Items Vol. 38 No. 4 (1984)

Page 1



Council Initiates New Fellowship Program in International Security

by Kenneth Prtwilt *

WITH UPPORT FROM the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, the Council ha initiated a program of training and research award for MacArthur Foundation Fellow in International Security. The e award will a i t doctoral candidate and recent po tdoctoral cholar to undertake work that may bring fre h per pective to the tudy of peace and security i ue. The fellow hip will be multiple-year award (for a minimum of two year) to upport a combination of advanced training and reearch at univer itie or other in titution in which fellow can obtain training in field other than their pre ent pecialitie. There are no citizen hip or re idency requirement , and fellow may tudy at any appropriate in titution in the world. The program i intended to broaden the ba e of re earch in ecurity tudie . Accordingly, application are encouraged from doctoral candidate and cholar in the physical and biological cience or the ociliV behavioral ciences, including foreign area tudie. Becau e the program i. designed to attract new talent and fre h per pective to the field, doctoral candidate who have pecialized in the study of international peace and ecurity i ue are not eligible to apply for di ertation re earch and training award . (The MacArthur Foundation ha al 0 granted fellowhip fund directly to elected univer itie with major graduate program in ecurity tudie .) The program ha been funded for an initial period of three year.

• The author, a politic.tI scientist, i, president of the Council. The text of thi announcement is based in part on the "Annual Report of the President," Social ience Research Council, 1983- 1984 Annual Rf/JOrl, page xiii-xxv.

A recent review of the field During the past year, the Council ha collaborated with the MacArthur Foundation in examining the nature and extent of existing training and re earch acuvltle related to national ecurity-broadly defined . Thi tudy of training and re earch re ource in the field of ecurity tudies confirmed the concluion of a number of cholar and national organization that there is a thinne and a narrowne to

CONTENTS OF THIS ISSUE Council Initiate ew Fellow~hip Program in International Securit)'-Kmn,th Prroili 66 Exploring Re earch on Sc.:i nce and Technolog)' Ro~rt W. Pt'tlr,IOII 72 Child Development in Life-Course Per. pectiVe-i.Olllllt' R, SJu.rrod 76 Activitie. of the Joint Area Committee -Joint Advisory Committee on International Programs (page 76) -African reo arch overview paper. (page 76) -African agri ulture: con eptuillizing the household (page 77) -"Afrodik" : creating archive for vi ual material (page 78) -Discoune in the humanitie. and social iences in African ~tudie . (page 78) -Myth, and realitie, of the Zairian cri i (page 79) -Gender i ue, in Japanese studies (pag 80) -Party, late, and!>Oci ty in the Rus ian civil war (page 61


-Summer Wor~ hop on Soviet and East Europea n Economi (page 2) 83 Other ctivitie at the Council -Findings from the Censu of 19 0 (page 83) -Conceptions of cia (page 83) -Survey of In orne and Program Participation (pag

84) 5

Recent Council Publications


curity tudie that few out ide the field have p rceived. I Thi ituation exi ts even though everal key private funder , notably the Ford Foundation, the Rockefeller Foundation, the Carnegie Corporation of ew York, and mo t recently the MacArthur Foundation, have inve ted heavily in the development of major univer ity graduate training program . The number of younger cholar at both the pre- and p tdoctorallevel ha been relatively low and limited to a fe\ di iplinary background. on ider the following data on Ph.D. production taken from Dissertation Ab tracts Online. During the five-year period 1979 to 19 3, approximately 30,000 Ph.D . were granted in the ocial and behavioral ien e by American univer itie . Of the e, only 155 di ertation were directly related to international peace and ecurity: alliance tructure , economic warfare, nuclear proliferation, key confrontation of the nuclear power , regional in tabilitie , the evolution of military trategy and weapon, and the field' core i ue of deterrence theory, nuclear trategy, and the con equence of nuclear war. • The Ford Foundation International peace, ecurity and arm control i ue hould be tudied broadly. It is not urficient-and i indeed mi leading and con tricting-to focus narrowly on technical military capabilitie , either nuclear or conventional, trategic doctrine or arm control negotiation . Rather, it i nece ary to e plore the broader political, economic, hi torical, social, p ychological and organizational dim n ion of how tates identifyand eek to achieve their ecurityobjective, and the condition required to mitigate or re Ive confli ts. C'Re ults of the Ford Foundation' 19 3 International Competition for In titutional Re arch and Training Grant in International Peace, urityand rm Control." ew York: Ford Foundation, 1983, un· publi hed report, page 2.)

There are about 650 graduate departments in the 0cial and behavioral cience in U. . univer itie ; from 1979 to 1983, only nine of the e produced a many a one di rtation per year on the ecurity topi Ii ted above. During the arne period, more than 5,600 Ph.Os. were earned in economics-only even of the e involved i ue related to international peace and ecurity. Political cience department trained mo t of the tudent of international ecurity-122 of them. But while the e 122 tudents were being trained, more than five time a many political cience di erI everal foundation and national organization have recently r vi w d th fi Id of international pea e and ecurity tudi and have i. u d report on some of their con lu ion . Quotati n from four of th ~e report. are located in bo e throughout thi announcement.


tation were being written on electoral behavior and public opinion alon . I ndeed, there were almo t a many di ertation on how children and youth acquire their political belief a there were on deterr nce theory, nuclear trategy, and the con equence. of nuclear war. Although the trend in Ph.D. production in peace and ecurity tudie i· up, trongly. 0, the per onnel ba e will remain mall for orne tim . It will a1 0 remain mall in the clo ely-related field of oviet tudie, which ha al 0 uffered a p riod of neglect. There exi t, howe er, important training program in the oviet tudie field. 2 Expanding training and re earch in international peace and ecurity tudie i not a mode t ta k, A broadened conception of ecurity require that we go beyond familiar form of interdi ciplinary exchange, in which cro -interrogation a i ts di cipline to borrow from each other. The more demanding endeavor called for i an intellectual integration that ynthe ize and thereby create a new ba i for cientific work and policy di cour e. The ta k i complicated by two dimen ion of traditional ecurity tudie : their roots in the natural cience and their clo e connection with national policy .

Roots in the natural sciences Among the di cipline traditionally repre ented in ecurity tudies are phy ic , engineering, and operation re earch. The e di cipline have conducted the fundamental tudie of the trategic implication of I The Council and the American Council of Learned Societie viet (ACLS) currently pon or two program related to the Union. The Joint Committee on viet tudie, admini tered by the Council, funds di ertation write-up e pen e for doctoral candidates in Ru ian and viet tudie. The International Reearch and Exchange Board (IREX), admini ter d by ACLS, manage a variety of re earch exchange program with the viet Union and the countrie of Ea tern Europe, a well a a developmental fellow hip program for pecial advanced training prior to e change vi its to the Soviet Union and Ea tern Europe (IREX i located at 655 Third Avenue, ew York, ew York 10017.) Columbia Univer ity admini ter on behalf of the Ford Foundation a Program in viet and Ea. t European International urity tudi ,which award fellow hip to tudent in Soviet area tudie to a quire competen e in international ecurity tudie. or to tudent of international ecurity tudie to acquire competence in Soviet area tudie. Three academi program that have recently received major foundation upport are the W. verell Harriman In titute for Advan ed tudy of the vi t Union, lumbia Univer ity; the niver ity of California, Berkeleyl tanford Univer ity Program n viet International Behavior; and the Rand/UCLA enter for the tudyof viet International Behavior. A guide to graduate programs in viet international behavior i being prepared by the Joint Committee on Sovi t tudi and will be available in early pring, J9 5.


38, .



complex weapon y tern , which involve the analy i of development in uch technologie a microelectronic, metallurgy, radar, directed energy, and upercomputer. ocial and behavioral cienti t intent on eriou ly engaging peace, ecurity, and di armament i ue will have to attend to the relevant technical literature, not to mention the theorie and finding of a long-e tabli hed field. The arm race ha its own grammar, one ba ed on a technical vocabulary for which few ocial cienti t are prepared by their formal training. • The Rand Corporation Que tions of maintaining peace or waging war have traditionally been the province of trategy and policy analy i , but other di ipline may have knowledge that could be tran lated into u ful re pon e , including the ultimate que tion of how to avert nuclear war. In particular, the behavioral cience [very broadly defined in this document], which generally addre i ue of deci ionmaking, judgment, perception, and ocial influen e, may offer ugge tion for policy based on concrete application drawn from tho e general topi .

O· P. Kahan et aI., Prromtmg

uckar Conflict: What Call 1M Bthavioral

rima CO'ltribultr anta Monica, California: The Rand Corporation, December 19 3, page I.)

Connections with national policy If contemporary international peace and ecurity tudie have a perva ive technical dimen ion, they al 0 have a trong policy focu , and con equently are deeply enme hed in the political proce . cholar now promi ing to make a contribution mu t learn to operate in that ambiguou arena where a re earch agenda and a policy agenda overlap. Thi doe not preclude critici m of prevailing policie ,ju t a it ha not precluded a tron critical tradition in e tabli hed peace and ecurity tudie. But it doe a ume that advancing the policy di cu ion will rank high on the Ii t of purpo e to be erved. Thi i not a familiar, or comfortable, po ition for many foreign area cholar and other ocial scientist. or will many cholar be prepared for the inten e politization that e pecially impinge upon arm control and di armament tudie .

Rationale for a new fellowship program In cooperation with the MacArthur Foundation, the Council explored variou trategie that might re pond to the e concern for new re earch and training in international peace and ecurity. Not urpri ingly, attention quickly focu ed on a national felDI:.U.MBI:.R


low hip program that would combine advanced training and re earch, encourage cholarly intere t from the full range of relevant academic di cipline , tre the recruitment of junior cholar at the doctoral and po tdoctoral level, and involve cholar from many nation. Fellow hip competition have frequently been a major impetu for field development. Notable examples are the Ford Foundation Foreign Area Fellow hip Program (tran ferred to the American Council of Learned ocietie and the Social cience Re earch Council in 1962); the Department of Labor Di ertation Award Program (1966 to 1983, tran ferred to the National Council on Employment Policy, 1979-1980, and then to the Council, 1980-1983); the Council' Re earch Training Fellowhip Program (1930-1981); and the recently-e tabIi hed Mellon Fellow hip Program in the Humanitie . In each ca e, the availability of ub tantial upport for training and re earch in the early career period ha : • Attracted young cholar to the field • Broken down exi ting di ciplinary boundarie • Allowed young cholar to broaden their training through expo ure to in tructor at more than one in titution • Created re earch network and elf-con ciou cohorts • timulated new re earch approache election proce e typically involve knowledgeable program taff working clo ely with creening and selection committee of leading cholar who have a broad vi ion of field development needs and opportunitie . Further, ucce ful program have been deigned with ufficient flexibility to re pond to emerging re earch trend , to provide feedback and guidance to awardee , and to create and u tain new

• The National Re earch Council ... there are a number of area. of past and current research in the behavioral and social scien es that may be relevant, directly or indirectly, to one or another a peet of the problem of redu ing the ri ks of nu lear connict. Even more important, it seems likely that future research in these di iplines ould yield in ights of potential utility to decision makers, negotiator, opinion leaders, and the public. ("Prospectu for an d Hoc Meeting to E"plole Potenti,tI Contribution of the Social and Behavioral iences to Redu ing the Ri\k of Nuclear Conflict." Commi . ion on Behdvioral dnd Social Science\ and Education, National Academy of Sci nce~~ationdl Re\eilrch Council. Wa hington, D. . : rhe Coun ii, Jun 19 4, pilge I.)


MacArthur Foundation Fellowships in International Security


Po.5tdoctoraL and Dissertation FeLLow hipJ Sponsor hip

Purpo • To encourage new approach ecurity

to the study of peace and

• To encourage the application of theori and m thod from diver e disciplin to i. ue of international peace and · ecurity • To upport advanced training and re earch in international peace and urity tudies for holars and doctoral students in the phy i al and biologi al ciences or the ocial/behavioral scien e , including foreign area tudie

Program PO.ltdoctoral ftllow\hip.~ include support for one year of advanced training and one year of research applying knowledge gained during the training ear. For scholar entering the field of international peace and security ·tudies, the year of advanced training mu t be in a specific area of pea and security tudies that will inform the reearch to be conducted during the second year. For scholar who have previou Iy pecialized in international pea e and ecurity tudie, the year of advanced training mu t be in a specifi area of the phy ical and biological science or the ociallbehavioral scien e , including foreign area studie , that will inform the r search to be conducted during the econd year. Di\Strtfltioll rtsmrch and trainillgftllow. hips add one year of training to the normal graduate program. During thi year, fellow will have an opportunity to combine their previou disciplinary skills with pecialized training in international peace and ecurity. A second year of upport i provided for dissertation re earch which hould reflect the broadened per pective acquired during the training year. Training may occur at an in titution of the applicant' choice and may consist of formal cour work, tutorial , or supervised study with relevant faculty.

Awards An award of 30,000 per year for po tdoctoral fellow and 15,000 per year for di ertation fellow is provided to cover living expen e, travel, and re earch c t . Additionally, funds are available for the payment of fee at institutions ho ting a fellow' training or r search. Fellowship may begin immediately upon announcement of the award but no later than 18 month following the announcement of po tdoctoral award and no later than 12 months following the announcement of d. ertaUon award .


The fellow hip are admini tered by the Social Science R search Council a part of it program in International Peace and Security tudie. Fund for the fellow hip are provided by a grant to the Council from the John D. and Catherine T . MacArthur Foundation.

Selection Procedure Awards are made on the ba is of evaluation and recommendation of a Council-appointed Fellow hip election Committee for International Peace and Security tudie. This committee i interdisciplinary and international in compo ition. Preliminary creening may be conducted by review panel with experti in an applicant' area of scholarly intere l. Eligibility • Open to scholar of any nationality and from any country • For scholar in any recognized field of the phy ical and biological ci nce. or theociaUbehavioral scien es, including foreign ar a tudic • At tht po.ltdoctoral Itvtl, for s holars who hold or will .hold (when the fellow. hip comm nc ) an earned Ph.D. degree or its equivdlent in anyone of the e di cipline • At tilt di.t trllltioll lrotl, for tudent who are candidates for the Ph.D. degree or its equival nt in anyone of these di ciplines, who hav ompleted all requirem nts for the degree except the di. ertation or who will have met th e requirement when the fellow hip commences. ( tud nts who have speciali7ed in th tudy of international peace and security i su s arc not eligible for award at the di ertation level.)

Application deadlines

Announcements of awards

March 31, 19 5

June I, 19 5

July 31, 19 5

Oct be. I, 19 5

For a brochure or application materials, writ Social . ience Research Council Program in International Peace and urity tudie 605 Third Avenue New York, . ew York 10158 (212) 661-0280


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• The Carnegie Corporation and the MacArthur Foundation ... it i highly important to broaden the range of di cipline from whi h engaged and effective contributiom are made, and abo to deepen the capacity of both individuals and group for the kind of analy i that require under tanding of more than one holarly topic. The connection b tween phy ics and politic in nuclear weapon policy is obviou ,but the number of worker who have direct ma tery of both ubj ts i ex eedingly small. ... When we widen our per pe live to include the way of thought of the p ychologist and the hi torian, or the tudent of organization or deci io n-making or mammalian behavior, we ee that connections of many orts are both po ible and promi ing. ("To Make a Difference: A Report on eed and Opportunities for Philanthropi Action in the Field of International Security." npubli\hed report pre pared for th Carnegie Corporation and the Ma Arthur Foundation by a committee under the chairman hip of McGeorge Bundy, New York Univer ity, April 19 4, page 5-6.)

re earch networks-all purpo e de irable for international peace and ecurity tudie. The MacArthur Foundation Fellow hip in International ecurity, at both the pre- and po tdoctoral level , will combine training and re earch. The intent i both to trengthen and to broaden ecurity tudi . " trengthen" here mean adding to the number of active cholar in the field while providing training upport to tho e already committed to peace and ecurity tudie. "Broaden" i u ed in three clo ely related way . Fir t, the program will allow tudents to place their previou training in a broader context and encourage them to frame more ambitiou re earch que tion than would have been likely in the ab ence of thi training opportunity. For example, a ovietologi t trained in defen e policy might do advanced training in Ru ian hi tory, and then de ign re earch which place contemporary defen e policy in a hi torical context. A phy icist trained in the analy i of complex weapon y tern might do advanced training in the economic and politic of weapon procurement, and then de ign research which place di armament negotiation in an economic-political context. econd, the program will broaden the field by recruitin holars trained in a diversity of cientific di cipline who in the ab ence of the program might never have focu. ed their methodologie and analyti al approache on i ue of international peace and ecurity. A pecialist in African politic might be encouraged to consider the con equence of outh Africa' trategic mineral depo it for both the local political economy and pattern. of international tenion; a ociologi t of complex organization with adDECEMBER


ditional training might conduct re earch on military command and control hierarchies; or a computer cienti t might receive advanced training in deterrence theory in order to con ider how development in upercomputing affect cri i management. Finally, a. a con equence of thi multidimen ional effort to broad n the field, the re earch and training program will eek out and fund junior cholar who can frame re earch problem which connect domain of inquiry that are now largely eparate. If ucce ful, the program will each year add to the upply of scholar who how promi e for innovative, ynthetic re earch. The program will view favorably candidate who anticipate re earch career at the inter ection of uch policy domain a energy re ource , population movement , international economics, and other area of tudy not commonly con idered central to the ecurity field.

Applications for fellowships Approximately 30 MacArthur Foundation Fellowhip in International ecurity will be awarded in 1985. In order that orne fellow will be able to begin work a early a eptember 1985, the Council ha di eminated information rapidly to a wide audience. An adverti ement was placed in cience magazine, announcement have been ent to profe ional new letters, and brochure have been mailed to more than 6,000 dean, director, and departments. Highlight of the fellow hip program are ummarized on page 64. Intere ted reader are encouraged to write to the Council for a brochure or application material. 0 65

Exploring Research on Science and Technology The reflectlons of six scholars at

a board symposium by Robert W. Pear. on¡

RECENT YEAR' have witne ed an accelerated growth of cholarly intere t in the relationship between ociety, cience, and technology. 1 Thi attention i ea ily under tood. Communication technologie alter pattern of ocial interaction; development in chemi try and biology affect the products and proce e of agricultural production and thu pattern of human ettlement; and advance in material cience and their technologie permit the continued development of more ophi ticated and potentially de tructive weaponry, contributing to change in the way in which nation relate to each other. Moreover, cienti t and engineer have become more numerou and vi ible in the developed world and are more eagerly ought by Ie developed countrie a cience and technology are increa ingly thought to provide the ba i for advantage in a competitive international economy. The Council ha attempted to encourage and facilitate re earch in thi broad area through everal program. The ubcommittee on cience and Technology Indicator (upported by a grant from the National cience Foundation to the Committee on ocial Indicator) ought to improve the meaurement and quantitative analy i of the condition of cience and technology. Current Council activitie on the role of computer in contemporary ociety ( upported by a grant from the John and Mary R. Markle Foundation) are intended to facilitate reearch on the ocial con equence of a particularalbeit extremely complex-technology in a na cent field that i characterized by a fugitive literature and little empirical re earch.

The ending of the Council' program in science and technology indicator and the initiation of a new program on the ocial con equence of computer marks a junction in the Council' concern for cience and technology tudie. It al 0 provide an opportunity to reflect on thi field of inquiry and to con ider que tion in the tudy of cience, technology, and ociety that call for greater attention. Thi reflection wa the purpo e of a ympo ium on Science and Technology Studie that the Council' board convened on June 11, 1984. To reflect thi dual purpo e, the ympo ium wa divided into two panel . The morning panel, "The Politic of Knowledge," included pre entation by Arnold Thackray, Univer ity of Penn ylvania, "An Overview of the Field of Study"; Theda Skocpol, U niver ity of Chicago, "Governmental Structure, ocial Science, and the Development of Economic and ocial Policie "; and Loren Graham, Ma achuett In titute of Technology, " cience Policy in the United tate. and the Soviet Union: Citizen Participation in Policie Toward Molecular Biology." The afternoon panel, " tudying the ocial Con equence of Technologie ," included pre entation by Gavriel Salomon, Tel Aviv Univer ity, "The Computer a Educator: Le on from Televi 'ion Re earch"; Roger E. Ka per on, Clark Univer ity, "Information a a Hazardou. Commodity"; and Melvin Kranzberg, Georgia In. titute of Technology, "Looking Backward: tudying the ocial Con equence of the Computer in the Year 2000."

A fragmented field of study • The author, a political scienti t, is a taff a sociate at the Council, where on of hi a ignm nt i the uncil' exploratory program on the social consequence of computer. I Increa ing member hip and activity characteriz uch organization a the Hi tory of ience Society, the Philosophy of ience ssociation, the i ty for the Hi tory of Technology, and the iety for Social tudie of ience. Journal in thi area now include: Britilh Journal for 1M History of eima; Tht Bullttin if SomCt, Ttchnolo/fY, and ocitty; Cmllmrus; Hiltory of TtchnoloKj; I is; .\1intrv(/; R&D Managtmmt; RtItarch Policy; eitnet, TtehnoloKj, and Hurrum Valut. ; cimtomttric. ; ocial tudit. if ritner; ocioloKj of tht Scimw : A Ytarbook; Ttehnological Forte~ ting and ocinl Chfl1lgt; TfChnolo/fY and CultUrt; and th 4 Rroitw.


A with many fields of inquiry in the ocial and behavioral . cience., science and technology tudie have grown increa. ingly divided along traditional di ciplinar boundarie. In hi pre entation, Arnold Thackray sugge ted that this field i fragmented into three major intellectual communitie acro which di cour e i extremely limited. holar intere ted in (1) the hi tory and ociology of cience proceed independently of . cholar. concerned with (2) the economic of R&D and cience policy. And each of the e tream of inquiry within the broader field of cience VOL





and technology tudie tend to proceed apart from tho e who tudy (3) the ethic and values of cience and technology. 2 Thackray noted that the ize and fragmented tructure of thi international field of inquiry i Imllar to that in the ocial cience when the Council wa founded in 1923. Diver e approache to the tudy of cience and technology call for a mechani m with which cholar can explore the po ibility of common agenda. One uch theme around which common re earch agenda might be developed i the politic of cience, an area that Thackray tated i relatively neglected within the ocial tudies of cience.

The scholarly neglect of the politics of science The cholarly neglect of thi area is surpri ing. A a 100 ely defined enterpri e, science i (1) large (e ti-

mated expenditure for R&D within the United State alone amounted to nearly 100 billion in 1984); (2) international (e.g., 55 per cent of all citations found in U.S. phy ic journal in 1980 were to publications in other countrie ); and (3) linked c10 ely to economic and military concern (e.g., private indu try upported half of all R&D in the United States in 1984 and 70 per cent of federal funds for R&D were devoted to defen e).3 Scientific knowledge and the people and in titution that produce it are embedded within political and cultural y tem that hape, encourage, impede, and give it ocial meaning. Science ha taken on a ymbolic meaning, largely po itive in many culture , that people u e to confer legitimacy or tatu on them elve or their activitie . The poLitics of the ocial ciences. Nowhere doe a concern for under tanding the politic of cientific knowledge ari e with greater force or more practical con equence for ocial cienti ts than in the tudy of the relation hip between social science and ocial policy, a Theda Skocpol argued in her pre entation, "Governmental Structure, ocial Science, and the Development of Economic and ocial Policie ."

Z A ment regarding the "fragmentation" and " Balkanization" oftudie, of cien ,technology, and ociety can be found in Ina piegel-Ro ing and Derek de lIa Price, editors, TuhlW/OIf), and Saci,ry. London and Beverly Hill ,California: age Publicalions, 1977; and Howdrd D. White and Be\ver C. riffith, "Author. as Marker of Intellectual Space,"Journal of DocummtatiOll, 3 (4):255-272, 1982. 3 ee alional 'ience Bo.lrd, Sevllu IlIdicntoY.l-1982. Wa hington, D.C.: Governm nt Printing Office, 19 4.


19 4

kocpol ugge ted that hi torical and comparative tudie make it clear that governments and their activitie have profoundly affected the emergence, 0cial organization, and intellectual orientation of the ocial cience. In turn, variou Iy organized and oriented ocial cience have influenced the overall hape and content of ocial and economic policie . Agricultural economic and rural ociology have been eparately organized in many American univeritie in part becau e of the prominence of the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the federal- tate exten ion ervice within America' generally weak and decentralized public admini tration. From the late 19th century through the 1920 , the e government agencies provided the re ources-and incentives-for partially di tinct di cipline oriented to accumulating appropriate, policy-relevant ocial knowledge through empirical re earch on farmer and farm condition . In part becau e of their inclinations and career experiences, ocial cienti t within the e policy- and practice-oriented di ciplines were better prepared than many other knowledge-bearing profe sion to help fashion federal program during the 1930 . During the ame period that agricultural economic and rural ociology acquired the e characteri tic and experience , a full array of univer ity-ba ed ocial cience di cipline developed in the United State . The e di cipline included tho e committed to "pure" theorie and "ba ic" re earch u ing increa ingly ophi ticated quantitative method a well a the more "practical" and "applied" per pective of agricultural economic . Skocpol noted that the relatively delayed emergence of a national American welfare tate may help explain why American ociology turned from its turn-of-the-century normative preoccupation with pecific urban social problem toward a more theoretically-oriented et of que tion and a more tati tically-ba ed et of re earch trategie aimed at under tanding ociety a a whole. The lack of "demand" from the national government for an wer to practical problem made it po ible for them to turn toward theory and y tematic re earch. American government i both fragmented in it tructure and adver arial in it proce es. It may not be urpri ing, therefore, that American ocial cience i a fragmented and competitive a one of the source of it upport and object of it tudy. or I It urpri ing that many academic ocial cienti t who have tried to influence national public policy have not ucceeded. American ocial cience ha attained international recognition for it extraordinary methodological ophi tication and analyti al creativene ,not for 67

its critici m of the premi e of exi ting line of public action. 4 The intellectuaL fruits of comparative anaLy is: the ovitt Union and the United tate. Perhap no better illu tration of the reward of comparative hi torical re earch i provided than by comparing cience policy in the oviet Union and the United tate. Loren Graham de cribed the role of lay participation in the evaluation of cientific re earch and the u e of computer in the United tate and the oviet Union to illu trate the need for cautiou Iy interpreting or foreca ting the con quence of cience and technology. The oviet Union po e orne rather intriguing intellectual puzzle for tho e who wi h to tudy the politic of cience. If, for example, the tructure and proce e of a nation' cience policy play an important role in the content and quality of cientific endea or , why do France and the oviet Union, which have uch imilar cience policie ,produce uch different re ult ? Why, if the apparatu of the tate i 0 important, doe the oviet Union tend to excel primarily in tho e area of cience in which it wa trong prior to 1917? Why-de pite the ab ence of lay participation-did a politically autonomou commiion in the oviet Union draft rule in 1978 for reearch on recombinant DNA that mirrored tho e formulated in the United tates, where there had been con iderable public debate and participation two to three year before? The arm -length di tance between many ocial cienti t and policy maker in the United tate i coni tent not only with governmental tructure and proce e but al 0 with the wide pread di tinction between fact and value; cienti t claiming (and being given) pecial authority with re pect to "finding the facts." The unique claim to authority in thi latter domain by cienti t , however, ha been increa ingly challenged in the United tate a the boundary between fact and value b come permeable in uch ubject a the definition of death, the regulation of reearch u ing human ubject, and the creation or modification of the genetic makeup of living orgam m. Lay participation in the evaluation of cientific reearch i now well e tabli hed in hundred of univer-

4 Martin Bulmer, " cien e, Theory, and Value in Social Science Research on Povert : The United tate and Britain," Com/Xlmtiv, ocUli Rmarch, 6:353-369, 19 3; Walter Korpi, "Approache to the tudy of Poverty in the United tate: Critical Notes from a European Per pective," in Vincent T. Covello, editor. Pov"ty and Public Policy: An Evaluation of Social oma R,,,arch. Cambridge. Ma a hu elts: Schenkman. 19 O.


ltle and re earch in titution in the United tate through In titutional Review Board. The e are coniderably Ie well e tabli hed in the oviet Union. It i perhap ironic that Marxi t philo opher have joined with Ru ian Orthodox prie ts in clamoring-thu far un ucce fully-that they be appointed to re earch review committee . Member of the oviet Academy have ucce fully re i ted uch "intru ion " by arguing that their member hip in the Party largely obviate any further outside control. Moreover, oviet Academician re i t tate intervention by pointing toward its damaging con equence . The mo t prominent example i the government' former ideologically-ba ed antipathy toward Mendelian geneti which, under T. D. Ly enko, help d cripple biological re earch. Comparative hi torical re earch help illuminate the tudy of the con equence of both technology and cience. Graham u ed the example of computer to illustrate two common error of noncomparative reearch: (I) the failure to recognize the breadth of po ible application of uch technologie , and (2) the failure to recognize that ocietie (or their governing elite) can modify, facilitate, or impede the u of technologie to protect the prevailing ocial and political order. Here it i in tructive to ob erve that the fear of orne We tern ob erver that computer provide the mean to realize the Orwellian image of 1984 find its counterpart in the oviet Union where government leader fear that the wide pread u e of per onal computer may lead to the 10 . of government control over information and the disruption of ocial order. In the oviet Union, the computer repre ents--i.e., can be u ed as--an unregulated and uncen ored printing pre . To date, computer in the oviet Union have been in titutionally hou ed and controlled, but at the co ts of retarding the growth of computer literacy and of limiting the efficiencie of information proce ing that computer have brought about el ewhere.

Studying the social consequences of computers The computer i championed (and criti ized) a the defining technology of contemporary ociety. It i ea y to find progno e of it current or imminent con equence for the way we live, communicate, work, and think of our elve . Claim are made, for example, that the computer will reveal and amplify the logic of rea oning or that the computer will remake and redefine man' relation to nature and to him elf, thu endowing people with the qualitie of the technology a well a animating the technology in their likene . VOL





There are few topic on which 0 much ha b en written recently in the pre yet on which 0 little empirical re earch ha been conducted. There are ign, however, that the cholarly community i re ponding to the need for uch re earch. The very way in which ocial re earch i conceptualized, funded, and conducted ha become increa ingly affected by per onal computer and word proce or, enhanced facilitie to manipulate data, and changing way in which cholar can communicate with colleague or tudents. Many in titution have committed them elve to providing their member with the e tool. In everal in tance , univer itie and bu ine e have done 0 with ufficient cientific elf-con ciou ne , elf-que tioning, and elf-doubt to have opened them elve to cholar who are a e ing the computer' effect on performance, cognitive proce e, and the well-being of their member . In orne in tance , recently completed re earch and work till in progre ha been de igned to permit ob ervation before, a well a continued and repeated ob ervation after, the introduction of computer. In orne tudie, ubjects have been randomly a igned to "treatment" and "control" group of tudent or worker ,thu permitting inve tigator to unravel the effect of the computer from the complexity of other factor that affect performance, cognition, etc. Other Ie "controlled" tudie and more fine-grained ca e tudie promi e to enrich the di cipline ' de criptive under tanding of the phenomena and to generate new concept and theorie . But if the above ob ervation about the tructure of re earch on cience and technology-and perhap the ocial cience in the United tate more generally-are applicable in thi area, we an expect re earch on the effects of the computer to be fragmented, theoretically narrow, and uncoordinated. The computer a educator: Ie. on: from television reearch. Gavriel alomon called attention to what he feared may be 10 t in the predicted on laught of reearch on the con equence of the computer. He noted that earlier prediction -both dire and wonderful-have been made about the cognitive effect of the printing pre ,radio, and televi ion. But regretably, the relevant ocial cience have not unveiled the cumulative effects of the e technologie . In tead, mo t re earch ha focu ed on uch immediate effects a arou al and entertainment. Rarely ha it been conceptualized or de igned to tudy more long-term effect . The effects of computer are unlikely to fit comfortably within the framework of technological determini m and uniform effects that re earch on other DECEMBER 1984

technologie ha too often employed. People are agents a well a object of change and can be expected to u e (or ignore) the computer in way that mirror, reinforce, or amplify pre-exi ting per onal characteri tic or ocial relation hip ,a well a change them. omputer are a technology with an infinite number and variety of function ; there i no computer with a capital "C." Computer are unlikely to have any more uniform effects than re earch ha hown televi ion to have. imilarly, the technology may have off etting con equ nce ,a the automobile may have both encouraged church attendance among orne geographically-di p r ed farmer at the arne time that it di couraged the attendance of other by providing recreational alternative .5 alomon further urged that future re earch on computer not naively a ume that the technology in it elf ha an impact. Already-completed re earch on the effect of computer-ba ed in truction (CBI) reveal appreciable hort-term effects for CBI only when com pari on are made between different teacher of CBI and "conventional" cia e . Little difference i found when the arne teacher u e both BI and conventional method of in truction. 6 In tructor and other influence thu mediate the impact of a particular technology a it i applied in chool. Change in in tructor or cia room organization frequently accompany the introduction of computer , thereby confounding analy e that eek to uncover the unique con equence of computer while under coring the importance of re earch de ign that incorporate appropriate control group . alomon a1 0 que tioned the role of computer in chooling. It i very likely that chool them elve mu t be changed if they are to take full advantage of the computer' potential effect. Thi i unlikely to happen oon if at all; chool are more likely to adapt new technologie to current practice and ocial tructure than vice ver a. In many way uch "adaptation" are ea ily explained. The more difficult que tion i e aluati e or philo ophical: hould chool b required to change in uch a way a to obtain full value from thi new technology? The complexity of the que tion i revealed by the realization that chool are more than imply in titution for learning; they provide child care and they 5 Claude . Fi her," tudying Technology and . ial Life," in M. Castells, editor, TtchllOloKY, pact, and ocitty: ETMrging Trtnds. Beverly Hill ,California: age Publication , forthcoming. • J. A. Kulik, C. L. C. Kulik, and P. A. Cohen, "Effectivene of Computer-Based College Teaching: A Meta-Analy i of Findings," RroiLw of Education Rt tarch, 50 : 52~544, 19 O.


erve a agents for ocialization. What effect would change in school de igned better to erve one function have on one of the e other function? alomon a ked whether computer might not be introduced in uch a way a to amplify exi ting inequitie and to reinforce a belief among orne children that they indeed know very little and that they have little hope of learning more. A essing tM risks of information. Under tanding or predicting the con equence of the computer i a ubet of a larger cla of tudie that attempt to mea ure and a e the con equence of technology. A particular line of inquiry under thi larger umbrella trace it lineage to work that began initially in the space and nuclear power program of the 1960 . Ri k a e ment-the subject of a pre entation by Roger Kasper on- eek to identify, mea ure, and a e the ocial meaning of ri k po ed to ociety by a given technology. Impetu for recent re earch on ri k a e ment derive from the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 and from earlier advances in thi country' nuclear and space programs. Its twin underpinning are theories of probability and of deci ion making. One approach to risk a es ment attempts to develop cau al model that decompo e the elements of a particular hazard into tage during which the ri k can be controlled or minimized. Ka per on de cribed three major realm of hazard: energy, materials, and information. Con iderable attention ha been paid to the first two of the e realm but very little to the potential ri k of information. Ka per on argued that in ofar a hazard are defined a threats to people and what they value, the excluion of information technologie from hazard a e ment i unwarranted. A information and the technologie that facilitate it accumulation and di per ion increa e, 0 al 0 doe the need to develop new concepts of management or to apply existing methodological tool to under tand it con equence . Information can be conceived of a falling into everal cla e of hazard: (1) toxicity, e.g., violence on televi ion; (2) theft, e.g., copyright violation; and

time and may abbreviate pace ina much a it can be moved at great peed and volume. Managing the hazard of information are imilarly problematic: the peed of its diffu ion does not provide an opportunity to learn through trial and error or imulation; the value of liberal democracy (e.g., privacy, limitations on government intervention) argue again t its control or regulation; and there are cientific limit to undertanding the con equence of uch complex cau al equence. Analogou to alomon' a ertion that computer, like televi ion, are unlikely to produce uniform effects, ri k a e ment doe not typically mea ure the effects of an "average" do e on the "average" per on. Attention i usually directed toward identifying which individual or groups are en itive to what levels of expo ure (although it i often nece ary to create control group in order to e tabli h ba e lines of expo ure to the type of information under con ideration). Information differ in important respects from nuclear wa te or toxic chemical . Individuals can more ea ily ignore information than they can ignore an expo ure to dioxin. Moreover, regulating information rai e a ho t of que tion that touch upon a concern for the protection of free peech and the unfettered operation of the marketplace of ideas. Looking backward from the year 2000: technology since 1984. Melvin Kranzberg applied the tools of a hi torian of technology to ugge t how one might tudy the con equence of computer . Hi metaphor and concepts differ in everal way from Ka per on' . In place of toxicity, a hi torian attend to, or expects to find, lagged effect , clu ter of related technologie , unevenly-di tributed con equence , and elf-correcting y tern of purpo ive actor who are capable of making both elf-denying prophecie and elffulfilling one . It i al 0 likely that while the computer grab the headline , other new technologie are or will have equally important con equences for ocial change and economic development. It would be a mi take to attend only to the con equence of computer while ignoring, for example, the need to study the con equence of new compo ite and ynthetic (3) infonnation overload. The tudy of information a a hazard naturally material. Ifhi tory promi e a cautiou guide to the future, it produce methodological and epi temological difficultie imilar to tho e pre ented by it metaphorical i likely that the con equence of the computer will kin in energy and material . For example, there exi t not occur a quickly or a completely a they are now major ambiguitie in mea uring the actual do age of anticipated or dreaded. "Technological revolution " information received by individual. Multiple ource do not take place a oon a a new technology apof expo ure are typical and difficult to di entangle pear. Kranzberg ugge ted that it may be in tructive, analytically. Furthermore, information per i ts in for example, to remember that nearly a century after






Jame Watt' engine began the "Age of team," more aggregate power wa generated in Britain by waterwheel . It i equally in tructive to remember that the diffu ion of technologie i not alway linear and cumulative. Twenty-five year after the dawn of the nuclear age in the United tate, more energy i generated from the burning of wood, and the growth of the nuclear power indu try it elf ha come to a nearly complete stop. The variety of function that computer erve ugge ts that it con equence will be mixed, unevenly di tributed, and diffu ed, a imilated, and modified at uneven rate. While computer technologie may facilitate greater di per ion of more pecialized manufacturing production units, for example, trend toward financial concentration may continue unabated for 10-20 year, encouraged by the arne technologie . Prediction about the likely future of re arch on computer may be made with more confidence than prediction about the likely con equence of computer them elve . Kranzberg predicted that much of thi re earch will divide the problem into its imple t elements. Although thi philo ophical reductioni m ha contributed to the advancement of knowledge in thi and other area, the very technology under examination-along with its a ociated c1u ter of increa ingly ophi ticated analytic oftware, imulation model , and data ba e -permit more complex analy e than have been pre iou ly po ible in the ocial cience. Kranzberg argued that it may now be po ible to take a more holi tic approach that include ocial a well a natural ecology in inve tigating the interaction of ociety with cience and technology. Kranzberg concluded by re tating Thackray' call for the ouncil to provide a mechani m for coordinating diver e cholar hip, to draw attention to unattended interdi ciplinary que. tion ,to ugge t tandard for re earch, and to encourage ba. ic contribution in methodology. Heretofore, ocial cience ha focu ed on the individual element of ocial interaction, the mall par ,a in the dot of George eurat' Pointilli m. The dot mu t and can now be put together into a meaningful picture of ociety and it relation hip to ci nee and technology.



The Council's future program In many re pect , the ympo ium wa intended to initiate an ongoing di cu ion rather than determine what and how the Council hould proceed in the domain of cience and technology tudie. It accompli hed it purpo e admirably. It al 0 went beyond thi function by offering preview of everal projects in which the Council ha or will oon begin work. The Council' Committee on State and ocial tructure i e tabli hing working group that will examine the relation hip between ocial cience and tate policy making. One uch working group, tate and the Tran national Diffu ion of Policy-Relevant Economic Knowledge, plan to examine the pread and adaptation of Keyne ian economic among advanced indu trial ocietie. Thi project eek an under tanding of the "fit"--or lack thereof-between economic doctrine and the tructure and policie of national government , and the proce e and ocial and political network through which economic idea and practice are diffu ed and adopted. A econd working group being developed by the committee will examine through comparative and hi torical perpective the relation hip among governmental tructure, ocial cience knowledge, and ocial policie , along the line outlined in kocpol' ympo ium pre entation. During the next year, the Council' exploratory program on computer will pon or everal working group to plan work hop and eminar on the ocial and p ychological con equence of computer . The e meeting will provide a forum for the di cu ion and critique of the early re ults of recently initiated reearch and will draw upon exi ting re earch on the con equence of other information technologie to ugge t concept and method that may b imported int tudie of computer . One uch group, chaired by herry Turkle, Ma achu etts In titute of Technology, ha initiated plan to inve tigate the condition under which per onal computer mirror, amplify, reinforce, or change the pre-exi ting per onality characteri tic of different type of people at different tage of their cogniti e and affecti development. 0


Child Development in Life-Span Perspective by Lonnie R. liE 0 CI1.'S ubcommittee on hild Development in Life- pan Perspective (19 1) function under the auspic of the Committee on Li~ -Cour e Perspectives on Human Development (1977). IL'i program con. i ts of onference, work hop, and other a tivitie organized to examine conceptual and m thodological area for int raction between the fi Ids of child d velopment and adult life- pan development. Member of the subcommittee are Paul B. Baltes, Max Planck In titute for Human Development and Education (Berlin); Orville G. Brim, Jr., Foundation for Child Development (New York); Judith Dunn, Univer ity of Cambridge; Glen H. Elder, Jr., Univer ity of North Carolina; David L. Featherman, Univer ity of Wi con in; E. Mavi Hetherington, Univer ity of Virginia; Richard M. Lerner, Pennsylvania tate Univer ity; John W. Meyer, tanford Univer ity; Ro s D. Parke, Univerity of Illinoi ; Martin E. P. eligman, Univer ity of Penn ylvania; M. Brewster mith, Univer ity of California, anta Cruz; and Franz E. Weinert, Max Planck In titute for P ychological Re earch (Munich).

out life; and (4) the ocial approval of aspiration level by reference group and ignificant other . It wa con idered that rationally ordered change in a piration , hifts in motive from one life- ector to another, and a variety of defen e , hiding place , attribution , and exits may be employed by individual or group at variou points in their live to re olve di crepancie between aspiration and achievement. The meeting consi ted of brief, informal pre entation followed by di cu ion of pre entation and general di cu ion. Participants other than the ubcommittee included: teven her Hans Bertram Norman M. Bradburn

andra Graham Su an Harter Julius Kuhl Gil oam Lauren e teinberg tanton Wheeler

Winning and losing across the life span A onference, e amining 0 ialization, a pirations, and a hievement acro the life pan, wa held on December 2-3, 1983, in order to examine the proe. es whereby di repancie between a pi ration and a hievement are re olved and to explore life- pan hange and continuitie in the e proces e ; hence the title, "Winning and Lo ing." Data from varied ource were reported howing how fe\ difference there are by gender, oci economic tatu, and geographic region in ubjective happine ,or in reported en e of well-being. Factor other than objective propertie of people' live mu t, therefore, contribute to people' ense of \ ell-b ing. Other factor con ide red by preentation: and di cu. ion at the meeting included (1) human drive of growth and ma tery; (2) etting of a piration at levels of 'Ju t manageable difficulty" in the many 'ector of life; (3) pecific experience of daily ucces e and failure ,win and losse , through• The author. a p ychologist. is a taff a 'sociate at the Council. where one of hi, a,ignment is to taff the Committee on LifeCour Perspectives on Human De\'elopment.



niversity or Illinois Federal College (Muni h) National Opinion R search ('.enter. niver ity of Chicago ni\er ity of alifornia. Lo ngeles niver,ily of 0 nver niver'ity of the Ruhr Harval d Medical hool and McLean Ho pital (Bo ton) nivel-sity of Wi on in Yale niver ity

The program wa organized acro broad and diver e area . Fifteen-minute commentarie within eIon focu ed on pecific topic . The following eion were held: Orville G. Brim. Jr., "Introduction" and "Opening" Norman Bradburn, "Happines and ubjective Well-Being" M. Brew ler mith, "Reference Group and Social Comparison" teven A her, u an Harter, and Laurence leinberg, "Development of A piration/Achievement Di repancie" Gil Noam, tanton Wheeler, and Martin E. P. eJigman, "Resolution of Aspirationl Achievement Di repancies" John Meyer, "Alternative Models"

Intellectual development and the schools A conference on "Intellectual Development and the chool "wa held on August 9, 10, and II, 1984, at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral iences ( tanford, California). Thi meeting wa focu ed on interaction between the ocial tructural a peCtl of school and individual psychological development. The program wa de igned to addre. quetions uch a : To what extent do age-graded change VOLUME

38, N



in "intelligence" during childhood and adolescence reflect the in titutionalized routine of ocialization and the corre ponding timetable of contextual demand within the chool ? To what degree are there enduring or equential change in differentiated chool contexts which produce "normative" individual and ubgroup variation in intellectual development? Obver ely, are there psychological or biop ychological developments which eem Ie re pon ive to contextual or ynergi tic per on/situation outcome ? How multidimen ional i intellectual development; i.e., are there cognitive and ocial intelligence elements of a ingle domain which change in ynchrony? What developmental relation hip en ue from the over-time interplay of structured ocial interaction within chool and tructured cognitive program (e.g., curricular differential and hift therein)? Exi ting paradigm for examining uch que tion were al 0 apprai ed. For example, how "nece ary" for a theory of intellectual development i a model of temporal hifts in expo ure to differentiated chool context ? How much doe an under tanding of the impact of chool tructure on ocialization pattern depend upon knowledge about elf-initiated learning, choice, or role haping? I there more to intellectual development than cognitive development, given that the chool varyacro time and pace in their degree a "total in titution " over educational career ? The general format of the meeting included an opening e ion which provided a constructive critique of the foci (current and needed) of re earch and conceptualization of chool and of intellectual change into adole cence. Over the ub equent two day of the meeting, a erie of five pre entation (up to an hour each) of re earch area and projects addre ed pecific topic . A commentator initiated a general di cu ion at the end of each e ion. The final e ion offered a ummary with three paneli ts, each reflecting on (1) the pre entation and di cu ion of the previou day; (2) the general que tion around which the meeting wa organized; and (3) hislher own per pective. The program con i ted of:

Harold W. teven on, " chooling and Cognitive Development: A tudy in Peru" HerbertJ. Walberg, "Environmental and Edu ational Influ nce on Academic D v lopment" (3) How cbools work: cia room, friend hip networks, ability groupings Robert Dreeben, "Th Social Organization of hoot. and Individual Learning" Maureen T . Hallinan, "Interracial Friend hips in ElemenLlry hool CIa rooms"

The participant and their affiliation were: Nancy A. Busch-Ro snagel Robert Dreeben Wolfgang Edelstein

K. Ander Ericsson Maureen T . Hallinan . P. Heyneman ancy L. Karweit Marion Perlmutter Matilda White Riley Peter Roeder

Yo si havit Harold W. teven on Herbert J. Walberg

Fordham niversity University of Chicago Max Planck In titute for Human Development and Education (Berlin) Univer ity of Colorado University of Notre Dame The World Bank (Wa hington) The John Hopkin Univer ity niversity of Minne ota ational In titute on Aging Max Planck In titute for Human Development and Education (Berlin) Univer ity of Haifa Univer ity of Michigan niversity of Illinois at hicago

Becau e the conference wa held during the ummer In titute on Individual Development and ocial Change ( ee page 75-76), in titute participants were al 0 invited to the meeting.

Attributions in mothers and children: a life-span approach

A work hop wa organized by the ubcommittee to focu on emotional development and attributions of cau alityaero the life pan. Although in recent year there ha been orne re earch examining attribution of cau ality, the tyle of attribution, and relation hip to cognitive and emotional development in adult and children eight year or older, there i relatively little attention to children at younger age . A a re ult, little i known about the age at which attribution emerge ( 1) Introduction or about the origin of childhood attribution . The Wolfgang Edel. tein, "Overview and Evaluation of the tatu of in truments which have been developed to mea ure Re earch on hool and 1m lIectual Development" attribution in adults and older children are imply not appropriate for pre chooler . Thu , it wa con(2) Comparative studies of scbooling and development idered nece ary to examine the early childhood oriof cau al attribution and of attributional tyle a gin S. P. Heyneman, "Two-third of the World' tudents: Intep to life- pan inve tigation of attria preliminary tellectual Development and hool in D veloping Countries" DECEMBER



butional tyle and its relation hip to emotional development. The work hop wa held on De ember 8-11, 19 3, on Kia\ ah 1 land, outh arolina. The objective of the meeting \ a to u e e i ting data ets containing tran rip of moth r-child conver ation to addre such que tion a: What i the earlie t age at which children make attribution ? I there an attributional tyle in pre chool children? How doe the formal tructure of cau al attribution and attributiona I tyle change over time? What i the relati n hip between a mother' and a child' attribution? During the meeting, participants examined tran cript of mother-child conver ation from everal tudie ,and determined that uch material do allow the analy i of mother' and pre hooler' attribution . Tranripts from everal tudie were analyzed a one part of the work hop agenda, and problem of analy i and interpretation and topic for ub equent r arch were di u d. he program con i ted primarily of pr entation by parti ipants of their ongoing reear h of relevance to the meeting theme. Follm -up activitie \ ill be planned to examine ontinuitie and hange in attributional proce e from early hildhood through adulth d and to ear h for contextual influence on the de elopm nt of attributional tyle. Re earch on early childhood development, begun a a re ult of the fir t work hop, will con titute one major contribution to future activitie . Parti ipants and their affiliation included: Paul B. Balte.

Merry Bullock Deborah Coates Jame Connell Judith Dunn Frank Fin ham Joan Girgu Hannelore Grimm Robin Mount Mi hael O'Hara Chri topher Peterson u 'an Nolen-Hoeksema Marion Perlmutter Deborah Phillip Jon Rolf Martin E. P. eligman Marilyn hatz Ellen kinner

Peter tratton


Ruth W lie

ational In litute of Mental He••lth

Historical perspectives on child development

On October 17-19, 1984, a meeting wa held on the general theme of "Children and Their D velopment: Hi torical and Developmental Per pective ." The goal of the meeting wa to explore the value of interchange between two field of child tudy: the behavioral cience approach to the inve tigation of child development and the ocial hi torical approach to the tudy of children and their familie . The two line of tudy have much to offer each other. Over the la t decade, child developmentali ts have become more appreciative of hi torical influence , and the tudy of contemporary child development ha gained popularity among hi torian . Both field are developing intere ts in the life cour e a a theoretical orientation. De pite thi promi ing movement toward fruitful interchange, there ha been little actual contact between the two field . An initial planning meeting on January 17, 1984, in New York indicated, however, that both line of tudy could be enriched by one or more meeting that drew upon the life-cour e framework. Becau e it addre e i ue that are fundamental to both field (e.g., contextual influence, temporal variation and change, the dynamic of change and tability), the life-cour e approach provide a common ground for di cu ion. The October meeting Max Plan k In titute for thu addre ed theorie of change and tability, Human Development and methodologie of tudy, data collection trategie, anEducation (Berlin) alytic procedure ,and pecific re earch que tion . University of Briti h Columbia The meeting wa de igned to draw upon the Catholi Uni e ity of America trength of the two field, ocial hi tory and child Univer ity of Rochester development. The participant from hi tory, killed Univer ity of Cambridge University of IIlinoi in a e ing the cour e of ocial change, were a ked to Princeton Univer ity work on the implication for children and childhood. Univer ity of Heidelberg Participants from child development brought experHarvard Univer ity ti e on the ocial, cognitive, and affective developUniversity of Iowa ment of children and on the organi mic and enviVirginia Polytechni In titute and tate Univer ity ronmental factor which affect the e developments. University of Penn ylvania Thu, prior to the meeting, the child develop(reporter) mentali ts were charged with the ta k of identifyUniver ity of Minnesota ing at lea t five prominent behavioral phenomena in University of Illinois the life experience of children: aggre ive and other National In titute of Mental problem behavior ; attachment and intimacy; a piraHealth University of Penn ylvania tion and achievement; intelligence and cognition; Univer ity of Michigan and intervention. Likewi e, the historian were Max Plan k In titute for charged with identifying five ocial historical change Human Development and ince the 1920 in the United States that have major Education (Berlin) implication for the well-being and development of University of Leed VOW ~E




children; thi hi torical period wa cho en to avoid a primary focu on the effect of indu trialization and to overlap with the chronological emergence of the field of child development. The hi torian 'nominee were: televi ion and other technological innovation ; change in pro perity; the Depre ion and World War II; change in women' role; and change in child-rearing ideologie and practice . The overall goal of the meeting wa to explore po ible linkage between the behavior and/or life experience of children and ocial historical change ; po ibilitie and trategie for re earching uch linkage were al 0 given a high priority. The program con i ted of an opening e ion on Wedne day evening during which different analytical model were di cu ed for examining linkage between hi torical change and children' behavior; thi e ion was chaired by Glen H. Elder, Jr. and John Modell. The fir t morning e ion con i ted of brief pre entation from each field on the five re pective variable or domain ( I) Child development

rnold ameroff teven

hlo man

Yvonne chiitze

Peter Tuttle heldon White Viviana Ze1izer

Univer ity of IIIinoi at Chicago Rand Corporation ( anta Monica, California) Max Planck In titute for Human Developm nt and Education (Berlin) Univer ity of Kansa Harvard Univer ity Barnard Coli ge

A a re ult of di cus ion at the meeting, four area were identified for further exploration: aggre ion and problem behavior; attitude and ocial value toward children; children' play and folk game ; and the age tructure and amount of choice in the child' life experience. Glen H. Elder, Jr., and Ro D. Parke organized the child development component of the meeting, and John Modell, Peter Stearn , and William Tuttle organized the hi torical component.

Summer Institute on Individual Development and Social Change

The Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral cience and the ubcommittee co pon ored an intitute, held at the Center July 9 through Augu t 15, 1984. Subcommittee member Richard Lerner and John Meyer codirected the ix-week in titute. The in titute focu ed on the relation between indi(2) History vidual development and ocial change. Thi i ue ha Jay Mechling, "Televi ion and Technology" attracted recent theoretical intere t and empirical atViviana Zelizer, "Pro perity and Attitudes to Children" tention. For in tance, there ha been much intere tin William Tuttle, "The Depre ion and World War II" hi torical change that alter the ocial tructure in Joan Brumberg, "Women' Role" Peter tearn, "Child-rearing Ideologie and Practice" which individual development take place. And there i renewed intere t in the impact of individual and The remaining e ion of the meeting con i ted of cohort development upon ocial change. Finally, in general di cu ion and pecific di cu ion organized everal field there i a renewed inclination to ee by ubgroup around pecific topical or analytical individual development a not only ituationally aftheme. Ro D. Parke and Peter tearn erved a fected, but al 0 a contextually tructured. The in tichair at the e e ion. tute empha ized theoretical i ue that emerge from Participants included: the e new line of work. It al 0 empha ized methodological problem rai ed by the foci, and options Foundation for Child Orville G. Brim, Jr. Development (New York) available to deal with them. Such theoretical and Cornell Univer ity Joan Jacob Brumberg methodological problem were illu trated through Yale Univer ilY Emily Cahan diver e ub tantive literature : for in tance, concepUniver ity of North Carolina Robert Cairn tion and tudie of mental abilitie , tempermental Brandeis Univer ity John Demo individuality and p ycho ocial adju tment, the ocial Glen H. Elder, Jr. Univer ity of North Carolina context of "mothering role ," hi torical change in Tamara Hareven Harvard Univer ity Univer ity of Kansa France Degan Horowitz childhood ettings, and other topic of intere t to University of Wiscon in Carl Kae tie in titute participant . Yale Univer ity William Ke en An announcement of the in titute wa di tributed Univer ity of California, Davi Jay Mechling widely during the fall of 1983. Application were due John Modell Carnegie-Mellon Univer ity during January 1984 and reviewed during March. Ros D. Parke Univer jty of IIIinoi Robert Cairn , "Aggre ion/Problem Behavior" Ro s D. Parke, "Attachment/Intimacy" Orville G. Brim, Jr., "A pi ration and Achievement" heldon White, "Intelligence/Cognition" Arnold Sameroff, "Intervention"



The participant in the in titute and their affiliation were: David Baker Roy F. Baumenster Geraldine K. Brookin Roger A. Dixon

Nancy Eisenberg Martin E. Ford Jennifer L. Gla s andra Graham Anita L. Greene William B. Harvey

The Catholic University of America Case Western Reserve Univer ity Jackson tate University Max Planck Institute for Human Development and Education (Berlin) Arizona tate Univer ity tanford Univer ity Univer ity of Southern California University of California, Lo Angele We t Virginia University North Carolina State Univer ity

Mary R. Holley K. Jill Kiecolt Tri Van Nguyen Vilma Ortiz ally I. Power J. Arturo ilva Mark J . tern David L. Steven on Ro A. Thomp on Barbara J. Tin ley Alexander von Eye

Montclair tate College Loui iana State University Cornell University Univer ity of Wiscon in Harvard Medical School tanford Univer ity Medical Center University of Penn ylvania Oberlin College University of Nebra ka University of Illinois Max Planck In titute for Human Development and Education (Berlin)

A report prepared by the director and the participants i available from Lonnie R. Sherrod at the Councilor Robert cott at the Center. 0

Activities of the Joint Area Committees Joint Advisory Committee on International Programs

were joined by the pre idents of the two Council , a well a the profe ional taff that work with the area committee . The meeting it elf wa largely devoted to Meeting for the fir t time on December 14, 1984, reviewing the background and mandate of the comthe new Joint Advi ory Committee on International mittee and to preliminary di cus ions of the diver ity Programs began to layout a long-term agenda conof current area committee programs and funding, a cerned with the program and core funding of the 11 well a to di cu ions of broad is ue , trend , and joint area committees, as well as the larger intellectual opportunitie -intellectual, organizational, and and tructural i ue in international re earch which financial-for international re earch generally. The provide the context for the area committee' activitie . committee expect to consult with the area commitThe committee wa appointed on the recomtee on the e i sue before its next meeting in May mendation of the Committee on Problem and Policy 1985. by the pre idents of the Council and the American Council of Learned Societies-Kenneth Prewitt and John William Ward. It i compo ed of Richard D. African research overview papers Lambert, Univer ity of Penn ylvania (chair); Robert In a continuing effort to timulate a dialogue that Darnton, Princeton Univer ity; Jame W. Fernandez, Princeton Univer ity; Wendy Doniger O'Flaherty, will a e the tate of ocial cientific and humani tic Univer ity of Chicago; Jonathan D. Spence, Yale re earch on Africa, the Joint Committee on African University; Rodolfo Stavenhagen, EI Colegio de Studie commis ion paper which review the tate of Mexico; Franci X. utton, Dobb Ferry, New York; re earch on particular topic for pre entation at the and Immanuel Wallerstein, State Univer ity of New annual meetings of the African Studie A ociation. York, Binghamton. Me r. tavenhagen, Sutton, and Paper pre ented at the 1983 meeting of the Waller tein are al 0 member of the Council' Com- as ociation-"The Food Cri i and Agrarian Change mittee on Problem and Policy. David L. Szanton in Africa: A Review E ay" by Sara S. Berry, Bo ton Univer ity, and "Labor and Labor History in Africa" erve a taff. At it initial e ion, the member of the committee by Bill Freund, Univer ity of the Witwater rand-have 76






been publi hed a a pecial i ue of the a OClatJon journal, the African Studie Review (27:2, June 1984; ee review on page 87-88, below). At the 1984 meeting of the as ociation, held October 25-28 at the Lo Angele Hilton Hotel, paper were pre ented on three topic : "The Social Origin of Health and Healing in Africa," by teven Feierman, Univer ity of Wiscon in "African Gno is: Philosophy and the Order of Knowledge," by V. Y. Mudimbe, Haverford College "Afri an Oral Tradition and Literature," by Harold Scheub, Univer ity of Wiscon in

Topic of future paper include: Comparative Religiou Movement; The Per on and the Life-Cycle in African Social Life and Thought; The Vi ual Arts; Pea ant and Rural ocial Prote t; Popular Culture; Rural Development; The Military in Africa; and Marx, Africa, and the We t.

African agriculture: conceptualizing the household Macrolevel data on production, food imports, and nutrition in Africa all point toward a ignificant po twar deterioration in many region and ector of the rural economy, particularly in taple food production. Far Ie clear, however, are the underlying proce e which account for thi ituation. The Joint Committee on African tudie ha initiated a project, "African Agriculture: Cri i and Tran formation," which aim to clarify the e proce e by e tabli hing a framework for multidi ciplinary analy i of the complex interaction of ocial, political, and ecological tructure which have re ulted in the current cri i in African agriculture. In eeking to develop new reearch theme , analytical concept, and field methodologie to a e the complex proce e of change in African and other rural economie , the project will empha ize the interdependent functioning of hou eholds, regional economie , and national and international y tern . The committee initiated work on the project' component on Gender, Hou ehold, and A ociation with an international work hop on Conceptualizing the Hou ehold: I ue of Theory, Method, and Application. A the tudy of hou ehold and family dynamic ha gained greater importance, both in long-term hi. torical tudies and in hou ehold decision-making analy es, the method of de cription and analy i have become more ophisticated and have been ubjected to greater crutiny. Particular i sue of controver y concern the boundarie of household and of ignificant unit of production, DECEMBER


con umption, and inve tment; the linkage between uch units; the intrahou ehold relation with special reference to gender; and the hort- and long-term implication of particular hou ehold strategie for broader ocioeconomic pattern . The e concern have become particularly important in the African context where all analytical model centered on the corporate hou ehold have become problematic in their empirical application. To explore different di ciplinary and theoretical approache to hou ehold dynamic in Africa and their methodological implication , an international workshop wa organized by Jane I. Guyer and Pauline Peter, both of Harvard Univer ity. The meeting, which took place November 2-4, 1984 at Harvard, brought together cholar who have re ponded to the challenge of conceptualizing the hou ehold and collecting hou ehold data in their local re earch ituations by critiquing and modifying exi ting model and inventing new approache . The work hop ought to facilitate the exchange of critical and innovative in ights, experiments, and ucce es and failure which participant had experienced in the field. Work hop participant were concerned with adapting method which incorporate and document the differential role, work, value , contribution , and welfare of women and children within households; method which enable the short-run data and synchronic analy i to be integrated with analysi of mid-term developmental cycle and long-term trend ; and methods which permit relation within the hou ehold units to be set within a wider ocial context. In the workshop discu ion, participants hared, examined, and critiqued creative innovations which they had developed in re ponse to the challenge po ed by the e concern in their particulari tic field ituation , within particular di ciplinary frameworks, or within particular re earch group and institutions. The workshop began by examining different way of conceptualizing and approaching the hou ehold, and way in which theoretical and/or practical policy concerns of participant have determined the formulation of field que tions and method. ubsequent e ions focused on methods developed at the microeconomic level to addre internal hou ehold organization and its relation hip to patterns of allocation; distributive relation hip which may cros hou ehold boundarie and involve member in wider units and network of re ource acce ,for production as well as consumption and investment; and interfamilial relation in broader contexts, e pecially in regard to labor acce s and allocation. pecial attention wa given to the influence of pa t policies-for exam-


pie, family and land law, taxation, and rural development projects--on hou ehold and family relation ; and conver ely, to the implications of concept and method of hou ehold re earch for policy i ue. The work hop al 0 con idered method of defining dimen ion of family change which encompa political and economic change, and the problem of reconstructing hi tory and extrapolating trend which can be linked back to microeconomic method The work hop participant were: O.,mund nigbo Mark Beittel

Univer ity of Nigeria tate Univer ity of New York, Binghamton Eileen Berry Clark Univer ity Bo ton Univer ity Sara Berry Dehorah Bryceson Sl. Antony's College (Oxford) University of Liverpool Lynne Brydon Graham Chipande Chancellor College Elizabeth Eames Harvard Univer ity Felicia Ekejiuba Univer ity of igeria Eleanor Fapohund.1 University of Lago Hilar Feld,tein Harvard Institute for I nternational Development Harvard Univer ity James Ferguson Jean-Marc Gastellu OR TOM (Pari ) :\1artha Gephart Social ience Research Coun il Mitzi Goheen Tufts University Luisella (~oldschmidt- lermonL Free University of Brus e1s Northeastern University Jeanne Henn Allen Hoben Bo ton University Christine Jone~ Harvard Institute for International Development Pri,dlla Kariuki Univer ity of Nairobi Diane Kayongo-Male University of Nairobi Eileen Kennedy IFPRI (Washington, D.C.) Fas~il Kiro~ o REA (Addis Ababa) Shbuh Kuma!¡ IFPRI (Washington, D.C.) G. Kamau Kuria University of Nairobi Mothokoa Mamashela Univer ity of Lesotho Elias Mandala Univer ity of Roche ter William Martin tate University of New York, Binghamton Boston Univer ity James McCann Ford Foundation (New York) Katherine McKee Della McMillan Univer ity of Florida Joyce Lewinger Moock Rockefeller Foundation (New York) olin Murray Univer ity of Liverpool H.W.O.Okoth-Ogendo Univer ity of Nairobi Onigu Otite Univer ity of Nigeria Pepe Roberts Univer ity of u ex Beatrice Rogers Tuft University Parker hipton Harvard Univer ity Fatou Sow Univer ity of Dakar Megan Vaughan Univer ity of Cambridge H. Leroy Vail Harvard Univer ity Ann Whitehead Univer ity of u ex


"Afrodisc": creating archives for visual materials The Joint Committee on African tudie pon ored a planning meeting to explore the fea ibility of creating a videodi c archive for vi ual material . Organized by Jean M. Borgatti, Clark Univer ity, the meeting wa held at the Mu eum of African Art in Wa hington, D.C. on June 28, 1984. Repre entative of two commercial firm demon trated the po ibilitie of the videodisc technology for preserving photographic materials in a pre entation both to the planning committee organized by M . Borgatti and to member of the Smith onian In titution. A videodisc archive would record private collections of fragile photographic material in a more durable format; it could also house videodisc record of institutional image collection. During the coming year, the planning committee will explore the fea ibility of ecuring funding for a pilot project. The participant in the meeting were: Jean M. Borgatti Margaret Child Karen Dubiler Ekpo Eyo Bryna Freyer Valentine Grigorians Ivan Karp Peter Koehn Ed Lit: chitz Mary McCutcheon Donald Morrison Robert icholl imon Ottenberg Claude avary Harold Scheub Roy ieber Janet tanley ylvia William

Clark Univer ity Smith onian In titution mith onian In titution Department of Antiquitie (Lago) Museum of African Art Gaither burg, Maryland mithsonian Institution University of Montana Mu eum of African Art Smith onian In titution Harvard Univer ity Howard Univer ity University of Wa hington Ethnographi Mu eum (Geneva) Univer ity of Wiscon in Museum of African Art Smithsonian In titution Museum of African Art

Discourse in the humanities and social sciences in African studies


In an effort to promote a reflexive dimen ion in African tudie, the Joint Committee on African tudie pon ored a erie of panel at the 1984 annual meeting of the African Studie A ociation which ought to examine the manner in which the field of African tudie and its different national traditions have drawn upon an already-con tituted et of image and idea about Africa to conduct it work. Four panel examined the effect of ocial and cultural





background in the production of Africani t knowl- nature of the cri i of the tate in po tcolonial Africa. edge and evaluated the con equence of utilizing Pre entation on Zaire con idered the hi torical backcholarly format and written mode of tran mi ion ground of the Zairian cri is, its international dimento repre ent the range of experience in Africa. The ions, and urvival trategie in urban and rural area . peaker and di eu ants in the panel were: The Zairian case wa then as e ed in light of comparative analy e of Burundi, Chad, Ghana, Rwanda, African Humanities: The Impact of Western Conceptualizations and Uganda. Chair: DonaldJ. Co entino, University of California, Los Angeles peaker : Timothy Asch, University of Southern California Kwabena Nketia, Univer ity of Pittsburgh Discu ant: Warren D'Azevedo, Univer ity of Nevada Discourse in Africanist Social Science

Chair: Ivan Karp, mithsonian In titution (Washington, D.C.) peaker : Lual Acuek L. Deng, U niver ity of Wisconsin Deny e de aivre, AUDECAM (Pari) David Parkin, hool of Oriental and African tudies (London) Africanisms I: Hi tori cal Trends

Chair: V. Y. Mudimbe, Haverford College peaker : Fernando Lambert, Laval Univer ity Laurent Monnier, Lausanne Univer ity Alf hwarz, Laval Univer ily Di us ants: Wyatt MacGaffey, Haverford College Nzongola-Ntalaja, Howard Univer ity Africani m II: Epi temological Is ues

Chair: V. Y. Mudimbe, Haverford College peakers: Bogumil Jewsiewicki, Laval Univer ity D ni Martin, International Cenler for Political l en e, Pari Paul Rabinow, Univer ily of California, Berkeley Discu sant: Immanuel Waller lein, tale University of New York, Binghamton

Myths and realities of the Zairian crisis

Participants in the work hop were: Mario Azevedo Eyamba G. Bokamba Thoma Callaghy Walter C. Carrington Robert J. Cummings Walter T. Davis, Jr. Dibinga wa aid Paul-Albert Emoungu Emmanuel Hansen Mervat Hatem alen Hull lIunga Kabongo Bogumil Jew iewicki Ghi lain C. Kabwit

Kalonzo lIunga Edward Kannyo

Rene Lemarchand Winsome Le lie Janet MacGaffey Makidi Ku Ntima Philomene Makolo Etienne Mbaya Bonaventure Mbida-Essama

The Republic of Zaire has been in a nearly- William Minter continuou tate of cri i ince its independence in 1960. A major dimen ion of thi ocial and institu- V. Y. Mudimbe T. L. Mukenge tional cri i ha been the chronic inability of thi re ource-rich country to generate and u tain eco- Franl;ois Muyumba nomic growth and development. To date, cholarly Catharine Newbury David Newbury analy es have failed to explain the nature and under- Sulayman . Nyang lying cau e of thi cri i and its eon equence for the Nzongola- talaja people of Zaire. To examine the rea on for thi fail- Jean-Philippe Peemans ure, and to generate new ideas and approache , the Allen F. Roberts . N. Sang-Mpam Joint Committee on African Studies spon ored a reBereket Habte e1assie eareh work hop on "Myth and Realitie of the ZaiHerbert F. Wei rian Crisi .. on October 5-6, 1984 at Howard Univer- Stephen R. Wei sman ity. Organized by Nzongola-Ntalaja, Howard Univer ity, the work hop began with a se ion on the



Jack on tate University University of Illinois Columbia University Howard Univer ity Howard Univer ity San Francisco Theological Seminary Omenana Re earch Center (Roxbury, Ma achu etts) Howard Univer ity The Open Univer ity, London Region Howard University The Pragma Corporation (Washington, D. .) University of Kin hasa Laval Univer ity International developm nt con ultant (Washington, D.C.) Zairian National Railroad Company Human rights and development consultant (New York) University of Florida Columbia Univer ity Bryn Mawr College Atlanta Univer ity Univer ity of Ottawa Univer ity of Cologne World Bank (Wa hington, D.C.) Contributing editor, Africa Nt'W.\

Haverford College Morri Brown College Indiana State Univer ity We leyan University Bowdoin College Howard Univer ity Howard Univer ily Catholic University of Louvain Univer ilY of Michig-dn DePauw University Howard University Brooklyn College taff as ociate, House ubcommittee on Africa, U.S. Congre


Gender issues in Japanese studies The joint ommittee on japane e tudie ponored a workshop on june 28-29, 1984, at the Univer ity of Wa hington to con ider po ible new direction for re earch on gender in japan a part of its ffort to direct attention to important but underdevelop d area within japane e tudi . The committ e convened thi work hop with everal goal in mind: to provide an opportunity for member of the committee and other to con ider i ue rai ed by re earch on gender; to inform the committee' di cu ion of future projects it may be called upon to evaluate or p n or; and to encourage the development and di emination of new analytic per pe tive on gender throughout japane e tudie. In particular, the committee hoped that di cu ion of analytical and theor ti al p r pective on gender i ue developed in variou di cipline and in other area tudi field might provide in ight not only about the role and position of japane e women but al 0 about the nature of japane e society and culture a a whole. Thi exploratory meeting, however, wa a brain tormin"g eion, not an attempt to develop pecific re earch agenda. The work hop' participants included peciali ts in anthropology, economic, history, political cience, and . ciology. everal cholar who are not japan speciali ts were invited becau e their work ha examined gender i ue comparatively, and japan peciali t included both tho e who have and tho e who have not previously focu ed on gender i ue. At the out et, di cu ion centered on whether exi ting re earch ha focu ed too narrowly on women and women' tudie, and whether reca ting the inquiry a a tudy of japane e gender would ignificandy broaden and enrich the general under tanding of japan. In propo ing gender a an organizing concept, e eral work hop member argued that almo t all in titution ,relation hip , ideologie , and domain of activity may be con idered "gendered," to the extent they affect or reflect definition of tructured relation between male and female role . Participants agreed that by u ing gender a a general category of analy i , a wide variety of political, cultural, ocial, and economic in titution , relation hip , ideologie , and form of behavior that are not u ually con idered in term of "women' role" could be linked conceptually in way that would illuminate general features of japane e ociety. Under the broad rubric of gender tudie., everal major conceptual theme emerged from the di uion. The e included : (1) hi torical tran formation


of gender ideologi and role ; (2) the inter ection of gender with cla and other y tern of tructured inequality; (3) ymbolic conception of gender, and the ocial and cultural con truction of gender role and differentiation; and (4) international dimen ion of gender concept. A fuller report on the work hop will appear in the Journal of Japane e tudies, Volume 11, umber I, Winter 1985. The workshop wa held at the jack on chool of International tudie at the Univer ity of Wa hington. The participan and their affiliation were: Jane M. tkinson Janet Z. Giele u an B. Hanley Hara Hiroko Barbara 1olony u an J. Pharr David W. Plath Thomas P. Rohl n Gary R. axonhou e Patricia G. teinhoff ylvia J . Yanagisako

Lewi. and Clark liege Brand is University University of Wa hington Ochanomizu niver ity Univer ity of anta lara Univ rsity of Wiscon in Univer ity of IIIinoi an n elmo, California Univer ity of Mi higan Univer ity of Hawaii tanford Univer it

W. Dean Kinzley, Univer ity of California, an Diego, erved a the work hop' rapporteur; Theodore C. Be tor erved a taff. Although the committee ha no immediate plan to organize work hop, conference ,or eminar that pecifically addre i ue urrounding gender a a category of analy i in the tudy of japan, it wi he to encourage cholar throughout the field to addre i ue of gender more centrally in their re earch and to develop new analytical approache that con ider japan a a "gendered ociety." The committee will welcome new from tho e who e re earch ha involved or will incorporate uch per pective .

Party, state, and society in the Russian civil war On October 27-28, 1984, the fourth. ub tantive meeting of the ational eminar on the ocial Hi tory of Ru ia in the Twentieth Century wa convened at the Univer ity of Penn ylvania under the co pon or hip of the ational Endowment for the Humanitie and the joint ommitte on oviet tudie . Its principal aim was to explore the e ential analytical i ues of Ru. ian . ocial hi tory during the civil war period (1918-21), in order to clarify current re earch problems and to et, in effect, a new re earch agenda. Thirty-two . cholar participated directly; eight or nine other attended by invitation and participated in the di cu ion. The eminar wa initially organized in the fall of VOL



U 1Bt.R


1979 at the initiative of Mo he Lewin and Alfred J. Rieber, both of the U niver ity of Penn ylvania. The eminar' objective from the tart ha been to bring together at an annual meeting a mall number of cholar with a direct and active re earch intere t in modern Ru ian and oviet ocial hi tory. Initial eion focu ed on way in which the ocial hi tory of Ru ian and oviet ociety might be better undertood and advanced, on key re earch is ue , and on the conceptual dimen ion of Ru ian and oviet 0cial hi tory more broadly. Sub equent eminar brought together individual actively tudying two problem identified a central to under tanding Ru ian and oviet ocial development: the pea antry and the bureaucracy. In contra t to cholarly conference of the ort a ociated with profes ional organization ,the eminar ha ought to explore inten ively a common re earch problem, rather than pre ent ummarie of completed work. A uch, it ha erved the valuable (and unique) function of advancing eriou work in the area of Ru ian and Soviet ocial hi tory at its early tage ,allowing re earcher to pre ent a pect of their ongoing work for eriou and con tructive critici m. Pre enter have either been active re earcher in the common topic under review or analy ts of relevant hi toriographical and theoretical i ue. All eminar participants have hared the pre enter' re earch intere t in ome way; and all have a umed by their participation the obligation to read each paper carefully in advance and to contribute eriously to the di cu ion. (With the exception of introductory and ummary pre entation, pre enter have been limited to two or three brief ob ervation about their paper. De ignated di cu ant and the eminar participants a a whole have then addre ed the problem in each paper.) The eminar on "Party, tate, and Society in the Ru ian Civil War" focu ed on five major theme : (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)

change in ocial and demographic tructure urban-rural relation tate and party in titution the role of the intelligentsia cla e and nationalitie

Introductory analy e of the civil war and its relationhip to ocial proce e generally in early 20th century Ru ia, and of the civil war and ocial revolution in the hi torical literature, were pre ented by Leopold Haim on, Columbia Univer ity, and heila Fitzpatrick, Univer ity of Texa . A ummary pre entation wa given by Mo he Lewin. DE



In addition to the introductory and concluding e ion ,the eminar' program included the following: ( 1) Social and demographic change

hair: Alfred J. Rieber, Univer ity of Penn ylvania "The Impact of World War I, the 1917 Revolution, and the Civil War on the Civilian Population of the oviet Union," Barbara A. Anderson, Univer ity of Michigan "Rus ian Citie in Cri i : The Urban Population in the Civil War," Daniel R. Brower, University of California, Davi "The Impact of the Civil War on Women and Family Relation ," Barbara Evan Clements, University of Akron Di u sants: Carol Hayden, Univer ity of California, Berkeley Diane Koenker, Univer ity of IIIinoi (2) City and countryside

hair: Roberta Manning, Bo ton College "The Evolution of District Soviets in Petrograd, 1917-1920: The Case of the Fir t City Di trict Soviet," Alexander Rabinowitch , Indiana Univer ity "Bread Without the Bourgeoi ie," Mary McAuley, Univer ity of E ex Di cu ants: Donald Raleigh, Univer ity of Hawaii Robert Johnson, Univer ity of Toronto (3) State and Party in titutions

Chair: Neil Wei man, Dickin on Colleg " tate Building in the Ru ian Revolution : The Role of the 'Petty Bourgeoi ie,''' Daniel T . Orlov ky, uthern Methodist Un iver ity "The Rationalization of tate Kontrol' ," Thoma F. Remington, Emory University "The Early Development of the Soviet overnment Bureaucracy, Center, Localitie , Nationality Area ," Jonathan R. Adelman, Univer ity of Denver Discu ant: Victoria Bonnell, Univer ity of California, Berkeley Richard Wortman , Princeton Univer ity (4) The role and fate of social elites

Chair: Abbott Gleason, Brown Univer ity "Social Elites in the Ru ian Civil War: The Professoriate," Jame C. McClelland, University of Nebra ka-Lincoln "Natural Scienti ts and the Soviet Sy tern," Kendall E. Baile, University of California, Irvine "Arti t in the ProlttJrul't: The Problem of Experti e," Lynn Mally, Vas ar College Discussan : Peter Kenez, University of California, anta Cruz Gregory Freiden, Stanford University (5) Clas es and nationalities

Chair: Allan Wildman, Ohio State University "Social Democrat in Power: Men hevik Georgia and the Ru ian Civil War," Ronald Grigor uny, University of Michigan "The Social Background to Tsektran," William G. Ro enberg, Univer ity of Michigan " Mo cow Worker During the Tran ition to NEP," William Cha e, Univer ity of Pitt burgh Discu ants : Reginald Zelnik, Univer ity of California, Berkeley Diane Koenker, Univer ity of IIIinoi


Other eminar participants included David Macey, Middlebury College, who chaired the concluding eion; Dorothy Atkin on, American As ociation for the Advancement of Slavic Studie ; William Hu band, Princeton Univer ity; Andrew Verner, warth more College; and Mark von Hagen, Columbia Univer ity. Under the pon or hip of the Joint Committee on

Soviet Studie and the direction of Me r. Rabinowitch and Ro enberg, two further eminar have been planned for the fall or winter of 1986-87 and of 1987-88. -William G. Ro enberg U niver ity of Michigan

Summer Workshop on Soviet and East European Economics The Joint Committee on oviet tudie announce a new program of ummer Workshop on Soviet and Ea t European Economic . The fir t work hop, to be held in the two-week period, July B-21, 1985, at the Univer ity of IIIinoi , will be directed by Herbert . Levine of the Univer ity of Penn ylvania. It i ponored by the committee in cooperation with the Joint Committee on Ea tern Europe. Fund for the workhop are provided by the Ford Foundation. Objtctivt : The work hop i intended to counteract the en e of i olation felt by many graduate tudents and junior cholar di per ed widely over many campu e by providing them with an opportunity to interact with their peer , to discu their re earch and matters of mutual concern, and to e tabli h contacts with each other that it i hoped will continue. The work hop will al 0 explore the u e of new ource and method of analy i and important current i ue in the field. The ultimate goal of the workhop i to timulate high quality research that will contribute to the revitalization of the field of Soviet and East European economic . Tht program: The program for the work hop will include eminar discus ion of the re earch being conducted by each of the participants; and discu ion and lectures by enior pecialists on their own re-


earch, major i ues in the field, the u e of ource material, and employment opportunitie in Soviet and Ea t European economic. pecialized language training will be provided on an individual tutorial basi . Financial assistanu: All workshop co t , including tran portation and tipend for participants ( 600 for graduate tudent and 1,000 for junior cholar) will be provided by the Council. Hou ing will be provided by the Soviet and Ea t European Center of the Univer ity of IIIinoi with fund from the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation. Eligibility, applications, and tltction: Work hop participants will be elected on the ba is of a national competition to be admini tered by the Council. Application will be a cepted from (I) tudents in viet and Ea t European economic who are enrolled in Ph.D. program in the United tate or Canada; and (2) junior cholar in Soviet and Ea t European economic who received their Ph.D a/ttT June 1978, and who are affiliated with United State or Canadian univer itie or are United tate or Canadian citizen or re idents. The application deadline i March 15, 1985. For application form and further information, write the Joint Committee on Soviet Studie , Social cience Research Council, 605 Third Avenue, New York, New York 10158.




Other Activities at the Council Findings from the Census of 1980

tive are being taken on related bodie of data. The fir t project, the Comparative Analy i of ocial MoThe 1984 annual meeting of the American Stati tibility in Indu trial ation (ba ed at the Univer ityof cal A ociation included a e ion at which early reMannheim and directed by Me r. Goldthorpe and ults were reported from re earch being conducted Miiller), is an effort to archive and make comparable under the pon or hip of the Council' Committee the ocial mobility tudie that have been conducted for Re earch on the 1980 Cen u . The committee ha in over a dozen nation ince 1962. The other i the commi ioned a erie of research projects that will Comparative Project on Cia Structure and Cia lead to book intended to erve a authoritative deCon ciou ne ,involving comparable urvey of the cription of American ociety, exploiting the area population of (currently) even nation, under t.he detail, the information on ubgroup of the popu!adirection of cholar in univer itie and re earch Intion, and the extended time erie which charactenze titute in tho e nation , with leader hip from Erik decennial cen u data. Olin Wright. The e two projects are the principal The annual meeting of the a ociation (in Philadelinternational efforts to conduct comparative tratifiphia, Augu t 13-16, 1984) offered. an opportunity cation re earch. Contribution to the work hop were for re earcher in thi project to obtain comments and al 0 made on the analy i of change in long-term critici m from their colleague in tati tic and other occupational tructure. The committee hope that ocial cience, and for the re earch community to thi exchange of view and of early re ults of re earch learn more about the project and the re ults it i can be u eful in informing and perhap haping the producing. Paper were pre ented by: ongoing re earch of participants. Donald J. Hernandez, U. . Bureau of the Cen u , and David E. Paper were pre ented at two e ions: Myer , Deci ion Re ources, Inc. "The Changing Living Circum tance of America' Children" Alden peare, Jr., Brown Univer ity, and William Frey, Univer ity of Michigan "Correlates of Metropolitan Growth and Decline, 1970-1980" Michael J. White, Princeton Univer ity . "Mea uring eighborhood Differentiation in Metropohtan Area" Jacob S. iegel, Georgetown Univer ity, and Cynthia M. Taeuber, U .. Bureau of the Cen u "A Profile of America's Older Population : A Generation of Change"

Ann Miller, Univer ity of Penn ylvania, di cu ed the paper ; Richard C. Rockwell erved a taff.

Conceptions of class


( I) Conceptualizing clas structures

Tom Colbj~rn en, "Revealing the Empirical Relevance of Marx: Some Theoretical and Methodological I ue" John H. Goldthorpe, "Social Mobility and Cia Formation: On the Renewal of a Tradition in Sociological Inquiry" Howard Newby, Carolyn Vogler, David Ro e, and Gordon Marhall, "From Cia Structure to Cia Action: Briti h Working Cia Politic in the 1980 " Erik Olin Wright, "Cia tructure and Clas Con ciou ne in Contemporary Capitalist Society: A Comparative Analy i of Sweden and the United tates" and "A General Framework for the Analy i of Cia tructure" (2) Explaining changes in class structures

Giorgio Gagliani, "Long Run Changes in the Occupational tructure" Joachim ingelmann and Marta Tienda, "The Proce of ~cu­ pational Change in a ervice Society: The Ca e of the Umted tate , 1960-1980"

The Committee on Comparative Stratification Reearch pon ored a work hop on "Conception of Participants included: Cia ," held in Budape t, September 7-8, 1984. The Rudolph Andorka workshop wa organized by John H. Goldthorpe, Nuffield College (Oxford), and Walter Miiller, Univer ity of Mannheim. upport wa provided by a Tom Colb~rn en Robert Erikson grant from the ational cience Foundation. The work hop focu ed on alternative approache David L. Featherman to the tudy of cla. and the tructure of occupation . Giorgio Gagliani Pre entation were made by re earcher affiliated John H. Goldthorpe with two projects in which rather different per pec- Robert M. Hau er DECEMBER


Karl Marx University of Economic Science (Budape t) Univer ity of Bergen Swedi h In titute for Social Research ( tockholm) University of Wisconsin Univer ity of Calabria Nuffield College (Oxford) Univer ity of Wi on in


Tamas Kolosi Wolfg-.lOg Konig Gordon Marshall Karl Ulrich Mayer

Walter Muller Howard Newby Natalie Rogoff Ram Albert imku Joachim Singlemann Ken'ichi Tominaga Erik Olin Wright


In titute for Social ience (Bud ape t) Univer ity of Mannheim University of E ex Max Planck Institute for Educational Research (Berlin) Univer ity of Mannheim Univer ity of Es ex In titute for Applied Social Research (0 10) Univer ity of Michigan University of Dui burg Univer ity of Tokyo Univer ity of Wi on in

Peter B. Read and Richard C. Rockwell erved a taff.

procedure; and (3) on the plan for di emination of data. The ympo ium included the following es IOns, participants, and pre entation ( I) Core concepts

Chair, Martin H. David Harold W. Watts, "The Scientifi Potential of IPP for Anal of Living Arrangements for Families and Hou ehold " Greg j . Duncan, "Remark on the Mea urement of Household and Family Relation hip Based on the P ID Experience" Reynold Farley, "Under tanding Racial Differences and Trends: How the urvey of Income and Program Participation Can As i t" Timothy M. meeding, "The Scientific Potential of IPP: I Content and Method Regarding Fringe Benefits, ~onca h Income, and the Value of Government ervices" (2) Areas of social concern

Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP)

Chair, Reynold Farley Thoma j. Espen hade and Dougla A. Wolf, " IPP Data on Marriage, Separation, Divorce, and Remarriage: Problems. Opportunitie • and Recommendation" Gail R. Wilen ky." urvey of Income and Program Participation: Health and Health Care I ue"

The Committee on Social Indicator' Subcommittee on the Survey of Income and Program Participation pon ored a ympo ium on "The Scientific Potential of SIPP: Critique of Its Content and Method ," held (3) Work and education at the Brooking In titution, Wa hington, D.C., Chair. Harold Beebout November 11-13, 1984. The ympo ium, organized Gary S. Fields and George H. Jakubson. "Labor farket Analysi U ing the urvey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP)" by Martin H. David, Univer ity of Wi con in, wa upported by a grant from the National Science Carolyn haw Bell." IPP and the Female Condition" R. Olneck. "Critique of Que tion Pertaining to EducaFoundation and fund from the U.S. Bureau of the Michael tion in the urvey of Income and Program Participation" Cen u . It i anticipated that paper will be publi hed in the June 1985 i ue of The Review oj'Public Data (4) Methodological problems U e, under the gue t editor hip of Mr. David. Chair. Daniel G. Horvitz The SIPP i the major new Bureau of the Censu Martin H. David, "The Di tribution of Income in the United State : Implication forthe De ign of the urvey ofIncome and panel data collection program that i intended to Program Participation Panel" mea ure change in economic well-being (ee the Jame D. mith. "A Little IPP-Old Wine in . ew Bottles: Let' March 1983 i ue of Items, page 26-27, and the Re-cask It" March 1984 i ue, page 16-17, for further detail ). Graham Kalton and James Lepkowski. "Following Rule in the Thi program wa preceded by a pilot project that urvey of Income and Program Participation" heldon E. Haber ... orne Application of a Micro Worker and developed technique for mea uring monthly inFirm Data Base" come from a wide variety of ource. Much Ie attention wa given in the pilot project to mea ure in Informal pre entations were al 0 made by Murray other area -perhap of con iderable analytical Aborn, Roger A. Herriot, Daniel Ka przyk, and Denimportance- uch a education, fringe benefits, fam- ton Vaughan. ily tructure, and health. The participant were: The principal contribution from out ide the • ational Science Foundation Murray Aborn Bureau to the de ign of the e mea ure have come Harold Beebout Mathematica. Inc. from federal program agencie , who e data need are (Washington. D.C.) Welle ley College not nece arily the arne a tho e of re earcher out- Carolyn Shaw Bell U.. D partment of teven Carlson ide the government. The ubcommittee pon ored Agriculture thi ympo ium to provide an opportunity for the U .. Bureau of the ~n u John Coder nonfederal re earch community to comment (1) on Evan Davey U.. Bureau of the ~ u the mea ure being implemented in the IPP; (2) on Martin H. David Univer ity of Wisconsin the de ign of its ample, panel, and data collection Greg J. Duncan Univer it} of Michigan


VOl. Mt:



BEa ..

Thoma J. E penshade

The Urban In titute (Wa hington, D.C.) U. . Office of Management and Budget Univer ity of Michigan Cornell Univer ity The Brooking In titution (Wa hington, D.C.) U.S. Bureau of the Census George Wa hington Univer ity U.. Bureau of the Cen u U. . Bureau of the Cen u Research Triangle In titute (Re earch Triangle Park, North Carolina) U.S. Bureau of the Cen us Research Triangle In titute (Research Triangle Park, North Carolina) Univer ity of Michigan U.S. Bureau of the Cen u U.S. Bureau of the Cen u Univer ity of Wisconsin Rand Corporation ( anta Monica, California)

uzann Evinger Reynold Farley Gary held on Fields Harvey Galper Gordon Green he1don E. Haber Donald J. Hernandez Roger A. Herriot Daniel G. Horvitz

Daniel Kasprzyk Helen P. Koo

Jame Lepkow ki David B. McMillen Jack McNeil Franklin W. Monfort Peter A. Morrison

Art Norton Martin O'Connell Michael R. Olneck Charles G. Renfro Alice Robbin Paul Ry cavage Douglas ater Thoma Scopp Paul Seigel Raj Singh Timothy M. Smeeding James D. Smith Robert P. Strau Tere A. ullivan Denton Vaughan Harold W. Watts Daniel H. Weinberg Gail Wilen ky Douglas Wolf

U.. Bureau of the Cen us U.. Bureau of the Cen u University of Wisconsin Rtvinv

of Public



Univer ity of Wiscon in U.. Bureau of the Censu U.. Bureau of the Cen u U. . Bureau of the Cen u U .. Bureau of the Cen u U.. Bureau of the Cen u Univer ity of Utah Univer ity of Michigan Carnegie-Mellon Univer ity Univer ity of Texa U.. Social ecurity Administration Columbia University U. . D partment of Health and Human Services Project Hope (Washington, D.C.) The Urban Institute (Washington, D.C.)

Richard C. Rockwell erved a


Recent Council Publications Many of the 70..:.80 meeting, work hop, and conference that the Council spon ors each year lead to activitie and re ults other than conference volume -further meeting, article in journal, perhap even new direction for re earch on the part of the participants. But many do lead to conference volume , and a number of committee ometime commi ion the preparation of other volume a well. Council book are alway de cribed in/terns, and are Ii ted in the Annual Report a well. The la t months of

1984 witne ed the publication of an unu ually large number of Council books; in order to guide the reader to book of intere t, we have grouped them in thi ection according to their content. Included in thi ection are book pon ored by two joint area committee that are admini tered by the American Council of Learned Societie : the Joint Committee on Chine e Studie and the Joint Committee on Ea tern Europe.

Contents fRIC




(page 86) SoOnl StratifICation intM Middl~ and North Africa: A Bibliographic Survty, prepared by Ali Banuazizi with the a i lance of Prouche tia Goodarzi (page 86) "The Food Cri i and Agrarian Change in Africa: A Review E ay," by ara . Berry; "Labor and Labor History in Africa: A Review of the Literature," by Bill Freund (page 87)


ationalism to Rroolutionary Naill, edited by aid Amir Arjomand

AS I : C UI .路A

TMori" of tM Arll III China, edited by u an Bush and Chri tian Murck (page 88) Popular ChinN LitNatuTt and P~rfonning Arts in tM P~opl~'s RtfJUblic of China, 1949-1979, edited by Bonnie S. McDougall Cla\\ and SocUil StratifICation III POlt-Rroolution China, edited by James L. Watson (page 89)

(page 88)


Japan~.I~ Stud;,\ in tM Uni"d Sta".I: Th~ 1980's

(page 89) Conflict in japan, edited by Uli . Krau , Thomas P. Rohlen, and Patricia G. teinhoff (page 90) TM Japall~J~ Colonull Empi", 1895-1945, edited by Ramon H . Myers and Mark R. Peattie (page 90)

(continued on nl'xt page) D ECEMBER



Contents (continued) ASIA : SOUTH AND SOUTHEAST ASIA

Agrarian Power and Agricultural Productivity



Sauth Asia, edited by Meghnad Desai, Susanne Hoeber Rudolph, and Ashok

(page 91)

Moral Conduct and Authority: The Place of Adab in Sauth Asian Islam, edited by Barbara Daly Metcalf (page 91) Centers, Symbols, and Hierarchies: Essays on the Classical States of Sautheast Asia, edited by Lorraine Gesick (page 92) EUROPE: EASTERN AND WESTERN EUROPE AND THE SOVIET UNION

Regional Development: Problems and Policies in Eastern and Western Europe, edited by George Demko (page 92) Russia and the Fonnation of the Romanian National State, 1921-1978, by Barbara Jelavich (page 93) Order and Conflict in Contemporary Capitalism, edited by John H. Goldthorpe (page 93) L'organizulzione degli interessi nell'Europa occidentale: Plumlismo, corporativismo, e la trasjonnazione della politica, edited by Suzanne


(page 93)

Soviet Economy (page 94) LATIN AMERICA

The Political Economy of the Latin American Motor Vehicle Industry, edited by Rich Kronish and Kenneth S. Mericle Latin America in the 1930.1': The Role of the Periphery in the World Crisis, edited by Rosemary Thorp (page 95) Kinship Ideology and Practice in Latin America, edited by Raymond T. Smith (page 96)

(page 94)


Blacks and Whites: NmTowing the Gap? by Reynolds Farley (page 97) Capital Flows and Exchange Rate Detennination, edited by Lawrence R. Klein and Wilhelm E. Krelle (page 98) Culture Theory: ESJ(/Ys on Mind, Self, and Emotion, edited by Richard A. Schweder and Robert A. LeVine (page 98) Emotiolls, Cognition, and Behavior, edited by Carroll E. Izard, Jerome Kagan, and Robert B. Zajonc (page 99)


From Nationalism to Revolutionary Islam, edited by Said Amir Arjomand. Papers from a conference sponsored by the Joint Committee on the Near and Middle East. London: Macmillan; Albany: State University of New York Press, 1984. xxii + 256 pages. U.S. edition: cloth, $39.50; paper $14.95. The papers in this volume were, with one exception, originally presented at a conference on social movements and political culture in the contemporary Near and Middle East held in Mt. Kisco, New York, on May 14-17, 1981. The essays by the various authors focus on the endogenous factors contributing to the emergence and growth of social movements in which nationalism or Islam is the driving force. The emerging pattern of the declining significance of nationalism and the concomitant shift to Islam as the focus of popular movements during the last two decades serves as the central unifying theme for the volume. The contributors and their affiliations are: Akbar Ahmed Said Amir Arjomand Shaul Bakhash Richard Cottam Eric Davis Farhad Kazemi


Rashid Khalidi Binnaz Toprak Peter von Sivers

American University of Beirut University (Istanbul) University of Utah Bogazi~i

Social Stratification in the Middle East and North Africa: A Bibliographic Survey, prepared by Ali Banuazizi with the assistance of Prouchestia Goodarzi. A volume produced under the auspices of the Joint Committee on the Near and Middle East. London and New York: Mansell Publishing Limited, 1984. xiii+248 pages. Cloth, ÂŁ31.00; $36.00.

This bibliography of 1,913 entries is a product of an activity of the Task Force on Social Stratification in the Near and Middle East designed to contribute to the study of institutionalized inequalities in the distribution of life chances and economic resources in the Middle E~st and North Africa. The sources covered are those that appeared in English and French between 1946 and 1982. The material is arranged alphabetically by author under 20 country headings, with a separate section for the area in general. The subject index, subdivided alphabetically by Harvard University country, includes the following headings: bourState University of New York, geoisie, business elites, and merchants; demographic Stony Brook studies; elites, local; elites, political; fertility/moPrinceton University tality and social status; guilds; income distriUniversity of Pittsburgh bution; labor force and occupational structure; Rutgers University labor unions and labor movements; landlords; land New York University VOLUME




reform; middle classes; migration, international; migration, rural-urban; military elites and personnel; minorities, ethnicllinguistic; minorities, religious; peasants; petite bourgeoisie; professionals, bureaucrats, managers, etc.; religious groups; rural communities and strata; slavery; social strata and groups; social structure and change; students, teachers, and education; tribal and nomadic communities; urban communities and strata; women; working classes.

"The Food Crisis and Agrarian Change in Africa: A Review Essay," by Sara S. Berry; "Labor and Labor History in Africa: A Review of the Literature," by Bill Freund. Research overview papers commissioned by the Joint Committee on African Studies for presentation at the December 1983 annual meeting of the African Studies Association. Special issue, African Studies Review, 27:2, June 1984. Recent assessments of the performance and prospects of African econ<;>mies portray a deepening economic crisis centered on the problem of food supplies. During the last ten years, domestic food supplies in Africa have fallen further and further behind domestic needs. Chronic hunger and malnutrition have spread and escalated quickly into famine at times of environmental or financial crisis. Covering food deficits from foreign sources has also become more difficult in the last decade. World prices of grains have risen; soaring petroleum prices have put heavy strains on many African countries' balances of payments and worsened their terms of trade; and agricultural exports have not increased sufficiently to cover rising import bills. Food aid to Africa has grown at unprecedented rates in the last decade, but it is neither adequate to meet short-term needs nor a solution to the crisis in the long run. In her review of the research on the food crisis and agrarian change in Africa, Sara S. Berry, Boston University, poses as her central question whether the food crisis in Africa is mainly a result of lagging or insufficient agricultural production or whether it is part of a larger crisis of economic management, reflected in chronic balance of payments deficits, rising foreign indebtedness, inflation, low productivity, corruption, waste, and deteriorating standards of living for all but a privileged few. Sections of the paper present a selective review of the social science literature on various aspects of African agriculture at different levels of social agency, and suggest some ways in which we might attempt to build on existing insights to place the food crisis in clearer historical DECEMBER


and analytical perspective. Section I discusses problems with the evidence and arguments on aggregate agricultural performance, while Section II argues that many case studies of particular farming systems, forms of rural social organization, and patterns of rural-urban linkage in Africa are informed by common paradigms. The strengths and weaknesses of these paradigms for understanding recent agrarian trends are assessed. Section III argues that the limitations of efforts to understand agrarian change in terms of individual responses to technical or structural parameters may be overcome, at least in part, by tracing changing uses of agricultural surplus, and analyzing the ways in which they have shaped and been influenced by conditions of agricultural production and linkages between agricultural and nonagricultural sectors of African economies. Ms. Berry concludes that there is no single explanation or universal cure for African food deficits. Her review has shown that to think through the validity of particular arguments or remedies for the food crisis we need to take account of changing conditions of access to economic opportunity and productive resources as well as examine changes in the way agricultural resources are used. This suggests, in turn, that the future growth of productive capacity in agriculture and in other spheres of productive activity will be closely related to the development of more stable or less contentious conditions of access and adjudication of rights to productive resources, but it does not follow that the food crisis can be resolved or eliminated merely by changing policies until we find the right match between policy instruments and economic conditions. She emphasizes that governments' patterns of resource allocation and acquisition, like farmers', are complex social processes which need to be understood in dynamic perspective. Bill Freund, University of the Witwatersrand, begins his review by considering the historiography of labor in Africa, and he emphasizes that what goes on at work is increasingly complex and problematic. The labor process combines technical elements, the use of specific tools or premises, the hours spent laboring, and the intensity of that labor. Social control at work and outside takes many forms, not always internally consistent or efficacious. The relationship of social controls to economic exploitation is also often quite problematic. He concludes that uncovering these relationships and, more precisely, what goes on within the labo"r process, constitutes the germ of the most interesting current work being written on labor. The first sections of his essay look anew at the great themes of the 1950s and 1960s: the trade umon,


self-conscious working class activity as usually defined, and labor migration and stabilization. Next, he focuses on the analysis of labor in the African past, colonial and precolonial. From this, his essay moves to look at the growing innovative literature expanding the boundaries of African labor studies-labor in agriculture, labor in the functioning of the so-called informal sector of the economy, and the labor of women and children. Finally, he returns to the question of commitment, considering first the assessment of workers' control in contemporary African workplaces and then the influence on recent scholarship of the black labor insurgency in South Africa. Mr. Freund concludes that there has been a flourishing literature on African labor that has passed rapidly and sometimes confusingly beyond the boundaries conventionally set for the subject. If there is a single issue that wittingly or unwittingly underlies all the relevant literature, it is the question of classclass formation, class history, class relationships, class consciousness. To what extent and from when and why can we speak of an African working class? He suggests that the future of labor studies will depend on extraneous and largely material factors rather than the arguments of intellectuals. In other words, the demands of Western capital, the needs of intellectuals, and the actual course of political and economic change in Africa will primarily determine whether labor continues to be as seminal a subject and how research on it will proceed. He suggests that there is and will remain considerable vitality in labor studies both as traditionally constituted and as infused with new considerations, while labor will increasingly be taken as a sine qua non for comprehending broader social and historical patterns. ASIA: CHINA

Theories of the Arts in China, edited by Susan Bush and Christian Murck. Papers from a conference held inJune 1979 sponsored by the Committee on Studies of Chinese Civilization of the American Council of Learned Societies, one of the two predecessor committees of the Joint Committee on Chinese Studies. Princeton University Press, 1983. xxvi + 447 pages. Cloth, $45.00. The purpose of the conference on which this volume is based was to stimulate interest in Chinese aesthetics. For five days, two philosophers and two cultural historians, along with ten historians of Chinese literature and eight of Chinese art, met to comment on and debate about these papers. 88

The topics of the papers include literary theory, images of nature, music theory and poetics, views of the arts during the Sung dynasty, and issues in Ming dynasty literary and artistic criticism. The contributors and their affiliations are: Richard Barnhart Susan Bush Kang-i Sun Chang Jonathan Chaves Kenneth DeWoskin John Hay Lothar Ledderose Shuen-fu Lin Richard John Lynn Kiyohiko Munakata Christian Murck Susan E. Nelson Maureen Robertson Tu Wei-ming John Timothy Wixted Pauline Yu

Yale University Harvard University Yale University George Washington University University of Michigan Harvard University Heidelberg University University of Michigan Macquarie University University of Illinois Manufacturers Hanover Trust Company (New York) Indiana University University of Iowa Harvard University Arizona State University University of Minnesota

Popular Chinese Literature and Performing Arts in the People's Republic of China, 1949-1979, edited by Bonnie S. McDougall. Studies on China 2. Papers from a workshop held in June 1979 sponsored jointly by Harvard University, the Committee on Studies of Chinese Civilization of the American Council of Learned Societies, and the Joint Committee on Contemporary China-the precedessor committees of the Joint Committee on Chinese Studies. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984. xvi + 341 pages. Cloth, $32.50. The papers in this volume constitute a broad and inclusive account of Chinese literature and the performing arts since 1949. Extending beyond fiction to poetry and drama, and covering songs, opera, and film as well, the papers reveal a more lively and varied cultural life than disclosed by studies confined to fiction and literary politics. Rather than stopping at the assumption that art reflects Party or government policy, the papers uncover the traditional roots of popular literature and the performing arts by employing literary and artistic methods of analysis. While often lacking in appeal to Western audiences, these popular arts have their own artistic validity and convey complex meanings to broadly-based Chinese audiences. The new materials and analyses presented in the volume demonstrate that variety and change, rather than monolithic uniformity, have characterized post-1949 cultural bureaucracies, writers, performers, and audiences. VOLUME




This is the second volume of a new series, Studies on China, sponsored by the joint Committee on Chinese Studies. The first volu me was Origins of Chinese Civilization, edited by David L. Keightley. The contributors and their affiliations are: Paul Clark Michael Egan Edward Gunn Robert E. Hegel David Holm Kai-yu Hsu T .D. Huters Perry Link Wai-fong Loh Bonnie S. McDougall Isabel K.F. Wong Bell Yung

Harvard University Toronto, Canada Cornell University Washington University Macquarie University San Francisco State University University of Minnesota University of California, Los Angeles Harvard University Beijing Foreign Institute University of Illinois University of Pittsburgh

Jonathan Unger, University of Kansas "The Class System in Rural China: A Case Study" James L. Watson, University of Pittsburgh "Introduction: Class and Class Formation in Chinese Society" Lynn T . White III, Princeton University "Bourgeois Radicalism in the 'New Class' of Shanghai, 19491969" Martin King Whyte, University of Michigan "Sexual Inequality Under Socialism: The Chinese Case in Perspective"


Japanese Studies in the United States: The 1980's. A report on a survey carried out by Kane, Parsons and Associates for the joint Committee on japanese Studies, with the support of the japan Foundation. Tokyo: The japan Foundation, 1984. vi + 193 pages. Paper. Available from the Council without charge.

Class and Social Stratification in Post-Revolution China, edited by james L. Watson. Studies on China 3. Papers from a conference sponsored by the Contemporary China lnstitute, School of African and Oriental Studies (London), and the joint Committee on Contemporary China, one of the predecessor committees of the joint Committee on Chinese Studies. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1984. vii + 289 pages. Cloth, $49.50.

During the 1982-83 academic year, the joint Committee on japanese Studies commissioned the firm of Kane, Parsons and Associates to carry out a survey of American colleges and universities with programs on japan and of individual academicallyemployed japan specialists. The survey was sup~orted by the japan Foundation, which has now pubhshed the results of the survey in both English and japanese. The report is the third in a series of surveys of the This volume of papers is a result of a conference academic field of japanese studies in the United convened in Windsor Park, England, june 30 to july States. The first, published in 1970 by the joint 4, 1980. The contributors include two anthroCommittee on Japanese Studies and commonly repologists, three sociologists, three political scientists, ferred to as the "Hall Report," addressed conditions and a historian. in the academic year 196~ 70. The second survey, This is the third volume of a new series, Studies on known as the "Massey Report," was published in 1977 China, sponsored by the joint Committee on Chinese by the CULCON Subcommittee on japanese Studies. Studies. The first vo!ume was Origins of Chinese It covered 1974- 75 and was conceived of as a fiveCivilization, edited by David L. Keightley; the second year update of the 1970 survey. Although not entirely was Popular Chinese Literature and Performing Arts in the comparable in scope and methodology, this most rePeople's Republic of China, edited by Bonnie S. cent survey attempts to update basic information on McDougall. the number of trained academic specialists; the The contributors and their papers are: number of academic institutions at which they work; and .the number of student enrollments in japanese Elisabeth Croll, Queen Elizabeth House (Oxford) studIes courses taught at these institutions. The re"Marriage Choice and Status Groups in Contemporary China" port demonstrates that the field has continued to Philip A. Kuhn, Harvard University grow, albeit more slowly than in the past. More sig"Chinese Views of Social Classification" William L. Parish, University of Chicago nificantly, over the past decade and one half, "Destratification in China" japanese studies has established a firm institutional Stuart R. Schram, School of African and Oriental Studies (Lon~nfras~r~cture; has achieved high standards of quality don) 10 tra101Og, research, and publication; and has at"Classes, Old and New, in Mao Zedong's Thought, 1949-1976" tained a relatively secure position within many Susan L. Shirk, University of California, San Diego "The Decline of Virtuocracy in China" American institutions of higher education. DECEMBER



An interpretative overview of the survey, written by John W. Hall with the assistance of Theodore C. Bestor and the members of the Joint Committee on Japanese Studies, was also published in The Japan Foundation Newsletter (Volume 12, Number 3, October 1984, pages 12-16). The overview argues that the demographics of the field and the financial basis for area studies at American universities require that special attention be paid to issues of the training and employment of scholars at the early stages of their careers, as well as for research support to assist in retaining scholars as active members of the field during later stages in their careers. Copies of the full English language report are available free of charge upon request from the Council's Japan program. Copies will be distributed on a first-come, first-served basis, with priority given to those scholars who participated in the survey.

Conflict in Japan, edited by Ellis S. Krauss, Thomas P. Rohlen, and Patricia G. Steinhoff. Papers from two conferences sponsored by the Joint Committee on Japanese Studies. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1984. x + 417 pages. Cloth, $24.95; paper, $9.95.

Social science research on Japan during most of the postwar period has emphasized harmony, not conflict, visualizing a hierarchical society with strong collective unity. Contemporary Japan has been characterized as lacking both major schisms and as resolving its lesser conflicts with relative ease, thanks to a consensual decision-making process. In this prevailing paradigm, Japanese institutions an~ effective and satisfying to their loyal and cooperative participants. This general image of Japan has been accompanied by microlevel studies of individuals and small groups that portray the Japanese as "polite" people seeking the social harmony idealized in traditional Japanese culture. Rural villages as well as modern organizations have been described as valuing group identity, hierarchically-ordered interpersonal relations, and decision making by consensus. That the qualities stressed in this model exist to a significant degree in Japan is beyond dispute; but the model is inadequate because it has virtually excluded serious consideration of conflict. It has become apparent, for example, that rapid economic change has created both conflicts and dissension over the costs and benefits of industrialization. Environmental and minority rights issues have intensified, and rivalries among government and opposition parties and within 90

the policy-making process have been major concerns of observers of Japanese politics. Follow-up studies of villages are likely today to discuss harmony and its tensions and to probe deep antagonisms beneath the surface of the apparent solidarity villagers maintain before outsiders. Student movements and mass protests reflecting severe generational cleavages and political alienation have been a consistent and popular theme in studies by Western scholars. Yet, despite the frequent identification of conflict in many studies, the older paradigm of a harmonious Japan remains. Certainly little scholarship on Japan has adopted an explicit conflict approach or attempted to use Western social science conflict theory to understand Japanese society. With this in mind, the Joint Committee on Japanese Studies sponsored two large conferences and a nu mber of smaller planning sessions and meetings between 1976 and 1979. Participants in the project were encouraged to undertake original research on conflict in a Japanese institution or, alternatively, to rethink their prior research from a conflict perspective. The essays in this volume present the results of these conferences. The contributors and their affiliations are: John C. Campbell Michael W. Donnelly Tadashi A. Hanami Takeshi Ishida Ellis S. Krauss Takie S. Lebra Agnes M. Niyekawa Susan J. Pharr Thomas P. Rohlen Patricia G. Steinhoff Teigo Yoshida

University of Michigan University of Toronto Sophia University University of Tokyo Western Washington University University of Hawaii University of Hawaii University of Wisconsin San Anselmo, California University of Hawaii University of Tokyo

The Japanese Colonial Empire, 1895-1945, edited by Ramon H. Myers and Mark R. Peattie. Papers from a conference sponsored by the Joint Committee on Japanese Studies. Princeton University Press, 1984. x + 541 pages. Cloth, $47.50.

The Japanese colonial empire was a central element in Japan's drive toward great-power status in the late 19th and early 20th centuries; as the only nonWestern empire in modern times, it was also a unique development in world history. In 1979, the Joint Committee on Japanese Studies sponsored a conference held at the Hoover Institution on War, Revolution, and Peace (Stanford, California) to examine the Japanese empire from its establishment in 1895 to its liquidation in 1945. VOLUME




The present volume focuses on the formal colonial empire of Japan: Taiwan, Korea, Karafuto (southern Sakhalin), the Kwantung Leased Territory, and the South Seas Mandated Islands. It examines the origin and evolution of the empire, the institutions and policies by which it was governed, and the economic dynamics that impelled it. It considers how Japanese colonialism resembled and was influenced by European colonial patterns, and places the Japanese empire in the context of colonialism as a global phenomenon. The contributors and their affiliations are: Ching-chih Chen Edward I-te Chen Bruce Cumings Peter Duus Lewis H. Gann Samuel Pao-San Ho Marius B. Jansen Toshiyuki Mizoguchi Ramon H. Myers Mark R. Peattie Michael E. Robinson E. Patricia Tsurumi Saburo Yamada YUzo Yamamoto

Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville Bowling Green State University University of Washington Stanford University The Hoover Institution University of British Columbia Princeton University Hitotsubashi University The Hoover Institution University of Massachusetts, Boston University of Southern California University of Victoria University of Tokyo Kyoto University

A second conference on Japan's informal empire in China-where Japan had influence without holding sovereignty-is being organized by Banno Junji, University of Tokyo; Peter Duus, Stanford University; Ramon H. Myers, The Hoover Institution; and Mark R. Peattie, University of Massachusetts, Boston. This conference, which is to be cosponsored by the Joint Committee on Japanese Studies and the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, will be held at the Hoover Institution during the summer of 1985.


Agrarian Power and Agricultural Productivity in South Asia, edited by Meghnad Desai, Susanne Hoeber Rudolph, and Ashok Rudra. Papers from two conferences sponsored by the Subcommittee on South Asian Political Economy of the Joint Committee on South Asia. Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1984. 384 pages. Cloth, Rs. 160. (An American edition will be published by the University of California Press in 1985.) DECEMBER


This volume focuses on the relationships between local-level power structures and the advance or retardation of agricultural productivity. Drawing from historical materials, contemporary field research, and practical experience in policy planning and implementation, the papers indicate that the relationship between power and productivity varies with historical time and region, and is determined in part by legal arrangements, market opportunities, and how surpluses are allocated. The contributors and their affiliations are: Donald W. Attwood Sukhamoy Chakravarty B.B. Chaudhuri Meghnad Desai Ronald J. Herring David Ludden Lloyd I. Rudolph Susanne Hoeher Rudolph Ashok Rudra

McGill University Delhi School of Economics University of Calcutta London School of Economics and Political Science Northwestern University University of Pennsylvania University of Chicago University of Chicago Visva-Bharati (Santiniketan, West Bengal)

Moral Conduct and Authority: The Place of Adab in South Asian Islam, edited by Barbara Daly Metcalf. Papers from a conference sponsored by the Joint Committee on South Asia. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984. xii + 387 pages. Cloth, $36.50. This papers in this volume explore adab, the Muslim ideal of the harmonious life of a person who knows the proper relationship to God, to others, and to oneself, and who, as a result, plays a special role among his or her fellows. Explicating the theory embodied in the term adab as it is conveyed in classical ' texts, in popular literature, and in individual lives, the contributors also describe historical periods and specific contexts in which the pattern is particularly salient. The volume is part of a program of the Joint Committee on South Asia designed to specify and develop the analytical utility of concepts, models, and systems of meaning and organization embedded within South Asian social and cultural traditions. The contributors and their affiliations are: Muhammad Ajmal Oungian psychology) Gerhard B6wering (Islamic studies) Peter Brown (history) Simon Everard Digby (Islamic studies) Richard M. Eaton (history)

University of Heidelberg University of Pennsylvania University of California, Berkeley Wolfson College (Oxford) University of Arizona


Katherine Ewing (cultural anthropology) David Gilmartin (history) Richard Kurin (anthropology) Ira M. Lapidus (history) Muhammad Khalid Masud (Islamic law) Barbara D. Metcalf (history) C.M. Nairn (Urdu studies) J.F. Richards (history) Francis Robinson (history) Brian Silver (Urdu studies)


Institute for Psychoanalysis (Chicago) University of North Carolina Southern Illinois University University of California, Berkeley Ahmadu Bello University (Zaria, Nigeria) University of California, Berkeley University of Chicago Duke University Royal Holloway College (London) Duke University

Centers, Symbols, and Hierarchies: Essays on the Classical States of Southeast Asia, edited by Lorraine Gesick, Papers from two workshops sponsored by the joint Committee on Southeast Asia. Monograph Series No. 26. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Southeast Asia Studies. x + 243 pages. Paper, $14.00.

At workshops held in November 1977 and December 1978, students of Southeast Asia sought to develop a comparative understanding of the nature of the classical Southeast Asian "state." The revised essays which comprise this volume focus on styles of leadership, politics, statecraft, and the legitimization of hierarchy in the classical states of Burma, Cambodia, java, Sulawesi, and Thailand. Clifford Geertz, Institute for Advanced Study (Princeton, New jersey), wrote the "Foreword" to the volume, while Ms. Gesick wrote the "Introduction." The contributors and their affiliations are: Michael Aung-Thwin, Elmira College "Divinity, Spirit, and Human : Conceptions of Classical Burmese Kingship" David P. Chandler, Monash University "Going Through the Motions: Ritual Aspects of the Reign of King Duang of Cambodia (1848-1860)" Jan Wisseman Christie, University of Hull "Raja and Rama: The Classical State in Early Java" Anthony Day, University of Sydney "The Drama of Bangun Tapa's Exile in Ambon: The Poetry of Kingship in Surakarta, 1830-58" Shelly Errington, University of California, Santa Cruz "The Place of Regalia in Luwu" Lorraine Gesick, Tufts University "The Rise and Fall of King Taksin: A Drama of Buddhist Kingship"



Regional Development: Problems and Policies in Eastern and Western Europe, edited by George Demko. Papers from a conference held in june 1982 sponsored by the joint Committee on Eastern Europe. London and Sydney: Croom Ltd; New York: St. Martin's Press, 1984. xiv + 283 pages. Cloth, $27.95.

This volume is the result of a conference held in 1982 at the Rockefeller Center in Bellagio, Italy. The conference was cofunded by the committee, the International Research and Exchanges Board, and the Rockefeller Foundation. The idea for a meeting of specialists on the theme of European regional development issues originated in the joint Committee on Eastern Europe. . The conference was focused on problems of regional development in Eastern and Western Europe, including regional economic and social inequalities, lagging and backward regions, and biased and constricted flows of labor and capital, to name a few. The issue of regional policies and their effectiveness in addressing the problems was included within the purview of the conference. Among the basic assumptions of the conference organizers was that these issues were and are of some significance in both Europes, that the area contains a wide array of examples of regional development problems, and that such problems are, in large measure, independent of ideology and sociopolitical system. The overarching goal of the conference was to bring together leading specialists in the regional development field from both West and East with specially prepared papers on themes common to both Europes which would provoke comparisons, analyses, discussion, and identification of important research questions of mutual interest and benefit. The basic design of the conference included five sections: theoretical aspects of regional development; identifying and measuring variations in levels of regional development; specific policy instruments and measures adopted to intervene in regional development processes; current trends and directions in regional development in Europe; and, finally, a set of European case studies reflecting the range of issues in regional development. The participants at the conference, most of whom contributed papers to the volume, were: Brian Ashcroft Ellen Brennan Attilio Celant

University of Strathclyde United Nations (New York) University of Rome VOLUME




John W. Cole George J. Demko Gyorgy Enyedi H. Folmer Ayse Gedik Niles Hansen Michael Hechler George W. Hoffman L. Lacko

Jose R. Lasuen Sam Natoli

A. Pepeonik Harry Richardson

Allan Rodgers Michel Savy

Walter Stohr Andrzej Wrobel Henry Zimon

University of Massachusetts U.S. Department of State Hungarian Academy of Sciences State University (Groningen, The Netherlands) Ohio State University University of Texas University of Washington University of Texas Ministry of Building and Urban Development (Budapest) Autonomous University of Madrid Association of American Geographers (Washington, D.C.) Geografiske Zavod (Zagreb) State University of New York, Albany, and University of Southern California Pennsylvania State University Ministre du Plan et de l'Amenagement du Territoire (Paris) University of Economics (Vienna) Polish Academy of Sciences United States Military Academy

conflicts that arose in this period, in particular the issues of political domination and the possession of Bessarabia, have remained disturbing elements in the relations of the two states. The author, Barbara Jelavich, is a professor of history at Indiana University. Order and Conflict in Contemporary Capitalism, edited by John H. Goldthorpe. Papers prepared by a study group of the Joint Committee on Western Europe. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1984. xii + 373 pages. Cloth, ÂŁ22.50/$34.95; paper ÂŁ9.95/$15.95.

The papers in this volume examine the various ways in which selected Western European countries have sought to manage and defuse political conflict over the distribution of economic and social resources in the postwar era-a period of prosperity extending into the present period of protracted recession. The central concern shared by the authors is how modern capitalist economies function and how both order and conflict are created within their social contexts. Early versions of the papers were discussed at two seminars: at Nuffield College (Oxford) in January 1982 and at the Studienhaus Wiesneck, Buchenbach bei Freiburg, in May 1983. The contributors and their affiliations are:

Russia and the Formation of the Romanian National State, 1921-1978, by Barbara Jelavich. No. 13 of the Rune Aberg Joint Committee on Eastern Europe Publication David R. Cameron Series. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1984. Gosta Esping-Andersen John H. Goldthorpe xii + 356 pages. Cloth, $44.50. Robert O . Keohane Walter Korpi

This book has a double emphasis: It examines the role played by tsarist Russia in the formation of an independent Romanian national state, and it discusses the reaction of a Balkan nationality to the influence of a neighboring great power that was both a protector and a menace. In the early 19th century, the centers of Romanian political life were the Danubian principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia, which were both under Ottoman rule but which had separate, autonomous administrations. Although welcoming Russian aid against the Ottoman Empire, the Romanian leadership at the same time feared that the Russian government would use its military power to establish a firm control over the principalities or would annex Romanian lands, as indeed occurred in 1812. Here this difficult relationship is examined in detail as it developed during the century in connection with the major events leading to the international acceptance of Romanian independence in 1878. The DECEMBER


Peter Lange Gerhard Lehmbruch Charles S. Maier Marino Regini Fritz W. Scharpf Kerry Schott Don S. Schwerin Wolfgang Streeck

University of Umea Yale University Harvard University Nuffield College (Oxford) Brandeis University Swedish Institute for Social Research (Stockholm) and University of Stockholm Duke University University of Constance Harvard University University of Milan International Institute of Management (Berlin) University College (London) Walla Walla, Washington International Institute of Management (Berlin)

L'organizzazione degli interessi nell'Europa occidentale: Pluralismo, corporativismo e la trasformazione della politica, edited by Suzanne Berger. Papers from a series of conferences sponsored by the Joint Committee on Western Europe. Bologna: II Mulino, 1983. iv + 550 pages. Paper, Lire 30,000. 93

This is the Italian edition of Berger's Organizing Interests in Western Europe: Pluralism, Corporatism, and the Transformation of PoLitics, published by the Cambridge University Press in 1981 and reviewed in Items in the September 1981 issue.

Soviet Economy, Volume 1, Number 1, JanuaryMarch 1985. A new journal published by V. H. Winston and Sons, in association with the Joint Committee on Soviet Studies. Address: Soviet Economy, 7961 Eastern Avenue, Silver Spring, Maryland 20910. Four issues: Individuals (U.S. only) $40.00. Libraries and institutions, $80.00 (U.S.) and $90.00 (elsewhere). The coeditors of this new journal sponsored by the Joint Committee on Soviet Studies are Ed A. Hewett, The Brookings Institution (Washington, D.C.); Hans Heymann, Jr., Defense Intelligence College; Robert G. Jensen, Syracuse University; and Theodore Shabad, Columbia University. Mr. Hewitt serves as managing coeditor. The following description of the goals of the journal is adapted from a statement by the coeditors published in the first issue. There has never been an English-language journal devoted solely to the Soviet economy, despite long standing interest in, and research on, the Soviet economic system. Although other journals devoted more generally to Soviet affairs, as well as the triannual Joint Economic Committee volumes, have traditionally served as outlets for articles written by economists and geographers interested in the Soviet Union, Soviet Economy seeks to provide a dedicated outlet. Currently, the Soviet economy is in the early stages of an important transitional period in which the leadership will (and must) introduce significant changes in economic policies and possibly in the fundamentals of the system. This journal will provide a vehicle for research results and analytic observations concerning those changes, as well as for essays that place them in historical context. Geographical factors have always been important determinants of Soviet economic policy and performance: the size and varied character of the Soviet territory; the uneven distribution of resources and their concentration in areas that are often difficult to exploit; and the contrasting levels of development among regions of the country as well as the complex dynamics of regional growth and change. Such factors are likely to grow in importance in the future. Soviet Economy will both recognize the close connec94

tion between the study of the Soviet economy and the study of Soviet geography and nourish that connection. The journal will publish articles on the contemporary Soviet economy. Some of the articles will relate to regional economic problems, problems in transport, or other issues which may fit under the headings of "economic geography" or "regional economics." Others will be devoted solely to macroeconomic issues. Also welcome will be contributions on Eastern Europe which have some bearing on the Soviet economy: articles on such issues as Soviet-East European economic relations and East European influences on the Soviet economy; and articles about those aspects of the East European economic experience which are relevant to Soviet debates on policy and system changes. The first issue also contains brief welcoming remarks by Gail Warshofsky Lapidus, University of California, Berkeley, chair of the Joint Committee on Soviet Studies, and by the two honorary editors, Abram Bergson, Harvard University, and Chauncy D. Harris, University of Chicago. Other contributors include David Halloway, Stanford University; Richard F. Kaufman, Joint Economic Committee, U.S. Congress; Gertrude E. Schroeder, University of Virginia; Mason H. Soule, Indiana University; John Steinbruner, The Brookings Institution (Washington, D.C.); and Robert N. Taaffe, Indiana University.


The Political Economy of the Latin American Motor Vehicle Industry, edited by Rich Kronish and Kenneth S. Mericle. Papers from conferences held in December 1978 and May 1979, sponsored by the Joint Committee on Latin American Studies. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1984. xvi + 314 pages. Cloth, $30.00. Latin America is the area of the Third World where the motor vehicle industry is most advanced. This book examines the industry's emergence and growth, particularly in Argentina, Brazil, and Mexico. These were the first countries in Latin America and among the first in the Third World to undertake motor vehicle production. Colombia, a smaller and less developed economy with a late-arriving motor vehicle industry, is the fourth case studied. In contrast to the other three, Colombia exhibits market and industrial conditions typical of many Third World countriesjust now considering motor vehicle production. VOLUME




The volume thu offer a comparative analy i of a ingle indu try in a number of different national etting. Unlike mo t indu try-ba ed comparative tudie of Third World indu trialization, however, which are narrowly focu ed on the economic tructure of given indu trie ,thi volume utilize a political economy approach. Two principal theme are addre ed: (1) the relation hip between the large American, French, German, and Italian tran national corporation (TNC) which dominate the motor vehicle indu try in Latin America and the region' ho t-country governments; and (2) the role and impact of labor in the development of the Latin American motor vehicle industrie . The e two theme rai e a broad range of related i ue, which tem from the centrality of the TNC-ho t country relation hip to the development of motor vehicle production and conumption a well a from the relative inefficiency and high co t of vehicle production, which puts pre ure on labor co ts in the Latin American indu trie and ha had con iderable political con equence . The exploration of the e i ue, moreover, al 0 hed light on the relative importance of the motor vehicle indu try in a country' overall indu trialization trategy and economic growth, the global and dome tic role of the TNC ,and the ocial and political con equence of indu try development a well a the reciprocal effect of tho e factor on the indu try' growth or contraction. While the e que tion ari e here in the Latin American context, the author al 0 make the explicit point that they are relevant to all underdeveloped countrie con idering or engaged in motor vehicle production. In addition, the author how that the relative trength of the auto worker in Argentina, Brazil, and Mexico ha been the key factor in explaining the uneven ucce of government effor in all three countrie to expand effective demand and/or promote vehicle export. In all ca e , the e government policie have pre ented ignificant challenge to the working cla , particularly auto worker. The book i compri ed of nine chapter . Chapter 1-3 examine the political economy of the motor vehicle indu try in Argentina, Brazil, and Mexico, treing the ignificance of the tructural problem encountered by the e indu trie . Chapter 4-6 di cu the role and importance of labor in the e three countrie . Chapter 7 analyze the bargaining power of the Mexican tate in dealing with the tran national automobile corporation . Chapter 8 looks at the e bargaining relation in the Colombian motor vehicle indu try, while Chapter 9 i a comparative e ay on Argentina, Brazil, and Mexico. It erve a a concluDECEMBER

19 4

ion to the volume by formulating and elaborating the principal theme and major national indu trie discu ed. The author conclude that wherea the Argentine, Brazilian, and Mexican automobile indu trie have all been prone to tagnation, government upport and intervention have varied con iderably among the three countries. In addition to Rich Kroni h, Univer ity of Ma achu ett , and Kenneth S. Mericle, Univer ity of Wi con in, who edited the volume, the contributor and their affiliation are: Douglas Bennett Judith Evan Paul Heath Hoeffel John Humphrey Daniel Jame Rhy Jenkin Ian Roxborough Kenneth harpe

Temple University New York City United ation Univer ity of Liverpool Yale Univer ity Univer ity of East Anglia London School of Economi and Political ience warth more College

Latin America in the 1930s: The Role of the Periphery in the World Crisis, edited by Ro emary Thorp. Paper from conference pon ored by the Joint Committee on Latin American tudie. London: Macmillan, in a ociation with t. Antony' College (Oxford), 1984. xii + 344 page. Cloth, 32.50. With Latin America facing it mo t evere economic cn 1 ince the 1930, cholar have a trong incentive to examine the recovery mechani m , major change in world economic tructure, and the con equence of the expan ion of private international lending a they occured in the earlier period. Given the olid re earch now available on the economic hi torie of individual Latin American countrie. , there i a ub tantial ba i for comparative work, a well a a fre h examination of the "Latin American tereotype" generally applied to the 1930 in view of how individual countrie actually fit that picture. This re earch, in turn, can hed light on current problem . It i in thi context that the e ay in thi volume rea e the importance of the 1930 Depre ion for Latin American development. The author largely concur with the ECLA (Economic Commi ion on Latin America) view that the 1930 Depre ion wa of enormou ignificance, although it al 0 built on and promoted trend in indu trialization, tate intervention, and the growth of financial and other in titution which had in fact preceded the 1930 . On the other hand, while the ECLA interpretation tre e the dichotomy between large and mall countrie In 95

regard to their capacity to react to the cri i , the ca e studies included in the volume, particularly tho e of Central merica, Ar entina, Brazil, Colombia, and Peru, give a new importance to financial mechani m like external trading which influenced internal option even after the uppo ed "rupture" of 1929. Another di cu ion central to the volume concern the rapid recovery from the Oepre ion and the accompanying debate about the recovery mechani m . The paper empha ize, for example, that the upturn often preceded export recovery, and that government p nding and relative price al 0 played a role in dome tic up wing. In addition, the contributor take a fre h look at the related debate about the nature and role of the foreign-exchange con traint, particularly in regard to the relative importance of trade and capital flow and in regard to the point and degree to which foreign-exchange hortage per e enerated policy mea ure . While the author concur that more re earch i needed to draw explicit parallel with the 1980 , the findin to date underline the difference between the two cri e a \ ell a the danger of uperficial parallel. The author generally conclude that many of the afety valve and recovery route of the 1930 are not available today, despite the heavier burden of debt in the 1930 a price fell rather than ro e and today' more ophi ticated national and international financial in titution . The pre ent volume, however, focu e in depth on the 1930 cri i . The introduction, for example, explain the context and main conelu ion of the volume, ur ey the international events leading up to the reat Oepre ion, and ummarize the prevailing view on economic recovery in the core countrie . It al 0 ugge ts that more re earch might be conducted on the role of the tate in policy making, on recovery mechani m per e, on the que tion of who bore the burden of the economic cri i , and on the role of the periphery in the recovery of the core countrie . Be ide the introduction, the volume contain two overview e ay, one on Latin America in the 1930 and another which expound a non-Latin American view of the Oepre ion, a well a nine ca e tudie, orne explicitly comparative. The major countrie tudied are Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Peru, and the entral American nation. The contributor and their affiliation are: Mar clo Paiva


Victor Bulmer-Thoma


In. titute for Economi and ial Planning (I PEA), Rio de Janeiro Queen Mary Coli ge (London)



Carlo F. Diaz Alejandro E.V.K. Fitz erald Charles P. Kindleberger Carlo Londono Jo

e Antonio


Arturo O'Connell abriel Palma Flavio Rabelo Ver iana Ro emary Thorp

Univer ity of the America ( anta Catarina Martir, Puebla, Mexico) Columbia University In titute of Social ien e (Th Hague) Ma achu etts In titute of Technology In titute of Economic and tatistics (Oxford) Foundation for Higher Education and D velopment (Fede arrollo), Bogata Torcuato di Tella In titute (Bueno Aire) Fitzwilliam College (Cambridge) niver ity of Bra ilia t. Antony' Coli ge (0 ford)

Kin hip Ideology and Practice in Latin America, edited by Raymond T. mith. Paper from conference held in ew York in eptember 1980 and in Ixtapan de la aI, Mexico, in eptember 19 1, ponored by the Joint ommittee on Latin American tudie . Chapel Hill: Univer ity of North Carolina Pre ,1984. vii + 341 page. Cloth, 29.95. Kin hip tudie in Latin America have been traditionally dominated by anthropologi ts concerned with "primitive" or "tribal" or "folk" Indian group. The few tudie of kin hip and family life among urban or more developed rural group have largely followed Europ an hi torical model which pre ume that economic development and indu trialization reult in the er ion of kinship tie . Recently, however, ome hi torian of Europe have begun to identify a variety of re pon e to indu trialization and have demon trated that trong and exten ive kin hip relation per i t even in large indu trial citie . Although thi pattern i al 0 found in Latin America, the e ay in thi volume do not et out to replicate European tudie. On the contrary, they recognize that change in kin hip in Latin America demon trate their own tructure, hi tory, and pattern of tran formation. In exploring the e change and how they have been affected by the pecific cultural feature of variou Latin American and nonHi panic Caribbean ocietie, the author recognize that Latin Ameria i an area of cultural and hi torical diver ity on which only fragmentary re earch ha been done. They therefore et out to rethink both theorie and method of re earch that will allow for the recon truction of the particular feature of hi VOL ME

38, Nu



torically generated cultural form in Latin America, a well a the ocial practice through which tho e form operate. The authors include anthropologi t , hi torian ,and ociologi t , but all, in contra t to general practice in kin hip analy i , accord greater than u ual weight to cultural or ideological factor. Thi empha i , along with the pecial attention paid to the particularity of Latin American experience and a deliberate combination of hi torical re earch and ocial science theory, characterize the volume a a whole. The volume i divided into four ection . The fir t, "Kin hip Ideologie in Slave ocietie ," include analy e of kin hip and god parenthood among lave in the Ea t Indie and Brazil. The econd, "E tabIi hing Colonial Hierarchie ," pre ents re earch on Andean kin hip from Incan times to the pre ent and e. amine image of love, race, lavery, and exuality among contemporary middle-cia Jamaican. The third ection, "Hierarchie and Enterpri e: The U e of Kin hip in Adver ity and Pro perity," include e' 'ay on the dyna tic growth and urvival strategie among Mexican grand familie , the fo tering of children among lum familie in Brazil, and ideology and practice among pea ants, rancher , and urban entrepreneur inJali co, Mexico. The final ection," ex Role and Economic Change ," include tudie of sexuality in colonial New Mexico, labor sy tern and family tructure on ao Paulo coffee plantation ,and marriage, pro perity, and the po ition of women in • the Peruvian central Ande . In addition to Raymond T. Smith, Univer ity of Chicago, who edited the volume, the contributor and their affiliation are: Jack Ale ander Ruth C. L. Cardo 0 Stephen Gudeman Ramon A. Gutierrez B.W. Higman l.ari"sa A. Lomnitz Enrique Mayer Juan M. 0. io Guillermo de la Perla Mariso Perez-ljzaur tuart B. " hwartz Verena wicke Fiona Wil on



New York State Department of Correctional rvices University of ao Paulo Univer ity of Minnesota University of California, an Diego Univer ity of We t Indies, Mona Campus National Autonomous University of Mexico Univ rsity of Illinois Catholi Univer ity of Peru College of Jali 0 Iberian-American Univer ity (Mexi 0 City) Univer ity of Minnesota Autonomous Univer ity of Barcelona Centre for Development Research and International Work Group for Indigenou Affair (Copenhagen)


Blacks and Whites: Narrowing the Gap? by Reynold Farley. A volume in a erie, ocial Trend in the United tate, edited by Jame A. Davis and John Modell and pon ored by the Committee on ocial Indicator. Cambridge, Ma achu ett : Harvard Univer ity Pre ,1984. xii + 235 page. Cloth, 19.50. Thi volume i the econd in a erie de igned to communicate finding from current ocial science reearch to reader without technical training in the ocial cience. In their foreword, the editor, Jame A. Davi, Harvard Univer ity, and John Modell, Carnegie-Mellon Univer ity, contend that" ocial cience ha a collective re pon ibility to report finding about the ociety to the public, in order to contribute to the informed choice that are nece ary in a democracy." Becau e information derived from modern tatistical method and large data ba e can make uch contribution , if pre ented in "compact and comprehen ible form," the Committee on Social Indicator pon or thi erie. cholar are invited to write book on particular topics; the ubmitted manu cripts are then reviewed by othercholar with attention to both the cientific and the broadly educational purpo e of the erie. The erie empha ize both graphic pre entation of tati tical data and nontechnical writing. Reynold Farley, a ociologi t-demographer at the Univer ity of Michigan, begin the book by po ing three per pective on change in the statu of blacks in the United tate during the la t two decade. The "optimi tic" view, a ociated with Ben Wattenberg and Richard cammon, i of a remarkable change in American ociety, with black making ubstantial gain in the labor market. Thi view i challenged by other ob erver , including Vernon Jordan of the National Urban League, who take the far more "pe imi tic" view that the hope of black for true equality have withered away, and the income and employment gap between black and white i widening. A third view tre e the "polarization" the i : black "trapped" in central citie are forming an "undercla ," highly dependent on welfare program , while other black have indeed been able to take advantage of opportunitie for advancement and economic ecurity. Farley employ demographic method and meaure to determine how well each of the e three views de cribe recent changes. Relying on data from the Current Population Survey and the decennial cenu e ,he tudie time trend that permit him to compare blacks and whites throughout the la t 20 year 97

and to hed light on ome of the cau e of ob erved change . He provide an example of demographic analy i while olving a puzzle: .. . the ratio of black to white income for all families declined during the 1970 ,sugge ting that the economic tatu of bla ks relative to that of white deteriorated. However, for the two mo t common type of familie , namely hu band-wife familic and tho e headed by women, the ratio of black to white family income ro e for much of the decade, ugge ting that the statu of blacks improved. During the 1970 the number of familic headed by black women in rea d mu h more than the number of black hu band-wife familie . Hu band-wife famili have average incomes con iderably higher than tho e of famili headed by women. Thu when the proportion of hu band-wife famili ~ II, the overall ratio of bla k to white family income decreased. In this manner, a demographi analy is move beyond a imple plotting of trend to detect rea n behind the change in the tatus of bla ks.

The la t chapter i a" corecard on Black Progre Hi analy e do not permit Farley to conclude that one of the three contra ting per pective i clearly correct and the other two are wrong; the evidence i mixed. The "optimi tic" view i the mo t accurate but mu t be tempered. The author ay that "many more decade of change similar to the 1960 and 1970 will be nece ary if racial difference are to di appear." But becau e of fundamental change in the political power and legal tatu of black, change in the attitude of white, and the unwillingne of black to tolerate di crimination today, he i optimi tic that racial difference will continue to hrink.

Capital Flows and Exchange Rate Determination, edited by Lawrence R. Klein and Wilhelm E. Krelle. ZeitschriJt for NationaLokonomie, Supplementum 3. Paper from the eptember 1982 LINK meeting held in Frankfurt and spon ored by the Committee on Economic Stability and Growth. Vienna and ew York: pringer-Verlag, 1983. ix + 220 page. No price indicated.

icy, and expected inflation rate in the determination of exchange rate . The contributor and their affiliation are: kihiro mano Jean-Pierre Beguelin Han -Jurg Buttler Mitsuhiro Fukao Ri hard D. Haa

Graham Ha he

Peter Hooper

Lawren e R. Klein Wilhelm E. Krelle Kanta Marwah Hermann T. arrazin Kurt hiltknecht Loi t kler

teven A. yman ky


. Townend

Kobe University wi .. . ational Bank (Zurich) wi s . ational Bank (Zurich) Economic Planning Agency (Tokyo) Board of Governors of the Federal Resen'e Sy tem (Wa. hington. D.C.) Bank of England (London) and International Monetary Fund (Wahington, D.C.) Board of Governors of the Federal Re en'e ystem (Wa hington, D.C.) Univer ity of Pennsylvania University of Bonn Carleton Univer ity University of Bonn wi National Bank (Zurich) Board of Governor of the Federal Re en'e ystem (Wa hington, D.C.) Board of Governor of the Federal Re erve y tem (Wa hington, D.C.) Bank of England (London)

Culture Theory: Essays on Mind, Self, and Emotion, edited by Richard A. chweder and Robert A. LeVine. Paper from a conference pon ored by the Committee on • ocial and Affective Development During Childhood. New York: Cambridge University Pre , 1984. viii + 359 page. loth, 42.50, paper, 14.95.

The relation hip between everyday experience and culture- een a a et of idea, values, or symbolic codes-ha challenged ocial cienti ts, especially anthropologi ,for more than a century. In thi volume, leading ocial cientists pre. ent and discu recent conception of culture and explore their implication for under tanding different a peet. of. ubjecProject LINK, the con truction and operation of an tive experience, ocial practice, and individual beeconometic model of the world economy, i a major havior. The e ay are ba ed upon paper' pre ented activity of the Committee on Economic tabilityand at a conferen e on "Conceptions of Culture and It Growth. In 1982, it annual meeting wa held in Acqui ition," sponsored by the Committee on ocial Frankfort, with the upport of the Deutsche Bund- and Affective Development During Childhood in e bank. Thi election of paper wa edited by May 1981. The focu of the volu me i on the role of ymbol Lawrence R. Klein, Univer ity of Penn ylvania, and and meaning in the development of mind, . elf, and Wilhelm E. Krelle, Univer ity of Bonn. emotion. The contributor examine uch que tion a Three of the paper in the volume are econometric content of culture and how doe it interact what i the analy es of multicountry model of exchange rate dewith cognitive, ocial, and emotional growth; how are termination; three are of two-country model . A final paper examine the role of entropy, monetary pol- idea related to attitude , feeling , and behavior; and 9


u; 38, N



how are concepts and meanings hi torically tran mitted. They al 0 explore methodological and conceptual problem involved in the definition and tudy of meaning and re i it the perennial problem of "relativi m" in light of recent advance 10 emantic analy i and in culture theory. A a comprehen ive and critical account of current knowledge and re earch in the field of culture theory, thi book will be u eful to anthropologi ts, p ychologi ts, philo opher , hi torian , and lingui t , a well a tho e intere ted in hermeneutic and a cience of ubjectivity. The volume i dedicated to the memory of Michelle Zimbali t Ro aldo, who e chapter wa completed only week before he tragically fell to her death while conducting field work in the Philippine. The contributor and their affiliation are: Edmund J. Bourne Roy G. D'Andrade Howard ardner Clifford Geertz Robert A. LeVine Robert I. Levy Elinor Och Michelle Zimbali t Ro aldo Bambi B. hieffelin Richard A. hweder Robert C. Solomon . felford E. piro Zeno Vendler

Catholi Community ervi e ( an Diego) Univer ity of California, San Diego Harvard Univer ity In titute for Advanced Study (Princeton, ew Jer ey) Harvard Univer ity Univer ity of California, an Diego University of Southern California tanford Univer ity University of Pennsylvania Univer ity of Chicago Univer ity of Texas Univer ity of California, an Diego Univer ity of California, an Diego

Emotions, Cognition, and Behavior, edited by Carroll E. Izard, Jerome Kagan, and Robert B. Zajonc. A publication of the Committee on ocial and Affective Development During Childhood. New York: Cambridge Univer ity Pre , 1984. x + 620 page. Cloth, 54.50. In 1979 and 1980, the Committee on Social and Affective Development During Childhood devoted a number of meeting to an examination of the relation hip between emotion and cognition. Childhood eemed a particularly rich period in which to inve tigate the nature and origin of affect-cognition interaction. ognitive cienti t were beginning to take a hard look at how emotion are or are not incorporated in exi ting model of cognition and behavior. cholar tudyin emotion realized the inadequacy ntU.MBI::R


of many of their po. tulate regarding link. to cognitive proce ing. The ferment pre ent in tho. e early committee di cu ion i reflected today in the growing empirical re earch on the relation between affect, cognition, and behavior. Thi volume include recent report on orne of the re earch originally di cu ed in the committee'. workhop . Carroll E. Izard , a member of the committee from 1976 to 1984, perceived the need to push further on thi topic and approached a number of other cholar, many of whom had not begun to explore y tematically the implication of their work for under tanding the relation hip between emotion and cognition. Hi vi ion of a volume that would document innovative empirical and theoretical work i realized here. The 17 chapter in the volume demon trate the enormou progre that ha been achieved in our under tanding of emotion . Current cognitive formulation and information-proce ing model are challenged by new theory and by a olid body of empirical re earch. Addre ing the problem of the relation hip between emotion and cognition from a variety of viewpoints in cognitive, developmental, 0cial, and clinical p ychology, a well a in p ychophy iology, the contributor concur that emotion concepts can be operationally defined and invetigated as both independent and dependent variables. Cognitive and affective proce e can no longer be tudied in i olation; taken together, the chapter provide a u eful map of an increa ingly important and active boundary for re earch on human behavior. The contributor and their affiliation are: Karen Caplovitz Barrett Gordon H. Bower Jo eph J . Campo Charles R. Carlon Dant Cicchetti Richard J. David on Dougla Derryberry Ri hard A. Dienstbi r tephen G. Gilligan andra Graham J annette M. Haviland Martin L. Hoffman Carroll E. Izard J rome Kagan Peter LaFreni re Peter J. Lang an y Lawro ki Michael Lewi Haz I Marku

University of Denver tanford University Univer ity of Denver Vanderbilt Univer ity Harvard University tate Univer ity of New York at Purcha Univer ity of Oregon University of Nebra ka-Lin oln tanford Univer. ity University of California, I.os Angele Living ton College, Rutl(er University Univer ity of Mi hig-an University of Delaware Harvard Univer ity Univer ity of \iinnesota Univer ity of Florida Universit of finnesot.a Rutger Medi al. hool Univer ity of \fichigan


John C. Masters Linda Mi<.hal o n Bert Moore Fros 0 Motti David L. Ro enhan Mary Klevjord Rothbart Karen chneider-Ro en Edward hork

Reid M. Schwaru L. Alan Sroufe Margaret Wolan ullivan Tom Traba 0 Bill Underwood Bernard Weiner

Vanderbilt niver ity Rutger Medical hool Univer ity of Texa at Dallas University of Minnesota tan ford Univer ity Univer ity of Oregon Harvard Univer ity Univer ity of Minnesota


University of Chicago University of fin nesoLa Rutgers Medical hool Univer ity of Chicago University of Texa Univer ity of Califo rnia, Los Angele University of Michigan

Robert B. Zajonc


605 TIIIRD AVEN E, NEW YORK, N.Y. lOIS IIIJ'orpora"d ;n 1M Siall' ill llllllois, Dl'umhI', 27, 1924, for 1M PUrpol1' of advallcing rt'.Il'l1rrh


till' onal


Dlrl'rlon, 1984-85: STH'IIt.N E. Fn.N8~K(; , Carnegie-Mellon niver ily; How KD G KD ~K, Velemn. Admini'lralion Medical Cenler (Bo lim); ell KI~' O . jo. ~' , Univer ity of Virginia ; R08~. KT \: . KATt\, Clark niversilY; G RDNt.R L,SDZtv, Center for dvanced ludy in the Behavioral Sciences; Eu NOR E. M 芦'ORY, tanford niversity; Hu(", T. P TKUK, Columbia niver ity; jos ... 11 A. PU :II\fAN , The Brooking In lilulion ( Wa~hingLUn, D.C .); KE ~TII PR~. \\ITT, Social ience Re arch Copn il; YOU. F. II .V~RMAN, The Graduate Center, CilY ni\er ily of . e\\ Yor k; ROI>OLfO T vt.NI1 (.t.N, EI Colegio de Mexico; Tt:PHt.N M. TIGLl:.R, niver ily of Chicago; Le)Ullot. . TiLlY, New hool for Social Research ; 10. tY Vt.KRA, Harvard niver ily; IMMANut.L WAu.ERSTUN, tate niver ity of New York, Binghamton; WILUAM juuus WILSON, Univer ity of Chic.-.go; HURt.KT F. YOKK, niversity of California, an Diego.

Off,rl'n and SlIiff: K~. NtTli P,UW,TT, P rI'lidl'lll; D VID L. SII .L'>, t;.\I'rulivl'l~ .10(1(111'; RONALD j . P~ LHK, COlllrolln; TlltOlXlIU C. Bt'ToR,jo .~. D"" .路, P. , IKIHIRO' DI \M .\ IXI RO', MAR11I A. G~I'II RT, ROR~RT W. P~ARo,(IN , P~nR B. Ru n, Ru II\RO C. Rm K\\H I., SOPllit 5.\, lei. I ~ R. SlI t.RRO D, D WID L. SH TON.

Social Science Research Council 605 Third Avenue New York, N.Y. 10158



PAID ALBANY, N. Y. Permit No. 31


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