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VOLUME 39 • NUMBER 112. JUNE 1985 605 THIRD AVENUE. NEW YORK, N.Y. 10158

Biology and Giftedness lly Howard Gardner and Yadin Dudai*

THE HI TORY OF P YCHOLOGY has been clo ely intertwined with intere tin uch phenomena a giftedness, creativity, geniu , precocity, and high level of achievement; particular attention has focu ed for many year on the tudy and mea urement of intelligence (Binet and Simon 1908; Galton 1883; Spearman 1923). Forty year ago there wa con iderable agreement that intelligence was a fixed, genetically determined, probably unitary trait, which could be mea ured early in life and which determined an individual' potential. Intere t in intelligence wa more applied than cientific, with most re earcher adopting a "black-box" per pective on the nature of intelligence. While intelligence te ting remained a commercial ucce , cientific intere t in the topic of intelligence waned in the 1960 and early 1970 for both ocial and cientific rea on . Three eparate line of thinking have given new impetu to the tudy of is ue of giftedne ,talent, and intelligence. Fir t, there i the cOf{nitivedevelopmental view, intimately a ociated with the writ• Mr. Gardner, a p ychologi t, is affiliated both with the Veteran Admini tration Medical Center (Bo ton) and Project Zero, Harvard Univer ity. Mr. Dudai, a neurobiologi t, is affiliated with the Weizmann In titute of Science (Rehovot). They are both member of the Council' Committee on Development, Giftedne ,and the Learning Proce and were the organizer of the workshop upon which thi report i based. The other members of the committee are David H. Feldman, Tufts University, chair; jeanne Bamberger, Ma achu etts In titute of Technology; Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, University of Chicago; Howard E. Gruber, Univer ity of Geneva; Robert J. ternberg, Yale Univer ity; and Helen Weinreich-Ha te, University of Bath. Lonnie R. Sherrod erve a taff.

Kenneth Prewitt Resigns Council Presidency to Accept Rockefeller Foundation Position Kenneth Prewitt, pre ident of the Council ince 1979, ha announced hi resignation from the pre idency, effective in the early fall of 1985. He will become the vice-pre ident for program at the Rockefeller Foundation, respon ible for the program in agricultural science, arts and humaniti , equal opportunity, health sciences, international relation, and population sciences, a well as for the Foundation' activiti s in the ocial cience. Eleanor E. Maccoby, Stanford University, chair of the Council's board of director, and Charles O. jones, Univerity of Virginia, chair of the Council' Executive Committee, have announced that a Pre idential earch Committee i now being formed. Neil j. mel er, profe or of ociology, Univer ity of California, Berkeley, ha been appointed chairman and David L. ill, the executive associate of the Council, will erve a taff to the committee. The earch committee will be a ked to recommend one or more candidates to the Executive Committee, which in turn will ubmit a recommendation for election by the board. It is hoped that a new pre ident will as ume office no later than january 1, 1986. Person who wi h to apply for the po ition of Council pre ident or who wi h to propo e candidates are urged to write to the following addre Profes r Neil j. Smel er, chairman Pre idential Search Committee Social ience Research Council 605 Third Avenue New York, New York 10158

For contents of this issue, tt the box on page 2.



7 12

20 24

Kenneth Prewiu Re ign Council Pre iden y Biology and Giftedn s-I/oU!ard Cardn" and Yadin Dudlll Recent Development in Project LISK-BtTt C. Hickman and Lau'rmu R . Klnll Current ctiviti at the uncil - rhe comparativ evaluation of longitudinal data (page 12) -Expeni a a model for life- pan cognitive development (pag 13) -Giftedne and moral re pon ibilit (page 14) -Giftedne in th vi ual art (pag 15) - Planning for the 1990 n u (page 16) -Resear h on ontemporary Hi panic i ue (pag 17) -, ew ~ lIow hip and grant program for viet tudi (page 1 ) taff appointment (page 19) Recent Council Publication Fellow hip and Grants for International R arch warded in 19 5

in of Piaget. According to thi view, mental abilitie exhibit an organized tructure, and their development feature a number of qualitati el di tinct tage (Piaget 1970). Although Piaget' particular cluim have b n challenged, the kind of cognitive i ue which he addre ed, and th way in which he conceived m ntal tru ture and operation , have been ver influential. A ccond line of thinkin reflect a belief in the .\eparabilily of variou cognitive domains. In oppo ition both to pearman' "g" (general) factor and to the Piagetian per pective, re earcher now recognize the exitcnce of a number of emiautonomou domain of cogniti n, built around different c ntents (F dor 19 3; ardner 1983); for example, language, mu ic, and mathematical thinking. The biological underpinning of the e epa rate domain or module ha become a ubject f continuing peculation. The third invi orating force ha been the infonnation-proce. sing approach to cognition. trongl influenced b the example of the di ital computer, many cognitivel -oriented cienti ts think of the human being a a kind of computer and de ribe p ific ta k in term of their informational demand and operation ( ewell and imon 1972; ternberg 1977). While information proce ing ha ometime be n contra ted with the developmental or with the domain- pecifi orientation, the three line of inquir are complementary and can certainly be integrated. mR fl cting on thi trio of new impetu e , the mittee on 0 velopment, Giftedn , and the Learning Proce ha organized a program to probe the nature of giftedne in variou domain of development. The 2

biology of extraordinary performance acro domain i one area of the e deliberation , and wa the theme of the work hop reported on here. The work hop wa held in ew York on May 3-5, 1984. In addition to Me r. Gardner and Dudai, the participants in the work hop were: Camila P. Benbow, p ychology John P. Bias, n urology

Luca Cavalli- forza, geneti Bernard Davi , microbiology and geneti Carleton Gajdu k, virology, neurology, and pediatri Robert alambo, n u roph iology orman Ge hwind, neurology¡ Patri ia Goldman-Radic, n ural development Jam L. Gould, ethology David Premack, p ychology Carla haLZ, neural developm nt unther tent, molecular biology and neural d velopment

The John Hopkin University The Burke Rehabilitation Center (White Plain, ew York) tan ford Unive ity Harvard 1edical


National In titute of Health University of California, Diego Harvard Medical



Yale Univer it 1edi ine Princ ton University Univer ity of Penn ylvania tanford Medical


University of alifornia, Berk Ie

Con tantino telo, neural development • Dr. G

Centre Medico Chirurgi I (France) hwind di dune pectedlyon ovember 4, 19 4.

Peter B. Read erved a


Levels of exploration Biological que tion can be analyzed at a number of logical and p ychological level (tent*). In the neuro cience , at the mo t fine-grained level, one examine individual neuron , in term of their molecular, ubcellular, and cellular characteri tic. At a omewhat higher level of analy i , one look at the wiring diagram which de crib the connection among individual nerve cell , i.e., at en emble of cell , arborization ,and ynap e . Mo t knowledge ha been accumulated at the e relatively elementary level of analy i . Unfortunately, the e level are al 0 mo t remote from the illumination of complex human abilitie ,let alone the que tion of what make for gifted or creative performance . Once one move to yet higher level , one cannot es• "Refer n e citation" without dates refer to parti ipan 'preentation and di u ion at the work hop. VOLUME




cape what might be called the hermeneutics problem: one mu t ponder the be t de cription of what a nerve network doe , a well a the i ue of why neural network are connected in the wa that they are, and what purpo e they might erve. Once one begin to po e que tion in thi way, numerous theoretical a umption and interpretive option become inevitable. It i u eful to di tingui h among everal other form of analy i at the e more complex level . For example, the computational level (what i the goal of a computation); the repre entational (or algorithmic) level (how a computational account can be implemented); and the level of phy ical implementation (in what way can the algorithm be realized in the hardware of a brain or of a computer) have been di tingui hed (Marr 1982). Analy ts generally agree that any account of higher function mu t recognize at lea t the e three mode of analy i . Finally, cutting aero the e variou approache i a developmental analy i -a hi torical-de criptive account of the manner in which the organi m came to a ume its mature form. The detail of neural development are becoming known, but the factor which fir t allow and then block pia ticity and reorganization remain to be pecified.

gene are expre ed. In ca e where a number of pecial kill are required (for example, mu ical giftedne ), epi tacy may well be at work. Thu , unle all the appropriate gene are operating, mu ical giftedne will not emerge. Another type of model entail a gene which allow a kill to develop and a gene which cho e a certain environment. According to uch a model, one gene might govern activation, attention, or motivation; the other might govern a component kill of a talent. Thi could produce ituations, for example, where an individual ha drive, but no talent, a well a the other equally fru trating ituation. Finally, in the model of genetic heterogeneity, the arne phenotype can be the re ult of different gene. chizophrenia, for example, exi ts in variou form, which may reflect the action of variou gene, or ets of gene . It i po ible to find example of each of the e model in tudie of animal behavior. The u e of mutants i very important in animal re earch, particularly in the tudy of di ea e ; however, mutations rarely bring about improvements in behavioral performance (learning, problem olving, etc.) and 0 may be Ie relevant for the tudy of giftedne . Breeding tudie , particularly with population which reproduce rapidly, are ideal for inve tigating the genetic of behavior. But ju t a the mo t important level of analy i prove the mo t difficult to pur ue, 0, too, the Genetic and epigenetic themes mo t intere ting human behavior generally do not everal model have been tudied by genetICl ts lend them elve readily to te ting in term of the (Cavalli- forza). In the imple t ca e, the traight above de cribed model . It i de irable to identify Mendelian model, a ingle difference in gene lead trait which may be governed by one or a mall to difference in ob erved traits of behavior . AI- number of gene (e.g., aggre ion) or which, while binoi m i an example of uch a ingle gene-linked them elve complex" uper gene" or "gene comtrait: the albino remain white even if expo ed to un, plexe ," are a ociated with read~ly recognized genetic thu indicating an in en itivity to its environment. In marker. With new method of recombinant analy i , contra t, in a more complex model, there i gene- it will be po ible to identify all gene complexe : while environment interaction. The gene for the metabolic expen ive, thi technology may well illuminate the di order phenylketonuria (PKU) will not be ex- mechani m which underlie many behavioral configpre ed unle there i phenylalanine in the environ- uration of intere t. Progre may depend on whether ment: thi type of feeblemindedne can thu be reli- the gene involved in giftedne are amenable to relaably prevented by appropriate diet. Thi model i tively ready identification and experimentation, or at likely to be relevant for giftedne , where kill will lea tare clo ely and reliably linked with other gene not be expre ed unle there icon iderable envi- that are readily identifiable and ea y to work with. ronmental upport. In a third model, everal gene Once conception ha taken place, attempts to conwork additively to yield a trait. According to thi ider genetic endowment apart from environmental polygenic model, a trait like kin color or IQ might be (or epigenetic) expre ion are en ele . Gene act a re ult of the combination of the action of a number (are expre ed) in an environment which in turn afof gene , each gene contributing orne a pect of the fects their expre ion and create a new environment trait. within which further development take place. tre In another variety, called epi tacy, a certain in utero can exert catacly mic effects upon the exphenotype depend upon the pre ence of a fixed pre ion of gene and thu alter developmental patnumber of gene . The trait appear only if all relevant tern in the phenotype. JUNE 1985


Neural development tudie with vertebrate have clarified the cour e of neural development, including the variou pha e , which ucceed one another before the mature nervou y tern i finally in place. There icon iderable pia ticity in early development, but al 0 critical period , during which certain events mu t occur if development i to proceed in a normal way. Some neural proce e occur during very brief time pan and any deviation may produce rna sive effects: other proce e occur very gradually and the effects of deviation are Ie virulent. Pathologie can bring about neural reorganization : deaf individual who have learned to u e ign language employ the "language area " of the brain for thi ge tural ability. During early development, an exce number of connection b tween neuron are made: then, during a ucce i e pha e, the e exce connection con i ting of the dendrite and axon which form the branching connection between neuron are pruned or tabilized. Far from undermining the behavior of the organi m, the removal or atrophying of exce ,connection i nece ary for normal functioning. The election of p cific cell or axon i not trictly programmed and dep nd upon local developmental factor. In general, abnormalitie in neural development characterize mutants who do not thrive: till, the kind of analy e which have hitherto been applied to mutants might al 0 prove apt for organi m which perform at high level or are "at promi e" for unu ual p rformance.

It i not clear which kind of behavior i mo t relevant for tudie of giftedne . On the one hand, tho e behavior which are mo t natural in the pecie, and which are characterized by a high amount of pontaneou behavior, provide the be t model; for example, there are pecie of bee which are very killed at learning new a ociation. On the other hand, tho e behavior which tretch the pecie beyond i u ual boundarie (like a chimpanzee learning word or peeling potatoe) might provide a better analogy to human giftedne . There are reportedly animal who excel in rna tering the e "nonnatural" behavior (Premack).

Animals as experimental models

A number of behavior which have been carefully tudied in animal might be examined for clue concerning the neural ub trate and the mechani m of gifted performance. Example are bee earching for pollen in flower , the rna tery of bird ong, echo localization in bats, and the olving of problem or the learning of word by chimpanzee . In each ca e, there are clear individual difference among organi m ; experimental manipulation can indicate the factor which influence performance; and tudie of the underlying neural ub trate of performance can be carried out. Of particular intere t are tho e behavior, like bird ong, or emotional reactivity in rats, which appear to be lateralized in the nervou y tern (i.e., be under the control of the left or the right hemi phere, re pectively). uch neuroanatomical a ymmetric may hold valuable clue concerning cerebral dominance in Animals as models: behavioral analysis man. Man tudie with animal focu on tho e behavior On a more general level, one can look to animal which occur with little variation in quality or kill and for individual difference in the capacitie to learn are acquired with little explicit practice or training. complex pattern of behavior, to di cover and interExample include the ability of bee to alight on the nalize rule , to make a ociation, to rna ter a new proper flO\ er at the proper time. The di cipline of environment, to tran fer knowledge to new domain , ethology ha provided a number of concepts with and the like. It i po ible to breed animal who how which to de cribe and explain the appearance of uch pecial talent in the e area and then conduct ex"prepared" behavior in animal . Animal have periments in order to di cover the componen of learning pro ram which exhibit variou bia e : the e the e talent, a well a their neurological and phy ibia e orient them toward certain experience, ological ub trate. For in tance, ra can be pecially timuli, or relea er , at certain points in development. bred 0 that the hippocampal area of the brain i Certain behavior become very likely, other far Ie larger than i typical for the pecie and the e enlikely. orne behavior, uch a a bird ong, may re- larged tructure appear to be correlated with highly quire practice-but the overall cour e of development killed performance. Finally, one can examine leha been ordained and deviation are rare. till other ion (either experimentally-introduced or natbehavior, u h a the learning of "word " by chim- urally-occurring through accidents) in order to depanzee , require e ' ten ive training by a killed ex- termine the effects of brain injury on the capacitie perimenter, and build much Ie on the "natural to carry out the e function and a a mean of di proclivitie " of the pecle. covering how uch behavior are repre ented in the 4





breakdown of mu ical performing kill during adole cence in our ociety, i peculative. The extent to which human intelligence can be con idered a ingle dimen ion remain debatable. One widely held view i that it i more productive to examine the development of individual mental abilitie , even if the notion of general intelligence prove tenable at orne level of ab traction. There i , however, di agreement about whether tho e who core high on intelligence te t imply repre ent one end of a bell- haped curve (Cavalli- forza) or whether there i a "blip" uch that a certain proportion of individual eem to con titute a qualitatively different group (Davi ). There i a need for tudie which can help to clarify the relation hip of extreme performance (whether precociou or retarded) on tandard Human behaviors p ychometric te t in compari on to the performance There are certain yndrome which are otherwi e by the remainder of a population. con idered pathological but which may harbor within them the eed of performance of an unu ually high level (Ge chwind). Individual with temporal lobe Human experimental models epilep y exhibit a drive to create (often in the literary There i now a ho t of relatively noninva ive techrealm) and at lea t a few individual 0 afflicted achieved great level of accompli hment (e.g., Feodor nique \ hich can be u ed to explore the neuDo toev ki, Vincent van Gogh). Auti tic children roanatomical a pects of killed behavior, giftedoften come from very gifted familie and may excel ne ,creativity, and cognate concep . Included are in mu ic, mathematic , or other form of patterned computerized axial tomography (CAT), po itron emisbehavior. Dy lexic children may how unu ual ion tomography (PET), nuclear magnetic re onance abilitie in drawing or in patial rea oning. Schizo- ( MR can), evoked potential ,_ electroencephalophrenia often occur in individual from familie with gram (EEG), mea ure of drug and other metabolite , and recombinant D A technology. While literary arti ts. Looking at the arne i ue from the oppo ite per- finding thu far have not been dramatic, there pective, children who are preco iou in mathematic i rea on to believe that within the next decade everal and/or verbal rea oning often exhibit much higher a p c of unu ual performance will be identified and u ceptibility to di ea e. There eem to be a clu ter of illuminated by uch mea ure . In the ca e of high IQ, ymptom including left-handedne , en itivity to it i po ible that individual will be hown to have autoimmune di ea e, a thma, myopia, and motor more rapidly operating ynap e or neuronal modawkwardne which may be the "co t" for uch gift- ule , or more ynap e devoted to certain function , edne . Far more boy than girl are precociou in but the e claim are till very controver ial. mathematics; while cultural explanation of thi ratio Al 0 controver ial i the claim that gifted individucannot be excluded, it i po ible that exce ive al may have di tinctive neuroanatomical tructure. amounts of te to terone ecreted in utero may cau e Thi line of tudy wa pur ued quite vigorou ly in the heightened development of right hemi phere truc- early part of the century but, until recently, had alture , with concomitant trength and weakne e. mo t completely cea ed (Ge chwind). It i important Human gifts may be ex pre ed in different way , to review the old tudie, in order to determine during different pha e of development. A certain whether claim of different neuroanatomical trucen itivity to pattern ,or flexibility in proce ing, may ture and function in gifted individual can be ubbe 10 t in the adole cent or preadole cent year . On tantiated in the light of modern technique. It the other hand, clum ine pre ent early in life may would al 0 be advi able to examine the brain of varialleviate or di appear in adole cence. Quite po ibly, ou kind of population , both pathological and hormonal ecretion account for the e change after gifted, to ee whether unu ual tructure can be repuberty. Whether uch a line of argument can be lated to unu ual performance. uch evidence i b applied to more complex phenomena, uch a the ginning to be accrued in the ca e of dy lexia.

nervou y tern. Quite po ibly, manipulation of the nervou y tern in utero or in early life will have different effect than later Ie ion : for in tance, removal of the occipital cortex in young monkey produce an abnormally large parietal cortex. That i , an early occurring Ie ion may actually cau e a ignificant brain reorganization, while a later occurring Ie ion in the arne ite would not have uch compen atory effects. It may even be the ca e that certain early form of pathology, followed by modification, might produce behavior which are prodigiou (i.e., occur at an extraordinary level at an early age), or which prove particularly adaptable in certain environ men or for certain ta k .

JUNE 1985


tudie of identical twin reared eparately, tudie of adoption where information i available on both familie , and tudie of ibling concordance can all help to indicate whether certain gifts have a ignificant hereditary component. Population which are relatively i olated are e pecially promi ing for the e kind of tudie .

Noncognitive aspects of giftedness

ting; ee Cole and cribner 1974). Conver ely, even individual of mode t endowment can perform at high level if training i excellent, if the reward are great, and/or if the anction for poor performance are evere. In a ociety where individual are trongly encouraged to follm a certain line (e.g., the pur uit of lingui tic and logical ta k in our ociety), individual gifted in the e area will naturally gravitate toward them; conver ely, individual with few gifts in tho e area are more likely to adopt Ie popular career choice, for example, involvement in the pia tic ar . Acro culture one ob erve an amazing range of abilitie (a well a di abilitie) which reflect both training method and ocietal value ; biogenetic explanation are mo t piau ible when they are en itive to the full range of culturally-induced variation . 0

Mo t example of giftedne are drawn from area which are u ually con idered cognitive-the cience, the arts, and invention. However, there are other form of giftedne in ociety, ranging from religiou leader hip to military excellence to phy ical agility to the po e ion of a chari matic or eductive per onality. The e are even Ie well under tood than cognitive capacitie but ought not to be omitted in all tudic of giftedne . ut tanding performance often come from indi- References idual who exhibit unu ual per onal abilitie . High BJ. IT, ALFRW NO THt;Q(>ORE I fO .. Th~ Dro~loplTU!nt of Int~lli­ Ie el of energy, motivation, and pa ion for one' gtllu in Young Childrm. e\ York: Arno Pr ,1973. Fir t publi hed in 190 . ubject can pell the difference between a competent Cou, {I H EL 0 YLVIA RIB. ER . Cultur~ and Thought. ew and a di tingui hed performance or career. One po York: Wiley, 1974. ible approach to the tudy of the e traits involve the FODOR, J . . TM Modularity of Mind. Cambridge, Massachu ett : tudy of leep pattern. Individual differ dramatBradford Pre ,19 3. ically in how much leep they require a well a in the G LTO ,FRA ' I .Inquiri~ Into HutrUln Faculty and Its Dtv~lopmtllt. London: Ca ell, 1952. First publi hed in 18 3. kind of leep and the dream profile which they exhibit. leep i controlled by a relatively imple gene G RD. ER, How RD. FralTU! of 1ind. ew York: B i Book, 19 3. complex, and might lend i elf to tudy much more MARR, D VID. Vision. an Franci 0: W. H. Freeman, 1982. readily than other behavior a ociated with giftedEWELL, ALLE 0 HERBERT . I W •. HUllum Problnn oZ.ving. ne . Englewood liff, ew Je e : Prentice Hall , 1972. The cultural context in which gifts are expre ed PI (, ,JEA. "Piaget' Theory," in MQllual of Child P chology. Volume 1. Paul H. Mu n, editor. ew York: Wiley, 1970. mu tal 0 be taken into account. The highe t potential Pf RM ,CH RLES E. TM Natur~ of "lnt~lligtllu" and tM Principl~ in an area prove of little avail if that performance of Cognition. London: Ma millan, 1923. area i not cultivated or i actively di couraged in a TER BERG, ROBERT J. Int~lligmu, InfortrUltiOll Proussing, and culture. ( ote, too, that te ting by conventional We tAnalogical R~a oIling: Th~ Componmtial Analy i of HutrUlll ern mean i al 0 inappropriate in many cultural etAbilitit. ew York: Hal ted Pre ,1977.






Recent Developments in Project Link by Bert C. Hickman and Lawrence R. KLein*

PROJECT LINK I A PIONEERING EFFORT to integrate econometric model of individual countrie into a functioning multinational model of the world economy. There are everal world model, developed mainly in the pa t five or ten year . E tabli hed in 1968 under the au pice of the Council' Committee on Economic Stability and Growth, Project LINK ha expanded from a nucleu of 10 econometrician and ix country model to more than 100 participants and 72 models-and it i till growing. The evolution of LINK during the 1970 wa de cribed in our earlier article, "A Decade of Reearch by Project LINK" publi hed in Items, December 1979. The pre ent report bring the tory up to date, with bibliographical reference for the year 198~ 1985.

General characteristics of the LINK system From its inception, Project LINK ha encompa ed a global olution and ummary of country and regional model , providing a con i tent accounting of multilateral trade flow and price. Unlike pure trade model, however, the LI K Y tern take explicit account of (1) interaction between dome tic economic developments and policie in the member countrie and (2) the level and compo ition of international trade. Each LINK olution provide a matrix of world trade flow , with the exports of each country di tributed aero a ingle row to its trading partner , and the imports of each country given by the urn of entrie In 1 column. Thi i an exhau tive repre entation of total trade, ati fying the world trade definition that the urn of exports from all countrie equal the corre ponding urn of imports. A imilar calculation en ures that import price for each country are .The author are, r pectively, professor of economi at tanford Univer ity and Benjamin Franklin professor of economi at the Univer ity of Penn ylvania. Th y have erved a member of the Council' Committee on Economi tability and Growth ince ilS appointment in 1959; the committee has been chaired by Mr. Hickman ince 1962. The other members of the committeewhich pon or Project LI K-are Irma Adelman, Univer ity of California, Berkeley; Rudiger Dornbusch, Ma sachu etlS In titute of Technology; tephen M. Goldfeld, Princeton Univer ity; Franco Modigliani, Ma achu etlS In titute of Technology; Geoffrey H. Moore, Columbia Univer ity; and William D. Nordhau , Yale Univer ity. David L. ill erves as taff.




properly-weighted average of the export price of the upplying countrie . The olution al 0 yield the national outputs and price level of the con tituent countrie and a correponding e timate of world GNP. Detail i al 0 available on inflation rate and trade balance in the member countrie and on many other a pects of dome tic economic activity in mo t of them. The activity level of each country are partly determined by the dome tic factor pecific to it-in particular, by its fi cal, monetary, trade, and exchange rate policie and partly by its interaction with other countrie . By olving the entire y tern globally, LINK effectively endogenize tho e variable -import price , export demand ,capital flow , and exchange rates-that are typically taken a given exogenou Iy in a tand-alone country model. Becau e thi i a general equilibrium y tern of linked country model , it may be u ed not only to forecast world activity and trade but al 0 to inve tigate the international tran mi ion mechani m and to evaluate the international impacts of upply hock and unilateral or multilateral policy initiative for tability and growth .. The power and flexibility of the y tern may be illu trated by orne example of recent LINK re earch activitie .

Recent app lications The y tern i regularly u ed to foreca t the future path of the world economy over a four-year horizon, on the ba i of pre ent and pro pective policie in the member countrie a evaluated by their local modeling center . The e foreca ts are made in the early pring and revi ed in the autumn of each year. everal a pects of the international tran mi ion mechani m were inve tigated in Filatov, Hickman, and Klein (1983), which pre ents imulation of the effect of monetary, fi cal, and energy hock over a long-term (7-year) horizon. An analytical decompo ition of international income multiplier from the arne imulation wa ub equendy pre~ented in Hickman and Filatov (1983). The LINK group participated in ajoint tudy of the impact of energy hock and policy re pon e, ponored by the Energy Modeling Forum at tan ford Univer ity, involving comparative imulation u ing 14 different model (Bollino, Pauly, and Peter en 1983; Pauly and Hooper 1984). 7

Unemployment pro pects in the OECD area were the focu of alternative LINK cenario in a paper by Pauly (1984). Wage and price re pon e to demand (fi cal) and upply (oil) hock in ix of the LINK model (Canada, France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United State) were analyed by Hickman and Klein (1984). In another application, Klein (forthcoming 1985) u ed key parameter from LINK simulations to evaluate the propo ition that continuing recovery in the OECD economie will enable the debtor countrie of the Third World both to manage their debt and to continue to make economic progre s.

Expansion of the system With the help of United Nation taff, model for developing countrie were introduced into the LINK y tern at an early tage. Included were area model for Africa, A ia, Latin America, and the Middle East. The e model emphasized trade, the dome tic accumulation of fixed capital, and internal spending. The UN staff al 0 provided model for the centrally planned economie . From Wharton Econometric , the project drew on the model of the Soviet Union that had been developed independently of the LINK effort. A model of China wa developed specifically for LINK by Lawrence J. Lau of Stanford Univer ity, who was an early participant in the entire project. Over the year , more countrie were added to the y tern. Now, virtually every OECD country i participating directly (with the exception of Iceland, Portugal, Turkey, and Yugo lavia). To thi expanded grouping of indu trial countrie , we are now able to include model for individual developing countrie (with orne small re idual area groupings), which together with OECD and CPE model , make up a ytern of 72 eparate component models. The e models are all interrelated through a commodity-specific trade matrix that i fully 72 X 72. Thi unusual tatitical con truct for trade has been prepared by the UN taff. At the earlier tage, the four area model of the developing countrie were related to the rest of the ystem by only one row and column pair in the trade matrix. That limitation ha now been broken, and the interactive relationship among trade and production flows cover 72 entitie at a completely bilateral level. It is, under tandably, a mammoth job of information management and computing. The system now ha about 16,000 imultaneous equation. The inclusion in LINK of developing country models, with prominent display, has long been a di 8

tant goal, but with the emergence of specific problem in the developing countrie , their extended treatment became a priority of the fir t order. It had long been expected that the developed countrie would have a more mode t growth pro pect in the 1970 and in the year to come in the 1980 , than previou ly, e pecially than the buoyant year 1950-1973. Thi more mode t growth indicate trouble for the developing countrie , who e own growth pro pects depend heavily on performance in the developed countrie . In addition, the appearance of the LDC (Le Developed Countries) debt problem, in bold relief after the ummer of 1982, made their explicit tudy mandatory, in order to a e the chance of their being able to manage their economie without default or other crisi precipitating events. There i significant feedback between developed and developing countries, and thi feedback is one of the objective of inve tigation in the newly enlarged y tern. In order to facilitate the addition of some 35 new model for developing countrie on fairly hort notice, imilar (but not identical) y tern were built at LINK Central (Univer ity of Penn ylvania) using a great deal of in ight and guidance from Third World cholar who have participated in LINK meetings for everal year . The project al 0 received much help from taff economists at the UN and the Asian Development Bank. Shinichi Ichimura of Kyoto Univer ity al 0 contributed greatly to thi development, on the ba i of hi stu die of a sublinkage system in the Pacific Ba in. Gradually, re pon ibility for models will shift from LINK Central to economists in the member countries. We shall oon have fre h model maintained in a few pecific countrie a part of the y tern: Chile, India, Nigeria, Paki tan, the Philippine, South Korea, Taiwan, and Venezuela. The e models come from ongoing econometric practice in the particular countrie ; their work will continue indefinitely into the future. It i worthy of note that two model for centrally planned economie will also be maintained on ite, namely, Poland (University of Lodz) and Hungary (International Market Research In titute). It is hoped that a model of China will be built dome tically for u e in LINK. Related to the work on model building for developing countrie , we are returning to an older theme--the integration of commodity models with the country model in the sy tern. Thi will enable us to tudy the pricing and the export earnings of primary producing countries, many of which are LDCs. Some year ago, LINK contained a related system VOLUME




(COMLINK) which e timated and imulated commodity model con i tently in the LINK context (Adam 1978). Thi work ha been revived and i now ready for integration into the ystem. It now ha about 15 major commodity model and it will be expanded to cover more than 25 markets.

Exchange rates The LINK model , except for a few regional grouping for re idual ca e , are cast in dome tic currency ~nits. We are actively modeling exchange ra~e equauon for the major indu trial countrie (ee Hickman 1983 and Pauly and Peter en, in pre ). We relate movements in the exchange rate (again t the V.S. dollar) to intere t rate differential, inflation differential, growth pro pect , current account balance and foreign currency re erve holding. Mo t theorie' follow elaborate chain of reasoning and end up with equation like tho e being u ed at pre ent. We are al 0 continuing work on the e timation of capital flow. We eek further enlightenment on exchange rate value through their relation hip with capital flow ,a that eem to be the main factor that holds ~e V.S. dollar at uch a high rate at the pre ent time-March 1985. With regard to exchange rate of the developing economie , we are mainly relating th.em to the currencie of individual developed countne or group of them. At the 1982 LINK meeting in Germany, we devoted one day, at the office of the Bunde bank in Frankfort, to theoretical and empirical tudie, by LINK participants and other re earcher , of capital flow and exchange rate determination (Klein and Krelle 1983). A in all LINK re earch, we expect the e tentative fir t step to re ult eventually in a olid long-lived LINK ub ystem. ' Additional tudie of exchange rate determination, but not from the tandpoint of capital flow , were reported to another joint meeting in 1983 at the Bank of japan in Tokyo, along with imilar tudies from other multinational models. This et of studie will be published in a forthcoming i ue of the European Economic Review. Endogenou treatment of exchange rate will continue to be a lively area of study within LINK.

Computational advances At the time of the freeing-up of exchange rate in the floating system, a problem was po ed in LINK re earch as follows: JUNE 1985

For fixed paritie • trade balance are endogeneou • exchange rate are exogeneou ; for equilibrium rate under floating paritie. trade balance (or current accounts) are et at exogeneou target level • exchange rate are e timated as endogeneou in trument variable.

Thi make exchange rate determination a problem of the well-known target-and-in trument formulation for economic policy formation in the manner pioneered by jan Tinbergen, the Nobel Prizewinning economi t from the Netherland. Thi attractive way of looking at the problem intrigued Keith john on of the LINK taffin 1974, and he tudied the matter in hi di ertation re earch. To olve thi problem, he modified the LINK ystem into a impler model, with an identical specification for each country. He olved the large- cale computational problem with the reduced y tern. Chri tian Peter en and Peter Pauly of the pre ent LINK taff reached a mile tone in their 1984 re earch by ucce fully programming the olution to thi problem in a much expanded LINK y tem-lO year later than john on' re earch. Their olution i very general and can be u ed for unequal number of targets and in truments where appropriate (Pauly and Peter en, in pre ). They were able to program the ca e of equality between targets and in truments for implementation of Ronald McKinnon' (1984) propo al for monetary tabilization by tabilizing exchange rates at purcha ing power parity level . The e re ults were pre ented at a pecial LINK e ion copon ored by the Federal Re erve Bank of San Franci co on Augu t 26, 1984, and will be reported in the proceedings of the conference now being edited (Hickman, forthcoming 1985). F~rther advance in computer method are entirely po Ible. The next tep i to con ider the .. upercomputer," which i a hardware configuration that will deal with the problems inherent in imulating large ystem, uch a the pre ent augmented LINK model. The upercomputer offer the po ibility of ignific.antly ~educing the time required for lengthy simulauon With the large LINK model for 72 countrie and regions. Since the upercomputer incorporate parallel proce sing units, the individual country model could be olved imultaneously instead of erially, a i now done, and then all sent together to a linkage proce or. The principle of parallel proce ing i a natural fit to a multi model ystem such as LINK, and this promising approach i on our current re earch ag~~~a. It. should be noted that pre ent computer facdltles, With more than ix megabytes of core torage, permit ignificant advances in economy of computer u e without resorting to parallel or vector pro9

ce ing. The total running time of LINK imulation for five year of projection take no more than five minute. oftware development are al 0 under invetigation. Work on a predece or project of LI K, al 0 pon ored by the Council' Committee on Economic tability and Growth-the Brookings- RC Model-firmly e tabli hed the Gau -Seidel algorithm for imulating large- cale y tern . At the time, in the mid-1960, orne 300 equation con tituted a large- cale y tern. ow we are dealing with thou and of imultaneou equation and attention i being paid to the u e of ir I aac ewton' method for algorithmic efficiency, e pecially for multi model y tern , and LI K computing re earch i now following that direction. Another approach to parallel proce ing i being explored which doe not involve the upercomputer. In collaboration with Noah Prywe of Penn ylvania' Moore chool of Electrical Engineering, LI K i exploring "cooperati e proce ing"; i.e., olving large- cale y tern for imulation purpo e , where the individual model are olved "at home" on whatever hardware i available with re ult being ent electronically to LINK Central for con olidating coni tently into the world model. A key factor in the u e of cooperative computing i the ability to tran mit data regularly, efficiently, and accurately to the central LINK file in Philadelphia.

country, we interpreted for the model' computer inpu the quantitative meaning of the propo ed policy change . The new information generated by the audiovideo exchange thu became the foundation for implementing a computer-a i ted re pon e. It took nearly 20 minute to execute a olution re pon e to the change in monetary and fi cal policie . The reult appeared, finally, on computer creen that could be een by the participants in all four location . Thi calculation became omething of a bottleneck, but we u ed the time fairly well in commenting about the whole projection, and when the final re ults were available on all creen imultaneously we were able to have further live di cu ion about the meaning of the finding. LINK ha hown how the power of the computer, working with a central data file, can be incorporated in an audiovi ual exerci e. We were able to how how government technician, international civil ervants, and intere ted academics could be in frequent touch for di cu ing projection or working on new one . The whole experiment took a long time, u ing up much valuable atellite space for four hour . Thi ugge ts that new approache to computing- uch a the u e of a upercomputer-that could ignificantly reduce the time required for our tandard cenario, would greatly benefit the u e of telecommunication method . Once our computer facilitie are enhanced, it will be ea ier and Ie s co t1y to u e teleconferencing for coordinating economic policy cenano.

A telecommunications experiment The LINK group undertook a hi toric telecommunication experiment on April 27, 1984. The ta k wa the coordination of economic policy acro country boundarie . Team of LINK participants were a ked to make live critici m of a ba e1ine foreca t, with a policy cenario of changed American choice between the then-prevailing fi cal expan ion and monetary re traint. A team of European participants wa a embled in a tudio of Briti h Telecom in London, facing a imilar team of North American and a Japane e repreentative at BS tudio in McLean, Virginia. The e two group were in touch via atellite in an audiovi ual mode. Two "blind" group with audio ervice alone were a embled in Lo Angele and Geneva. In a conventional audiovi ual hookup, a general di cu ion can be held, looking at the other ide' expre ion while they are talking. We added a major new feature, namely, audiovi ual linkage together with a computer fully in the picture. After di cu ing the baseline forecast and the amendments, country by 10

Cooperative research Over the year ince LINK' founding, other international model-building projects have been implemented in variou government agencie , multinational agencie , re earch con ulting enterpri e , and orne univer itie . There i now a whole corp of international model; orne empha izing trade, orne financial flow ,and orne partial relation hip . A feature of the LINK y tern from the beginning, however, ha been its empha i on the principle that each re ident modeling group know its own economy be t. LINK, therefore, remain a cooperative venture, with participants from model building center around the world. Model are maintained for eparate u e at home but al 0 are ent to LINK Central under certain pecification for con i tency at linkage points, and world-con i tent imulation are made for the project a a whole. The cooperating re earcher meet twice yearly. The pring meeting i a hort e ion of three day dedicated to validating and improving the new LINK VOLUME




foreca t. The foreca t i updated for the ummer meeting, but thi i a week-long conference that i primarily devoted to re earch paper by LINK member and invited gue ts, including participants from other international modeling projects and speciali ts in relevant a pects of econometric technique or international economic . Apart from its direct contribution to the methodology of multinational econometric modeling and the quantitative analy i of the international tran mi ion mechani m, LINK ha helped to augment the diffuion of modeling activitie throughout the world and ha been an important focu and forum for re earch on many a pect of the world economy. 0

Hickman, editor. Cambridge, Ma achu en: lIT Pre , 19 3, pp. 340-367. HlcKM ,BERT G., A 0 LAWRE 'CE R. Klli . "Wage-Pri e Behavior in the National Model of Project LI K." Amtrican Economic RtviroJ, 74:150-154, May 1984. - - - . "Project LI K: Policy Implication for the World Economy," in Knowkdgt and POWtr in a GLobal oritty, William M. Evan, editor. Beverly Hill, California: ag Publication, 19 I, pag 91-106. - - - . "The LI K Project," in Intmwtional Tradt and MultiCountry MoMLs. Paris: Economica, 19 I, pag 197-209. KLEI , LAWRE CE R. "Empirical A pects of Protectioni m: LINK Results," JournaL oj Policy MoMling, 7(1), 1985. - - - . "World Recovery and D bt Pro pects," in Hickman, forthcoming 1985. KLEI ,LAWRE CE R., C. ADREA BOLLI NO, 0 HAHROKH F Roo T. "Indu trial Policy in the World Economy: Medium Term imulation." Journal oj Policy ,\1oMling, 4(2): 175-1 9,


KLEIN, LAWRE1I/CE R., HAHROKH F ROOUST, A 0 VICTOR FILATOv. "Purcha ing Power Parity in Medium Term imulation of the World Economy." wlJdinauianJournal oj Economic ,4:47~496,

19 2.

ADAMS, F. GERARD. "Primary Commodity Marke in a World Model y tem," in tabiLizing World Commodity Marktts. F. G rard dam and nia A. Klein. editor. Lexington, Ma achu en : Lexington Book, 1978, page 3-104. BlRGSTE , C. FRED. AND LAWRE CE R. KLEI . "What Kind of World Recovery? The eed for a Global trategy." TM Economist, 23 April 19 3, 18-20. BOlLI '0, C. ANDREA, A, 0 L. R. KLEI, . "World Recovery trategie in the 80s: I World Recovery ynonomou to LDC Recovery?" JournaL oj Policy MoMLing, 6(2): 175-207, 1984. BOLLI NO, C. A DREA, PETER P ULY, AND CHRISTI E. PETER L . ationaL and Intn7Ultional Asptcts oj tht EMF7 ctnario: Rt ult: Jrom Projtct LI K. Energy Modeling Forum, tan ford Univerity, tanford, California, December 19 3. BOLLI '0, C. ADREA, A. 0 I HI, PETER PLY, C. E. PLTLR E , AD. HISHOOO. 'Global Impact of Oil Price R duction and Official Development A i tance: Medium-Term Comparative imulation with Iternative Global Econometric Model ." Tht DtvtLoping Economit , 22:3-26, 19 4. FILATov, VICTOR, BLRT G. HICKMA ,AND LAWRE CE R. Klli . "Long-Term imulation with the Project LI K Y tern," in GlobaL Intn7UltionaL Economic MoMl. Bert G. Hickman, editor. m terdam: North-Holland, 19 3, pages 2~51. HlcKMA ,BlRT G. "Exchange Rate in Project LI K," in Exchangt Ralt in Multicountry Economttric ModtLs, Paul DeGrauwe and Theo Peeter , editors. London: Macmillan Pres, 19 3, pages

103-133. HICKM ,BERT G., editor.lnttmational Monttary tabiLization and tht ForriK'" Dtbt Probltm. Proceedings of a conference co ponsored by Project LI K and the Federal Reserve Bank of San Franci co, Augu t 29,1984. Federal Re erve Bank of an Francisco, forthcoming 1985. HICKMAN, BERT G., A 0 VICTOR FILATov. "A Decompo ition of International Income Multiplier ," in Global Economttric : E ay in Honor oj LawrtnCt R. KLrin, F. Gerard Adam and Bert G.




1981. Klli , LAWRENCE R., NO WILHELM E. KRLLLE, editor. Capital Flow and Exchangt Ratt Dtttnnination. Zeit chrift fur Nationalokonomie, upplementum 3. Vienna and ew York: pringer-Verlag, 19 3. KLEI , LAWRE CE R., PETER P ULY, 0 PA CAL VOl I . "The World Economy-A Global ModeL" Pty ptctiVt in Computing, 2:4-17, May 19 2. KLEI ,LAwRE E R., RICHARD IMES, A 0 P CAL VOISI . "Coordinated Monetary Policy and the World Economy." Prtvision tt Analy t Economiqut, 2(3):75-105, July-October, 1981. McKJNNON, RON LD I. An Inttmational tandardJor Monttary tability. A publication ofthe In titute for International Economi (Wa hington, D.C.). Cambridge, Ma sachu etts: MIT Pre s,

19 4. - - - . "Multi-Country Econometric Model : The tate of the Art," in Advancts in tatistical Anal is and Computing, in pre . P ULY, PETER. "Unemployment Pro pects for the OE D Area: Alternative Scenario with the LI K Y tern," in Fortcasting MOOtLs and tht Employmtnt Probltm. Geneva: International Labour Organization, 1984. P LY, PETER, 0 PETER HOOPER. "I mpact of an Oil Pri e hock on the U .. Economy: International Repercu ion." Federal Re rve Board, International Finance Di cu ion Paper 262. Washington, D.C.: Federal Reserve Board, 19 4. PLY, PETER, 0 CHRISTI N E. PETER E . "Exchange Rate Repon es in the LI K Y tern." Europtan Economic RtviroJ. in pre. PLY, PETER, A 0 CHRI TI E. PETLR E . "Optimal Control in Large Multi-Model," in MOOtling, P. Artu , editor. Amsterdam: orth-Holland Pres, in pre . PA LY, PETER, A 0 CHRI TIA E. PETER E . "An Empirical Evaluation of the McKinnon Propo ai," in Hickman, forthcoming



Current Activities at the Council

The comparative evaluation of longitudinal data The dramatic increa e in the collection of national longitudinal data in the 1960 and 1970 facilitated the development of everal field of inquiry. It al 0 lead to orne difficult-even perplexing-que tion about the role of the e data in the ocial cience and in public policy. Que tion are increa ingly a ked of the e inve tments by the re earch community a it come to under tand their limits a well a their trength , and a the u picion grow that everal of the mo t enduring of the e tudie may no longer yield rich cientific or policy relevant information. The que tion a ked include, for example, whether the nece ary analytical tool exi t for judging the equivalence of the mea ure of everal data erie that appear to be relevant to a given topic; whether guideline can be developed for di tingui hing cientifically u eful replication from unnece arily redundant mea urement; and whether criteria exi t by which cholar who u e the e data and the funder \ ho upport their collection and analy i may better decide \ hich erie to initiate, maintain, or terminate. At pre ent, the choice of u er and inve tor in the e data are not informed by an under tanding of the comparative advantage and weakne e of alternative data ets or de ign , the mechani m of governing the e relatively large inve tments in re earch, or the condition under which the e data will net the large t benefit to the development of cience or public poli y. A Council working group on comparative evaluation of longitudinal data recently held two work hop with the purpo e of initiating y tematic attention to the e and related que tion . The working group held the fir t of the e workhop, "Back Tran lation: From De ign to Analy i ," in the Council' office on February 8-9, 1985. Thi work hop ought to under tand the implication of recent advance in method for the de ign and collection of longitudinal data. Over the la t everal year , a variety of method ha been invented to cope with mi ing data, electivity bia , truncated or cen ored data, and other problem . The workshop a ked what the e method tell u about what data to collect, and 12

when and how to collect it, 0 that the re ultant longitudinal data are better (i.e., Ie co tly, more informati e, Ie ambiguou). Pre entation were made by: Donald B. Rubin and athan henker, "Multiple Imputation of 19 0 en u Occupation Cod " David Rind kopf, "U ing Latent la Analy es to T t D velopment 1odel : tati tical and Design Con ideration " Thoma A. Loui, an M. Laird, and Jame Ware, "Implication of Random Effects Model " Jame J . Heckman and Richard Robb, "Alternative Model for Evaluating the Impa t of Int rvention : An Overview" Anthony . Bryk and teph n W. Raudenbu h , "A Hierarchical Model for tudying hool Effec ..

The participan

and author of the paper were:

Murray Aborn Richard A. Berk Robert F. Boruch 1ichael Brick nthony . Bryk 1artin H. David Ralph Fol om

Herman Friedman Robert M. Hau er Jame J. Heckman Graham Kalton an M. Laird Rodney Little Thoma A. Loui Rebecca A. Maynard Mark Montgomery Robert W. Pearson tephen W. Raudenbu h Ri hard Robb David Rind kopf David Rogosa Donald B. Rubin athan henker

ational ience Foundation Univer ity of California, anta Barbara orthwe tern Univer ity W tat (Rockville, Maryland) Harvard Univer ity University of Wi con in Re earch Triangle In titute (Re earch Triangle Park, orth Carolina) IBM y tern Re arch In titute ( ew York) University of Wi con in University of Chi ago Univer ity of Michigan Harvard Univer ity hool of Public Health University of alifornia, Lo Angeles Harvard Univer ity hool of Publi Health Mathematica R earch, Inc. (Princeton, ew Jer ey) Princeton University ial i nce Research Council Michigan tate Univer ity The hicago Corporation (Chicago) The Graduate Center, City University of ew York tan ford Univer ity Harvard Univer ity University of Chicago





Burton H. inger Lauri teel

Jame Ware Herbert Weisberg

Columbia University American Institute for Re earch in the Behavioral ience (Palo Alto, California) Harvard Univer ity hool of Public Health Consulting tati tic , Inc. (Welle ley Hill , Ma achu ellS)

Robert W. Pear on Robert F. Rich Bruce D. pencer Loui Tornatzky Michael J. Wargo

ial ien e Re earch Council Carnegie-~1ellon Uni\'cr it Northwe tern niversit Indu trial Technology Institute (Ann Arbor, <Ii higan) . . Departmentof gri ulLUre

The working group i currently preparing a report that will be ubmitted to the Mea urement Method The working group held its econd work hop, "In- and Data Improvement Program of the National citruments of cience: Improving the Usefulne of ence Foundation, which ha upported the activitie Longitudinal Data," in Wa hington, D.C. on March of the working group. Additional fundin ha come 15-16, 1985. Here the focu and trategy differed from the U .. Department of Labor. from the fir t work hop. The purpo e thi time wa to a k three different chool of inquiry how their inights, concep , and tool of examination might help Expertise as a model for life-span formulate the mo t u eful que tion to which ub- cognitive development equent re earch might be directed. The e three The Council' ubcommittee on hild Developfield of inquiry included: (1) benefit-co t analy i , ment in Life-Span Per pective pon ored a confer(2) the utilization of information, and (3) the ociolence to examine experti e a a model or metaphor for ogy of in trumentation. tudying cognitive development acro the life pan. The meeting wa held in New York on December The pre entation included: 9-10, 1984. The ubcommittee' program i organized to exBruce D. pencer, "Toward Conducting Benefit-Co t Analy i of Data Program " amine different portion of the life pan by bringing Ann Maj hrzak, "Information Focu and Data urce: When together cholar intere ted in different age period Will They Lead to U e?" in order to con ider difference and imilaritie in Robert F. Rich, "u ing Data: Conceptual and Methodological concepts and method. At thi meeting, therefore, Problem" participants a ked whether there were new concept Loui Tornatzky, "U ing Better Longitudinal Data in Order to that might erve a re earch tool for inve tigation of Make the Social ience More U eful" u an E. Cozzen , "Th iology of In trumentation: From a cognitive development acro infancy, childhood, and Poli y Per pective" adulthood-in particular, could experti e crve that Nichola . Mullin, "Longitudinal Data et a In trum nts: The function? Datatron Analogy" The meeting wa organized to explore to what extent growth in experti e and knowledge can account for cognitive developmental change from childhood The participants included: into and throughout adulthood. pecificalIy, the aim Ronald P. Abele ational In titute on ging wa : (1) to review what i known about change in ational ience Foundation 1urray Aborn knowledge y tern ; (2) to di cu whether the tudy Univer ity of hicago John M. Abowd orthwe tern Univer ity of experti e i a helpful analogue or model; (3) to Robert F. Boruch Georgia In titute of Daryl E. Chubin examine which domains of knowledge are mo t releTechnology vant for under tanding cognitive development into ational ience Foundation u an E. Cozzen adulthood; and (4) to explore the u efulne of the ORC (Chicago) Celia E. Homan expert-novice analogue a a model for under tandUniver ity of Michigan F. Thoma Ju ter ing elected aspects of adulthood cognition uch a U.S. eneral Accounting Jack Kaufman Office pecialization and elective optimization. Laura C. Leviton Ann Majchrzak David B. McMillen Nicholas C. Mullin




Univer ity of Pill burgh Purdue University U. . Bureau of the Cen u Virginia Polytechnic In titute and tate Univer ity

The program con i ted of: (1) Overview

Robert Cia er, "Exp rti e a a Model"



nder Eri on, "Limit of ptimal (Maximum) Functioning as a Model" Howard Gardner, "Intellectual Talent a a Model" (2) Developmental re earch i ue 1ich lene Chi, "The Expert- ovice Di tinction and Its Development" Frank Keil, "Domain- pecifi ver u Generalized Knowledge and Its D velopment" (3) Specific life- pan developmental applications Sylvia , crilmer, "D velopment of Pra tical Intelligence" Paul B. Balte and Reinhold Kliegl, "The tudy of Expert Memory and the Limits of Functioning in Old Age"

M. Brew ter mith B rnard Treiber Franz E. Weinert


Univer ity of California, anta ruz Univer ity of Pittsburgh Max Planck In titute for P ychological Re earch (Berlin)

Lonnie R. Sherrod and Frederick Verdonik erved taff.

Giftedness and moral responsibility

The Council' Committee on Development, Giftedne ,and the Learning Proce pon ored a work(4) Retro peets and pro peets hop to examine the fea ibility of examining extraorFram E. Weinert and Bernhard Treiber, "Developmental Condinary performance in the domain of moral behavior. . traints on the Development of Exp rti e and Knowledge" The meeting wa held in New York on Augu t 29-31, 1984. (5) Clo ing panel di cu ion David L. Featherman, John Flavell, Katherine eI on, Marion The conference e entially continued di cu ion Perlmutter begun at a meeting on the arne topic held a year earlier at Yale Univer ity, al 0 pon ored by the The participant included: committee (de cribed on page 28-29 of the Council' Ronald P. l>eles National In titute on Aging 1983-84 Annual Report). The current meeting thu Paul B. Baltes Max Planck In titute for tarted with the advantage that participants had covHuman Development and ered a lot of ground and hared each other basic Education (Berlin) Foundation for hild Orville G. Brim, Jr. a umptions--or at lea t under tood them-and had Development (New York) a common appreciation of re earch method ,a a :\1ichelcnc Chi niver ity of Pittsburgh re ult of the earlier meeting. Two aim emerged for Roger Dixon Max Planck In titute for the current meeting: to develop orne conceptual Human D velopment and and con en u on what con titute , in the clarity Education (Berlin) broade t en e, the "moral domain," and more peJudith Dunn niver it of Cambridge K. nder, Ericsson Univer ity of Colorado cifically, "moral extraordinarine "; and to identify David I.. Featherman Univer ity of Wi con in re earchable i ue which participants might pur ue John Flavell tanford Univer ity in variou collaboration or might encourage other Howard (;a.路dner Harvard Project Zero and to pur ue through the committee's program. Veteran Admini tration Mo t participants reported orne profe ional deMedical Center (Bo ton) Rol>ert Glaser niver ity of Pittsburgh velopment of per pective ince the previou meeting. E. :\1avis Hetherington Univer ity of Virginia The e change reflected an increa ed intere t in mall Frank Keil Cornell Univer ity ca e study method , a greater appreciation of the Rhinehold Klicgl Max Planck In titute for potential of the thought-action relation hip and its Human Development and ubtletie , and a realization of the importance of 0Education (Berlin) cial, contextual, ubcultural, and hi torical factor. Deanna Kuhn Columbia Univer ity Richard :\1. Lerner Penn ylvania tate University orne participants reported a hift in the appreciation John W. :\1eyer umford niver ity of the role of affect, not a an "engine" that drove Katherine Nelson The Graduate Center, ity action but a part of the proce of involvement and Univer ity of New York engagement, and omething on which cognitive proRoss D. Parke Univer ity of Illinois ce e might reflect. Perhap the ingle mo t imporUniversity of Michigan 1arion Perlmutter Naomi Quinn Duke Univer ity tant conclu ion that people brought to the current ylvia Scribner The Graduate Center, City meeting wa that re earch on moral extraordinarine University of New York i worthwhile and po ible. A a re ult, di ell ion at Martin E. P. ligman University of Pennsylvania the pre ent meeting focu ed primarily on the definiJacqueline Smith Max Planck In titute for tion of moral giftedne s and on re earch need and Human Development and future activity. Education (Berlin) 14







_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _I......l

The participan agreed that there i a continuum: the morally extraordinary per on ha "more" of what i. generally involved in the moral domain of p ychological activity. What make the e people pecial i that there ha b en in their live orne triggering or cry tallizing event or cri i which timulated a qualitative leap in con olidation or engagement-what i knm n a "commitment." Thi wa evident both from the ca e hi torie pre ented at the meeting and from work in other field of giftedne . The ca e hi torie reported in pre ented paper were of two type: (1) adult individual who howed moral extraordinarine ,and who e live and moral career could be traced through their recollection of the cry tallizing or triggering events and cri e ; and (2) younger people who had not hown extraordinarin ,but who e way of resolving "ordinary" cri e and reflection upon ignificant even might be a clu to the developmental proce e of extraordinarine . The emergent con en u of participants wa , in fact, that a proper and exten ive exploration of the ca e tudy method wa needed, perhap drawing on the e perti e of other who have worked with imilar methodologie. uch a methodological explorationperhap in the form of a ub equent conferencewould make po ible a proper examination of moral giftedne and would al 0 make a ub tantive contribution to p ychological methodology and conceptualization in its own right. uch work could be extended into cognitive cience and modify an approach which ha hitherto been exploited mainly within p ychodynamic and other ego-related field . The participant included: jC'"Jnne Bamberger Anne Colby William Damon Howard Gardner Howard E. Gruber \fartin Hoffman Elliot Turiel Helen Weinreich-Ha te

Ma achu etLS In titute of Technology Henry 1urray Re earch Center (Radcliffe College) Clark Univer ity Veteran Admini tration Medi al Center (Bo ton) University of Geneva University of Michigan Univer ity of California, Berkele Univ r ity of Bath

Peter B. Read and Lonnie R. Sherrod erved a taff.

Giftedness in the visual arts The Council' Committee on Development, Giftedne ,and the Learning Proce held a work hop on




giftedne in the vi ual arts on January 4-6, 1985, at the Harvard Graduate chool of Education. The meeting involved profe ional arti ts, art educator ,and ocial cienti t who tudy relevant area uch a cognitive and perceptual development. The meeting opened with autobiographical tatement by two arti about their early experience and awarene of art and their ub equent development a tuden and a profe ional arti t. ub equent e ion examined both the early identification in individual of potential for extraordinary performance in the vi ual arts and the education of gifted and nongifted young arti ts. One e ion di cu ed que tion of what con titute giftedne at different age. For example: (1) How early can giftedne in the vi ual arLS be detected? (2) What kind of criteria hould be u ed to identify giftedne in th pre chool, elementary, high hool, and profe ional level year? What kind of in trument exi t to identify giftedne ? How valid are th ? What i the theor behind the in trument? (3) (a) Doe talent persi t in the arne way over time? (b) Do young children who are divergent (i.e., original and innovative in their drawing) become older children who also di play the e characteri ti in their works? Or do divergence at an early age give way to exce ively careful, technically killed, afe work during the late elementary year ? (c) Wa the divergent adole cent al 0 diverg nt in the prechool year? What i the relation hip between early and later divergence? (d) In urn, what i the developmental cour e of giftedne ? If one were to do a longitudinal tudy of a gifted child, what form would the gift take at different age?

Another e ion focu ed on the training of potential arti hould children with talent in the vi ual arLS be taught differently from average children? (2) How early hould "training" for the gifted begin? (3) How hould giftedn in the visual art be nurtured at different ages (pre chool, elementary school, high chool, profes ional)? (4) What kind of balance hould there be between th t aching of technical kill and the fo tering of originality and elf expre ion? Doe thi vary depending on age? (i)

A final e ion examined ociological and hi torical per pective on giftedne . The work hop wa organized by David Pari er, Concordia Univer ity, and Ellen Winner, Bo ton College, on behalf of the committee; other participants included: Jeanne Bamberger Howard . Becker

Ma sachu ett In titute of Technology orthwe tern Univer ity


George Bogardi Margaret . lark Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi Yadin Dudai David H. Feldman Howard Gardner Howard E. Gruber I Hurwitz Nathan Knobler Diana Korzenik Walter E.


Marilyn R. Pappa Christopher Pratt William T. Reiman Helen Weinreich-Haste Brent Wilson Joachim F. Wohlwill Dennis P. Wolf Cry~tal Woodward

Lonnie R.

Universite Laval (Montreal) Project Zero, Harvard Univer ity niver ity of Chicago The Weizmann In thute of cience (Rehovot) Tufts Univer ity Veteran dministration Medical Center (Bo ton) niver ity of Geneva The Maryland In titute, College of Art (Baltimore) Philadelphia College of Art (Philadelphia) Ma achu etts College of rt (Bo ton) fa conomet Regional High chool (Top field, Massachusett ) Ma achu etts College of Art (Bo ton) Mt. Carmel, t. Mary' Bay, Canada Harvard Univer ity University of Bath Penn ylvania tate niversity Penn ylvania tate University Harvard Project Zero Vanclu e, France

herrod erved a


Planning for the 1990 Census The Council' Committee on Re earch on the 1980 Cen us pon ored a work hop on the 1990 Cen u on February 1, 1985. The work hop wa held at the National Academy of cience; it wa upported by a pecial grant provided by the Alfred P. loan Foundation. The Bureau of the Cen u ha for everal year pon ored hearing , work hop , and field te ts in preparation for the 1990 Cen u . The pre ent workhop wa held in order to provide an opportunity for cholars who are preparing monograph on the 1980 Cen u to convey to the Bureau of the Cen u the les ons they have learned from their direct experience in the analy i of the 1980 data. A is alway the ca e, researcher learn that there are ome type of analy i that cannot be carried out becau e a que tion was asked in a certain way or wa not a ked at all, or the data were coded in a way that limits their u e. In hi introductory remark, William P. Butz, the a ociate director for demographic field at the Bureau of the Cen u , noted that thi was a propitiou time to hold the work hop, ince planning for the 1990 Cen u was at the halfway point. He noted that he would listen to all ugge tion , with caution, ince 16

the Bureau ha many clients eeking to introduce que tion of relevance to them and there are time and budgetary re traints upon the number of que tion that can be a ked. But he urged the participants to ignore the e con traints in their di cu ion. In repon e to a que tion, Peter Bounpane, the a i tant director for demographic cen u e, ugge ted that the real co t of additional que tion might not be money but a lower rate of return, and a con equent undercount. Prior to the work hop, each of the participants who i writing a 1980 Cen u monograph ubmitted one or more memoranda detailing hi or her experience with the data and the Ie on that might be learned from it; 12 memoranda were received and di tributed in advance. The range of ugge tion made wa extremely wide, and only a few example can be given here. Many ugge tion concerned collecting a more complete ethnic de cription of the population, including obtaining uch information a the birthplace of parents and the pecification of Engli h, Iri h, cotti h, and WeI h. Particular attention wa given to the definition of Hi panic ethnic identity. Other participants ought to have the Cen u reflect more accurately the change in family compo ition that have taken place in recent decade . For example, it wa urged that a di tinction be made between "natural" children and " tep and adopted" children, and that the tandard categorie of ingle, married, widowed, eparated, or divorced be expanded to include "living together or cohabiting." The participants who are author of monograph were: Calvin L. Beale U.. Department of Agriculture Suzanne M. Bianchi U .. Bureau of the Censu Reynold Farley Univer ity of Michigan Donald J. Hernandez U .. Bureau of the Cen u Guillermina Ja so Univer ity of Minnesota Michael Levin U .. Bureau of the Censu Frank Levy University of Maryland Stanley Li berson University of California, Berkeley Larry Long U.S. Bureau of the Cen u David E. Myer Deci ion Re ource , Inc. (Wa hington, D.C.)

"Rural and mall Town America" "Women" "Black- White Difference" "Children" "I mmigration" "A ian and Pacific Islanders" "Living tandard and the Di tribution of Income" "Ethnic and Racial Group"

"Geographic Mobility and Migration" "Children"





ortium of four major center : Centro de Estudio Puertorriqueno , Hunter College, City Univer ity of " Native American .. New York; Stanford Center for Chicano Re earch, Stanford Univer ity; Center for Mexican American "Regional and Metropolitan Studie, Univer ity of Texa at Austin; and the Growth" Chicano Studie Re earch Center, Univer ity of "Aging" California, Lo Angele. Funding for thi program "The Hi panic Population" has been provided by the Ford Foundation. The ignificant increa e in the ize and importance "The Demographic tructure of the Hi panic population in the United State, the of eighborhood " continuation of the ocial and economic di advanThe following per on from the Bureau of the tages of that population, and the continuing inability of Hispanic re earcher and community leader to Cen u were al 0 pre ent: affect ignificantly the re earch agenda on Hispanic William P. BUll A sociate Director for policy i ue have all prompted thi grants program. Demographic Fields It i hoped that new re earch will help fill the need for Peter A. Bounpane A i tant Director for Demographic Cen u a better under tanding of the cau e of Hi panic di Arnold Jackson Chief, Decennial Operations advantage ; will a i t re earcher and policymaker Divi ion to under tand the implication of the population' Adolfo L. Paez Chief, Data Requiremen Branch, Decennial Planning recent growth; and will lead to more informed public debate and deci ion making on the e complicated i Divi ion ~Iar hall L. Turner, Jr. Acting Chief, Decennial ue. Planning Divi ion A Hi panic-focu ed re earch, both ba ic and Paul T. Z i et A istant Divi ion Chief for applied, i critically important, both to Hi panic tati tical Reports, Data communitie and to the nation, the grants program U er ervice Divi ion ha been e tabli hed with the following purpo e in Campbell Gib on Demographic Advi r, mind: Population Divi ion Jacob . iegel Georgetown Univer ity C.. fatthew nipp niversity of Maryland Alden peare, Jr. Brown Univer ity Cynthia M. Taeuber U.. Bureau of the Cen u Marta Tienda niver ity of Wi con in Michael J. White Princeton Univer ity


Gordon Green

A i tant Divi ion Chief for Socioeconomic Stati tics Program, Population Divi ion A i tant Divi ion Chief, Ethnic and Racial tati tics taff, Population Divi ion

• ·ampeo R. McKenney

In addition, everal gue ts attended the work hop: Pri cilia Lewi ,Ru ell age Foundation; Herbert C. Morton, American Council of Learned Societie, Wa hington, D.C.; Conrad Taeuber, Georgetown Univer ity; Michael S. Teitelbaum, Alfred P. Sloan Foundation; and Katherine Wallman, Council of Profe ional A ociations on Federal Stati tics. The work hop was chaired by Charle F. We toff, Princeton Univer ity, chairman and executive director of the committee. Richard C. Rockwell and David L. ill erved a taff.

-To advance an under tanding of contemporary Hi panic life in the United State -To encourage re earch that will both have value to the Hi panic community and demon trate the u e of ocial cience re earch in public policy formation -To benefit the field of Hi panic tudie The grant program will concentrate its award on re earch on the following policy related i ue: • The impact of Hi panic immigration and Puerto Rican migration -The impact of Hi panic immigrants on the ocietie and economic of pecific area of the United State -The migration of Puerto Rican and its impact on Puerto Rican well-being • Ethnicity, political participation, and civic involvement

Research on contemporary Hispanic issues The Council, in cooperation with the InterUniver ity Program for Latino Re earch (IUP), i launching a grant program for public policy re earch on contemporary Hispanic issue. The IUP i a con-




-The relation hip of ethnicity to political values, orientation , expectation , and behavior -The cau e and con equence of difference in participation among Hi panic country-of-origin group 17

-The impact of election tructure, regi tration An over ight committee ha been appointed and a requirements, and election rule review and election committee is being formed. The -The ource of political information member of the over ight committee are: • I ue affecting employment ecurity for Hi pani

Frank Bonilla

-The relation hip of labor market tructure and Alberto Camarillo human capital factor to employment outcome Rodolfo de la Garza -The proce e and con equence of labor market Kenn th Prewitt di crimination -The role of labor union Ramon aldivar

Hunter College, ily University of ew York tanford Univer it} University of alifornia, Los Angele ial ience Re earch Council at u tin University of Te

• I ue affecting income ecurity for Hi panic -The cau e and con equence of differential income level and poverty rate acro major Hi panic country-of-origin group and/or b tween Hi panic and non-Hi panic -S cial ecurity and i ue of equity for Hi panic -Participation in noncash benefit and entitlement program -The cau e and con equence of female-headed hou ehold -The effects of poverty on familie • Effective education; drop-out rate he characteri tic of effective chool for Hi panic tudents -The role of community, in titution, and tudent characteri tic in explaining elevated drop-out rate -

The re earch program place high value on tudie which di tingui h Hi panic in term of their country of origin and which compare difference and imilaritie acro Hi panic group . It i expected that the re ult of the re earch will be relevant to official and organization working to Ie en in titutional barrier to the ocial, economic, and political progre of Hi panic. Gran will vary from mall, individual award to upport for collaborative projects. They will offer the po ibility of one, two, or three year of re earch upport, and can be awarded to either individual or in titution . Grants are made on the ba i of the evaluation and recommendation of an interdi ciplinary Committee for Public Policy Research on Contemporary Hi panic I ue. Although mo t of the award fund will upport individual re earch, provi ion ha been made for the po ibility of a mall number of in titutional gran of up to 150,000 each. The deadline for ubmitting propo al i July 15, 1985; award will be announced by Augu t 30, 1985. 18

For additional information about the program, write to: Inter-University Program for Latino Re earch Pro~ sor Ramon aldivar or Dr. Harriet Romo Univer ity of Tex at Au tin Center for Mexican American tudie tudent rvice Building 4.120 Au tin, Texa 78712 512-471-4557

For application material, write to: Virginia Feury-Gagnon ial ience Re earch Council 605 Third Avenue ew York, ew York 1015 212-661-0280

New fellowship and grant programs for Soviet studies The U.S. Department of tate ha announced the awarding of fund to ten organization upporting oviet and Ea t European tudie throughout the United tate under the "Title VIII" programenacted a the oviet-Ea tern European Re earch and Training Act of 1983. Title VIII legi lation eek to en ure the development and maintenance of knowledge about the oviet Union and the countrie of Eastern Europe. The um of 741,150 was awarded to the Council for the activitie of the Joint Committee on oviet tudie, pon ored by the Council and the American Council of Learned ocietie and admini tered by the Council. The committee i one of five national organization devoted to the promotion of advanced reearch and training in oviet and Ea t European tudie which developed a coordinated program of training, re earch, and di emination in a comprehen ive re pon e to the intent and provision of Title VIII. The other four are the Joint Committee on Ea tern Europe, the International Re earch and Exchange Board (IREX), the Kennan In titute for VOLUME

39, N



Advanced Ru ian tudie of the Wil on Center • A national competition for grants to American in(Wa hington, D.C.), and the ational Council for titution that offer inten ive training in the Ru ian Soviet and Ea t European Re earch (Wa hington, language. The competition will eek to allocate D.C.). language-training fund under Title VIII effecThe committee will carry out three program to tively, equitably, and impartially. In addition, it will promote the development and maintenance of provide the field with nece ary information to reknowledge about the oviet Union. view the tate of language training, identify the trength and weakne e of exi ting program ,and • A national fellowship program with four objecdevelop a comprehen ive trategy to addre the tives: Ru ian language-training needs of thi country. In -A pilot program to attract promi ing young accordance with the e propo al , the Council ha cholar to enter graduate work in oviet tudie announced a program on Summer Language -Two-year predoctoral fellow hip to attract and Training Grants for American in titution that upport further tudy by tudents who have aloffer inten ive training in the Ru ian language ready completed two year of graduate work in either in thi country or in the oviet Union. their di cipline For further information about the e program, -One-year fellow hip to upport the completion contact Blair A. Ruble at the Council and/or reque t a of Ph.D. di ertation of the Council' new fellow hip and grant copy -Po tdoctoral fellow hip to upport re earch by brochure, available in Augu t 1985. junior cholar and to hare with univer itie orne of the co t of their initial academic appointments There are three award program to meet the e objective:

Staff appointment

(1) Fellowships for Graduate Training in Russian

Blair A. Rublejoined the Council in April a a taff a ociate, re pon ible for taffing the Joint Committee on oviet tudie. He replace ophie Sa, who ha re igned from the Council to accept the po ition of executive director of the Matsu hita Foundation (Secaucu, ew Jer ey). Mr. Ruble received a Ph.D. in political cience from the Univer ity of Toronto in 1977. During hi graduate tudent year he al 0 tudied at the Leningrad State Univer ity. In 1977, he became a re earch as 0ciate at the Kennan In titute for Advanced Ru ian • A research program to upport both collaborative Studie (Wa hington, D.C.). In July 1982, he became re earch projects on the oviet Union and the di - the a i tant director of the National Council for emination of re earch method ,data. and finding. oviet and Ea t European Re earch (Wa hington, The program i de igned to advance re earch D.C.), re pon ible primarily for the re earch award which, becau e of the intellectual i ue being program. He come to the Council from thi po ition. rai ed, the originality of the que tion being a ked, Mr. Ruble ha written and poken frequently about the imaginativene of the method being applied, the contemporary Soviet Union, particularly about and the forms of collaboration involved will im- labor i ue. He ha edited three volume and ha prove the quality of cholarship, increa e its vitality, published 13 article and one monograph, Soviet and contribute to the overall development of the Trade Unions: Their Development in the 1970 (New field. York: Cambridge Univer ity Pre s, 1981). and Soviet Studies with annual tipend of up to 15,000 for the upport of tudents in the third and fourth year of graduate tudy (2) Dissertation Fellowships in Russian and Soviet Studies with award of up to 15,000 a year (3) Postdoctoral Fellowship in Russian and Soviet Studies with award intended to improve the academic employment and tenure opportunitie of new Ph.D. in any di cipline of the ocial cience and humanitie

Ju [



Recent Council Publications Inventory of Longitudinal Re earch on Childhood and Ad olescen ce, compiled by Frederick Verdonik and Lonnie R. herrod. pon ored by the ubcommittee on hild D velopment in Life- pan Per p ctive. ew York: ocial cience Re earch Council, 1985, xii + 330 page . Paper. Available from Lonnie R. Sherrod at the Council for 2.00 to cover po tage and handling. The inventory ummarize information on 116 tudie identified through reference ource in child development, education, p ychology, and ociology. Profe ional in the field of child development reviewed Ii ts of tudie during the preparation of the inventory and made ugge tion for addition to the Ii t. The ummarie do not reflect an evaluation of thi re earch on the ba i of criteria uch a data quality or productivity. Rather, the election of tudie wa ba ed on the objective qualitie of the re earch. The e criteria were cho en to reflect orne of the implication of a life- pan per pective for re earch on childhood and adole cence. A preface de cribe orne mutual implication of child and life- pan adult developmental re earch. tudie are ummarized which: • Are pro pectively longitudinal in the en e of col-

lecting information during at least two time poin , and preferably three, acro a pan of at lea tone year Have information from at lea t one of the e data points, and preferably more, on ubjects 18 year or younger Have a repre entative ample and an attrition rate for the original ample that i low enough to maintain the longitudinal quality of the tudy Have exten ive information on the ample, involving multiple mea ure , preferably acro more than one domain of behavior Are currently active or, if inactive, either have plan for reactivation or have data available (or that could be made available) for econdary analy e

An effort wa made to include tudie from all parts of the world and from everal di cipline . Information on the tudie i organized according to the following categorie : topical domain covered; ub tantive topic covered; characteri tic of the original ample; year of completed wave ; informa20

tion on ample attrition ; in truments u ed for data collection and con truc mea ured; future plan; repre entative reference; and current tatu. Many ource of information were u ed to complete the ummarie. Written and telephone correpondence with inve tigator ; publication , conference paper , and other public documen ; and propo al , di ertation and other Ie publicallyavailable material were employed a needed. In all ca e , the principal inve tigator confirmed the accuracy of the ummary. An appendix Ii ts other ource for information on longitudinal re earch, including orne that were u eful to the author in preparing the inventory. An index of principal inve tigator and a ubject index are provided. The ubject index reference the major di cipline of each tudy, the national origin of the ample or tudy if other than the United tate, and the major ub tantive foci of the tudy a given in its title and ummary de cription. The inventory wa produced for re earcher and other profe ional concerned with child and lifepan development. It i hoped that thi information may help reader to become aware of opportunitie for econdary analy e of exi ting data; additional follow-up a e ments of currently acce ible ample; collaborative re earch; com pari on of finding from different ample on which comparable mea ure have been taken; and the de ign of additional longitudinal tudie . Reader who are concerned with re earch funding may identify tudie that have a potential for continuation by adding cohorts or by maintaining the original ample. The inventory could be u eful in undergraduate or graduate eminar to provide an overview of exi ting longitudinal tudie and to as i t tudents in locating data ets for pilot tudie or for di ertation re earch. Life-Cou rse Dyn amics Trajectories and T!"lnsitions, 1968-1980, edited by Glen H. Elder, Jr. Ba ed on a erie of work hop pon ored by the Committee on Life-Cour e Per pective on Human Development. Ithaca, New York: Cornell Univer ity Pre , 1985. 352 page; 19 charts; 51 table. Cloth, 37.50; paper, 17.95. The Michigan Panel tudy of Income Dynami (P I D) ha generated longitudinal data each year ince 1968 and the information it upplie on familie VOLUME

39, N



and individual during a troubled period of economic cri i and di location ha become a valuable national resource. The paper compiled here, repre enting a wide variety of approache and addre ing a range of que tion about life pattern and ocial change, are the re ult of a collective effort, initiated by the Council' Committee on Life-Cour e Per pective on Human D velopment, to apply its per pective to the PSID data archive. Each chapter provide valuable analy e of individual ubjects a well a an wer to numerou methodological que tion. The volume thu erve both a a model for the application of new technique to life-cour e analy i and a a et of guideline in u ing thi unparalleled data ource. The de ade of the 1960 gave birth to three developmen that have converged through tudie of life-cour e dynamic. Fir t, ocial di continuitie prompted new que tion regarding tie between the gen ration , hi torical influence , and life- pan de,路elopment. Out of thi intellectual context and rearch on aging came a rudimentary concept of a life cour e that i embedded in ocial in titution and ubject to hi torical force and cohort pre ure. econd, data re ource to match the need of thi approach-from longitudinal, panel, and follow-up samples-emerged, but their purpo e were often very different. One ca e in pint i the Michigan Panel tudy of Income Dynamic (P ID). E tabli hed in 1968 to addre I ue of poverty, the till active panel repre ents an unu ual ource of life-cour e analye . Third, technique of analy i appropriate to an evolving life cour ewer created from re earch on imple antecedent-outcome equence and complex cau al model to modified hola tic model and differential rate of change in trajectorie . By the end of the decade, the e develop men in theory, data, and method clearly anticipated the field of life-cour e dynami a we know it today. The pre ent collection of empirical tudie on lifecour e d nami draw upon each of the e developmen in varying degree , but with a common theme in the application of life-cour e concep to re earch u ing longitudinal record from the Michigan Panel. The archive i a product of one of the mo t ambitiou panel tudie ever launched in the United tate . E tabli hed at the end of the 1960 War on Poverty, the panel of more than 6,000 familie nationwide ha generated data each year from 1968 to the pr ent. orne 20,000 individual are involved. I eedle to ay, the Michigan Panel wa not de igned initially for the tudy of the life cour e or even for urvival beyond everal year. The volume wa

J . 1:


planned (a were the meeting on which it i ba ed) to implement uch work, while at the arne time, addre ing the trength and limitation of the approach and of the data et for uch work. The volume contain 11 chapter. The opening chapter, by Glen H. Elder, Jr., de cribe per p ctive on the life cour e, addre ing both life-cour e dynamic in hi torical context and central them in the tudy of trajectorie and tran ition . A econd introductory chapter, by Greg J. Duncan and Jame . Morgan, principal inve tigator of the P ID, provide an overvie\ of the tudy, de cribing i de ign and content. The next chapter, b ara McLanahan and age B. oren en, how that 10 even or tran Itlon are commonly regi tered a negative events in p ople' live , but it al 0 how that the p ychological effect varie according to circum tance , including the life tage at which thi event take place. A ingl life tran ition, uch a a udden 10 in income, appear to repre ent a relatively imple unit for tudy. But, in the following chapter, ue Augu tyniak and her colleague make clear that theoretical clarity i required to elect an appropriate de ign for e timating the p ychological effect of income change. tatu change of any ort pre en another analytical problem when it i confounded with a change in the compo ition of the panel. Jennifer la and her colleague , in the fifth chapter, examine the implication of a tatu change with attenuated p ychological effects and propo e a corrective adju tment regarding attrition problem -which ha general relevance to the pr blem of ample bia through attrition. The volume clo e with a micro copi view of tran ition in the aging proce (Alan hevan and Gordon utton) and in economic inequality Uohn Hedder on and Richard Harri ). A a whole, the chapter repre ent a wide diver ity of problem foci and analytic approache which may erve a both example and Ie on to learn from. orne of the author are bu ily engaged in the next tep or tage of a long-term project. It i hoped that the chapter will timulate more effective and innovati e u e of the Michigan Panel. The po ibilitie for re earch on life cour e dynamic are exciting, but u er hould be alert to the demanding nature of the archive and to the many potential nag along the way. To minimize uch problem, the volume include a valuable et of guideline and warning ignal prepared by the P ID taff-"A ummary of Crucial Points," Appendix A. Pro pective u er are well advi ed to read thi e ay along with the Morgan and Duncan chapter during the planning tage of their 21

re earch. The di cu ion of rucial points i drawn from a "U er Guide" that i currently available from th In titute for ocial R earch, Univer ity of Michigan. The contributor to the olume are: u Augu tyniak Paul B. Balte

Albert hevan Gr g J. Duncan Glen H. Elder, Jr. ara f Lanahan Jennifer GI Ri hard J . Harri John H dd ron andra Hofferth

Margi E. Lachman Ph IIi Moen Jam â&#x20AC;˘. Morgan Lonnie R. herrod K nn th R. mith age B. ren en Gordon F. utton

University of Michigan Max Planck In titute for Human Development and Education (Berlin) University of M sa hu etLS Unive it of Michigan University of orth Carolina Univ ity of Wi con in University of uthern lifornia University of T xas at an ntonio Univer ity of Texas at EI Paso nter for Population Re earch, ational In titute for hild Health and Human Developm nt Brandei University Cornell Univer ity In titute for Social Re ear h, Univer ity of Michigan ial ien e R earch Coun il Univer ity of Utah Harvard Univer ity Univer ity of M hu etLS

Revolution and Its Aftermath in Kampuchea: Eight Es ays, edited by David P. handler and Ben Kiernan. Paper from a project pon ored by the Joint mmittee on outhea t A ia. Monograph rie o. 25. ew Haven, onnecticut: Yale Univer ity outhea t A ia tudie, 1983. x + 325 page. Paper, 14.00. hi volume re ults from a D cember 1981 workhop and include revi ion of five of the original paper plu three p cially prepared e ay. The paper are ba ed on re earch in ambodia, inten ive interview ,ith refugee from the country, and a wide variety of documentary material. Although mo t fo u on the traumatic internal political and ocial event of the 1970, everal e ay deal with the prior p riod and with external influence . The volume clo e with an extended chronology of Khmer communi m, from 1940 to 1982, prepared by erge Thion. The author and their affiliation and topic are: Anthony Barnett, Tran national In titute (Am terdam) "Democratic Kampuchea: A Highly Centralized Di tator hip" Chanthou Boua, Praharan Language Centre (Melbourne, Victoria, Au tralia)


" bservations of the Heng amrin Government, 1 ~ 2" David P. handler, Mona h Univer ity .. eing Red : Perception of Cambodian Hi tory in Democratic Kampuchea" Ben Ki rnan, fona h Univer ity "Wild Chicken ,Farm hi ken , and CormoranLS: Kampuchea' Ea tern Zone nder Pol Pot" areth Porter, Wa hington, D.C. "Vietname e ommuni t Policy Toward Kampuchea. 1930-70" William hawcro ,London "Cambodia: m Perception of a Di a ter" erge Thion, Centre ational de la Recherche i ntifiqu (Pari) "The Cambodian Idea of Revolution" Michael Vickery, University of d laide "D mocrati Kampuchea: Theme and Variation"

Sociology and Anthropology in the People's Republic of China: Report of a Delegation Visit, February-March 1984, edited by Alice . Ro i. ponored by the Committee on cholarly Communication with the People' Republic of China. W hington, D.C.: ational Academy Pre ,1985. x + 161 page. Paper, 3.00 for po tage and handling. Thi i the report of a delegation of 10 American ocial cienti ts who vi ited China to urvey the tatu of ociology and anthropology. The delegation wa elected and pon red by the Committee on cholarly Communication with the People' Republic of China (C CPRC), which i jointly pon ored by the Council, the American ouncil of Learned ieties, and the ational cademy of cience. ix member of the delegation were ociologi (the chair, Alice . Ro i, Univer ity of Ma achu etts; the taff e cort from the C CPRC, Amy Auerbacher Wil on; the delegation interpreter, Jer ey Liang, Wayne State Univer ity (now Univer ity of Michigan); Nan Lin, tate Univer ity of New York, Albany; William L. Pari h, Univer ity of Chicago; and helby tewman, Carnegie-Mellon Univer ity). Four member repre ented anthropology (Emily Martin, The John Hopkin Univer ity; Mar hall Sahlin, Univerity of Chicago; Carol A. mith, Duke Univer ity; and William S-Y Wang, Univer ity of California, Berkeley, who i a peciali t in lingui tics). The delegation wa ho ted in Beijing by the Chine e Academy of the ocial cience (CA ), while the Mini try of Education erved a the pon or of the delegation' vi its to the other five citie on i lOunerary: Tianjin, Wuhan, hanghai, Xiamen, and Guangzhou. The report begin with a brief ketch of the major VOLUME




turning points in the 35-year hi tory of the People' Republic of China, a nece ar context to an undertanding of the contemporar tatu of both ociology and ocial anthropology in China. Three year after the revolution, in 1952, ociology wa bani hed a the hine e adapted the oviet model in higher education. Anthropology urvived a ethnology, phy ical anthropology, or archeology but underwent the am bani hment in its ocial and cultural pecialtie a ociology. ociology wa re to red a a ocial cience di ipline in 1979; while anthropology wa gi en om recognition in the arne year, i revival i proceeding at a much lower pace. hi long hiatu of 27 year during which the e two ial cience had no offi ial tatu ha had a profound impact on man aspects of the di cipline a they were encountered by the delegation. The fir t chapter of the report review the national g al and tatu of contemporary ociology and anthropology in China and conclude that for the immediate future their tatu eem ecure. Chapter 2 de. crib the ocial organization and the in titutional framework of ociology and anthropology in hina, in which many univer itie , departments, and in titute are de cribed in orne detail. Chapter 3 review contemporary re earch in the two di cipline . The iology ection of the chapter contain review of current re earch on marriage and the family; aging; crime and delinquency; gender; infancy and childhood; urbanization; and rural conomic reform . The anthropology ection re ie\ lingui ti and the exten ive re earch on national minoritie , a major ~ u. hapter 4 contain a large number of concrete ugge tion for improved and expanded future nited tates-China exchange in ociology and anthropology.

A Guide to University-based Graduate Training Programs in Soviet International Behavior. Prepared under the au pice of the ubcommittee on oviet Foreign Policy tudie of the Joint Committee on oviet tudie. New York: ocial cience Re earch Council, March 1985.35 page. Paper, free. Available from the Council.




Th univer lue Ii ted in thi guide were elected on the ba is of di cu ion with both cholar in the field and repre entative of univer itie offering graduate program in Ru ian and oviet tudi . few univer itie indicated that-while the extent of their program did not warrant being included in the guide thi year-they were hopeful that developments at their in titution would enable them to augment their program in the near future. It i the intention of the Joint Committee on oviet tudi that thi guide be updated annually and expanded to include other in titution offering comprehen ive program in oviet foreign policy tudie. The univer itie who graduate training program are de cribed are the V niver ity of California, Berkeley; the Univer ity of California, Lo Angele lRand Graduate In titute; Columbia Univer ity; eorgetown Univer ity; Harvard Univer ity; The John Hopkin Univer ity; the Univer ity of Illinoi ; Indiana Univer ity; the Univer ity of Kan a ; the Univer ity of Michigan; Princeton Univer ity; tanford Univer ity; the Univer ity of Virginia; eorg Wa hington Univer ity; and the Univer ity of Wa hington. The Joint Committee on oviet tudie wa appointed in January 1983 by the Council and the American ouncil of Learned ocietie in re pon e to mluaUve from, and after exten ive con ultation with, cholar repre nting the communitie of lavi and oviet tudie. I central charge i the developm nt of the field of Ru ian and 0 iet tudie in i broade t en e: the timulation of re earch, the recruitment and training of new talent, and the trengthening of cholarly re ource . The 1984-85 memb r hip of the ubcommittee on Foreign Policy tudie i Robert Legvold, Columbia Univer ity, chair; Lawrence T. Caldwell, Occidental ollege; Arnold Horelick, Rand Corporation ( anta Monica, California); tephen Meyer, Ma achu et In titute of Technology; Mar hall hulman, Columbia Univer ity; and William Zimmerman, IV, Uni erity of Michigan. Blair A. Ruble erve a taff.


- - -------- -

Fellowships and Grants for International Research Awarded in 1985 CONTENTS 24


Africa, China, Easttrn Europt, Japan, Korta, Latin Amtrica and tht Caribbtan, tht Ntar and MiddLt East, outh Asia, outhtast A ia, tht ovitt Union, Wt ttrn Europt 27



Africa, China, Easttrn Europt, Japan, Korta, Latin Amtrica and tht Caribbtan, tht Ntar and MiddLt East, outh Asia, outhtast Asia, Indochina tudit

Vidrovitch, jane I. Guyer, Bennetta W. jules-Ro ette, Ivan Karp, Fa i1 G. Kiros, Thandika Mkandawire, V.Y. Mudimbe, Paul Rie man, Harold Scheub, and Michael J. Watts-at its meeting on March 22-24, 1985. The committee was as i ted in the election proces by the Screening Committee-Chri topher Davi -Roberts, T. Dunbar Moodie, Chri topher D. Roy, Kathleen A. Staudt, and H. Leroy Vail. Martha A. Gephart and Su an A. Warga erved a taff for thi program. CATHERINE M. BOONE, Ph.D. candidate in political cience, Ma achu etts In titute of Technology, for re earch in enegal and France on dome tic politic and the implementation of tructural adju tment program : the ca e of the Senegale e textile indu try WUNYABARI O.P.W. MALOBA, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, tan ford Univer ity, for re earch in Kenya and the United Kingdom on the Mau Mau revolt in Kenya STEPHEN M. PECK, jR., Ph.D. candidate in Romance language and literature and lingui tics, Univer ity of California, Lo Angele, for re earch in Senegal on the noun phra e in Ca amance Kriol A TO Ro E THAL, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Univer ity of Minne ota, for re earch in Ecuador, Zambia, and Zimbabwe on railroad and the org~n.izatio.n of work !n Ecuador and Zambia, 1905-1950 Uomt WIth the Laun America and Caribbean program) ELLE SIEBER, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Indiana University, for archeolo:r路cal re earch in Nigeria on tate formation in Hau alan

THESE PAGES Ii t the name , affiliation , and topics of the individual who were awarded fellow hip or grants by Council committee in the mo t recent annual competition . The e award for internatiqnal re earch in the ocial cience and humanitie were made by committee jointly pon ored by the Council and the American Council of Learned Societie (ACLS). The e award program are upported by grants from the Ford Foundation, the National Endowment for the Humanitie , and the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation. Additional funding for the China, Soviet Union, and Latin America and Caribbean program i provided by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation; for the japan po tdoctoral program by the japan-United tate Friend hip Commi ion; and for the We tern Europe predoctoral program by the French-American Foundation. The Indochina tudie Program i upported by grants from the CHI A Ford Foundation, the Henry Luce Foundation, and the The Grant election Committee of the joint Committee National Endowment for the Humanitie . Partial funding on Chine e tudie (ad mini tered by the American Council for Ea t European po tdoctoral grants i obtained from of Learned ocietie )-jack L. Dull (chair), Thoma P. the Department of tate under the oviet and Ea t Euro- Bern tein, Myron L. Cohen, Philip C. Haung, Nichola R. pean Re earch and Training Act of 1983 (Title VIII). Lardy, Su an Naquin, Wei-ming Tu, and Pauline YuUnle it i pecifically noted that a program i ad mini - voted during the year to award fellow hip to the following tered by the AC ,the program listed are admini tered individual. ja on H. Parker and Helen Gold mith erved by the Council. a taff for thi program. In the admini tration of its fellow hip and grant program, the Council doe not di criminate on the ba i of BETTINE BIRGE, Ph.D. candidate in Ea t A ian language age, color, creed, di ability, marital tatus, national origin, and culture, Columbia Univer ity, for re earch on or ex. women in Sung China The programs change omewhat every year, and in- JOSEPH Bo CO, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Columbia Univer ity, for re earch on ocial and economic organiterested cholar hould write to the Council for a copy of zation and change in Wan-tan: rural industrialization in the current brochure. a Taiwane e town hip DAVID j. PAL MBo-LI , Ph.D. candidate in comparative literature, Univer ity of California, Berkeley, for reINTERNATIONAL DOCTORAL earch on Huang Tingjian' poetic of appropriation and RESEARCH FELLOW HIP its relation to We tern literary hi tory AFRICA A GELA Yu-YUN SHENG, Ph.D. candidate in Oriental tudie, Univer ity of Penn ylvania, for re earch on The following di ertation fellow hip were awarded by Chine e textile development in the 13th century the joint Committee on African Studies-Allen F. I aac- JOANNA WALLEY-COHEN, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Yale man (chair), Thoma J. Bier teker, Catherine CoqueryUniver ity, for re earch on exile in mid-Ch'ing China



OPE Committee on Ea tern Europe (ad mini tered crican Council of Learned ocietie )---Ed A. H \\ U ( I.rir), Daniel Chirot, Melvin Croan,Jan T. Gro , Keith A. Hitchin , Ken Jowitt, Gail Kligman, Harold B. Segel, and Gale tokes-voted at its meeting on May 10, 19 5, to award fellowship to the following individual. Jason H. Parker and Helen Gold mith erve a taff for thi program. I. 1

JOH. orr B CHANAN, graduate tudent in hi tory, Yale Univer ity, for training in Ea t European tudie. PIOTRj. DROZDOW KI, Ph.D. candidate in lavic language, Univer ity of orth Carolina, for research on Karol Ir· zykow ki' Paluba ALICE FREIFELD, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Univer ity of California, Berkeley, for re earch on large crowd gatherings in Hungary, 1860-World War I PIOTR GORECKI, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, University of Chicago, for re earch on ocial tratification and the origin of lord hip and tenure in early medieval Poland JOA. 'F. OVEN, graduate tudent in political cience, University of California, Berkeley, for training in Hungarian tudie VUONI M. K N, Ph.D. candidate in economi ,Univer· ity of California, Berkeley, for re earch on the effec of the Hungarian economic reform on energy-demand management. . fARTH L MPLAND, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Univer ity of Chicago, for re earch on the character of agrarian change in a Hungarian community, 1918-1983 IRI. A LIVEZEANU, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Univer ityof Michigan, for re earch on the politic of culture in greater Romania, 1918-1939 DA IEL E. MILLER, graduate tudent in hi tory, Univer ity of Pit burgh, for training in Czecho lovakian tudie zo·lf ZELENYI, Ph.D. candidate in ociology, Univer ity of Wi con in, for re earch on a cro -national comparion of the po ition of women in Hungary and the United tate . A. 'CY M. WINGFIELD, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Columbia Univer ity, for re earch on udeten-German ocial Democratic politic in the interwar period JAPA Under the program pon ored by the Joint Committee on Japane e tudie, the ubcommittee on Grants for Re earch-Gary R. axonhou e (chair), L. Keith Brown, Carol Gluck, u an B. Hanley, u an j. Pharr, Barbara Ruch, Patricia G. teinhoff, and Janet A. Walkerrecommended at its meeting on February 15, 1985, that award be made to the following individual . Theodore C. Be tor and uzanne S. ichol erve a taff for thi program. ROBERT B. CAMPBELL, Ph.D. candidate in Ea t A ian Ian· guage and civilization, Harvard Univer ity, for reearch on fiction and cntici m in the late Tokugawa period THOM E. KEIR TE D, Ph.D. candidate in history, tanford Univer ity, for re earch on the decline of the Men in medieval Japan CHRI TOPHER A. REICHL, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, U niver ity of Iowa, for re earch on the ocial networks of recent Japane e immigrants in ao Paulo J



KEVIN M. HORT, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, tanford Univer ity, for re earch on government policy and the effects of ocioeconomic change on Japane e coa tal fi hermen KOREA The Joint Committee on Korean Studies-Jo eph Chung, Michael C. Kalton, Laurel Kendall, Han-kyo Kim, Hagen Koo, S. Robert Ram ey, and Edward W. Wagnervoted at its meeting on February 1, 1985, to award fellowhip to the following individual . Theodore C. Be tor and Suzanne S. ichol erve as taff for thi program. OON Kyo G CHO, Ph.D. candidate in ociology, Univer· ity of California, Berkeley, for re earch on export· onented indu trialization in the Republic of Korea A NG-HI LEE, Ph.D. candidate in Ea t A ian language and culture, Columbia Univer ity, for research on the 20th century noveli t Yi Kwang-Su LATI AMERICA A D THE ARIBBEAN The following fellow hip were awarded by the International Doctoral Re earch Fellow hip election Committee for Latin America and the Caribbean-Chri topher Mitchell (chair), Margaret Crahan, Elizabeth Garrel, hane Hunt, Grant Jones-at its meeting on March 1, 1985. The election Committee wa a i ted by the creening Committee-Douglas H. Graham, Norma Klahn, Barbara B. tailings, Eric Van Young, and Kay Warren. Joan Da in, Diana De G. Brown, and Maria One tini erved a taff for thi program. C RLO ACUNA, Ph.D. candidate in political cience, Uni· ver ity of Chicago, for r earch 10 Ar~entina on the political and organizational practice of mdu trial bu ine organization, 1963-1983 ENRIQ E DE LA PIEDRA, Ph.D. candidate in economi , Bo ton V niver ity, for re earch in Peru on the role of the urban informal ector in income di tribution A G TO DE LA TORRE, Ph.D. candidate in economics, Univer ity of Notre Dame, for re earch in Ecuador on the effects of the petroleum boom on different ector of the Ecuadorian economy ROMOLO GANDOLFO, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Yale Univer itr., for re earch in Argentina on the adju tment and a imllation into Argentine ociety of the Italian immigrant elite L RA GRAHAM, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Univerity of Texa ,for re earch in Brazil on the relation hip of mythic and hi toric narrative to its cultural and ituational conte t in havante ociety MARiA DEL PILAR ROM G ERA, Ph.D. candidate in economics, Bo ton Univer ity, for re earch in Chile on the factors that cau e wage differential in the Chilean manufacturing ector ANTO Ro E THAL, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Univer ity of Minne ota, for re earch in Ecuador, Zambia, and Zimbabwe on railroad and the organization of work in Ecuador and Zambia, 1905-1950 (joint with the Africa program) KAREN ANUDO, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, New York Univer ity, for rc carch in Ecuador and Spain on the pattern and con equences of Indian migration in colonial Ecuador, 1534- 1690 25

ALBERT Vo RVO LIAS, Ph.D. candidate in political cience, Yale Univer ity, for re earch in uatemala on the ocial ba e and political trategy of the Movement of National Liberation

ZANNE A. BREN ER, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Cornell Univer ity, for re earch on entrepreneur. hip and trade in the batik indu try of urakarta, Indone ia POR P F TRAK L, Ph.D. candidate in the hi tory of art, Cornell Univer ity, for re earch in Thailand on the environmental hi tory of provincial town in the Bangkok NE R A D MIDDLE EAST period, 1782-1933 The following di ertation fellow hip were awarded by LA RA L. J KER, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology at the Univer ity of Michigan, for re earch on the development the Joint Committee on the ear and Middle Ea t-Peter of long-di tance trade and the evolution of lowland von iver (chair), Leonard Binder, Eric Davi , Abdellah Philippine ocietie Hammoudi, Michael C. Hud on, uad Jo eph, Afaf Lutfi MOLLY A. Mc AMARA, Ph.D. candidate in mu icology, We leyan Univer ity, for re earch in Java on larlgtnal- ayyid Mar ot, Alan R. Richard , and John Waterdriyan, a court dance in which both male and female roles bury-at it meeting on March 1-3, 1985. P. Nikare danced by women iforo Diamandouro and Bridget Gibbon erved a LE LIE A. MORRI , Ph.D. candidate in antbropology, Unitaff for the program. ver ity of Wa hington, for re earch on Prote tanti m in central Java KHALID A. BLA KI IIIP, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Uni10 ver ity of Wa hington, for re earch in Turkey on the OVIET political environment of the Umayyad tate hortly beThe following di ertation fellow hip were awarded by fore it fall MIRIAM R. LOWI, Ph.D. candidate in politi ,Princeton the Joint Committee on oviet tudies-Gail War hof ky Univer ity, for re earch in I rael, Jordon, and Lebanon Lapidu (chair),Jo eph Berliner, eweryn Bialer, Katerina on the political economy of water under condition of Clark, tephen F. Cohen, Donald Fanger, Edward L. carcity and conflict Keenan, Robert Legvold, Herbert . Levine, and Leon KIREN A. CHA DHRY, Ph.D. candidate in government, Harvard Univer ity, for re earch in Iraq, audia Arabia. Lip on-at its meeting on January 18, 1985. Blair A. Ruble Yemen, and the United Kingdom on the effects of labor and Kri ten Antelman erve a taff for thi program. remittance and oil rent on tate tructure

so TH A IA The following di ertation fellow hip were awarded by the Joint Committee on outh A ia-Bernard . Cohn (chair), Pranab K. Bardhan, Ronald J. Herring, Barbara S. Miller, Harold . Power, orman T. Uphoff, and u an . Wadley-at its meeting on March 13-14, 1985. David L. zanton and Carolle Ruppert erved a taff for thi program. HAIUH R P. ACHARYA, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Cornell Univer ity, for re earch in epal on fore t management trategie TEPHE. L. MIKESELL, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Univer ity of Wi con in, for re earch in Nepal on the role of the tate and the market in the hi torical development of relation between farmer and arti an TACY L. PJ(;(;, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Cornell Univer ity, for re earch in epal on illne s and curing in plurali t medical etting MICH EL D. WOOST, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Univer ity of Texa , Austin, for re earch on image of the nation and the community in a ri Lankan village SO THEAST SIA The following di ertation fellow hip were awarded by the Joint ommittee on outhea t A ia-John R.W. mail (chair), helly Errington, Gillian P. Hart, Mary R. Hollnteiner, Charles F. Keyes, David Marr, Chai-anan amudvanija, and Ruth T. McVey-at its meeting on March 17-20, 1985. David L. zanton and Carolle Ruppert erved a taff for thi program.


RI HARD D. A DER O. JR., Ph.D. candidate in political cience, Univer ity of California, Berkeley, for a di ertation on the explanation of oviet intervention deci ion in Afghani tan, Czecho lavakia, and Poland. RICHARD H. BIDLA K, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Indiana Univer ity, for a di ertation on the role of factor worker in the iege of Leningrad PA LA. HOLLI G WORTH, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Univer ity of California, Berkeley, for a di ertation on kinghip and uffering in Kievan Ru : the cult of Bori and Gleb DAVID M. McDo ALD, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Columbia Univer ity, for a di ertation on autocracy, bureaucracy, and change in the formation of Ru ian foreign policy, 190~1914 DAVID M. TEl BERG, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Univerity of California, Berkele , for a di ertation on ocial con ciou ne and ocial conflict in the Ru ian printing indu try, 1861-1917 WE TERN E ROPE The following di ertation re earch fellow hip were awarded by the Joint Committee on We tern Europe-Philippe C. hmitt r (chair), Arnaldo Bagna co, Peter A. Gourevitch, Victoria de Grazia, Gudmund Herne, Peter J. Katzen tein, Charle . Maier, Victor Perez-Diaz, Rayna Rapp, Charle F. abel, Fritz W. harpf, and L. J. Sharpe - at its meeting on March 15, 1985. They were a i ted by the reening Committee - Herrick E. Chapman, John Chioles, Judith Chubb, G~ ta E ping-Ander en, Jan E. Gold tein, Peter T. Schneider, Joep Upton, and teven B. Webb. P. Nikiforo Diamandouro and Chri tina Dragonetti erve a taff for thi program. VOL ME 39, NUMBER 1/2

FELIPE AG " ERO, Ph.D. candidate in political cience, Duke Univer ity, for re earch in pain on the a ertion of civilian upremacy in po tauthoritarian contex . fARIE Bo TIE, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Univerity of California, Berkeley, for re earch in the Azore on the o-called .. tumbling di ea e" among Azorean Portugue e JOH. I. BROOK, III, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Univer ity of Chicago, for re earch in France on the figurative language of Durkheim, Janet, and Berg on and the metaphorical origin of fin-de- iecle France GORG' CATIELO A, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Indiana Univer ity, for re earch in France on the hOpitaux of Aix-en-Provence and Mar eille and the regulation of dome tic morality in prerevolutionary France, 16 ~ 1780 A. ''1A K. CLARK, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Rutger Univer ity, for re earch in the United Kingdom on popular morality and gender in London, 178~ 1845 AllE I. FElDMA , Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, ew chool for ocial Re earch, for re earch In Northern Ireland on the oral hi tory of the culture of in urgency and counterin urgency HEIDI KELLEY, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Univerity of Wa hington, for re earch in pain on the female con truction of elf-image in coa tal Galicia THOMA A. KOElBlE, Ph.D. candidate in political cience, Univer ity of California, an Diego, for re earch in Germany and the United Kingdom on the truggle for power over party rule in the Briti h Labor Party and the German ocial Democratic Party WllUAM M. K H ,Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, The John Hopkin Univer ity, for re earch in the United Kingdom on the theory and practice of monarchy, 1861-1901 JOH fAil, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, tanford Univerity, for re earch in the United Kingdom on the ocial environment of indu trialization in Halifax and Ro endale, 165~ 1750 Rua A C. TEFA IAK, Ph .D. candidate in hi tory of art, Univer ity of California, Berkeley, for re earch in Italy on 16th century Roman garden SA E. THOR E, Ph .D. candidate in hi tory, Univer ityof Michigan, for re earch in the United Kingdom on foreign mi ionary ocietie and the formation of imperiali t ideology, 1850- 1914

ZA E PRE TON BUER, a i tant profe or of art hi tory and archeology, Columbia Univer ity, for re earch in Benin, Denmark, France, witzerland, the United Kingdom, and We t Germany on Fon ae thetic expre ion and ocial experience a reflected in the art of a emblage MBYE B. CHAM, a i tant profe or of African tudie, Howard Univer ity, for re earch in France, enegal, and the United tate on the relation hip among the arti t, tate, and ociety, and the role of culture in po tcolonial African development JA fE G. FERG 0 , Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Harvard Univer ity, for re earch in Zambia on the organization of mine labor in the Zambian copperbelt ROBt.RT j. ORDO " a i tant profe or of anthropology, U niver ity of Vermont, for re earch in outh Africa and the United Kingdom on an ethnohi tory of the Bu hmen in outhern Africa JEA E KOOPMAN HE ,a i tant profe or of economic, orthea tern Univer ity, for re earch in Cameroon on con traint on food production and marketing HAROLD G. MARC , profe or of hi tory and African tudie, Michigan tate Univer ity, for re earch in Ethiopia on the hi tory of modern Ethiopia, 150~ pre ent RANDALL M. P CKARD, a ociate profe or of hi tory, Tufts Univer ity, for re earch in outh Africa on indu trialization, rural poverty, and tuberculo i in outhern Africa CAROLYN H RFORD Pt.REZ, Ph.D. candidate in lingui tic , Univer ity of Wi con in, for re earch in Kenya on the yntax of Tharaka H . LEROY VAIL, a ociate profe or of hi tory, Harvard Univer ity, for re earch in Malawi, the United Kingdom, and Zambia on the hi tory of pirit po e ion in Malawi and Zambia Ro ALD WEITZER, Ph.D. candidate in ociology, Univer ity of California, Berkeley, for re earch in the United tate on the euler tate, political tability, and human rights in Liberia and Zimbabwe CHI A

The Grants election Committee of the Joint Committee on Chine e tudie (admini tered by the American Council of Learned ocietie )-Jack L. Dull (chair), Thoma P. Bern tein, Myron L. Cohen, Philip C. Huang, GRANT FOR INTER ATIONAL ichola R. Lardy, u an aquin, Wei-ming Tu, and PO TD CTORAL RE EARCH Pauline Yu-awarded during the year grants to the folAFRICA lowing individual in the categoric Ii ted. Ja on H. Parker and Helen old mith erved a taff for thi program. The following pO tdoctoral re earch grant were awarded by the Joint Committee on African tudiesAllen F. I aacman (chair), Thoma j. Bier teker, Catherine Rt tarch in Chint t tudit oquery-Vidrovitch, Jane I. Guyer, Bennetta W. Jule Ro ette, Ivan Karp, Fa il G. Kiro ,Thandika Mkandawire, HOK-LAM CHA , profe or of hi tory, Univer ity of Wa hV.Y. Mudimbe, Paul Rie man, Harold cheub, and ington, for re earch on Chine e ociety under Jurchen rule, 1115-1234 ~fichael j. Watts-at its meeting on March 22-24, 1985. W. 0 TH COBU ,a i tant profe or of Chine e language ~fartha A. Gephart and u an A. Warga erved a taff for and literature, Univer ity of Iowa, for re earch on old thi program. Tibetan in cription DEBORAH DAVI -FRIEDMA ,a ociate profe or of ociology, Yale Univer ity, for re earch on the evolving opGERALD J. BENDER, a ociate profe or of political cience, portunity tructure of contemporary China School of International Relation, Univer ity of outhern California, for re earch in Angola, Mozambique, PHILIP C. C. HAG, profe or of hi tory, Univer ity of California, Lo Angeles, for re earch on the pea ants in South Africa, and the United State on uperpower Jiangnan' changing political economy competition in outhern Africa


t. 1985


THEODORE HUTER , a ociate profe or of Chine e literature, Univer ity of Minne ota, for re earch on the influence of the Qing dyna ty theorie of writing on the development of modern Chine e literature PA L W. KROLL, a ociate profe or of Chine e language and literature, Univer ity of Colorado, for re earch on revelation found in ver e and ong of tran cendence in medieval Taoi m HOWARD J. WE H LER, profe or of hi tory and A ian tudies, U niver ity of IIIinoi, for re earch on the Chine e capital of Chang'an during the Tang dyna ty CH N-F . c. Y , a ociate profe or of religion, Rutger Univer ity, for re earch on the cult of Kuan-in and P'u-t'o a a pilgrimage center Mellon Re earch and Training Fellow hip for Young China cho/aT.

J D1TH M. BOLTZ, Ph.D. candidate in Oriental language , Univer ity of California, Berkeley, for re earch on Chine e martial lord: popular image in rituali tic, hagiographic, and narraUve tradition Ht;LE R. CHAU CY, a i tant profe or of hi tory, Georgetown Univer ity, for re earch on elite ociety in rural republican Jiang u at the local and tate level K TIILYN LI COMB, in tructor in art hi tory and ae theti , The chool of the Art In titute of Chicago, for re earch on the cience and self-realization in the painting and art theory of Wang Lu JOH R. McRAE, visiting lecturer in religion, Princeton Univer ity, for re earch on the Hung-chou chool of Ma-tsu Tao-i (709-788) and hi follower JEA C. 01, a i tant profe or of government, Lehigh Univer ity, for re earch on communi m and c1ienteli m: the changing character of rural politic in China HAROLD D. ROTH, vi iting in tructor, School of Oriental and African Studie , Univer ity of London, for re earch on a modern critical edition of the Huai-nan Tzu JA let. E. TOCKARD, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, tanford Univer ity, for re earch on delayed tran fer marriage in the Lingnan macroregion R. BIN WONG, adjunct a i tant profe or of hi tory, Univer ity of Michigan, for re earch on economic thought in late imperial China Mellon Program in Chine e tudie China Conference Travel Grant

The following award were made by an ad hoc election committee of the Joint Committee on Chine e tudie. To attend a conference on ino-Japane e relation, on the 90th anniver ary of the ino-Japane e War, Dalien, eptember 10-16, 1984 AM EI. C. CH , profe or of hi tory, Ohio tate Univer ity To attend the econd United tates-China writer' conference on "The ource of a Writer' Creativity," Beijing, October 21-23, 1984 E. PICRRY LI K, JR., profe or of Chine e, Univer ity of California, Lo Angele To attend the third annual meeting of the A ociation of Song Dyna ty Stu die , Hangzhou, October 22-28, 1984 28

J I G- HE TAO, profes or of Oriental tudie, U niver ity of Arizona To attend a ympo ium on the hi torical re earch on un Yatsen, Guangzhou, November 20-26, 1984 ER E T P. Yo NG, profe or of hi tory, University of Michigan To attend the fifth convention of the Chine e P ychology ociety, Beijing, December 3-8, 1984 CARL RATNER, profe or of p ychology, California tate Univer ity, Humboldt To attend a ympo ium on outh Chine e anthropology, Guangzhou, December 11-16, 1984 E GE E COOPER, as i tant profe or of anthropology, Univer ity of outhern California GREGORY E. G LDI , a ociate profe or of anthropology, Pacific Lutheran Univer ity To attend an international ympo ium to review tudie on un Yatsen, Chou H ien, March 22-28, 1985 F. GILBERT CHAN, profe or of hi tory, Miami Univer ity HAROLD Z. CHIFFRIN, profe or of Chine e studie and ociology, The Hebrew Univer ity of Jeru alem To attend an international ympo ium on the hi tory of the Song dyna ty, Hangzhou, May 14-18, 1985 RICHARD L. DAVI , a i tant profe or of hi tory, Duke Univer ity PATRICIA EBREY, a ociate profe or of hi tory, Univer ity of IIIinoi JAME M. HARGETT, as i tant profe or of Oriental language and literature, Univer ity of Colorado, Boulder BRIA E. McK IGHT, profes or of hi tory, Univer ity of Hawaii CHARLES A. PETER ON, profe or of hi tory and A ian tudie , Cornell Univer ity To attend a conference on Liao and Jin hi tory, Changchun, Augu t 1985 HOK-LAM CHA , profe or of Chine e hi tory, Univer ity of Wa hington l.ASTERN E ROPE The Joint Committee on Ea tern Europe (admini tered by the American Council of Learned Societie )-Ed A. Hewett (chair), Daniel Chirot, Melvin Croan, Jan T. Gro , Keith A. Hitchins, Ken Jowitt, Gail Kligman, Harold B. egel, and Gale Stokes-voted at its meeting on May 10, 1985, to award grants to the following individual . Ja on H. Parker and Helen Gold mith erve a taff for thi program. ROBERT E. BLOBAUM, a I tant profe or of hi tory, We t Virginia Univer ity, for re earch on the revolution of 1905 in the kingdom of Poland MICHAEL B. BECKERMA , a i tant profe or of mu ie, Wa hington University, St. Loui , for re earch on the theoretical work of Leo路 Janacek JOH P. B RKETT, a i tant profe or of economic, Univer ity of Rhode I land, for re earch on covariance tructure model of Ea t European economie DAVID A. FRICK, a i tant profes or of Poli h language and VOLUME 39, Nu



re, Univer ity of Calilornia, Berkeley, for reon Poli h acred philology in the Reformation Counter-Reformation . FRIEDMAN, profe or of lavic and Balkan lanand lingui ti ,Univer ity of orth Carolina, for I h on a comparative grammar of Balkan verbal categone GEORGE GIBIA ,profe or of Ru ian and Czech literature, Cornell Univer ity, for re earch on Czech journali min the 1930 concerning refugee from azi Germany ROBERT McBETH HAYDE ,project director, American Bar Foundation (Chicago), for re earch on worker' courts and worker' rights in Yugo lavia D VID M. KEMME, a i tant profe or of economic, Univer ity of North Carolina, Green boro, for re earch on macroeconomic di equilibrium in centrally-planned economie JOH H. KOMLO , po tdoctoral fellow, The Population Center, Univer ity of North Carolina, for re earch on nutrition and economic development of the Hap burg monarchy during the 18th century RADO lIR V. L ZA, profe or of hi tory, Tulane Univer ity, for re earch on the Czech re i tance at home, 19391945. MICHAEL PETROVI H, Evjue-Ba com profe or of hi tory, Univer ity of Wi con in, for re earch on Croatian humani t in Renai ance Europe, ca. 1400-1600 ARLE E AKIKO TER OKA, a i tant profe or of German literature, Univer ity of Wa hington, for re earch on coloniali m, imperiali m, and the Third World revolution a portrayed in Ea t German dramatic literature JAPA

to the following individual . Theodore C. Be tor and uzanne S. ichol erve as taff for thi program. BR

E G. C MI G , a ociate profe or of international tudie , Univer ity of Wa hington, for re earch on the origin of the Korean War F ~IY KAWA HIMA, a ociate profe or of hi tory, Bowling Green tate Univer ity, for research on the ocialorigin and ideologie of local aristocra during the Yi dyna ty LINDA . L~\ 1 ,re earcher in anthropology, ew York, for preparauon of a manu cript on meditation and judicial proce in Korean courts DAVID R. MCCA ,adjunct as i tant profe or of A ian tudie , Cornell Univer ity, for preparation of a manucript on the tructural feature of vernacular ver e form in traditional Korea DOH C. HI ,a ociate profe or of political cience, angamon tate Univer ity, for re earch on the quality of Korean life in comparative per pective CLARK W .. OREN. E ,~ i tant profe or of anthropology, VanderbIlt Umver Ity, for re earch on modernization and the farm family in 20th century Korea LATI AMERICA A D THE ARIBBEAN The Joint Committee on Latin American Studies-Jorge Balan, John Coatsworth, Bori Fau to, Nohra Rey de Marulanda, Adam Przewor ki, aul 0 now ki, Stanley J. tein, Arturo Warman, and Kate Young-at its meeting on March 28-30, 1985, awarded grants to the following individual. Joan Da in, Diana De G. Brown, and Maria One tini erved a taff for thi program.

Under the program pon ored by the joint Committee on japane e tudie, the ubcommittee on Grants for HUGO A H G R, a ociate profe or of Spani h, Northwe tern Univer ity, for re earch in Uruguay on the Re earch-Gary R. axonhou e (chair), L. Keith Brown, relation hip between avant-garde literature in Uruguay Carol Gluck, u an B. Hanley, Su an J. Pharr, Barbara and the political tran formational of Pre identjo e Batlle Ruch, Patricia G. teinhoff, and janet A. Walker-recomy Ordonez' ocial reform program, 1915-1933 mended at i meeting on February 15, 1985, that award JORGE AGUILAR MORA, a I tant profe or of Spani h, Unibe made to the following individual . Theodore C. Be tor ver ity of Maryland, for re earch in Mexico on the diver e elements that compri e the hi tory of the Mexican and uzanne . Nichol erve a taff for thi program. revolution JOA DAYAN, a i tant profe or of EngH h, Yale Univerity, tor re earch in Jamaica, Haiti, Martinique, and JOH W. DOWER, profe or of hi tory, Univer ity of Wi Trinidad on the attempt by five Caribbean poets to concon in, for re earch on policy making in Occupied truct a new poetic language out of the lingui tic and japan, 1945-1952. ideological components of the dominant European culS A MATI OFF, a ociate prole or of japane e, Stanford ture Univer ity, for re earch on the modern trace of PETER EVA ,profe or of ociology, Brown Univer ity, for medieval ekkyo-bushi ( ermon ballad ) re earch in Brazil and the United tate on indu trial T.J. PEMPEL, profe or of government, Cornell Univer ity, organization, corporate trategie ,and tate policy in the (or comparative re earch on one-party dominance in U. . computer indu try and the implication for the Italy, japan, and weden Brazilian computer indu try MARIA B. URY a ociate profe or of Oriental language , MARiA DEL CARMEN FEIJOO, a ociate re earcher, Center Univer ity of California, Davi , for re earch on the life tor Studie of tate and Society (CEDE ), for re earch in and work of Oe No Masafu a (1041-1111) Argentina on nei~hborhood ocial movements in the ALA . WOLFE, a i tant profe or of japane e, Univer ity Greater Bueno Alre area of Oregon, for re earch on japane e writer of revolt CARME FLOREZ, profe or of economic, Univer ity of the and the buraiha movement, 1945-1948 Ande , Bogota, for re earch in Colombia on the effect of marriage practice on declining birth rate in Bogota KOREA during the recent demographic tran ition J A CARLOS GARAVAGLIA, profe or of hi tory, MetThe Joint Committee on Korean Studies-Jo eph S. ropolitan Autonomou Univer ity of Mexico (UAM), for Chung, Michael C. Kalton, Laurel Kendall, Han-kyo Kim, re earch in Mexico and pain on economic production relation in the Tepeaca region of Mexico from the Hagen Koo, . Robert Ram ey, and Edward W. Wagnermid-18th to the mid-19th century voted at it meeting on February I, 1985, to award grants J

E 1985


ALVARO JAR ,profe or of hi tory, Univer ity of Chile, for re earch in pain on the royal accounts of the pani h Empire in Peru, 1531-1579 KRI TI E Jo. E, a i tant profe or of hi tory, Bowdoin College, for re earch in Argentina, Chile, and France on the tran formation in Tran -Cordilleran trading network in the 19th century LI DA KAMA ,a i tant profes or of economi ,Welle ley College, for re earch In the United tate on xchange rate policy in Mexico and its effect on the 1982 Mexican debt cri i and the ub equent tabilization program RAMIRO M TO. , profe or of archeology, an Marco Univer ity, Lima, for archeological re earch in Peru on Inca engineering practice M RIA HELE MOREIRA ALVE , lecturer in American tudie , Univer ity of Manche ter, for re earch in Brazil, anada, and the United tate on labor union and working condition of the automobile indu try in Brazil, CaJlada, weden, the United Kingdom, and the United tate BE lJ fiN ORLOVE, a ociate profe or of environmental tudie , Univer ity of California, Davi , for re earch in the United tate on fi hing and agricultural pea an in the Lake Titicaca region of Peru and the relation hip b tween ub i tence pea antrie and national economie STAVO PEREZ-FIR ~AT, a ociate pro~ or of Romance language, Duke Univer ity, for re earch in the United tate on three Cuban author and their u e of the Cuban literar vernacular DEBORAH POOLE, re earch a i tant, Columbia Univer ity, for re earch in Peru on how traditional community pecialization in the Peruvian outhern highland reflect and inform indigenou concepts of regional organization and cultural identity VERA REBER, profe or of hi tory, hippen burg Univerity, for re earch in Paraguay and Uru~ay on the role of trade and agriculture in the economIc development of Paraguay, 1810-1870 ILVI RI ER ,adjunct profe r of ociology, Univer idad Boliviana Mayor de" an Andre ," La Paz, for re arch in Bolivia on tructure of mediation between the Bolivian tate and Indian ociety, 1920-1952 RICH RD LV C I, a i tant profe or of hi tory, Univerity of California, Berkeley, for re earch in Mexico and the United tate on the economic and political a pe ts of commercial relation between Mexico and the United tate, 1825-1910 Ai.v RO A CHEZ, a ociate, director, Trea ury Department, Mexico, for re earch in Mexico on exchange rate policy and its effect on the 1982 Mexican debt cri i and the ub equent tabilization program JOH TEP KE, profe or of hi tory, Duke Univer ity, for re earch in pain on the royal accounts of the pani h Empire in ew pain, 1521-1580 H GO VEZZETTI, director of the p ychology program, Univ r ity of Bueno Aire, for re earch in Argentina on mode of repre entation of the Argentine family in a period of changing idea and value , 1925-1940 MARK WA 路 ERMA, a ociate profe or of hi tory, Rutger Univer ity, for re earch in Mexico and the United tate on the impact of the Mexican Revolution on the political elite of the tate of Chihuahua, 1900-1940 B RBAR WEI TEl ,a ociate prof or of hi tory, tat Univer ity of ew York, tony Brook, for re earch in Brazil on worker training and a i tance program a trategie of labor control by the emerging indu trial elite, 1920-1964


EAR ND MIDDLE EA T The following po tdoctoral re earch grant were awarded by the Joint Committee on the ear and Middle Ea t-Peter von j路v er (chair), Leonard Binder, Eric Davi , Abdellah Hammoudi, Michael C. Hud on, uad Jo eph, Afaf Lutfi al- ayyid Mar ot, Alan R. Richard, and John Waterbury-at its meeting on March 1-3, 1985. P. Nikiforo Diamandouro and Bridget Gibbon erv d a taff for the program.

HA A B T T , profe or of Arab tudie, Georgetown Univer ity, for re earch on modern yrian politi and ociety L. CARL BROW ,profe or and director of the ear and Middle Ea t tudie program, Princeton Univer ity, for re earch on the modernization of Ottoman Afro-A ia and the ucce or tate MIRI M COOK}" as i tant profe or of international tudie, Duke Univer ity, for re earch on women' writing in Lebanon ince the outbreak of civil war in 1975 until 1982 C RTER V. FI DLEY, a ociate profe or of hi tory, Ohio tate Univer ity, for re earch on the tran formation of the traditional Ottoman cribal ervi e into a civil bureaucracy D . IEL . OFFM N, lecturer in hi tory, Emory Univer ity, for re earch on Europ an merchants and Ottoman official M RY E. HECLA D, Ph.D. candidate, tate Univer ity of New York, Binghamton, for re earch on religion and culture in local-level Iranian politics R YMO. D A. HI EB CH, a ociate profe or of political cience, College of t. Catherine, for re earch on the im~lementation and performance of yrian agricultural policy HE RY Ro E FELD, a ociate profe or of ociC'logy and anthropology, Univer ity of Haifa, for re earch on the relation between Jew and Arab in azareth and in I rael EVKET P M K, a i tant profe or of conomic, Villanova Univer ity, for re earch on war and pea ant agriculture in Turkey, 1912-1945 JE ETTE W KJ. ,lecturer in Middle Ea tern languag and culture, Columbia Univer ity, for re earch on the principle of I lamic juri prudence

o TH A IA The Joint Committee on uth A ia-Bernard . ohn (chair), Pranab K. Bardhan, RonaldJ. Herring, Barbara . Miller, Harold . Power, orman T. Uphoff, and u an . Wadley-awarded grants to the following individual at its m ting on March 13-14, 19 5. David L. zanton and Carolle Ruppert erved a taff for thi program. H RRY W. BLAIR, head, department of political cience, Bucknell Univer ity, for re earch in Banglade h on local participatory in titution and development



MBER 1/2

NICHOLA B. DIRK, a i tant profe or of hi tory, Califor- JAME T. IEGEL, profe or of anthropology, Cornell Univer ity, for re earch in Jakarta on cultural dimen ion. of nia In titute of Technology, for re earch in London on Indone ian metropolitan life the tructure and concepts of tate and ociety in TanJOH K. WHITMORE, a i tant re earch cienti t, In titute javur, India, 160~ 1865 for ocial Re earch, Univer ity o~ Michigan, for re earch TEVE E. G. KEMPER, a ociate profe or of anthropology, on the development of communal land y tern and patBate College, for re earch in ri Lanka on the inhale e rilocal kin hip in 15th and 16th century Vietnam national chronicle, the Mahaval1 a ROBERT I. LEVY, profe or of anthropology, Univer ity of DAVID K. WYATT, profe or of outhea t A ian hi tory, Cornell Univer Ity, and hi a ociate for revi ion California, an Diego, for re earch on the p ycholo~cal of the po t World War II material in their book, In effec of growing up in Bhaktapur, epal, on indivIdutarch of ouLhta l A ia al of variou ca te background D VID E. LODE ,a i tant profe or of hi tory and outh ian regional tudie, Univer ity of Penn ylvania, for re earch on pea ant agriculture and regional develop- INDO HI A T DIES ment in outh and outhea t A ia, c.50~c.1500 The ubcommittee on Indochina tudie of the Joint Vu; AT. OLOE B R., faculty member, ocial cience DiCommittee on outhea t A ia - Charle F. Keye (chair), vi ion, arah Lawrence College, for re earch in the Amy Catlin, Carol Compton, May Ebihara, John United Kingdom on the legal and cultural con truction of gender in colonial orth India Hartmann, Gerald Hickey, Hue-Tam Ho Tai, David Marr, A ADA. YA G, a ociate profe or of hi tory, Univer ity Bounlieng Phomma ouvanh, Jame C. cott, William of Utah, for re earch in London on the rural marketing Turley, and Alexander Wood ide-at its meeting on y tern of Bihar, India, 1765-1947 PHILLIP B. Z RRILLI, director, A ian Experimental Theatre March 16-17, 1985, awarded grants for the following indiProgram, Univer ity of Wi con in, for re earch on ac- vidual and collaborative projects. Mary-Byrne McDonnell compli hment and power in kalarippayaltu, a traditional and David L. zan ton erved a taff for thi program. outh Indian martial art o THEA TAlA The Joint Committee on outhea t A ia-John R. W. mail (chair), helly Errington, Gillian P. Hart, Mary R. Holln teiner, Charle F. Keye , David Marr, Chai-anan amudvanija, and Ruth T. McVey-awarded grants to the following individual at its meeting on March 17-20, 1985. David L. zanton and Carolle Ruppert served a taff for thi program. ALTO L. BECKER, profe or of lingui tic and anthropology, Univer ity of Michigan, for re earch in Burma on a comparative tudy of text building J D1TH O. BECKER, a ociate profe or of mu icology, Univer ity of Michigan, for re earch in Burma on modern concep of traditional mu ic JA 1ES J. ERRI .TO, a i tant profe or of anthropology, Yale Univer ity, for re earch in Indone ia on language change in rural Java TERE A HALIK, a i tant profe or of Oriental tudie, Univer ity of War aw, for comparative re earch in the United Kingdom on the decline of tradition, everyday rural life, and internal migration in Vietnam and China, 1975-1985 GERALD C. HICKEY, Chicago, Illinois, for re earch on the people of the Vietname e central highland H Y H KIM KHA H, re earch as ociate, C RS, Univer ity of Pari , for re earch on the evolution of Vietname e communi m, 1945-1975 Nco VI H Lo G, Cambridge, Ma achu etts, for re earch in Vietnam and France on rural development in the Mekong delta ince 1975

J NE 1985

IA G BA THI, AYPHET K. BA CAM, A 0 HA BACCAM, Tai tudie Center (De Moine, Iowa), for re earch on Tai Dam literature CHHOE R CHH T, ilver pring, Maryland, for re earch on events urrounding the 1970 Cambodian coup d'tlal DAVID W. HAl E , Alexandria, Virginia, for re earch on the ocial organization of hou ehold and kin hip network in Vietnam ince 1960 DAVID R. HAWK, Center for the tudy of Human Rights, Columbia Univer ity; tephen R. Heder, Amne ty International (London); ichantha eou, Fall Church, Virginia; and Rithipol . Yem, Brighton, Ma achu et , for re earch on human righ violation in Cambodia and to Cambodian, 1975-1983 MAR HALL G. H RLlCH, Department of Anthropology, Univer ity of Wa hington, and Doua Hang, Seattle, Wa hington, for re earch on the hi tory and tructure of a Laotian Hmong clan G YE Lo G 0 TRA PHO G, Lo Alamito , California, for re earch on Hoa Hao Buddhi m and i contribution to the emancipation of the Vietname e pea antry, 1939-1975 Nc YEN Mo G GI CAD LE THO GIAO, Laguna Hill , California, for re earch on communi t cultural policy in Vietnam ince 1975 PHAM VAN Co G, Indochina Archive, Univer ity of California, Berkeley, for re earch on the legal y tern of the ociali t Republic of Vietnam ince 1975 Publi hed and unpubli hed material generated and collected by the e grantee will be placed in an archive at the Library of Congre and made available both to member of the Indochine e communitie and to re earch cholar.




.Y. 1015

Incorpora"d in 1M talt of Illinois, DtetmMr 27, /924, for 1M purpo t of advancing rt tarch in 1M ocinl citna Dirtclo~, 19 4-85: TEPHEN E. Fit. BERG, Carnegie-Mellon UniversilY; HOWARD GARDNER, Veleran dmini lralion Medical emer (Bo lon); CHARLES O. Jo ES, niver ily of Virginia; ROBERT W. KAT ,Clark niver ily; GARDNER LINDZEY, Cenler for Advan ed ludy in lh Behavioral iences; EU:.ANOR E. MACCOBY, lanford Univer ily; HUGH T. PATRICK, Columbia Univer ily; JOSEPH A. PELHMAN, The Brooking In lilulion (Washington, D.C.); KE Nt.'H PREWITT, Social 'ence Research Council; YDt.L F. ILVt.RMA ,Th Graduale Cenler, CilY niver ily of ew York; RODOLFO TAVE HAGEN, EI Colegio de Mexico; STEPHEN M. STIGLER, Univer ily of Chicago; LoUI E A. TILLY, New School for Social Research; SIDNEY VERBA, Harvard Univer ily; IMMANUEL WALLERSTEI , lale Univer ily of New York, Binghamlon; Wlll.IA f JUUUS WILSON, Univer ily of Chicago; HERBERT F. YORK, niver ily of California, an Diego.


Social Science Research Council 605 Third Avenue New York, N.Y. 10158




ALBANY, N. Y. No. 31






Items Vol. 39 No.1-2 (1985)  
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