor, Tuft Univer ity; and David Willi , MiLLbank Fund QuaTlaiy. Ya mine Erga and David L. ill er ed a taff.

40

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Fellowships and Grants for International Research Awarded in 1986 CONTENTS 41

INTERNATION L DOCTOR L RE EARCH FELLOW HIP Africa, China, Ea t~m Europ~, Japan, Kor~a, Latin Amnica and 1M Caribbtan, th~ N~ar and Middl~ East, outh Asia, outh~ast Asia, th~ wul Union, Wt t~m Europt 46 GRANT FOR OVA CEO I TERNATIONAL RESEARCH Africa, China, East~m Europ~, Japan, Kor~a, Latin AI1I~rica and 1M Caribb~an, th~ N~ar and Middl~ East, outh Asia, outh~ast Asia, th~ oui~t Union , Indochina tudit.

THESE PACE Ii t the name , affiliation , and topic of the individual who were awarded fellow hip or grants by Council committee in the mo t recent annual competition for international re earch in the ocial cience and humanitie . The e award were made by committee jointly pon ored by the Council and the American Council of Learned ocietie (AC ). The e award program are upported by grants from the Ford Foundation, the ational Endowment for the Humanitie ,and the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation. Additional funding for the China, oviet Union, and Latin America and Caribbean program i provided by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation; for the Japan advanced re earch program b the Japan- United tate Friend hip Commi ion; and for the We tern Europe predoctoral program by the French-American Foundation. The Indochina tudie Program i upported b grant from the Ford Foundation, the Henry Luce Foundation, and the National Endowment for the Humanitie . Partial funding for the Ea t European and oviet program i obtained from the Departm nt of tate under the oviet and Ea t European Re earch and Training Act of 19 3 (Title VIII). Unle It I pecifically noted that a program i adminitered by the ACLS, the program Ii ted are ad mini tered b the ouncil. In the admini tration of it fellow hip and grant program, the Council doe not di criminate on the ba i of age, color, creed, di abilit ,marital tatu, national origin, or ex. The program change omewhat every year, and intere ted cholar hould write to the Council for a copy of the current brochure. ee al 0 page 42-43, below. IN ER ATIONAL D FRI

TORAL RE EARCH FELLOW HIP

A

he following di rtation fellow hip were awarded by the Joint Committee on African tudies-Allen F. I aacJl'NE 19 6

man (chair), Thomas J. Bier teker, Catherine CoqueryVidrovitch, Christopher O. Davi -Roberts, Jane I. Guyer, Ivan Karp, Fa il G. Kiro , V. Y. Mudimbe, Paul Riesman, Harold Scheub, and Mi hael J. Watts-at its meeting on April 4- 7, 19 6. The committee wa a i ted in the election proce by the creening Committee-Mar Jo Arnoldi, Thoma M. Callaghy, John P. Hutchi on, Randall M. Packard, and Kathleen A. taudt. Martha A. Gephart and u an A. Warga erved a taff for thi program. BARBARA A. BIANCO, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, ew York Univer ity, for re earch in Kenya on the practice of medicine in a mi ion ho pital ROBI D. . KELLEY, Ph.D. candidate in hi tor, Univer ity of California, Lo Angele , for re earch in England and outh Africa on African and the Communi t Party in outh Africa and the American outh, 1928-1941 ROBERT . KRAMER, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Northwe tern Univer ity, for re earch in the udan on the making of a holy city: Omdurman, 1885-1 9 D VID LEE HOE. BRUN, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Univer ity of California, Lo Angele, for re earch in Belgium, Burundi, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda on food production in interlacu trine ea tern Africa: lingui tic and paleoecological per pective ,500 B.C. to A.D. 13 0 The following predi ertation fellow hip awarded at the meeting on April 4- 7, 1986.

were al

0

ALFRED J. FORTI , Ph.D. candidate in political cience, Univer ity of Hawaii, for travel to Ken a GLY IS M. E. GAWN, Ph.D. candidate in agricultural economic, Univer ity of alifornia, Berkele , for travel to enegal L Y A. J RO ' Z, Ph.D. candidate in geography, Univer it of alifornia, Berkeley, for travel to Madaga car. K Til LEE. M. Ml'LLA. EY, Ph .D. candidate in comparative literature, Univer it of Chicago, for travel to the Ivor Coa t and enegal DEBR A. PIT L 'IK, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Univer ity of hicago, for travel to Zambia CHRI TOPHER R. VORY, Ph.D. candidate in economi ,Yale Univer ity, for travel to Nigeria

IIINA he Grant election Committee oftheJoint ommittee on hine e tudie (ad mini lered by the American Council of Learned ocietie) u an aquin (chair), Thoma P. Bern tein, Myron L. ohen, Patricia B. Ebrey, Thoma G. Raw ki, Wei-ming Tu, Erne t P. Young, and Pauline R. Yu-voted at it meeting on March 7- , 19 6 to award fellow hip to the following individual . Ja on H. Parker and Helen Gold mith erved a taff for thi program. I OLE CO. TABLE, Ph. D. candidate in anthropology, Univer ity of California, Berkeley, for re earch in Hong

41


Council Fellowships and Grants Offered in 1986* Predoctoral and Doctoral Dissertation Programs DESCRIPTION

1986 DEADUNES

Fellow hip for International Doctoral R earch

Africa, Korea, Latin America and the Caribbean, ear and Middle Ea t, outh A ia, outhea t A ia, and We tern Europe: upport for doctoral re earch abroad in the ocial science and the humanitie

', ovember 3

Fellow hip for International Doctoral Research Administered by the American Council of Learned Societie ••

China and Ea tern Europe: upport for doctoral re earch abroad in the ocial cience and the humanitie

December I

Berlin Program for Advanced German and European Studies

upport for doctoral re earch in the ocial cience and hi tory

Fellow hip for Predi sertation Research in Africa

upport for predi ertation reearch trip to frica for graduate tudents in the ocial cience and the humanitie

February I (19 7)

Dis ertation Fellow hip for Doctoral Re arch in Japanese Studie

upport advanced graduate tudents during the writing of their di ertation in the nited tate

' ept mber I

Graduate Training in Soviet Studie

upport for 3rd and 4th graduate tud

ear

December I

Di sertation Fellow hip Soviet Studie

upport for final year' work on di ertation

December I

PROGRAM

in

pril30

Institutional Support Programs Ru ian and non-Ru ian Soviet Language In titute Program

Provid in titution with fund to upport Ru ian and nonRu~ ian Soviet language ummer in titute

February I (19 7)

Program to Initiate New Teaching Po itions in Ru ian and Soviet Studies

PIO\'ide. imlitution with partial upport of a new teaching po ition in Ru ian/Soviet tudie

Decemb r I

ial i n e Re earch Council, -For detail and in truction on how to appl ,addl e th pecific program at the 605 Third A\enu , ~ w York, • ew York 101') , "For detail and in truction on how to apply, addre the pecifi program at th American Councilor Learned Societi ,22 Ea t 45thtreet, • ew York, • ew York 10017,

42

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1E

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Council Fellowships and Grants Offered in 1986 (continued)* Advanced Research Programs PROGRAM

DESCRIPTION

1986 DEADLINES ugu

MacArthur Foundation FeUowships in International Security

Two-year training and re earch fellow hip for work in international peace and ecurity tudie

Grants for International Research

frica, Japan, Korea, Latin merica and the Caribbean, ear and Middle Ea t, outh A ia, and Southea t A ia: upport for advanced re earch in the social sciences and the humanitie

December I

Grant for International Research Admini tered by the American Council of Learned Societies路路

China and Ea tern Europe: upport for advanced research in the social science and humanities

Decemb r I

Berlin Program for Advanced German and European Studie

'upport for advanc d re earch in the ocial ciences and hi tory

May I (19 7)

Advanced Research FeUowships in Foreign Policy Studies

One to two year of upport for re earch on foreign policy making proce se

Grants for Indochina Studies

uppor cholar hip on Cambodia, Lao , and Vietnam ba ed upon the knowledge and experience of refugee from the e countrie re iding in orth America. Open to re earcher , writer, journali ts, arti ts, and other profe sional .

December I

Advanced Research Grants for the Comparative Study of Mu lim Societie

upport for advanced re earch

December I

Advanced Grants in Soviet Studies

upport for three ummer and one erne ter of research

December I

t

I

tober I

路For detail and instruction on how to apply, add res the pecifi program at the Social ience Research Council, 605 Third venue, ew York, New York 1015 . 路.For detail and in truction on how to apply, addre the pecific program at the American Council for Learned Societie ,22 Ea t 45th treet, ew York, ew York 10017.

J .E

1986

43


Kon~ on a Hakka Prote tant community in the ew ZONJA ZELE YI, Ph.D. candidate in ociology, Univer ity Terntorie of Wi con in, for re earch on the ocial po ition of TERRY F. KUE ~ N, Ph.D. candidate in Oriental language , women in the United tate and Hungar from a cro Univer it of California, Berkeley, for re earch in national per pective France on literary glory and the Divine Lord ofTzu-t'ung DOROTHY Y. Ko, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, tan ford Univer ity, for re earch in japan on the ocial hi tory ot JAP urban women in Ming-Qing China Under the program pon ored by the joint Committee MELA IE MARIO , Ph.D. candidate in political cience, Univer ity of Michi~n, for re earch in Hong Kong and on japane e tudie, the ubcommittee on Grants for China on cadre reurement in po t-Mao China Re earch-Gary Allin on (chair), L. Keith Brown, Carol ICHIRO 1AZAKI, Ph.D. candiaate in anthropology, Gluck, William R. LaFleur, jeffrey P. Ma , Patricia G. Michigan tate Univer ity, for re earch in Taiwan on the teinhoff, and jame W. White-recommended, at its local and international network of Taiwane e entrepremeeting on February 17, 19 6, that award be made to the neur following individual. Blair A. Ruble, Theodore C. Be tor, and uzanne . ichol erved a taff for thi program. E TER E ROPE EIKO IKEGAMI, Ph.D. candidate in ociology, Harvard UniThe joint Committee on Ea tern Europe {ad mini tered ver ity, for research in japan on pri on and puni hment by the American Council of Learned ocietie }-Ed A. in Tokugawa japan Hewett (chair), Daniel Chirot, Ellen T. Comi 0, jan T. CH RLE . INO YE, Ph.D. candidate in Ea t A ian language and civilization, Harvard Univer ity, for reGro , Keith A. Hitchin, Ken jowitt, Gail Kligman, earch in japan on Izumi Kyoka (1873-1939) and the Madeline G. Le ine, Gale toke, and I van zelenyi-voted gtsalcu tradition at its meeting on April 25, 19 6 to award graduate training A 'CY L. VAlDA, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Unifellow hip to the following individual. ja on H. Parker ver ity of Michigan, for re earch in japan on prehi toric human ub i tence and ettlement in the Kitakami river and Helen Gold mith erved a taff for thi program. valley L RA ANN CR GO, graduate tudent in hi tory, Yale Univer ity, for re earch on interwar trade union in Poland PAWEL jACEK KOTWICA, graduate tudent in government KOREA and international tudie, Univer ity of Notre Dame, for The joint Committee on Korean tudies--Hagen Koo re earch on the impact of the Poli h Catholic Church on (chair), jo eph . Chung, Michael C. Kalton, Laurel Kenociopolitical change in Poland ince 1955 CAROL LILLY, graduate tudent in hi tory, Yale Univer ity, dall, Han-kyo Kim, Mar hall R. Pihl, and Edward W. for re earch on ideological trend in Yugo lavia and Wagner-voted, at its meeting on March 2, 1986, to award training in German and: erbo-Croatian fellow hip to the following individual . Blair A. Ruble, MARY J NE OA, graduate tudent in ociology, Univer ity Theodore C. Be tor, and uzanne . ichol erved as taff of Chicago, for training in Poli h and research on for thi program. church- tate relations in Poland and Hungary.

The following di ertation fellow hip were al at the meeting on April 25, 19 6.

0

awarded

JIM Yo G KIM, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Harvard Univer ity, and M.D. candidate, Harvard Medical School, for re earch in outh Korea on the dynamic of health and illne E N MEE KIM, Ph.D. candidate in ociology, Brown Univer ity, for re earch in outh Korea on the role of the tate, foreign capital, and local capital in Korea' indutrialization

DAVID L. BARTLETr, Ph.D. candidate in political cience, Univer ity of California, an Diego, for training in Hungarian and re earch on the politic of banking reform in Hungar JOH CLARK, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Univerity of California, Berkeley, for re earch on the political limi to economic reform in Poland, 1968-1982 M RK GERMER, Ph.D. candidate in mu ic, ew York Uni- LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN ver ity, for re earch on the Au tro-Bohemian pa toral The following fellow hip were awarded by the I nternama in the 18th century tional Doctoral Re earch Fellow hip election Committee PIOTR GORECKI, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Univer ity of for Latin American and the Caribbean-Chri topher Chicago, for re earch on ocial tratification and the Mitchell (chair), Margaret E. Crahan, Shane]. Hunt, Franorigin of lord hip and tenure in early medieval Poland BETH HOLMGREN, Ph.D. candidate in lavic language and cine R. Ma iello, Carol A. mith,-at its meeting on March literature, Harvard Univer ity, for re earch on the pre- 7, 1986. The election Committee wa a i ted by the entation and u e of a pecific type of fir t-per on percreening Committee-Samuel A. Morley, Benjamin Orona in the work of the oviet writer, Andrej injav kij, love, Dori ommer, Barbara tailing, and Eric Van and the Poli h writer, Witold Gombrowicz RAH KENT, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Indiana Univer- Young. joan Da in, Diana De G. Brown, and Mar A. ity, for re earch on lawyer in Zagreb, 1884-1894 Haber erved a taff for thi program. M RTHA LAMPLA 0, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Univer ity of Chicago, for re earch on the character of MARC BERMA ,Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Univeragrarian change in a Hungarian community, 1918-19 3 ity of Michigan, for re earch in the Moquegua Valle of 44

VOL 1E 40, N MBER 2


Peru on the collap e of imperial political y tern in provincial area Lo IE R. DA KERLI , Ph.D. candidate in urban tudie and planning, International Food and Nutrition Program, Ma achu etts In titute of Technology, for reearch in Jamaica on male labor migration and the nutritional tatu of rural women and children ~il H EL D CEY, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Univer ity of Chicago, for re earch in Mexico on rural prote t movements in the Huasteca and in Papantla, 1,50-1901 KARE. J 00, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Graduate Center, City Univer ity of ew York, for re earch in Belize on the formation of a Creole elite, 1854-1936 BIOR. MAYB Ry-LEWI , Ph.D. candidate in political cience, Columbia Univer ity, for re earch in Brazil on the growth and tran formation of Brazilian rural worker' union , 1964- 1985 JASI N CKOLLS, Ph.D. candidate in lingui tic and anthropology. U niver ity of Chicago. for re earch in Ecuador on the interrelation between grammatical a pect and Quechua conception of mythic and linear time LEIGH PAYNE, Ph.D. candidate in political cience, Yale University. for re earch in Brazil on Brazilian indu triali ts in the tran ition to democracy ASORES VELA co, Ph.D. candidate in economics. Columbia Univer- ity. for re earch in Chile on inflation and indexing. 1964-1982 K RL ZIMMERER, Ph.D. candidate in geography. Univer ity of California, Berkeley. for re earch in Peru on genetic re ource and agricultural change in the Paucartambo region . 'EAR A

0

MIDDLE EAST

The following di ertation fellow hip were awarded by the Joint Committee on the ear and Middle Ea t-Peter von iver (chair). Leonard Binder. Abdellah Hammoudi. Michael C. Hud on, Suad Jo eph, Jean Leca, Afaf Lutfi al- ayyid Mar ot, E. Roger Owen, Alan R. Richard , and John Waterbury-at it meeting on February 28, 19 6. P. Nikiforo Diamandouro and Chri tina Dragonetti erved a taff for the program. BE HARA B. Do MA I. Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Georgetown Univer ity. for re earch in the We t Bank on the ocioeconomic hi tory of ablu. from 1800 to 1 50

TEVE A. GLAZER, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory. Georgetown Univer ity, for re earch in I rael on the Zioni t policy of "Hebrew labor" in Pale tine from 1905 to 1936 DWIGHT F. REY OLD ', Ph.D. candidate in folklore and folklife, Univer ity of Pennsylvania. for re earch in Egypt conducted while under the apprentice hip of an Egyptian irat Bani Hilal epic poet.

KI G D. BEACH, III, Ph.D. candidate in developmental p ychology, Graduate Center, City Univer ity of New York. for a cognitive- ymbolic tudy in Nepal of children' mathematical rea onin~ at work and at chool U 'HA A YAL, Ph.D. candidate In hi tory, Columbia Univer ity. for re earch in the United Kingdom on the Barelwi movement in Briti h India, 1900-1947 WILLIAM T RMA AX, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology. Univer ity of Chicago, for re earch in France and the United Kingdom on pilgrimage or proce ion of Hindu deitie in the Central Himalayan region of India TA LEY FRA CI' TEVE " Ph.D. candidate in geography, Univer ity of California. Berkeley, for re earch in Nepal on herpa land u e. management, and tran formation in the Mount Evere t region

'0

THEAST A IA

The following di ertation fellow hip were awarded by the Joint Committee on outhea t A ia-John R. W. mail (chair), helly Errington, Gillian P. Hart, Mary R. Holln teiner. Charle F. Keye , David Marr, Chai-anan amudvanija. Peter C. mith, and Ruth T. McVey-at its meeting on March 14-16, 1986. David L. zan ton and arah Fulton erved a taff for thi program. EDWARD WEBB KEA E. Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Univer ity of Chicago, for re earch in Indone ia on knowledge, repre entation ,and ocial organization in umba GRA T ALLA 0 0 â&#x20AC;˘ Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Cornell Univer ity, for re earch in Thailand on Thai Buddhi t conception of life hi torie B OJ SA TO, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Cornell Univer ity, for re earch in Indone ia on indigenou Catholici m and the ethnohi tory of the Batak religion THAVEEPOR VA AVAK L, Ph.D. candidate in government, Cornell Univer ity, for re earch in France. Vietnam, and the United tate on educational policy and practice in North and outh Vietnam. 1955-1965 ASTRI WRIGHT, Ph.D. candidate in art hi tory, Cornell Univer ity, for re earch in Indone ia on contemporary painting

OVIET

10

so TH ASIA

The following graduate training fellow hip were awarded by the Joint Committee on oviet tudies-Gail War hoE: ky Lapidu (chair), Jo eph Berliner, eweryn Bialer, Jeffrey P. Brook, Timothy J. Colton. Loren Graham, Edward L. Keenan, Robert Legvold, Herbert . Levine, Leon Lip on, and William Mill Todd. III-at its meeting on April 5-6, 1986. Blair A. Ruble, Kri tin Antelman, and Regina myth erved a taff for thi program.

The following di ertation fellow hip were awarded by the Joint Committee on South A ia-Bernard S. Cohn (chair), Pranab K. Bardhan, Jan C. Breman, Richard M. Eaton, Ronald J. Herring, Barbara . Miller, Harold Power ,and u an . Wadley-at its meeting on March 8-9, 19 6. David L. zanton and arah Fulton erved a taff for this program.

ROBERT T. ARGENBRIGHT. Ph.D. candidate in geography, Univer ity of California, Berkeley, for training in preparation for a tudy of the railroad y tern during the Ru ian civil war, 1917-1921 ANDREW M. CARPE OAL , Ph.D. candidate in political cience. Univer ity of California, Berkeley. for training in preparation for a tudy of the ource of American and oviet nuclear doctrine

J

NE 19 6

45


MARK . JOII !>o. , Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Columbia Univer ity, for training in preparati n for a tudy of oviet culture and cultural policle during World War II DE80R II A. K PLE, Ph.D . candidate in ociolog, Princeton niver it , for training in preparation for a tud of the impact of changing trend in migration and urbanization on the oviet family and ociety KATIILEEN A. KELLEIIER, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Brown Univer it , for training in preparation for a tudyof . V. Cha anov and the organization-production choolof rural tudie in the ' oviet Union in the 1920 JO!>EPH . M OR'f1 K, Ph.D. candidate in lavi langua~e and literature, Univer it of Chicago, for training In preparation for a tudy of the tructure and hi tor of the Ukrainian, Lithuanian, and eorgian language R . ' 01 RYTERMA -T A ROI, Ph.D. candidate in conomic , U niver it of Mar land, for training in preparation for a tud of the efficienc and welfare implication of 'oviet trade with Ea tern Europ and the We t

Weaver. P . â&#x20AC;˘ ikiforo Diamandouro and Chri tina Dragonetti erved a taff for thi program.

M RJORIE A. BE l.E, Ph.D. candidate in hi tor, Univer it of California, Berkele ,for re arch in France on adverti ing and political con ciou ne in the Third Republic, 1 70-1940 WILLI \1 R. BR 8 KER, Ph.D. candidate in ociology, Columbia Univer ity, for re earch in ermany, France, and witzerland on migrant labor and the politic of citizenhip VI IE. E. DIETZ, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Princeton Univer ity, for re earch in the United Kingdom on Briti h economi poli y in the age of Pitt the Younger A . 'I:. H 1(,0. ~ET, Ph.D. candidate in the hi tor of art, Yale Univer ity, for re arch in France on impre ioni m in Berthe Mori ot' painting Gl.EN H. JORDA. , Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Univer ity of IIIinoi ,for re earch in the United Kingdom on ocial reproduction and ocial drama in a "raciallytructured" ocial formation, u ing Anthon Gidden' The following di ertation fellow hip were al 0 awarded theory of tructuration at the meting on April 5-6, 19 6. BE JAM!. J. K PLA , Ph.D. candidate in hi tor , Harvard Univer ity, for re earch in the etherland and Belgium A '.' M RIE BA!>O'f, Ph.D. candidate in lavic language on apathy and oppo ilion in the Dutch Reformation, and literature, niver ity of Wi con in, for a di rta1559-1630 tion on the po try of Mak amilian Alek androvic Volo in RI liARD M. Lo KE, Ph.D. candidate in political cience, D VID J. BIR. 8 'f, Ph.D. candidate in lavic language Ma achu ett In titute of Technology, for re earch in and literature, Harvard Univer it ,for a di ertation on Ital on labor politic current topic in lavic a centology A. G. PEDER E. , Ph.D. candidate in hi tor , Harvard JOII E. L Y, Ph.D. candidate in hi tor, Univer ity of Univer ity, for re earch in France and the United KingChicago, for a di ertation on the hi tory of the diver e dom on ocial poli y and the recon truction of the famreligiou movement in Ru ia which became known a ily, 19 0-1945 the Khri tOY hchina C R L E. Q ILLE , Ph.D. candidate in hi tor , Princeton MI II ELJ. GEL8, Ph.D. candidate in hi tor , niver ityof Univer ity, for re earch in the United Kingdom on alifornia, Lo Angele, for a di rtation on political life Renai ance intellectual ' u e ot the writing ot Saint under ' talini m ba d on ca e tudi of the purge and Augu tine of ociali t competition in Leningrad in the 1930 JOII D. ROTII, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Univer ity of WE ' DY Z. GOl.DMAN, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Univer ity Chicago, for re earch in We t ermany on popular piety of Penn ylvania, for a di crtation on change in oviet and the emerg n e of a political culture in the Palatinate, famil law from 1917 to 1936 1770-1 40 MI II U . KIIODARKOV.,KY, Ph.D. candidate in hi tor, ni- A LEE AXE IA , Ph.D. candidate in politi al cience, ver it of hi ago, for a di ertation on the hi tor of the Ma achu ells In titute of T chnology, for re earch in Kalm k p ople and their relation with Ru ia in the th United Kingdom on ideology, intere t, and organiperiod 1670-1771 zation in technologically-orient d region of the United V l.ERIE A. KI EL..,ON, Ph .D. candidate in hi tory, ' tanford ' tate and the United Kingdom Univer it , for a di ertation on the relation hip of the SERAPIJI f EYERIAD s, Ph.D. candidate in p litical cience, rvitor la to the tat in 17th entur Ru ia lumbia niver it , for re ear h in Gr e on party EU.lo I R. LIEBER~f . , Ph.D. candidate in geo raph and ompetition, politi al incorporation, and ial cleavage environmental engin ering, The John Hopkin Univerin p twar Gre ce sit , for a di ertation on multiobj tive programming a a de ision-making t 01 in the oviet Union Mlell I:.l. ' J> GAT, Ph.D. candidate in e onomic , Harvard niver ity, for a di ertation on the cau e and con eGRA T ' FOR ITER ATIO AL quen e f hortag in the oviet econom PO TD TORAL RE EARCH YRIC WESTER. E ROI'E The following grants for advanced international reearch were award d b the Joint ommittee on African he following di rtation re earch fellow hip were awarded b the Joint mmittee on We tern Europe- ' tudies-Allen F. I aa man (chair), Thoma J. Bier teker, atherine oquer -Vidrovitch, Chri topher O. DaviPeter . Gourevitch (chair), Victoria de Grazia, Vi tor Roberts, Jane I. Guyer, Ivan Karp, Fa il . Kiri , V. Y. Perez-Diaz, harle F. ' abel, and Fritz W. charpf-at it meeting on March 14, 19 6. The were a i ted b the Mudimbe, Paul Rie man, Harold cheub, and Michael J. reening ommittee-Mi hael J. Donnell , Robert M. Watts-at its me ting on April 4-7, 19 6. Martha A. Fi hman,John T. '. Keeler, Mar McLeod, Peter Mandler, G ph art and u an A. Warga erve a taff for thi proR b rt G. Mo lIer, ancy ' hep r-Hughe , and Eli a B. gram. 46

VOL ME 40,

18ER 2


gender in traditional China: medicine, reproduction, Euz BETH H I A DRETTA, adjunct a i tant profe or of and women' e tate, 16 0- 19 0 ocial anthropology, Georgetown Univer it , for rearch in the United Kingdom on a critical revaluation of ROBERT E. HEGEL, a ociate profe or of Chine e, Wa hington Univer ity, for re earch on the development of Murle ocial tructure from the paper of B.A. Lewi the Chine e novel JO'r'E L. Bow" ,a i tant profe or of hi tory, Univer ity of Virginia, for re earch in Portugal, Guinea-Bi au, RICH RO KRA ,a ociate profe or of political cience, U niver ity of Oregon, for re earch on piano and politic nelfcll, and the Gambia on changing pattern of re i tin China ance In Guinea-Bi au , I 0-1956 AROLY. A . DERO BRow, a i tant profe or of Af- Ho G Y G LEE, a ociate profe or of political cience, Yale Univer ity, for re earch on the changing elite of ricana tudie, tate Univer ity of ew York at tony the ociali t tate in China Brook, for re earch in igeria on cia tran formation in E. PERRY LI K, JR., profe or of Chine e, Univer it of the igerian coal indu try, 1914-193 California, Lo Angele, for re earch on Chine e fiction FRt:OERI K COOPER, profe or of hi tory, Univer it of in it ocial context after Mao ~1i higan, for re earch in enegal on the labor que tion VI OR H. M IR, a ociate profe or of Oriental tudie, in Fren h We t Africa, 1935-1955 Univer ity of Penn ylvama, for re earch on language \f RIA L. GRO Z- GATE, vi iting a i tant profe or of anand literacy during the Tang period thropology, Michigan tate Univer ity, for re earch in TEPHE OWE ,profe or of Chine e and comparative litFrance and Mali on tructure and proce in an urban erature, Harvard Univer ity, for re earch on tex in economy: an anal i of the production and di tribution Chine e literary thought of kbba textile in Bamako, Mali JOH WILLIAM JOH 0 , a ociate profe or of folklore, ELIZABETH J. PERRY, a ociate profe or of political cience, Jack on chool of International tudie, Uni er ity of Indiana niver ity, for re earch in omalia on the proWa hington, for re earch on trike in hanghai, I 70odic tructure and ocial function of om ali oral p tr 1970 IIRISTOPHER L. MILLER, a i tant profe or of French and of Afri an and Afro-American tudie, Yale Univer it , WILLARDJ. PETER 0 ,profe or of hi tor, Princeton Univer ity, for re earch on the expan ion of literati thought for re earch in Cameroon, France, the Ivory Coa t, and in the late Ming period enegal on We tern interpretation of Francophonic A THO. 'Y C. Y ,profe or of religion and literature, he black African literature Divinity hool, Univer ity of Chicago, for re earch on \1 RTI' J. M RRAY, a ociate J?rofe or of ociology, tate fi tion making in Tht Drtam of tht Red Chamber niver ity of ew York, Binghamton, for re earch in outh Africa on political unre t in urban town hip RI liARD L. ROBERT, a i tant profe or of hi tory, tan- MtlLon Fellow hip for Rt tarch, Training, and Lallguagt tud ford Univer ity, for re earch in France, India, and the United Kingdom on hou ehold ocial relation in a Cy THI J. BROKAW, a i tant profe or of hi tory, Vanchanging political economy: a ocial hi tory of a We t derbilt Univer ity, for re earch on the ledger of merit African handicraft indu tr , 1 00-1968 and demerit in the Ming-Qing tran ition period ABOI I. AM TAR, vi iting a i tant profe or of geogra- JOH W. CHAFFEE, a i tant J?rofe or of hi tor, tate Uniph , Univer ity of Iowa, for re earch in omalia and the ver it of ew York, Binghamton, for the tud of United tate on the tate, merchant capital, and the Japane e tran formation of pa toral production in north we t ROBERT JOE C TTER. a i tant profe or of Chine e, Uniom alia ver ity of Wi con in, for re earch on Cao Zhi and the Em RD I. TEl H RT, a i tant profe or of hi tory, e a world of the Jian'an poets Tech Univer ity, for re earch in Kenya on a ocial hi - EDWARD A. MCCORD, P tdoctoral fellow in Chine e hi tory of hunting in Kenya, I 50-1960 tory, Center for Chine e tudie, Univer ity of California, Berkeley, for re earch on local militarization in Republican China CHI. A B RRY J. A GHTO.', a i tant profe or of economic , Univer ity of regon, for re earch on indu trial and The ran election Committee of the Joint Committee financial development in China, 1964-19 5 on hine e tudie (admini tered by the American Council TEPHE F. TEl ER, vi iting in tructor in religion, Middleof Learned ocietie)-Su an aquin (chair), Thoma P. bur College, for re earch on the ten king of hell in medieval Chine e religion Bern tein, Myron L. Cohen, Patricia B. Ebrey, Thoma Raw ki, Wei-ming Tu, Erne t P. Young, and Pauline R. TEO A. TELFORD, adjunct a i tant profe or of ociology, Univer it of Utah, for re earch on the lineag demogYu-at its meeting on March 7- , 19 6 awarded grants to raphy of Tongcheng Count, 1662-1 50 the following individual in the categorie Ii ted. Ja on H. RI liARD E. VINOGR 0, a ociate profe or of art hi tor, Parker and Helen Gold mith erved a taff for thi proUni er ity of outhern California, for the tudy of Japane e gram. A WALT ER, re earch a ociate in Chine e hi tory, enter for Chine e tudie, Univer ity of California, Berkele , for re earch n Tan Yang-tzu, a late Ming Rt tarch in Chint t tudit aoi t DEBOR H D I -FRIEDM ,a ociate profe or of ociolo~, Yale Univer it , tor re earch on occupational mo- Mellon Program for ummtr Languagt Training at tht /nttrUnivtr it Program for Chint e Language tudit (Taipei) bility and the evolving opportunity tructure of contemporary China HARLOTTE F RTH, profe or of hi tory, California tate R. DAVID ARKH, a ociate profe or of hi tor, Univer ity Univer ity at Long Beach, for re earch on biology and of Iowa I

J

E

19 6

47


LORE BRA OT, a i tant profe or of economic, t. Olaf College P TER J. 0 , a ociate profe or of hi tory, Univer ity of Denver H RRY L. L MLEY. profe or of hi tory, Univer ity of Hawaii THO U P. Lyo ., a i tant profe or of economic, Dartmouth College ' . E. ELSO, a i tant profe or of art hi tory, Indiana Univer ity TEPHE. H. WE T, profe or of Chine e, Univer it of alifornia, Berkele M~llon

Program in

Chin~ ~

lud~

China

Conf~unc~ Trav~l

Grants

The following award were made by an ad hoc election committee of the Joint Committee on Chine e tudie. To attend an international conference to commemorate the 60th anniver ary of the founding of the fir t hi torical archive of China, Beijing, October 7-10, 1985 BE TRICE . BARTLETT, a i tant profe or of hi tory, Yale Univer ity ALBERT FE ERWERKER, profe or of hi tory, Univer ity of Michigan PHILIP C. HAG, profe or of hi tory, Univer ity of California, Lo Angele PHILIP A. K HN, profe or of hi tory, Harvard Univer ity JAME ' Z. LEE, a i tant profe or of hi tory, California Intitute of Technology Kw G-CHI G LI , profe or of hi tory, Univer ity of California, Davi To attend an international conference on Chine e culture, Fudan Univer ity, hanghai, January 6-10, 1986 FREOERI E. WAKE fA ,JR., profe or of hi tory, Univer ity of California, Berkeley To attend an international conference on TM Dr~am of Chamba, Harbin, Heilongjiang, June 13-19, 1986

th~ R~d

K RL . Y. KAO, a i tant profe or of Ea t A ian language and literature, Yale Univer ity To attend a conference in commemoration of the 50th anni er ary of the death of Zhang Binglin, Hangzhou, June 15-19, 1986 Yo . (.-T Wo G, profe or of hi tory, Virginia Polytechnic In titute and tate Univer ity To attend an international ympo ium on Qing hi tory, Dalien, Liaoning, July 25-29, 19 6 YUf- HIE. WA it ESTER

G,

profe or of hi tor, Kent tate Univer-

E ROPE

he Joint Committee on Ea t rn Europe (admini tered b the American Council of Learned 'ocietie )-Ed A. Hewett (chair), Daniel Chirot, Ellen T. Comi 0, Jan T. 48

Gro , Keith A. Hitchin, Ken Jowitt, Gail Kligman, Madeline G. Levine, Gale toke, and Ivan zelenyi-voted at i meeting on April 25, 1986 to award gran to the following individual . Ja on H. Parker and Helen Gold mith erved a taff for thi program. OTT M. EOOlE, profe or of hi tory, Erindale College, Univer ity of Toronto, for re earch on the ocial di tribution of landed wealth in Ea tern Europe, 1870-1935 THOM . A. EEKM , profe or of lavic language and literature, Univer ity of California, Lo Angele, for re earch on the hort tory in outh lavic literature GR E FIELDER, a i tant profe or of lavic language and literature, Univer ity of Virginia, for re earch on the relation hip of the verbal categorie of ten e, a pect, and mood in Bulgarian ubordinate con truction K RE FREEZE, as ociate for ca e development, Graduate chool of Bu ine Admini tration, Harvard Univer ity, for re earch on technological innovation in the Czecho lovak textile machine indu try, 1945-1975 S G L, a ociate profe or of anthropology, Rutger Univer ity, for re earch on bilinguali m in Ea tern Europe MI H EL KR , a i tant profe or of political cience, Middlebury College, for re earch on the foundation of Communi t rule in the oviet Union and Czecho lovakia, 1938-1948 JOH K LCZYCKI, a ociate profe or of hi tory, Univer ity of IIIinoi at Chicago, for re earch on Poli h migrants in the coal field of the German Ruhr and orthern France, 1871-1939 EVE LEVI , a i tant profe or of hi tory, Ohio tate Univer ity, for re earch on exuality in medieval lavic Orthodox ocietie AM EL SA OLER, profe or of Poli h and comparative literature, Univer ity of Chicago, for re earch on tefan Zerom ki' Diam AMY CH UOT, archivi t, Military Field Branch, ational Archive and Record Admini tration, for re earch on the Croatian Pea ant Party in Yugo lav politics CHRI 'TI E . CHOEFER, part-time lecturer in political cience, Univer ity of California, Berkeley, for re earch on literature and politic in the German Democratic Republic MICHAEL ILBER, in tructor in hi tory, The Hebrew Univerity of Jeru alem, for re earch on modernization and the rift in Hungarian Jewry, 1780-1870 JAP

Under the program pon ored by the Joint Committee on Japane e Studie , the ubcommittee on Grants for Re earch-Gary D. Alii on (chair), L. Keith Brown, Carol Gluck, William R. LaFleur, Jeffrey P. Ma , Patricia G. teinhoff, and Jame W. White-recommended, at its meeting on February 17, 1986, that award be made to the following individual . Blair A. Ruble, Theodore C. Be tor, and uzanne . ichol erved a taff for thi program. PA LJ. OERER, a i tant profe or of Japane e, Columbia Univer ity, for re earch on the literature of Kobaya hi Hideo and modern Japane e literar critici m ELIZ BETH M. BERRY, a ociate profe or of hi tory, niver ity of California, Berkele , for re earch on daily life in wartime Kyoto, 1467-1573* â&#x20AC;˘ Pending receipl of addilional fund .

VOL ME 40, N MBER 2


BR CE G. C MI G , profe or of international tudie, FRA A TMA ,adjunct a i tant profe or, Baruch College, City Univer ity of New York, for re earch in Jack on chool of International tudie, Univer ity of Bolivia, Ecuador, and Peru on a hi torical analy i of Wa hington, for re earch on the origin and developphotographic repre entation of Andean indigenou ment of the northea t A ian political economy Uoint with group , 185~ 1940 the joint Committee on Korean tudie)· A, B. HA LEY, a ociate profe or of Japane e tudie, PETER BAKEWELL, profe or of hi tory, Univer ity of ew Mexico, for re earch in Peru on Don Franci co de ToJack on chool of International tudie, Univer ity of ledo, fifth viceroy of Peru, 1568-1580 Wa hington, for re earch on material culture, life tyle, LAIRD W. BERGAD, a ociate profe or of hi tory, Lehman and tandard of living in japan, 160~ 1900· College, City Univer ity of New York, for research in H R KO IWA AKI, a i tant profe or ofjapane e, Harvard Cuba on rural ociety in the 19th century in the ugarUniver ity, for re earch on literary ver ion of commuproducing zone of Maranza nity in late Edo japan OLED D BIA CHI, lecturer in literature, Univer ity of THoMA P. KA 1I, a ociate profe or of philo ophy and Pari - orth, for re earch in Chile on the per onal, culreligion, Northland College, for re earch on the Budtural, hi torical, and ocial aspects of recent Chilean podhi t influence in modern japane e thought· etry, 196~ 1985 WILLIAM W. KELLY, a ociate profe or of anthropology, Yale Univer ity, for re earch on rationality and no talgia PER I CHARLE, faculty member in hi tory, arah Lawrence College, for re earch in jamaica and the United and the making of the new middle cla on a japane e Kingdom on gender, coloniali m, and authority at the rice plain time of the 1865 Morant Bay Upri ing PHYLLI I. Lyo ,a ociate profe or of japane e language and literature, orthwe tern Univer ity, for re earch on ARTH R DEMARE T, a i tant profe or of anthropology, Vanderbilt Univer ity, for re earch in outhern japane e women writer and the modern literary tradiGuatemala on exploration of the beginning of ocial tion· complexity at the Manchon archeological ite MARGARET A E McKEA ,a ociate profe sor of political cience, Duke Univer ity, for re earch on the japane e VILMAR EVA GELI TA FARIA, profe or of ociology, tate Univer ity of Campina , for re earch in the United experience with carcity tate on structural tran formation , government ESPERA ZA RAMIREZ-CHRI TE EN, a i tant profe or of policie , and the growth and implementation of medical japane e language and literature, Smith College, for reprogram in contemporary Brazilian ociety earch on the poetic of rmga (linked poetry)· R BE 1 CE 'AR FER A DES, a ociate profe or of hi tory, ational Mu eum (Rio de janeiro), for re earch in Brazil KOREA and Poland on the church, tate, and social movements The joint Committee on Korean tudies-Hagen Koo LI DA F LLER, a i tant profe or of ocioLogy, Univer ity of outhern California, for re earch in Cuba on worker' (chair), jo eph . Chung, Michael C. Kalton, Laurel involvement in economic deci ion making in postKendall, Han-kyo Kim, Mar hall R. Pihl, and Edward W. revolutionary Cuba Wagner-voted, at its meeting on March 2, 1986, to award PA L GOOTENBERG, vi iting a i tant profe or of hi tory, grants to the following individual. Blair A. Ruble, Univer ity of Illinoi at Chicago, for re earch in Peru on economy and polity in the tran ition to free trade in Theodore C. Be tor, and uzanne . ichol erved a taff Peru, 182~ 1880 for thi program. DA IEL jA 1E ,a i tant profe or of hi tory, Yale Univerity, for re earch in Argentina on cla and community in BR CE G. C MI G , profe or of international tudie, the development of the Argentine indu trial city of BeJack on chool of International tudie, Univer ity of ri 0, 190~ 1955 Wa hington, for re earch on the origin and development of the orthea t A ian political economy Uoint JORGE LIER R, re earcher, In titute of Art Hi tory, Univer ity of Bonn, for re earch in Argentina on the hi tory with the joint Committee on japane e tudie) of indu trial architecture, 181 ~ 1955 J GHEE LEE, re earch a ociate, Korea In titute, john K. Fairbank Center, Harvard Univer ity, for re earch on HARRY M. MAKLER, a ociate profe or of ociology, Unithe origin and development of Korean contemplating ver ity of Toronto, for re earch in Brazil on the role of financial conglomerate in the growth and development Bodhi attva image of Brazil ED ARDO ORTIZ, re earch, Vector Re earch In titute ( anLATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN tiago), for re earch in Chile on the appearance and deThe joint Committee on Latin American tudies-john velopment of political violence between the year 1973 and 1985 H. Coatsworth (chair), Paul W. Drake,jo e Murilo de Carvalo, Adam Przewor ki, Nohra Rey de Marulanda, Beatriz JOA E R PPAPORT, a i tant profe or of anthropology, U niver ity of Maryland, for re earch in Colombia on the arlo, tanley j. tein , Arturo Warman, and Kate implementation of hi torical knowledge in highland Young-at it meeting on March 27-29, 1986, awarded Colombia grants to the following individual . joan Da in, Diana De WILLIAM ROSEBERRY, a ociate profe or of anthropology, G. Brown, Mar y A. Haber, and Katherine Pettu erved a ew chool for ocial Re earch, for re earch in Mexico and Peru on a comparative analy i of the hi tory of the taff for thi program. emergence of family economy in pea ant ocieue A TO 10 Aco TA, profe or of hi tory, Univer ity of ILVA IGAL, re earcher, ational Center for Scientific Reeville, for re earch in pain and Peru on the function earch (Pari), for re earch in Argentina on the reand nature of the ad mini tration in colonial Peru, tructunng proce of the ocial cience and the reorga156~1650 nization of univer itie following the election , 1983• Pending receipt of additional fund . 1986 J

E 1986

49


JOE L I VEG ,profe or of political ociology, Univer ity of ta Rica, for re earch in 0 ta Rica, icaragua, and Hondura on part y tem ,election , and the tran ition to democracy, 1970-19 5 P TER WADE, re earch fellow in anthropology, Queen ' olle~e (Cambridge), for re earch in Colombia on the hi toncal and contemporary per pective of the po ition of black in Colombian octet JOH . WOMACK, profe or of hi tory, Harvard Univer ity, for re earch in Mexico on indu trial worker in Veracruz, 18 0- 1940

E R

0

MIDDLE E ST

The following advanced re earch grant were awarded b the Joint Committee on the ear and Middle Ea t-Peter von iver (chair), Leonard Binder, Abdellah Hammoudi, Michael C. Hud on, uad Jo eph, Jean Leca, Afaf Lutfi al- ayyad Mar ot, E. Roger Owen, Ian R. Richard , and John Waterbur -at its meeting on Februar 2, 19 6. P. ikiforo Diamandouro and Chri tina Dragonetti erved a taff for thi program. JA ET B -L GHOD, profe or of ociology, geography, urban affair ,and polic re earch, orthwe tern U niverity, for re earch on urban linkage in the 13th centur world y tem MI E E. CI R, a i tant profe or of economic, Loyola Univer ity, for re earch on the role of unpaid female labor in the potential urvival of mall- cale production firm in Ie develop d countrie J R. LE, a i tant profe or of hi tory, Univer ity of 1ichigan, for re earch on the ideologie of variou ocial group in mid-19th centur Egypt ELAI . E M. Co 1B - HILLI G, a i tant profe or of anthropolog , Columbia Univer ity, for re earch on prominent fir t generation merchan in Ca ablanca LEILA FAWAz, a ociate profe or of diplomacy, The FI tcher hool of La\ and Diplomacy, and a ociate profe or of hi tory, Tuft Univer it , for re earch on the relation hip between We ternization and ectarian trife through an analy i of the impact of We tern capitali m on the yrian economy in the 19th century COR ELL H. FLEI 路 HER, a ociate prote or of I lamic hi t r , Wa hington niver it , for re earch on the ruling elite of the Ottoman Empire in the age of ule man the Lawgiver, 1520-1566 KEM L H. KARPAT, di tingui hed profe or of hi tor, Univer it of Wi con in, for re earch on community, population, and nation formation in the Ottoman tate between 1 and 191 ZA IIARY Lo KMA ,a i tant profe or of hi tory, Harvard Univer ity, for re earch on the interaction between Arab and Jewi h labor organization and worker in mandatory Pale tine between 1920 and 1948 J LIE M. PETEET, coordinator, enter for Contemporary Arab tudie, and adjunct profe or of anthrop logy, Georgetown Univer ity, for re earch on local-level legal culture and the con olidation of the tate in Jordan Do. ALD G. Q TAERT, a ociate profe or of hi tory, Univer ity of Hou ton, for re earch on the hi tory of manufacturing in the Ottoman Middle Ea t between 1 00 and 1914

50

o TH

IA

The Joint Committee on outh A ia-Bernard . Cohn (chair), Pranab K. Bardhan, Jan C. Breman, Richard Eaton, Ronald J. Herring, Barbara . Miller, Harold '. Power , and Su an . Wadley-awarded gran to the following individual at its meeting on March 8-9, 1986. David L. zanton and arah Fulton erved a taff for thi program. T ART HART BLACKB R ,re earch a ociate at the enter for outh & outhea t A ian tudie, Univer ity of California, Berkeley, for re earch in Kerala, India on tran mi ion and adaptation of a folk Rama 'ana G T Bo E, a i tant profe or of hi tory, Tufts Univerity, for re earch in the United Kingdom on the peasantry in modern Bengal, 1770 to the pre ent TEPHE FREDERIC DALE, a ociate profe or of outh A ian and I lamic hi tory, Ohio tate Univer ity, for re arch on Babar' Central A ian heritage: a urvey of Turki tan in 1500 EDWARD JAMES HEITZMAN, a i tant profe or of hi tory, Univer ity of Iowa, for re earch on network of local power in medieval outh India KEN ETH WILLIA 1JON ,profe or of outh A ian hi tory, Kan a tate Univer ity, for re earch in England on the defen e of orthodoxy by Punjabi Hindu during the 19th and 20th centurie DAVID EL WORTH LODE, a i tant profe or of hi tory, Univer ity of Penn ylvania, for re earch on the hi torical geography of agriculture in outh A ia, 900-1900 VEE A TALWAR OLDENB RG, faculty fellow, arah Lawrence College, for re earch on ocial and legal con truction of gender in urban orth India o VID WE T R D. ER, fellow in the Department of Anthropology, Univer it of Penn ylvania, for re earch on the ocial organization of commerce in outh India, 1650-1850 PHILLIP B. W GO ER, Middletown, Connecticut, for reearch on the nature and function of medieval Telugu hi torical literature ELEA OR ZELLlOT, profe or of outh A ia regional tudies and hi tory, Carleton College, for re earch on a biography of Dr. B. R. Ambedkar

TIIEA T A I The Joint Committee on outhea t A ia-John R. W. mail (chair), helly Errington, illian P. Hart, Mary R. Holln teiner, Charle F. Keye , David Marr, Chai-anan amudvanija, Peter C. mith, and Ruth T. McVeyawarded grants to the following individual at its meeting on March 14-16, 19 6. David L. zanton and arah Fulton erved a taff for thi program. BARBAR A. DAYA, enior tutor in hi tory, Univer ity of Auckland, for re earch in umatra on the cultural economy during the 16th through the 19th centurie GEORGE 路 M RI S Bo DAREL, profe or of hi tory, Univerity of Pari VII, for re earch in France and the United tate on the Nhan Van-Giai Pham movement in communi t Vietnam o VID PORTER CHA DLER, a ociate profe or of hi tory,

VOL ME 40,

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Mona h Univer ity, for re earch on the tran formation of Cambodia ince 1945 P L HAROLD KR TOSKA, lecturer in hi tory, Univer ity of ience, Malay ia, for re earch on the hi tory of citizenhip VICTOR BE. ET LIEBER'I,fA. ,a ociate profe or of hi tory, Univer ity of Michigan, for re earch on the economic hi tory of Burma, 1450--1852 MICH EL MOER'I,f . ,profe or of anthropology, Univer ity of California, Lo Angele , for re earch in Thailand on a quarter centur of change in a Tai-Lue village 't:s . RODGERS, a ociate profe or of anthropology, Ohio Univerity, for re earch in umatra on the impact of increaing literacy on kin hip and communication C ROL Rt;BF.SSTEI. ', poet, arawak, for re earch on and tran lation of Da ak oral literature HE THER A..fA,,\D THERLA D, profe or of hi tory, Free Univer 'ity, Am terdam, for re earch on 18th century Indone ian trade SOVU'.I

and the Georgian Language Program at the Univer ity of Chicago. The committee wa a i ted by a creening committee-William Mill Todd, III (chair), Patricia Chaput, Alice Harri , Donald Jarvi, Daniel Matu zew ki, Romuald Mi iuna , and Charle Town end. A third round of the competition will be held in the winter of 19 6-87. The first award under the new Joint Committee on oviet tudie program to initiate new teaching po ition in Ru ian and oviet tudie were al 0 made at the committee' meeting on April 5-6, 1986. The committee made four award : the Univer ity of Chicago received two award for partial funding of po ition in ociology and economic; the Univer ity of Texa received an award to upport a poition in geography; and William College received an award to upport a po ition in economic . The committee hope to conduct a econd round of thi competition in the winter of 1986-87.

. 'lOS

The following advanced re earch grants were awarded by theJoint Committee on Soviet tudie -Gail War hot: ky Lapidu (chair),Jo eph Berliner, eweryn Bialer,Jeffrey p, Brook, Timothy J , Colton, Loren Graham, Edward L. Keenan, Robert Legvold, Herbert . Levine, Leon Lip on, and William Mill Todd, III-at its meeting on April 5-6, 1986. Blair A. Ruble, Kri tin Antelman, and Regina myth erved a staff for thi program.

I. 00 HI. A T

DIES

The ubcommittee on Indochina tudie of the Joint Committee on outhea t A ia-Charle F. Keye (chair), Amy Catlin, Carol Compton, May Ebihara, John Hartmann, Gerald Hickey, Hue-Tam Ho Tai, David Marr, Bounlieng Phomma ouvahh, Yang am, William . Turley, and Alexander Wood ide-at it meeting on March ~9, 1986 awarded grant for the following individual and collaborative projects. Mary Byrne McDonnell and David L. zanton erved a taff for thi program.

ROBERT M. C TLER, vi iting a i tant profe or of political cience, Univer ity of California, anta Barbara, for reince 1953 earch on the evolution of the oviet pre JOH. B. HATCH, vi iting lecturer in hi tory, Univer ity of SO LANG DEJvo GA ADO ~ AK AYTHO GPHET, Dalla, Texa , for re earch on Lao Buddhi t cu tom of California, River ide, for re earch on labor and politic courtship, marriage rite , and birth rite in a Laotian in NEP Ru ia: worker, trade union, and the Comliterary rna terpiece muni t Party in Mo cow, 1921-1928 KE. T H. OB D, vi iting lecturer in economic, Harvard JOH MAR 'TON ADD 0 G OTHEARY, Univer ity of Minne ota, for re earch on language reform and language Univer ity, for re earch on the labor incentive a pec of change in Democratic Kampuchea economic reform in the oviet Union TEPHA IE A DLER, a i tant profe or of Ru ian, for re- NG YEN MA H H 'G, The Indochina In titute, George Ma on Univer ity, for re earch on Vietname e earch on Alek andr Pu hkin and hi interpreter : Anna nationali t partie , 1945- 1954 Akhmatova, Marina T vetaeva, and Andrei iniav kii L\, . . E VIOLA, a i tant profe or of hi tory, tate Univer- JOHN C. SCHAFER AND CAO THI NHu-q YNH, Humboldt tate Univer ity, for re earch on contmuity and change ity of New York, Binghamton, for re earch on the in Vietname e e ay, poetrr' and fiction, 1910-- 1935 elimination of the kulak a a cia in the oviet Union, WILLIAM A. MALLEY, Bethe College, for re earch on 192~1936 Pahaw Hmon~: its development and function a an indigenou writIng y tern In the econd national competition for grants to Ameri- THUAN V. TR O. G, McLean, Virginia, for re earch on the can in titution that offer inten ive training in the Ru ian politicization of the Vietname e Confederation of Worker in the early 1970 and non-Ru ian language of the oviet Union, the Joint Committee on oviet Studie , at its meeting on April 5-6, 19 6, made award to the Ru ian School at Bo ton UniPubli hed and unpubli hed material generated and ver ity, the Ru ian Language In titute at Bryn Mawr Col- collected by the e grantee will be placed in an archive at lege and the Univer ity of Penn ylvania, the Ru ian In- the Library of Congre and made available both to memtitute at Indiana Univer ity, the Ru ian School at Middle- ber of the Indochine e communitie and to re earch bury College, the Ru ian chool at Norwich Univer ity, cholar .

J . 'E 1986

51


OCIAL CIE CE RE EARCH COUNCIL 605 THIRD

VE

E,

EW YORK, N .Y. 1015

Th, CounCIL was incorporaltd In 1M lalt of illinoIS, Dtumim' 27, /924, for 1M purpo t of advanCIng rt ,arch in Iht ociaJ cimu. ollgovtrnmmtal and inltTdisciplillary in nalur" Iht Cotmcil appmnts cOlnlnllltts of cholar which tt. 10 achitvt 1M Council' purpost through 1M gmtralion of nnu idtas and tht lraining of scholar. Tht acllvllu of th, CouncIL art upporttd primanl, by grallts from bolh privale foundations and govtrnmml agtncits. Dirtctor, 19 5- 6: RI H RD . BERK, niver ily of California, anta Barbara; TEPHEN E. FIE BERG, Carnegie- 1ellon niver ily; HOWARD GARD. ER, Veleran dmini lralion Medical Center (Bo lon) ; E. 1AVI HETHERINGTON, niver ily of Virginia; CI-JARUS O . JONES, Univer ily of Virginia ; ROBERT W . K TE~, Clark niver ily; GRONER LINDZEY, Center for Advanced ludy in the Behavioral ience; H Gil T . PATRICK, Columbia niver ily; jO~EPII . PECIIMA ,The Brooking In lilulion (Wa hington, D.C.); YDEL F. ILVERMA ,The Graduale Center, CilY niver ilyof ew York; RODOI FO TAVE. IIAC.EN, EI Colegio de 1exico; TEPHEN 1. TILUR, niver ily of Chicago; FRANCI X. UTTON, Social ience Re earch uncil ; LOl' I~E A . Til LY, ew hool for ial Research ; IDNEY VERBA, Harvard niver ily; HERBERT F. YORK, niver ily of California, an Diego. OfflCtT and Staff: FR N IS X. UTTOS, Acting Prt idmt; DAVID L. ILLS, ExtCUliv, AJSoOalt; RONALD J. PELECK, ConlrolltT; VIRGINIA FE Ry-GAGNO. , Amstan/lo th, P"sidm/; jo s D \\IN, P. IKlfORO\ DIAMA'IOO ROS, Y S~f1NE ERL S, MARTIIA A . GEPlt RT, RICII RD H. Mo!>s. ROBERT W. PEARSO', RICIIARD

52

. ROCKWEll, BLAIR A. R BU, LO,:o.;IE R. SIIERROD, DAVID L.

Z NTOS,

TEF 'I T

K, TOBY Au E VOlKM 'I.

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Items Vol. 40 No. 2 (1986)  
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