Items Vol. 37 No. 2-3 (1983)

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Research Support and Intellectual Advance in the Social Sciences A symposium of views on the postwar history of the social sciences In the United States* Contents 33


intellectual ba e, e tablished fir t by re earch fo tered in the prewar years by private foundation and later 35 The Role of the Private Foundation by the va t re earch enterprise upported by the fedMa~ hall Robin.ulII 39 The ational Science Foundation and the Social Science eral government and the military during the war. Henry W. Ri~clten After the war, the private foundation continued to 43 The Effect of ponsorship upon Social ience Research provide research upport for the ocial ciences, a Harory Broolu 46 Marshall Robinson makes clear in his paper, but inThe Role of TechnologicaJ Change in Social Science Research F. ThomasJwtn-and Roberta Balstad Miller crea ingly the federal government came to play an 4 Commentary: The Role Played by the" ational taff " to the Social important role in funding re earch and thu in hapScience Kenn~lh PrnAlill ing social cience priorities. Moreover, even when federal financial aid was extended without ob ervable trings attached, it was, at least in the ba ic cience INTRODUCTION agencie , offered on the basis of certain a umptions by Roberta Balstad Miller about the nature of the cientific method and the rationale of the re earch enterpri e. These a umpM . Miller, a historian, eroedJrom 1975 to 1981 as a tion are de cribed in the paper by Henry W. staff member oj the Council' Center Jor Coordination oj Riecken. The effect of government pon or hip on Re earch on Social Indicators in Washington, D.C. Since the content and nature of ocial cience re earch in 1981, he has been executive director oj the Consortium oj ocial Science Associations (COSSA), a Washington-based organization that repre ents the social sciences in their re• The papers included in this ympo ium are based upon prelationships to the Jederal government. sentation given at the meeting of the American A sociation for Roberta BalsuuJ Mill"

THE PAPER EXCERPTED HERE examine orne of the ways that re earch in the ocial cience has been affected by the nature and even the ources of reearch upport during the po twar period in the United State . The year following World War II were a time of rapid intellectual expansion of the ocial ciences and growing federal support for reearch. The impre ive ub tantive advance in the ocial cience at that time were built on a strong

the Advancement of Science, Detroit, Michigan, on Ma 27, 19 3. The ympo ium wa arranged and chaired by Roberta Bal tad Miller. For reason of pace, ub tantial deletion have been made in editing the paper for publication.

For contents oj this issue, see the box on page 34.





61 64

Research upport and Intellectual Advance in the S0cial ienc : mpo ium ew uppon for Di erution Fellow hip from the Hewlett Foundation Activitie of the Joint rea Committee -African tudie (page 50) - Indochina tudies Program (page 50) -Soviet tudie (page 51) -Economic and ethnohi tory of the Andes (page 51) ~rder and conflict in We tern capitali m (page 53) -Polic implementation in po t-Mao China (page 53) -South ian Political Econom (APE) (page 54) -Child development in Japan and the nited tate (page 56) Other Current ctivitie at the ('.Quncil - Biosocial life- pan approache to parental behavior and off pring development (page 57) (page 5 ) - Social tructure and aging proc - Intimate relation hip acros the life pan (page 5 ) - Exploring domain of giftedne (page 5 ) tate and social tructures (page 59) of personal t timony (page 59) - Research u Council Personnel - ew directors and officers - taff appointment - Pre idential abbatical ewl -i ued Council Publication Fellow hip and Gran

the po twar year i the topic of the paper by Harve Brook. The expanding federal research investment wa also indirectl re pon ible for till another form of re earch upport extended to the ocial cience in thi period. Research support include nonmonetary upport: the availability of large federal data ets and the a i tance provided to ocial cientists in the form of new data handling and data analy i technologie. These were frequently funded through federal reearch grant that encouraged the examination of large bodie of previou I inacce ible data. Thi proce i described in the excerpt from the paper b F. Thoma Ju ter and me. In hi commentary upon the paper of the other paneli ts, Kenneth Prewitt tre e the importance for their intellectual advancement of what he call a "national taff" to the ocial ciences. Influence on the cour e of re earch in the ocial cience discipline are clearl not confined to private foundation, the federal government, and po twar analytic and computational technologie . At a minimum, a Ii t of uch influences must begin with the internal intellectual dynamics of the variou di cipline them elve . In addition to the e eparate ocial cience disciplinar tradition, there are also broader intellectual 34

current that influence each of the disciplines-often imultaneou ly. The ocial cience are omewhat ingular in that they have long been "cro road" di cipline that draw from the idea and pattern of inquiry acro all field of knowledge. At times, the method and approache of the phy ical and biological cience have been dominant in the ocial cience ; a , for example, in the practice in the po twar period of u ing quantitative data to te t hypothe es. At other time, the prioritie and concern of humani t have been highly influential. The tendency of noveli ts, uch a William Faulkner in As I Lay Ding (1930), to present reality in di crete egments through the eye and voice of the ob erver ha been echoed by ocial cienti t 'attempt to under tand the various way ociety i experienced by those who are within it. (It hould be noted that the direction of the e intellectual influence i not solely to the ocial cience . There i evidence that ugge t , for in tance, that Darwin' en e of gradual evolution in biological development wa haped b idea of cultural change current in the social cience at that time.) Still a third influence on social science re earch come from out ide the academy. Public policy, public intere t ,and public problem have long pia ed a role in defining the problem that social cienti ts tudy. The ocial cience have been criticized for their tooeager re pon ivene to the public agenda, a re ponivene that ha created political problem for researcher who are viewed a biased or who are uncomfortably a ociated either with the topic of their re earch or with the reform of the research ubject. But a focu on contemporary ocial problem and politic can al 0 be een as a trength of the social science . Research draw a vitality from the fact that it problem have major ocial a well a cientific implication . Harve Brook' paper re iew orne of thi hi tory. A fourth influence on social cience re earch i perhap be t characterized a it patronage y tern. Patron or pon or of ocial re earch often erve to hape both the problem elected by researcher and method of analysi applied to tho e problem . Mo t broadly, pon or influence the re earch climate and therefore indirectly influence researcher who do not receive financial aid. Patron of re earch include at a minimum the univer itie and private and public foundations. In addition to the major private foundation discu ed b Mar hall Robin on, there are also maller, pecial purpo e foundation and regional or local foundation that encourage re earch in pecific field or within pecific in titution . The federal government ha research program both in the VOL ME




ba ic re earch agencies-- uch a the ational Science Foundation, the ational In titute of Mental Health, and the ational In titute of Health-and in the mi ion agencie . In the latter group, the re earch program in the Bureau of the Cen u , the Department of Defen e, the Department of Health and Human Service, and the Department of Labor are among the mo t important for the social cience. In addition, there ha often been orne, albeit limited, upport for ocial cience re earch from indu try. Finally, in di cu ing the influence on re earch, no social cienti t hould leave out the in titutional tructure of the research community. Thi tructure i comprised of the univer itie and re earch in titute ; the organization that timulate, plan, and organize re earch; the group that mediate among the di cipline and between the ocial cience and the re t of the world; and the in titution and tructure that provide re earcher with the nece ary nonmonetar upport in the form of data, technologie , and librar re ource. Much of thi in titutional tructure exi ted before World War II and wa part of the po twar expan ion of ocial cience re earch; some of it grew out of the need of the re earch tern a it emerged in the po twar period. We cannot pretend that the intellectual imperative of the di cipline alone determine the timing and direction of re earch in the ocial cience. All of the influence di cu ed above provide intellectual, intitutional, or financial upport for re earch. In differing way , all of them al 0 influence the re earch agenda. Rather than ignoring or denying them, ocial scienti t hould eek to under tand the e influence. 0 THE ROLE OF THE PRIVATE FOU DATIO S b MaT. hall Robin on Mr. Robinson, an economist, was a senior officer of the Ford Foundationfrom 1964 to 1979;from 1973 to 1979, he was vice pre ident for re ouree and the environment. Since 1979, he has been president of the Russell Sage Foundation, which is primarily dedicated to the application of ocial science research to ocial policy fonnation.

The prewar years ... IN THE 20 YEAR FROM 1920 TO 1940 mo t perhap all-direct funding for ocial cience reearch in the United State came from private foundation . The re earch ub idy of the univer itie wa an important part of the environment, a wa the low I growing number of job that government proEPTEMBER

19 3

vided for economi t and tati tician . But it was the foundation that gave the grant for individual cholar and pon ored and funded uch critical re earch organization a the Brooking In titution in Wa hington, D.C., the In titute for Government Re earch (which merged with Brooking in 1928), the National Bureau of Economic Research in Cambridge and Stanford, the Social Science Research Council in ew York, and the Food Research Institute at Stanford Univer ity. It wa the Rockefeller Foundation, not the federal government, that funded the committee appointed by Pre ident Hoover which produced the two-volume Recent ocial Trend in the United States ( 1933). I n looking back over the 1920 and 1930, Raymond Fo dick, a long-time tru tee, pre ident, and hi torian of the Rockefeller Foundation, calculated that the Rockefeller Foundation and its partner, the Laura Spelman Rockefeller Memorial, had inve ted about 100 million in the ocial ciences. This inve tment, in 1920 and 1930 dollar, wa initiated primarily by Beard ley Ruml, who in 1922 a director of the Laura Spelman Memorial per uaded it tru tee to commit the Foundation almost totally to the social cience .1 In 1929, the Rockefeller Foundation' Social Science Divi ion took over the program begun by Ruml, which became increa ingly haped by the Rockefeller Foundation' pecial commitment to the cientific proce and the graduali m with which knowledge grow. Thi arne ba ic commitment wa operating in 1934 when a committee of Rockefeller tru tee aid that it now wanted to top giving free fund to univerltle to pa out to ocial cience faculty member . The committee aid these fund were scattered all over the lot, were often allocated for per onal rather than for cientific reason , and were mi sing good I he Memorial had traditionally been dedicated to ocial welfare activitie , and Ruml noted thi in hi argument that "an examination of the operation of organization in the field of social welfare how a a primary need the development of the social ience and the production of a bod of ub tantiated and widel accepted generalization a to human capacitie and motive and a to the behavior of human being a individual and in group .. .. All who work toward the general end of social welfare are embarras ed by the lack of that knowledge which the ocial ience mu t provide." Quoted in Ra mond Fosdick, The lory of lhe RockefeLler Foundation (. ew York: Harper & Row, 1952), page 194. Intere tingl , the ame argument wa used 25 ear later when Donald Young per uaded another ocial welfare in titution, the Ru ell age Foundation, to commit itself to social science research . Donald Young had been a taff member of the Social Science Re earch Council from 1932 until 194 . In that year, he became pre ident fir t of the Council and then of the Ru ell age Foundation.


people and important idea . It wa the ort of tru tee outbur t that occur from time to time in mo t foundations-and i the kind of me age that tell foundation officer how to focu their program activitie . The Rockefeller Foundation dropped it openended grant, but continued to tre ba ic ocial cience re earch. There were in thi prewar era other foundation helping the ocial cience: the General Education Board, the Ro enwald Fund, and-mo t notably-the Carnegie Corporation. From it early upport of RC to it landmark upport for Gunnar M rdal' An American Dilemma (1944), Carnegie wa a notable, albeit poradic, ource of upport for prewar ocial cience research. In retro pect, Ruml wa the prescient foundation leader, Rockefeller' Social Science Divi ion wa the rigorou and per i tent upporter of cience in social re earch, and Carnegie came in trongl whenever the i ue wa e pecially important to Franci Keppel. Although the 1920 and the 1930 were a time when the foundation were important for ocial cience research, not many foundation were in the game. . .. Compared with toda , the amount of mone the pent wa mall, but it wa the zenith of the foundation' importance to the ocial cience.

Funding for social science research in the postwar years

while that of the government and the uni ersltle ha grown dramatically (with much of the univer itie ' upport provided indirectl by the government). Whatever way we look at it, in recent decade the importance of the foundation ha continued to decline relative to the other funding ource. But foundation funding for ocial research ha increased a a portion of total foundation pending. Although few of the new foundation that have entered the scene in the la t few year have placed ocial re earch on their agenda, orne of the other newcomer to the territor -Lill , Mellon, and the Rockefeller Brother Fund-have ignificantl bol tered the overall level of upport. Moreover, foundation that have the longe t and tronge t tradition in ocial cience research have kept their allegiance to the 0cial cience in pite of evere cut in their overall pending. In 1964, the "big four" in ocial cienceCarnegie, Ford, Rockefeller, and loan-made grant totaling 320 million; of thi , about 11 per cent went for ocial cience re earch. In 1980, the same four pent for ocial cience research almo t 17 per cent out of their mailer total grant funding of 160 million. All in all, one find that ocial cience re earch ha continued to find favor among a mall group of big foundation while the total amount of the foundation 'grant ha remained fairly table.

Innovations by the foundations

But if the po twar tory i one that portray a ince 1946, a number of new foundation have appeared on the cene and orne of them have given dogged but hrinking role for the foundation , it also olid attention to the ocial cience. Table 1 how contain orne moment of high drama. For example, how much foundation pending on the ocial cience while man people can claim a role in the definition ha grown-and how thi compare with the other of the "behavioral cience," it wa the Ford Foundation that gave the term it prominence and legitimacy. major funding ource. In the five year between 1951 and 1956, Ford pent clo e to 40 million on the behavioral cience. The Table 1 fund went for theor , methodology, and interdi ciE timated Amount of Funding Provided for plinary work; Ford created the Center for Advanced Social Science Research, 1939-80 Stud in the Behavioral Science and it gave new ~~~fu~ 1~1~1~lml~ resource to uch young in titution a the In titute (millions of dollar: ) for Social Re earch at the Univer ity of Michigan Colleg and univer ilie 12 46 95 160 300 .. governmenl 30 103 307 524 under Ren i Likert; amuel A. touffer' Laboratory Privale foundalion 3 21 3 41 41 of Social Relation at Harvard; Kurt Lewin's Re earch Center for Group Dynamic at the, Univer it of The conclu ion i fairl clear. If 1940 wa the high Michigan (originally at the Ma sachu ett In titute of point of the foundation' influence in relation to Technology); and the Bureau of Applied Social Reother funding ource , the late 1960 marked the end earch at Columbia under Paul F. Lazar feld and of the po twar growth in foundation pending on Robert K. Merton. It wa an epi ode that tand a a ocial cience re earch. Since then, the foundation' landmark in the intellectual hi tory of American outla ha remained fairl table in current dollar, foundation and it urel helped the then young a36






tional Science Foundation find orne clue about a funding trategy for the ocial cience. 2 It wa the foundation that eized the idea of u ing the ocial cience to help break down the national i olation of the American univer itie . The principal vehicle wa the de elopment of "area studie ." For about 20 year, from 1946 to 1966, foundation upport poured into re earch center focu ed on Africa, A ia, Ea tern Europe, Latin America, the ear and Middle Ea t, the U .S.S.R., We tern Europe, and even orth America. It wa an academic perturbation that fit with the time and wa al 0 reinforced by a flow of fund from everal federal government agencie .... The effort to internationalize the American univerity demon trated the foundation 'willingnes and capacity to pu h ocial cienti t into new and unfamiliar a ociation with one another. Clearly one of the hallmark of the foundations' po twar involvement with the ocial cience ha been their focu on interdisciplinary re earch and teaching. Whether the ubject ha been Soviet tudie , urban tudie , povert tudie , or women' tudie, whether it ha been the evaluation of public policy, the exploration of the effect of technological change, re earch about the effect of violence on TV, or the litigiou ociety, the prevailing foundation mode in the po twar year ha been to tr to round up group of ocial cienti t of variou per uasions for a multidisciplinary effort. They have not changed the ba ic monodisciplinar norm of ocial cience re earch, but they have tried-again and again.

The preference for economics Of all of the ocial cience di ciplines, the foundation have hown a clear preference for economic . Thi choice wa di cernible in the prewar period and wa u tained throughout the po twar period. Although the Rockefeller Foundation tried in the 1950 and early 1960 to tre work on political theory and Ru ell Sage tayed with it ociological targets, the lure of economic' po ible payoffs for a troubled economy, combined with the di cernible methodology and the potential rigor of economic analy i , made it the favored object of foundation attention. The bloom on thi intellectual ro e may have begun to

fade in recent year, but more fundamental change will have to occur in the foundation' perception of the social cience before the anthropologi t , hi torian , and ociologi ts pu h the economi t to the foot of the philanthropical table. For tho e who ee a proper role of foundation to be a counterbalance or an alternative to government upport, the ca e of economics may eem confu ing. Since the ational Science Foundation accepted the ocial cience, it aloha given a clear edge to economic and it related field : deci ion theory, location analy i , and evaluation re earch. A Table 2 how, the same ha been true for the government a a whole. But the foundation have not dropped their intere t in economic. They did, however, take a hard look at the way that government fund were allocated to economic re earch. Then mo t of the foundation dropped upport of econometric, large y tern modeling, major data et, and even orne theor development. The e field became the territory of SF; the foundation took their money to other area In the discipline, orne of which were noted earlier. Table 2 Federal Support for the Social Sciences, 1967-83 National All federal Science Foundation agencies (per unt)

Anthropology Economic Political cience Sociology

6.4 59.4 3. 30.4 100.0

(per Ct1lt)

25.6 45. 11.

16.8 100.0

Source: Ftderal Fund for Rt tarch and Dtvtlopmt1tt, 1967-83, Washington, D.C.: ational ience Foundation, 1983, pages 2, 24, 28, 50.

The foundations and the growth of government support

At the macrolevel, the foundation have dealt unteadily with the growth of government upport for ocial re earch. At different time, foundation ha e dropped field when government entered them, collaborated with government as a funding partner, upported cholar in their critical evaluation of government program, and, mo t recently, tepped in when government funding faltered. Filling in the gap left by federal budget cut was a recent, painful, and 2 For a description of this episode written b the former director controversial activity of orne foundation . Some, on of the program in the behavioral science at the Ford Foundation, principle, have refu ed to "play the Admini tration's see Bernard Herel on, "Behavioral Science ," in David L. ill, game"; other, most notably Ford, Rockefeller, and editor, International ETIC)'ClofJtdia of the Social cierlct. ew York : Sloan, moved wiftly to pre erve orne of the social Free Pre and Macmillan, 196 , Volume 2, page 41-45. SEPTE 18ER



science' important data collection activitie .3 The e timely action may well turn out to be one of the foundation' greatest contribution to ocial science re earch in this decade. ... Have the foundation helped or hindered the di persion of ocial research funds? Here the evidence i a bit ketchy, but a listing of the recipients of foundation grant for ocial science re earch how, not urpri ingly, that the leading re earch univer itie and research in titution get the greate t hare of foundation dollar . A crude estimate uggest that the "top" 15 to 20 univer itie get about 50 per cent of the grant, 10 or 0 independent re earch institute account for another 35 per cent, and the re t i pread among all the other place that harbor ocial eienti t . Thi degree of concentration i probably about the arne a it was 30 years ago. Thi di tribution of grants for re earch i much more concentrated than that of grants for all other philanthropic activitie . Thi probably terns from the nature of the eientific enterprise; NSF u e the peer review sy tern and the foundation u e their own largely informal networks-but both embody the arne kind of people and the arne general criteria for making choices.

Foundations as followers ... All foundation have "program intere ts" and some pur ue them aggre ively. Occasionally, the active pu h of foundations can be aid to have changed thing in an important way. In the realm of social research, I have mentioned area studie and ba ic research in the behavioral eiences as fields in which the foundation played an active and promotional role-with la ting effects. But we should also note that the wave of foundation enthusia m for urban studie and the heavy-handed efforts to peed up doctoral training in the social eiences produced little change. The foundations may well be change agents in many of the field in which they work, but in the world of cholarship and re earch they have eldom done more than give vi ibility and acceleration to ideas that have their own intrin ic merit and timeline . At the margin, the foundations have nudged a few social cientists to work on thi or that peeific topic, but in the larger scene they have followed 3 A clear and scientificall per ua ive latement of the deci ion proce for choo ing among the victim of the budget cuts can be found in Albert Rees, "President' latement," Alfred P. loan Foundation, RtfJortfor 1982, page 1-3.


rather than led the nation' ocial and intellectual agenda. The po twar record also show that in reearch upport the have often been very quick to spot the direction they hould follow-and only lightl lower in deciding when the have been wrong.

Support of "problem-solving" research One of the important change in the foundations' role in the support of ocial re earch tern from a growing conviction among foundation leader that ocial eienti t hould be viewed primarily a in trument for dealing with complex ocial i ue. Unlike the ituation in the 1920s, 1930 ,and 1950 , when the foundation' upport was largely for ba ic re earch, foundation attention in the pa t two decade ha increa ingl focu ed on problem olving. Thu ,b 1964 the leading foundations were providing roughly equal amount for ba ic and applied re earch and by 1980 ba ic research wa getting Ie than a quarter of the total-and a large hare of that ba ic re earch upport wa from a ingle ource and for a ingle di eipline: the Sloan Foundation, for the upport of economic. In recent decade , foundation board and officer have become increa ingly intere ted in finding and demon trating way in which society can deal with certain peeific ocial problem . In thi etting, reearch i upportable e entially as a prelude to action. Thus, idea or data are ought a guide for action if one i concerned and want to do omething about i ues uch a teenage unemployment, akoholi m, violence in the chools, under upport of amateur theatre, the ri e of ingle-i ue political action committee ,the hortage of day-care center for minority women worker , the growing threat from toxic wa te dispo aI, or whatever. For tho e who eek action, re earch aimed at the e targets i suppo ed to be comprehensive, per ua ive, and quick; it may also be eientifically valid, but not at the co t of being low, technically complex, or expen ive . . . . What explain the Ie ening of the foundation ' infatuation with ba ic research in the social eience? Exaggerated claim , orne habby performer ,doubt about the prioritie in the social cienti t ' agenda, some impatience with the discovery proce ,and a growing recognition of the complexity of the whole bu ine have led orne of the foundation to conclude that simply putting money in the hand of ocial eienti t may not be the an wer. So they have tried to mix their own "common en e" with their money in a VOLUME

37, N



direct attack on the social problems at hand. Thi THE ATIO AL SCIENCE FOU DATIO A D THE SOCIAL SCIE CES approach, a reliance on common sen e, i not an illogical respon e for institutions committed to exby Henry W. Rieckert perimentation, innovation, and improving the human condition. One can only join in the hope that it will Mr. Rieckert, a social p 'clwlogist, served as an associate work, and if not, one also hope that the foundation director of the National Science FO"undation from 1958 to that have tried that route will heed the word of one 1966. He was a vice pre ident of the Social Science Re earch of their own leaders: CO"Uncil from 1966 to 1968 and he was pre ident from Social scienti t have a role in the modem world rather like 1968 to 1971. He is currently a profe or of ocial cfences theologian had in the pa t. They are the intellectualizer of at the University of Pennsylvania Medical School. wide pread belief the eldom originate; rather, they clarify, criticize, and hape them into articulate doctrine. There i a weighty en e of being ultimate authoritie ,of aying "Yea" or .. ay," out of discjpli~d inv~ tigation, to what other merely opine or want to believe.¡

An assessment What, in ummary, can we ay about the role of the foundations in the development of po twar ocial cience re earch? Since 1945, the foundation have spent a bit over one billion dollar on ocial re earch of one kind or another-a lot of money from only a dozen or so institutions. But the federal government spent that much on social cience re earch in the two year 1980 and 1981. That is one part of the story: the foundations, which u ed to be the main funders of ocial cience re earch, have been dwarfed by the government's outlays. The foundations in this period fo tered research in everal critical field ,with la ting effect on the ocial cience ; in other fields, u ing the arne amount of money, they changed nothing. Over the 35 year they have gradually hifted their upport from basic to applied research, from building the cience to using them, and from methodology to multidi ciplinary projects. They have continued to put most of their money into a handful of institution and to follow the lead of scholars or public commentators in deciding how to allocate their social re earch in pite of eroded endowments and competing foundation interests-and they have remained supporters of the social ciences in the face of Jo eph McCarthy, the Reece Committee, Senator Proxmire, and David Stockman. All in all, a fairly decent performance.D


of the ational Science Foundation have had a subtantial influence on the growth of the social and behavioral cience in the United State over the la t three decade . The policie guiding the selection of re earch to be supported reflect a view of ocial cience that i epistemologically and methodologically congruent with the po ition of the phy ical and biological ciences. In thi sen e, the influence of NSF ha nurtured a cience that is po itivi tic, empirical (as ocial cientists u e thi term), quantitative, analytic, value-neutral, and fundamental or basic in orientation .... By and large, for ucce ful SF grantee , "ocial cience research" means experiment, field studie ,or the quantitative analysi of archival data to te t an hypothesi about orne ba ic ocial, economic, political, or other behavioral proce . This i also the dominant form of contemporary, academic ocial cience, but it does exclude much of the applied social re earch in which other government agencies invest heavily. It also excludes some kinds of studies that would be seen a "relevant" by social critics, reformer , and activi t .

The formative years

The SF program in ocial cience took a po itivi tic, academic, non ideological form becau e of the circum tances in which it was born, the influence that uITounded it during its formative years, and the cautious, perhaps prudent tactics of tho e who nurtured it-its parents, guides, philosopher, and friend, 0 to peak. (I count my elf among them, 0 I speak from a vantage point that i both intimate and biased). These trategies were constrained by two principal considerations: a respect for the original congre sional mandate that NSF support basic rather • Franci X. SUllon, "Rationality, Development, and Scholthan applied research and a deeply-held belief that arship," Items, 36(4), December 1982, page 50. Italics added. Text of an addre presented to the Council' Area Assembly on Octo- improvement in method and technique were the sine qua non of a genuine social science. . .. These two ber 29, 1982. SEPTEMBER



con traints defined a strategy for social cience at the Foundation. ... The trategy of gaining entry was built around the idea that re earch on human behavior and societal proce es ha the arne fundamental cientific character a the phy ical and biological ciences. The 0cial ciences are relatively backward, the argument continues, becau e their subject matter is even Ie tractable, they had been late in emerging from peculative and moral philo ophy, and they suffered as well from a hortage of per onnel and funds. It was e entially a trategy of protective coloration, of allying one' cau e with tronger other ,a trategy that ha been u ed by countle minorities and other underdogs to ecure a hare of power and position. It wa not ea y to make thi argument convincingly. Social cience suffered from being indistinguishable, in the popular under tanding, from ocial work, social philo ophy, ocial tudie, and ocialism. In the era when SF was being planned, the popular media were wont to hang the title "sociologi t" on anyone who expre ed a coherent thought about penal practice ; and you could earn the label "economi t" imply by foreca ting tock market prices.

tion of enator like Hart, E. C. John on, Willis, and Smith, a former Princeton lecturer in political cience-who read" ociali m" when they aw" ociology" and "social reform" when the text was" ocial cience." Fulbright tried to set the enate debate traight when he explained to Johnson that social cience i not the same as ociali m or " orne form of ocial philo ophy." In the end, a compromi e was reached in the framing of the SF legi lation. The Foundation's initial posture toward social cience was to be "permi ive, not mandatory," a position that placed full di cretion in the hands of the NSF director and the National Science Board-the latter compo ed principally, ometimes exclusively, of phy ical or biological cientists and engineers. ... In the early and mid-1950s, the climate of opinion at NSF was anything but enthusiastic about a place for social cience. The resounding "maybe" that the Congres had uttered made the administration and the National Science Board cautious about exerci ing the option they had been granted to develop a ocial cience program and they were exquisitely enitive to the po ibilitie of political embarra ment at its hand.

Suspicion of the social sciences In these early year, the social ciences were uspect in the mind of many phy ical and biological cienti t . During the congre sional debate on the founding of SF, for example, prominent cienti t like I. I. Rabi (physic , Columbia) warned the Congre that federal upport for ocial cienti ts might "strengthen a preconceived point of view or a particular opinion" ince "most of the things or many of the thing which a ocial cienti t ha to say are con trover ial in nature," wherea the arne is not true of physical cience " imply becau e it i quite objective." Rabi explicitly expre ed the concern that the work of social cienti t could reflect di credit on the whole Foundation. Equally dim view of ocial cience were taken by the then president of the American Medical As ociation; by John Dewey' nephew, the then pre ident of the American Chemical ociety; and by representatives of a couple of engineering ocietie . On the other hand, there was firm support for the inclu ion of ocial cience from the ecretarie of Commerce (Henry Wallace) and Interior (Harold Icke ) and from General Magruder, director of OSS, speaking on behalf of the War Department. President Truman and Senators Magnu on, Kilgore, and Fulbright all favored inclu ion, but their view met with the oppo i40

The anticommunism of the 1950s ... An important influence upon SF was the anticommunist uproar of the 1950 , which attacked primarily the nation's intellectuals, academician , and other trouble makers who were u pected of " ubver ive activitie ," as the popular cant of the era had it. Social cienti ts felt especially vulnerable and were, in fact, prominent target of accu ation . Suspicion and di tru t of ocial re earch temmed from a vague but broadly-held view that per on profe ionally concerned with ocial affair were radical in their political outlook and doctrinaire in their advocacy of social change. Thi view was not wholly without a basi, for orne social cienti ts had inve tigated and reached reasoned conclu ions on uch matter as racial egregation, equality of educational opportunity, civil libertie , anti emitism, and industrial employment practice . Their conclu ions often clashed with the conservative majority view which then attributed a "radical agitator" character to all ocial cientists. The re istance to ocial change which characterized the 1950 , and which wa originally perhap only wearines of turmoil, became linked to the powerful paranoia of anticommuni m. VOL ME




The adoption of the natural science model . Terminological confu ion, the modicum of validity the con ervative view of ocial cience, and the perva ive atmo phere of a witch hunt combined to make public official very nervou about social ci~nce. Their anxiety inhibited their making refined Judgment . It al 0 et a ta k forthe manager 路 of ocial cience re earch at SF; namely, to find ways to differentiate ocial cience, particularly ba ic research in social cience, from all the thing with which it wa being confu ed. The solution cho en was to emphaize the imilaritie between ocial and "natural" cience by focu ing on method of inquiry. By a erting and demon trating the fundamental methodological corre pondence , it wa hoped, the social cientific enterpri e would be recognized for what it wa and would be admitted a a full-fledged member of the ational Science Foundation's list of acceptable ubject . ... Thi wa the gene is of the SF po ture in ocial cience and these were the force that gave it a po itivi tic, quantitative, analytical, and nonideological hape. Ha thi po ture been ucce sful? Ha it achieved its objectives; namely, to strengthen the cientific capacity of the social and behavioral science and to ecure their po ition in the ational Science Foundation (and, thereby, their place in a national pol.icy for science)? The answer to both que tion i , I belIeve, affirmative, but the achievement has been in some re pect limited. Let me explain. 10

Methodological and substantive accomplishments In re pect to the fir t objective, the trengthening of the ocial and behavioral cience them elve there i fortunately available orne new evidence fr~m the late.t in a long eries of report by variou cholarly bodle that a e the achievement and the contribution of these di cipline . It i the 1982 report of an ASI RC Committee on Ba ic Re earch in the Beha.vioral and Social Sciences. 1 Like it predece ors, thl report puts forward ocial cience' best foot de cribing the everal di cipline it include ,a ertin~ their claims to cientific tatu, and Ii ting their accompli hment . Like it predece ors, the report cite accompli hment that empha ize method and techI Robert McC. Adam, eil J. mel er, and Donald J. Treiman, editors, Behavioral and ocial cience Research: A National Resourct. Part I. Wa hington, D.C.: ational Academ Pre ,19 2.



nique for gathering quantitative data and for analyzing it objectively. A glance at the Ii t of accompli hment i in tructive. T~e 1982 Academy report highlight two general bodl~ o~ ~ethod: fir t, ample urvey for polling pubbc opIniOn, e umating the di tribution of behavior in a population, and mea uring ocial or economic trend over time; and, econd, tandardized te t for a e ing abilitie , aptitude , and per onal characteri tic uch a intelligence, dexterity, and vocational intere t . The e two bodie of method have been claimed and lauded in mo t other report on the ocial cience a well. Beyond that, however, the 1982 report wa able to claim a ub tantial number of contribution that had come along during the la t three decades when the ocial cience program at SF wa maturing: economic modelling and forecasting; the ~ e of organizational analy is to inform managerial Judgment and to under tand orne unde irable conequence of tight managerial control; the application of location theor to identif "negative externalitie " in iting deci ion for manufacturing and ervice facilitie ; and the rapid growth in the application of a variety of ocial cientific method to the evaluation of education, training, welfare, and other kind of government program. Be ide the e application, the ASI RC report de cribe progre in all of the 0cial a~d behavioral field , but nominate for pecial attention a number of ba ic area where under tanding ha been growing lately: electoral voting, behavior bearing on per onal health, p ychological treatment of (omatic) illne ,operation re earch and programming, information proce ing, the prehi toric origin of agriculture, cognitive development in infancy, ocial choice theory, human origin, and the ocial behavior of primate , among others. Additionally, the report make the point that much of the progress in the social cience con i t of for~ulating. new way of thinking about old problem , mtroducmg new per pective that change "the definition of the ituation," and gradually adding bit of factual information that have the arne effect. The e ubtle but significant change creep into popular thinking and gradually become "what ever body know" rather than cientific knowledge a uch. It would require a more detailed and ophi ticated analy i to ub tantiate a claim that SF upport had been re pon ible for these developments, but even a c~ ua~ in pection of the topics and the inve tigators Cited 10 the report confirm the impre ion of a ub. tanti~l overlap with the project and the principal lOve ugator on the SF grant list. Certainly, there i a clo e corre pondence between the Ii t of reported 41

contribution and the genre of ocial cience re earch the Foundation ha upported.

An uneasy position in the national science program A to the econd objective, a ecure place in the national cience program, it i more difficult to be confident. The 1981 budget cri i , which would have reduced NSF funding by 75 per cent, ha been the mo t eriou threat to the ocial cience' hard-won po ition, but there have been other ign that ought to alert ocial cientist to the per i tent need for protecting their enterpri e from unwarranted critici m and politically-motivated attack. One uch ign i title ridicule. When behavioral cienlist inquire into certain kind of fundamental topic , their re earch i indicted a the frivolou expenditure of public fund on u ele , pointle re earch. A favorite port of the legislative aide who eek publicity for hi rna ter i citing title of grant and ridiculing their uppo ed content in the Congre ional Record. 路 .. A econd quarter from which the attack on ocial cience re earch comes i the guardian of public morality who look upon orne kind of ocial cience research a dangerou or, at lea t, prejudicial to good order. Particularly vulnerable are report of cro -cultural re earch that di play life tyle, attitude , and moral tandard that differ from middlecla American one, but without condemning the alien. 路 . . When ocial cienti t turn their attention from ba ic re earch to applying their method of inquiry to current ocial i ue, a different indictment i drawn up, albeit an old one; namely, they are not acting a cienti t but a protagoni t for a particular, predetermined point of view. Thi accu alion fall mo t ea ily from the mouth of lawyer, it eem, who e per i tent immer ion in the adver arial proce eem to heighten their u picion of hidden motive. 路 . . Let me be clear that I do not deny all the e allegation flatly. There are ideologue in the ran k of ocial cienti t ,a well a individual who look upon ocial cience as the impetu to ethical and moral judgment about society and a a tool and guide for ocial reform. Some inve tigator are concerned with


preciou or trivial topics, and orne social cience reearch genuinely doe raise que tion , usually legitimate and intere ting ones, about the convention of our ociety. In thi re pect, ocial cience re earch can be up etting, although it can hardly be con idered ubver ive. Indeed, the va t body of ocial cientific re earch goe about it busine s a any other cience doestudying what the discipline considers significant problem by the pain taking collection of reliable data and it analy i , guided by hypothese that are explicit, through objective, replicable method, ubject to the crutiny of the inve tigator' peer. It eem to be very difficult to explain this posture to people outside the social ciences (and even to a few in ider ), but it i important to do 0, and it eems to require per i ten t effort. One way in which this effort manife t it elf contructively i in the periodic preparation of report uch a the one ju t completed by AS/NRC. It i one of half a dozen major attempts to explain the ocial cience i ued over the last two decades. 2 Such report are neces ary accountings, rendered periodically to tho e who are looking for new or additional reason to upport social cience re earch. They are, however, ba ically preachment to the already converted, not effective with ocial cience' opponents, who have other objection and other reason for oppo ition. Governmental upport for ocial cience re earch i grounded in political, not intellectual debate. The reason for oppo ing the upport of ocial cience are not ob cure. They pring from re i tance to change; from the unea ine arou ed by the research challenge to conventional wi dom; from u picion that social cience re earch re ults are not well upported by evidence; from the fact that many re ults are con troverial, even among ocial cientist; and from the belief that the ocial cience di ciplines are merely ideology masquerading a cience. If the e are the reason ,the problem of defending social cience i also political, not intellectual, and the battle must be fought with political a well as intellectual weapon . Furthermore, there seem to be no end in ight. 0

Z A u eful Ii t of these earlier report appears on page 5 of Adams et at.. op. cit.








by Harvey Brooks Mr. Brooks, a physicist, erved on the National Science Board from 1962 to 1974. A member of the National Academy of Sciences, Mr. Brooks was Gordon McKay profe or of applied phy ic at Harvard Univer: ityfrom 1950 to 1975. Since 1975, he has been the Benjamin Peirce profesor of technology and public policy.

SPON OR HIP HA MORE EFFECT on the ub tantive content and method of ocial cience re earch than it doe on natural cience research. Thi tern in part from difference , actual and perceived, in the relation of the natural and ocial cience to public policy and policy maker . In the ocial cience, the conceptual tructure of knowledge is more intimate! connected to the implicit ocial as umption and political preference of the variou actor in the policy making proce than is the ca e for the natural cience. The re earches of ocial cienti t lead to finding which rna que tion or upport basic a umption of variou public and politician about human behavior or human nature. Everyone is in hi own view to orne extent a ocial cience expert and i Ie willing to grant the objectivity and political neutrality of ocial cience finding than in the ca e of the natural cience . Society can never be a pure "object" becau e deci ion maker are part of it. Thu , upport for, and the direction of development of, the social ciences are more directly influenced by current ocial priorities and attitude than i the ca e with the natural ciences.

The impact of the Cold War

the overall program of the Foundation wa con tantly defended for it contribution to the nation' upply of highly-trained manpower needed in the technological race with the monolithic communi t empire. One of the mo t effective document for eliciting congre ichola De ional upport for SF' budget wa Witt' tudy of Soviet cientific and technical manpower, pubJi hed in 1956. According to J. Merton England' hi tor of NSF,! the De Witt book made a profound impres ion on Congre man Albert Thoma of Texa , the forceful chairman of the appropnauon ubcommittee that over aw the N F appropriation each year in the Hou e. After reading the book, which howed that the Ru ian were overtaking and urpa ing the United State in the number of cientific and engineering graduate being produced each year, Thoma i aid to have treated F budget reque t much more mpatheticall, and even pu hed NSF into a king for more mone for cience education programs, particularly for ummer in titute for high chool cience teacher . Government upport for re earch wa thu viewed largel through the len of the Cold War, and in thi climate it i not urpri ing that there wa little public con tituency for the ocial science . Although a few liberal legi lator , and a minority egment of the cience community that wa lobbying for government upport of cience, did pu h for a social cience program to help olve some of the ocial problem facing American oci~ty, particularly the problem of unemployment, thi view wa u ually a ociated with advocacy of a formula di tribution of re earch fund, in contravention to the merit principle being advocated by mo t of the cience e tabli hment. An influential con tituency in the cience community that might not have actively oppo ed the ocial cience became alienated, leaving the field to the con ervative . Many of the ph ical cienti t who were mo t influential in haping the SF also feared that an active ocial cience research program would produce a political backla h in Congre that would hurt the natural cience a well.

The evolution of the social cience ha been heavily influenced by the fact that the cience up port y tern that developed in the United States after World War II was primarily a byproduct of the Cold War. In the debate urrounding the creation of the National Science Foundation and in it annual budget The adoption of the natural science model ju tification after it wa in existence, it i triking how The period up to the mid-1960 wa aI 0 a period the theme of ba ic research and advanced cientific training a the underpinnings of America' military when it wa fa hionable to believe that development trength con tandy recur. Not only were recent results of basic research pre ented to Congres each year in terms of their pos ible applicability to military 1 J. Merton England, A Patron of Pure citnct . Wa hington, innovation (often in quite far-fetched argument ), but D.C.: ational Science Foundation. 19 2. EPTE ~BER



in the natural cience could be exploited to bypa many ocial and political problems. Alvin Weinberg and other popularized the notion of the "technical fix" which had the potential to cut the Gordian knot of many ocial and political conflict .2 It was not until much later, in the aftermath of the Vietnam War and the environmental movement, that the term "technical fIX" acquired a pejorative connotation and began to be u ed to belittle propo ed technical olution to ocial problem . The rapid adoption of new eed varietie b pea ant farmer in everal developing countrie wa frequently pointed to as an example of how new cientific idea could confound the pe imi tic a e ment by ocial cienti t of the in. . grained con ervati m of peasant culture .3 Thu ,a Henry W. Riecken ha documented 10 hi paper, "with little support from the communitie of natural cienti t and engineer ,the ational Science Board and much of the SF taff, tho e seeking a hare ~f the Foundation ' mall budget for the ocial science had an uphill truggle."· Moreover, the fear of political backla h led to a re trictive and protective definition of ocial cience eligible for government pon or hip. In the word of one 1954 Board report, social cience, to be eligible for SF upport," hould be methodologically rigorous, important for national welfare and defen e, convergent with the natural cience , and characterized by objectivity, verifiability, and generalit ."5 The notion of "convergence" wi~h the natural cience is one which recur frequently 10 the debate over ocial cience upport in NSF. It mean not only following the quantitative methodologie of the natural sciences, but al 0 earching out topics where interaction with th~ s~b­ ject matter of the natural cience would be a slgmficant element. Thus, one of the earlie t nonnatural cience program in SF was the program in the hi tory, philo ophy, and ociology of cience. Although work in thi area may have . lacked. the me~­ odological rigor which was otherwi e de Irable, thl wa more than made up for by it clo e "convergence" with the natural cience.

The impact of operations research and systems analysis One government program, not in NSF, which had a profound influence on the evolution of the social science was the development of operation re earch and y terns analy is for the purpo e of improving the choice and employment of new weapon y tern by the military. Thi i perhap the clas ic example .of how the idea of "convergence" influenced the oclal cience . The be t example i , of cour e, the Rand Corporation, founded right after World ~ar II w.ith Air Force pon or hip and a grant of workmg capital from the Ford Foundation. 8 In the beginning, Rand wa not at all an explicitly ocial cience enterprise. In ofar a it had an intellectual genealogy, it wa derived from the development of operation reearch, largely by phy ici ts, a a new application of cientific mode of thought to determining the optimum tactical employment of weapon y tern. But Rand evolved rapidly as a major center for young social cienti t , particularly economi t , but broadening into other di cipline over time. Rand not only pawned a ho t of imitators, but it alumni began drifting into key po ition in academia, again particularly in economic departments. In time, all the military "think tanks" broadened their cope, a~d began to appl their approache and method~logle to problems in the civil ector, for exam!>le 10 ~e management of urban ervice and of vanou octal service delivery systems. The high-water mark wa reached in the mid-1960 with the Great Society programs. The Rand Corporation developed a branch, the ew York Cit Rand In titute, that contracted with the administration under Mayor Lind ay to perform analy e of New Yor~'s en:ice d~live~y problem and improve the effiCiency with which It human and phy ical resource were being u ed. 7 It wa a period of high hope for the ociety-wide application of the techniques of " y terns analy i " developed in the strategic field. President Johnson attempted to introduce system analysis into the federal budget proce through the new cherne of Planning Programming Budgeting (PPB), modeled. aft~r the u e of ystems analysi for weapons plannmg 10 the Pentagon. 8

% A. M. Weinberg, "Can Technology Replace Social Engineering?" Bulletin of the Atomic cirotists. 22:4-8. December 1966. • Bruce L. R. Smith, The Rand Corporation . Cambridge. Ma sa3 W. D. Hopper, "Di tortion of Agricultural Development Rechusett : Harvard Univer ity Pre ,1966. ulting from Government Prohibition ." In T . W. Schultz, editor. 7 The New Yorh City Rand Institute. Final Report 1969-1976. ew Distortions of AgricuLtural Incentives. Bloomington: Univer it of York: Rand Corporation, November 1977. I ndiana Pres , 1978, page 69- 7 . • David ovick. editor, Program Budgeting: Program A1Ullysis and 4 England. op. cit., page 266. the Federal Government. Cambridge, Ma achu etts: Harvard UniS England. ibid .• page 267. ver it Pre • 1965.






The "big science" model

experiment were launched while the enthu ia m for All of thi was not preci ely ocial cience, or even the Great Society program wa till near it peak, applied social cience, but it interacted increa ingly although on the decline. To ome extent, the experimental approach was attempted becau e of a certain with the ocial ciences, and stimulated the introducdegree of di illusionment with the effect of full- cale tion of computer imulation and other quantitative ocial program introduced without pilot experiment and tati tical methods into the more ba ic ocial ciences. At the beginning of the 1970 , the Advanced to explore their effects and to permit adju tment of Re earch Projects Agency of the Department of De- the policy parameter in the light of uch experimentation. One could ay, however, that the very fen e propo ed a "megaproject" in the ocial cience po ibility of uch ocial experiment derived from known a the Cambridge Project. 9 Conducted jointly the capacity to collect and manipulate large amount by faculty and students at Harvard and the Mas achuof data that had been timulated by the earlier milietts In titute of Technology, the purpo e of the project wa to develop new method and oftware for tary and imilar program . Thu ,there eem to have handling and analyzing large amounts of ocial data, been a di cernible intellectual genealogy extending and to develop model data banks for such data to from the original Rand idea to the u e of large- cale demon trate po sibilitie . The project was un- social experiments in de igning new ocial program . Unfortunately, the ocial experiment were omewhat cia ified and not pecifically oriented to the practical di appointing from a policy point of view, becau e the requirements of the Department of Defen econtemplated ocial policie from which they had dealthough it need for being able to handle large rived their motivation had run out of political team amount of data more efficiently was elf-evident. The project did go forward, after a good deal of b the time the re ults of the experiment were available, and a number of the que tion being addre ed con trover y generated in the Harvard and MIT by the experiments were ob olete from the point of communitie because of the Pentagon upport. Although valuable work wa done, I think it is fair to ay view of the different et of political option then being considered. that the project did not produce a breakthrough in the capacity for handling large amount of ocial cience data. everthele s, it is representative of the "big Foreign area research and Project Camelot cience" model to which the ocial ciences a pired in Another area in which the Cold War and the Penthi period. tagon intere t in the social cience had an influence wa foreign area research . A Mar hall Robin on ha ob erve<!, the private foundation had tried to timuThe Great Society social experiments late foreign area tudie in the 1950 . At the arne The next tep in the same sequence of devel- time, in the immediate po twar period the advice of opment was probably the serie of large-scale ocial ocial cienti t , including cultural anthropologi ts, experiments designed to explore the impact on em- had been used by the military occupation in japan, ployment incentive of a "negative income tax," and and b the U.S. avy in tructuring the governance of imilar experiments to te thou ing voucher and the mandated Pacific I land . It i alleged that the chool voucher as alternatives for introducing deci ion to allow the japane e emperor to retain hi market-like mechanism into the admini tration of po ition after the urrender wa made on the advice ocial program .10 The e expensive ocial engineering of expert of japanese culture and ociety Y When "counterinsurgency" became a priority milit Harvey Brook . "The Federal Government and the Autonomy tary objective in the mid-1960 , the militar once of holar hip." In Charle Frankel. editor. ControvtTsU and Dtci- again turned to the ocial cience for advice, leading ions: The Social citnct and Public Policy. ew York: Ru sell age to the ill-fated Project Camelot. Thi wa an ArmyFoundation. 1976. e pecially page 252-254 ; Faculty of Art and pon ored project, never fuUy implemented, who e Science. Harvard Univer it y. RtfJort of the ubcommittuonRt tarch Policy on the Participation of tht Faculty of Arts and citnus in the o ten ible purpo e wa to u e American ocial cienCambridgt Projtct. Cambridge. Ma achu ett : Harvard Univer ity

Pre • December 1969. 10 Gene M. Lyon. editor. ocial cienct and Public Policit : Tht Dartmouth/OECD ConftTt1l.Ct . Hanover. New Hamp hire: The Public Affair Center. Dartmouth College. 1975. e peciall "Part II. Social Experiments." See also Henry W. Riecken et al.. Social Experimt1ltalion. ew York: Academic Pre • 1974. EPTEMBER


11 Harvey Brook. "Impact of the Defen e E tabli hment on Science and Education". Appendix E. page 931-962 in ational cienct Policy. Hearing Before the ubcommittee on ience. Re arch and Development of the Committee on Science and A tronautics. U.S. House of Repre entative . 91 t Congre .2nd Se ion. July-September. 1970.


tists to study the social structure and politics of a number of Latin American countrie with a view to anticipating the ri e of social unrest and providing advice on the mo t effective u e of American policies and resources to prevent its giving rise to developments adver e to our security interest. Although orne rather good foreign area research was done under military spon or hip, Project Camelot itself was ill-designed and created very adver e political reactions both in the target nations and in the American ocial cience community.12 There eem little question that the interest of the private foundations in foreign area studie was influenced in part by the same motivations that later led the military to take an interest in such research. Indeed, there i a trong argument to be made for objective knowledge about the ociety and politics in part of the world where American political or military intervention might be undertaken in the future. The lack of such knowledge, or rather the lack of its communication to decision-making levels, was certainly an important factor in the American fiasco in Vietnam, and the problems of U.S. intervention in foreign area with inadequate or just plain wrong information about the ociety and politic of the area till eem to be with us.

that cholarship could be "neutral" or "impartial," came under severe attack. 13 It was maintained that the values of the exi ting di tribution of power and status in society are built into the underlying axiom of all the social cience disciplines, so that systematic ocial cience research, and particularly quantitative studie , is inherently conservative. Even when the social sciences purport to deal with options for 0cial change, the e option are subtly circumscribed so that choices involving a ignificant change in the exi ting power tructure are never considered. Thu , government upport of the ocial cience in the postwar years began by being suspect because it was een as promoting dangerou ocial change, but came to be su pect in the minds of many becau e it wa believed to be an in trument for retarding de irable D social change.


Mr. Juster, an economist, served with the National Bureau of Economic Research from 1959 to 1973. Since 1973 he has been a professor of economics at the University of Michigan, where he is currently director of the Institute The radical critique for Social Re earch. Ms. Miller is identified on page 33. Attitude toward sponsor hip of the ocial sciences

by government agencies eem to have come full circle. In the early postwar period, the social ciences and ocial scientist were seen as dangerous change agent , regarded with deep suspicion by politicians, and by a goodly egment of the natural cience establishment. During the late 1960 and early 1970 , the social ciences reached a peak of public and political optimi m about their capacity to guide peaceful and relatively noncontroversial" ocial engineering" on a large cale. Beginning in the late 1960s, and probably partly stimulated by the military intere t in and support of the ocial ciences, a new radical critique of the ocial cience became popular, which identified them not with social change and reform but with pre erving the statu quo and existing power relation hip . The notion of a value-free ocial science, and the idea

THE TOPIC EXAMINED IN THI PAPER is the po twar intellectual change in the ocial cience that has re ulted from the interaction among advance in data analysis methods, data handling technologies, and increase in the quality and quantity of scientific ob ervations. The advent of modern data handling technologies--from the earlie t Hollerith cards to the lightly more ophisticated counter- orters and the far more radical multigenerations of computers--has permitted the social scientist to examine and manipulate vast amounts of quantitative data. Over the same period, statistical and analytic innovation proceeded partly independently and partly in respon e to technology, providing new ources of information for the ocial scienti t, uch as the sample urvey, or providing more powerful methods to describe and compare ob ervation and measure of ocial pheI I Ibid. , page 952- 954; cf. also, Hearing Before the Committee on Foreign Relations, U.S. Senate, "Defense Department pon- nomena. The increasing sophistication of bivariate and multivariate tatistics over the past 50 years and sorship of Foreign Area Research", May 9, 1968, e pecially page 7, II, and 17. ee also 1rving L. Horowitz, editor, The Rise and Fall the more recent proliferation of iterative estimation

of Project Camelot: Stwiie in the Rellztioruhip Between Social Science and Practical Politics. Revised edition . Cambridge, Ma sachusetts: MIT Pre , 1967.


13 Alvin W. Gouldner, The Coming Crisis of Western Sociology. ew York: Ba ic Book , 1970.





technique and non parametric taU uc are both illu trative of the increa ingly flexible analytic ar enal of the ocial cienti t. Innovation uch a the e made po ible-and in orne case promoted-rapid expanion in the quality and quantity of cientific ob ervation . These developments also permitted and even encouraged broad ub tantive and epistemological change in the ocial cience in the decade following World War II. We argue here that the foundation for the blo oming of empirical, quantitative, neopo itivi t ocial cience have been pre ent ince the 19th century, but that it took the accelerating technological and tati tical advance of the pa t 5~60 year to permit their adaptation in nearly all area of ocial inquiry. ... The period after World War II aw the expanion and refinement of a number of orientation and method of analy i in the tudy of ocial and behavioral pattern and proce e, more than can be di cu ed here. There are impl too many discipline to examine over the cour e of thi time period and too many fruitful intellectual approache to explore. Although there were imilaritie acro the ocial cience di cipline in the adaptation of the new anal tic approache permitted by the growing technological and tati tical ophi tication, there were also, at time, decided difference . . .. In tead of attempting to urvey the topic in it entirety, we focu our attention on development in two ocial cience di cipline . We de cribe briefl the prewar foundation of the behavioral revolution in political cience and try to how wh the po twar expan ion of quantitative anal i in that di cipline took place when it did. We then examine the relationhip between the development of economic theory and the uppl of economic data to ee how technological capability and analytic proficiency have influenced the way that economi t develop, define, and te t theorie . We conclude that the pace of po twar advance in the technology of data handling, in the development of tati tical method for analyzing 0cial cience data, and in the upply of cientific ob ervation have exerted a ignificant influence on the development of the e ocial cience . Our purpo e i not to delineate tho e interaction but to focu more harpl on their ub tantive and theoretical con equence .... During the po twar period, the ocial cience have been tran formed from a et of discipline that relied largely on ca ual, localized, or admini tratively oriented ob ervation to di cipline that have come to make effective u e of mas ive et of observation that EPTEMBER

19 3

are defined by cientific concern . During thi arne period, we have seen a revolution in the computational power available to the cientific community, which ha made it po ible for ocial cienti t to extract the alient cientific feature from the e observation at moderate co t. The revolution in computing power ha not only reduced the co t of data analy i , but ha permitted type of analy e that would have been inconceivable a few decade ago. The dramatic change in technology have both advantage and di advantages. An advantage i that conceptually inappropriate or inadequate ob er ation have been replaced by hard cientific ob ervation . The ob ervational and analytic power thus made available has enriched the conceptual and theoretical tructure of the ocial cienti t, making orne theorie untenable and olidifying the parameter e timate in a great many behavioral model . All thi ha made the social cience more rigorou , and more solidly grounded in empirical reality. But the low co t of computing, coupled with the nece ary impreci ion of much theor in the social cience ,ha al 0 re ulted in a proliferation of empirical research that is Ie cu mulative than one would like. A related problem i a tendenc for re earcher to confu e idio yncracie in a particular et of data for cientific regularities. Science move in ucce ive period of urge and con olidation. In the ocial cience , we may be at the beginning of a period where the combination of cheap and highly acce ible computing capacit and a growing tock of good cientific ob ervation will begin to generate increa ingly wide pread agreement about what i valid generalization, what i till uncertain, and what are the next tep. The ea ie t part of thi prediction to verif i the increased power and low cost of computing capacit for complex data anal i. The co t of computation ha been declining in real term for everal decade , and the current proliferation of computing network promise to continue that trend. The u e of thi resource for ocial cience data analy i has been ri ing at an a tonishing rate: in the Inter-Univer ity Consortium for Political and Social Re earch at the Univer it of Michigan, for example, the demand for externally di tributed data tape ha ri en at a compound annual growth rate of almo t 35 per cent over the la t decade-almo t doubling every two year ! Whether this capacity for analy i will be matched by concomitant growth in high quality ob ervation and their u e in the development of appropriate concept and theories i more que tionable. It is hard to generalize about the latter. Although cience ha


seldom lacked for talented theorists, it i quite likely The context outlined in the present papers includes that the principal roadblock to cientific progre will the long- tanding reluctance of natural scientists to be the lack of resource needed to generate appropri- admit social cienti t into national policy circles; the ately powerful ets of observations-not a welcome cientific consequence of social science funding me age in the resource-constrained world that we all being a re pon ibility of federal agencie that are inhabit. 0 dominated by natural cienti ts; the hifting priorities of private foundation board; the impact of the Cold War upon governmental prioritie; and secular COMMENTARY: THE ROLE PLAYED BY THE change in research technologie . In each instance, we "NATIONAL STAFF" TO THE can trace the influence of context on ub tantive SOCIAL SCIENCES theme and analytic approaches, a particularly wellby Kenneth Prewitt described in Harvey Brook 'contribution to thi ympo ium. Mr. Prewitt, a poLiticaL scientist, has been president of the On thi larger sociology of knowledge hypothesis, Council since 1979. Prior to joining the CounciL, he was a linking sub tance with context, the papers speak for profe or of political science at the University of Chicago; themselve and need no additional comment. Howfrom 1976 until 1979, he was also director of the National ever, there is one theme which strikes this commenOpinion Re earch Center. tator as Ie s developed than is warranted: the special THE CONCEPT AS WELL A THE EXECUTION of this and enduring role of what can be called a "national sympo ium is a welcome and instructive contribution taff" to the social cience. Becau e most of to an in titutional history of the ocial sciences. It is a the author have been and in some case till are part remarkably undeveloped history, unfortunately so, of this staff, they perhap are too close to the phegiven the now accepted finding that cience i hi torinomenon to see its full importance, or too modest to cally conditioned. Robert K. Merton tated it well give it due weight. nearly 40 year ago: "The sociology of knowledge came into being with the signal hypothe is that even Who is on the "national staff?" truth were to be held ocially accountable, were to be The "national staff" of which I speak is not of related to the historical ociety in which they course a formal entity. It i a 100 e network including emerged.'" De pite their critical role in establi hing person uch as the following: the executive taffs of the sociology and the history of science, the social the social cience a sociations; the profes ional staffs science have been largely indifferent to their own of the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral historical development. Sciences, the National Bureau of Economic Research, Thi indifference i especially apparent if we conthe Social Science Research Council, and the social centrate on the range of issue brought to our attenscience taff of the National Research Council; the tion by the pre ent paper . How little we know about re earch director and administrators of national inthe hi tory and ociology of the national support systitutes uch a the Rand Corporation, the National tem for the social ciences! We are, con equently, in Opinion Re earch Center, and the Institute for Social debt to Roberta Miller for having organized the esResearch. It also include profe ionals in the funding ion leading to these papers, and to the author for so agencie ,such a the social science program officers at clearly laying before u the emergence of postwar the National Science Foundation and the National pattern of funding and institutional arrangements in In titute of Health and the relevant program officers the social cience. of tho e private foundation that upport the social science. Lessons from the sociology of knowledge Thi i not an exhau tive enumeration. Nor i it In the fir t place, of cour e, these papers further very precise, mixing as it does the private and the confirm the sociology of knowledge hypothe i um- public sector; member hip a sociation and pemarized by Merton. The substance of ocial science i cialized foundation ; taff who report to boards comnot to be gra ped without fir t under tanding the po ed primarily of social scienti t and tho e who political and ocial context in which science emerges. report to more heterogeneous boards. These distinctions are important, but for present purpo e will I Robert K. Merton, "Paradigm for the Sociology of Knowledge," in Robert K. Merton, The Sociology of cience: Theorttical and have to be glo ed over. Here it i nece ary only to Empirical [nvt tigatio,lS. University of Chicago Pre , 1973, page e tablish that there is something which can be de11. Fir t publi hed in 1945. scribed a a "national staff" to the social ciences, 48


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keeping in mind that thi i a 100 e and informal paper i embedded in initiative being managed b network, not an organized group. person who ee them elve ,correctl so, a taff to a large communit of ocial cience re earcher . The Riecken and Brook paper further illu trate Functions of the "national staff" the role of program officer of the ational Science The hi tory recounted in the paper under di u- Foundation. They have erved a a vi ible, elfion de cribe long-term ecular hifts in the geo- consciou pre ence of the ocial science in the nagraphic location, the in titutional home, and the tional cience-politic arena, for which the probably operating tyle of thi national staff. In location, the hould receive battle pay. The re earcher who view hift i from a ew York dominance to much more the F taff only a grant admini trator mi e regional diver ification, taking into account not only much that i important. For the way in which the e the po twar emergence of Wa hington, D.C.-ba ed grant are admini tered influence more than the life organization (the ational Science Foundation, the of the researcher. Irre pecti e of one' po ition on the ational Re earch Council, the ational In titute of po itivi t bia within the F ocial cience program, Mental Health, and, more recently, the Consortium of a de cribed by Riecken, only the mo t hort- ighted Social Science As ociations) but also important na- cholar would fail to recognize and applaud the F tional in titution located in Ann Arbor, Cambridge, taff for teadfa tly holding to the principle of peer Chicago, Palo Alto. In in titutional home, the hift i review, of quality criteria, of cumulative knowledge, from an exclusively private ector network to includ- and of the right of the ocial cience to a place in the ing major government in titution , e pecially of ational Science Foundation. The e principle and cour e the ational cience Foundation. In operating practice have an influence far be ond the particular t Ie, the hift can be illu trated b contra ting the guideline determining grant allocation . somewhat free-wheeling activitie Mar hall Robin on Mar hall Robin on' paper add till another de cribe in the early ear of the Laura pelman dimen ion to our under tanding of the role of a naRockefeller Memorial with the more bureaucratic and tional taff to the ocial cience . For in tance, taff in prudent approach Henry W. Riecken a ociate with private foundation enjoy a high degree of the emergence of the ocial cience program in the anonymity and con equentl of autonomy. Comational Science Foundation. Each of the e i of pared to the clo e attention given to the federal agencour e a hift only in empha i. ew York remain cie, ub tantial hifts in the direction and even level important, a doe the t Ie long a sociated with the of funding among private foundation go relatively private foundation located there. But the hifts are unnoticed by the research community. Moreover, the real, and by altering the compo ition and function of ocial cience program officer in private foundation what I have called the "national taff," the have had generally are more accountable to board compo ed a continuing influence on the ocial cience. of non ocial cienti t than to the larger peer commuThe Ju ter- Miller paper, for example, lead u to nity of ocial cience re earcher , which help explain con ider the importance of per on who manage the the re ponsivene to non cientific criteria in prolarge- cale, multiple-u er resource in the social ci- gramming. Robin on i correct to point out the adence . In the po twar period, the ocial ciences have vantage in flexibility a well a the di advantage in had orne triking ucce in finding vi ionarie for funding di continuit thi arrangement of uch role, not lea t among them being Ju ter' pred- autonomy-accountability promote. ece or at the In titute for Social Re earch, Ren i Many additional ob er ation are timulated b thi Likert and Angu Campbell. The ocial cience, collection of paper, but the foregoing will uffice to however, till have a long way to go in e tabli hing the illu trate the more general point. One dimen ion of in titutional arrangement which will in ure that na- the po twar tran formation of the social cience ha tional re earch and training opportunitie are ade- been a hift in the location, in titutional home, and quately planned and coordinated. The kind of initia- operating tyle of a national taff to the social citive needed are illu trated by the e tabli hment of ence . In thi hift we can detect element of influence national advi ory panel to urve organization that on the intellectual and in titutional life of the social produce large data et. That thi initiative occurred cience . The e influence hould not be exaggerated; under prodding from the ational Science Founda- neither hould they be ignored. The paper in thi tion, e peciall the program led by Murray Aborn, ympo ium identify major i ue that will graduall bear out the argument of thi commentar . The ub- become part of the hi torical cholar hip in and about tantive tran formation outlined in the Juster-Miller the social cience. 0 EPTEMBER

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Activities of the Joint Area Committees New Support for Dissertation Fellowships from the Hewlett Foundation The Council i pleased to announce that it ha received a grant in the amount of 2,012,500 from the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation for five-ear upport of the International Doctoral Research Fellow hip Program. Thi program i adminitered by the foreign area committee that are pon ored jointl b the Council and the American Council of Learned Societie . A recent decline in the funding for these international di ertation reearch award had threatened the continuation of the Program. The new grant from the Hewlett Foundation will enable the joint committee to maintain the uppl of doctoral candidates in the social science and the humanitie who have had international research experience. Thi year, with the a i tance of the Hewlett grant, 53 doctoral candidate were awarded fellow hip for di sertation research in Africa, A ia, Latin America and the Caribbean, the ear and Middle East, and We tern Europe. The name and topics of the new fellow are Ii ted on page 61)-67.

African Studies The Joint Committee on African tudie continue to commi ion paper that review the tate of theor and research on particular topics for presentation at pecial se ion during the annual meeting of the African tudie Association . A review paper for the 19 2 meeting of the A ociation prepared by Paul Richard, Universit College, London, on "Ecological Change and the Politic of African Land U e," ha been pubJi hed, together with a critical commentary by Michael J. Watt, University of California, Berkele ,a a pecial i ue of the African tudi~ Rroiew. For the 19 3 meeting of the Association, which i being held December 7-11, 19 3, in Bo ton, review papers have been comm' ioned on two topics: "The Agrarian Cri i in Africa," by Sara S. Berry,


Bo ton Universit ; and "Labor and Labor Hi tory in Africa," b William Freund, Harvard Univer it . The topi of future review paper include The Social tudyof Health in Africa; African Philosophy; Cia , Ethnicity, and ationali m; Literature and Oral Tradition ; The Person and the ufe C 'cle in African Social ufe and Thought; The Vi ual Art; and Comparative Religiou Movement. The class base of nationalism. The committee ponsored a work hop in Minneapoli ,May 27-29, 19 3, to rea e the social base of nationali m in Angola, Guinea-Bi au, and Mozambique. Exi ting tudie tend to focu on ethnic, regional, religiou , and racial factors in the development of nationali t movement and the armed truggle they waged. Thi work hop brought together cholars who have undertaken research in contemporary Angola, Guinea-Bi sau, and Mozambique to con ider the complex and varied way in which cIa factor affected the hi torical development of the liberation movement . The work hop, which wa organized b Allen F. I aacman, Univerity of Minnesota, chair of the committee, clarified debate in the literature concerning the social ba e of nationali t movement and attempted to draw out their implication for future research . The members of the Joint Committee on African tudie for 19 ~84 in addition to Mr. I sacman are Jane I. Gu er, Harvard Univer ity; Bennetta W. Jule Ro ette, Univer ity of California, San Diego; Fa il G. Kiro ,Addi Ababa Un iver ity; Thandika Mkandawire, Zimbabwe In titute of Development Studie ; V. Y. Mudimbe, Haverford College; P. Anyang' ong'o, EI Colegio de Mexico; Harold Scheub, University of Wiscon in; and Michael J . Watt, Univer ity of California, Berkele . Martha A. Gephart serve a stafr:

Indochina Studies Program The Joint Committee on Southea t A ia i sponsoring a new Indochina Studie Program. The program i de igned to encourage and upport research, writing, and the archiving of material on Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam, drawing on the knowledge and experience of the ref-

ugee who have left these three countrie ince 1975, and who are now re iding in orth America. The refugee presently in the United tate and Canada represent nearly ever路 social cia ; ethnic and language group; cultural tradition; economic, profeion ai, and occupational background; political orientation; religiou persua ion; and geographical locale in Cambodia, La ,and Vietnam. As uch, the con titute a rich resource for con tructing account of the social, political, economic, cultural, and arti tic tradition ,proce and in titution ,a well a the live of particular individual , in the recent hi tory of the three countrie . The Indochina tudie Program will ponsor an annual grant competition open to re archers, writer, journali t , arti t , and other profes ional and individual . Recipient will be expected to produce a written product that will contribute to understanding the three countrie ,or the live of pecific people within them. Individual applicant mu t be re ident of the United State or Canada. Joint project involving one or more orth Ameri an scholar and one or more refugee are encouraged. In the ca , at lea t one of the applicants mu t be a re ident of orth America. The program will a i t grantee to obtain an academic affiliation for the period of the award. Projects rna be based on life hi torie ; personal memoirs; focu ed interview; studie of particular group; or the recording and analy i of oral, ritual, performance, and other arti tic tradition or written literature. pecificall excluded are projects concerned with the American experience in Indochina, and the experience of Indochinese refugee in orth America. Grantee will be expected to place project material in a elected archive to help a ure their availabilit for other in the future. Grant may be hort-term, or for up to a much a 12 month. Projects hould be de igned to be completed within a ingle year. Skill in the relevant language( ) will be a major criterion in the election proce . tipend may include full-time or part-time maintenance, e ntial travel and research expense, a well a ummer language training or refre her course in Hmong, Khmer, Lao, or Vietnamese.


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upplemental funding for archival purpo e will be con idered. In exceptional case ,award may be renewed for a econd ear, and upport may be provided for a full year of language training in Khmer or Lao if in preparation for a ubsequent research and writing project. The maximum award for any project will be 25,000. Person intere ted in applying hould ubmit a two to three page letter in Engli h describing: (1) the nature and ignificance of the propo ed project; (2) the kind of material and method to be utilized (if po ible, including a brief sample); (3) their qualification for conducting the project; and (4) a preliminary timetable and budget. ubject to final funding arrangement, application form and related material will be di tributed b December I, 1983 to all individual who project appear to meet program criteria. Application mu t be completed in Engli h and returned to the program by February I, 19 4. Award will be announced on April I, 19 4 and may be initiated at any point within the year following that date. Grantee will be invited to participate in a methodological workhop hortly after the award have been announced. The Indochina Studie Program i being admini tered by the Council and directed b a committee of nationally recognized cholar of Cambodia, Lao , and Vietnam. For application material or other inquirie, end the information reque ted above to the Indochina tudie Program at the Council.

Soviet Studies In January 19 3, acting on the recommendation of a number of cholar in the field, the American Council of Learned Societie and the Social Science Research Council recon tituted a Joint Committee on Soviet Studies. The new committee i in many way a uccessor to the Joint Committee on Slavic tudie, which played a leading role in the development of the field from 1948 to 1971. With the dissolution of thi committee in 1971 and the appointment of eparate committee for the Soviet Union and Ea tern Europe, the function of the Joint Committee on Soviet Studie (1971-77) were reduced to admini tering a program of po tdoctoral grant . Since 1977, when SEPTEMBER


a lack of fund brought the committee' exi tence to an end, Soviet tudie have not been represented in the network of area committee ponsored by the two Council . At a time of both crisis and renewal in the field, the recon titution of the Joint Committee on Soviet Studie i not only a hopeful indicator of revived attention paid to Soviet tudie but also a promi ing opportunity to addre fundamental unmet need . The choice of the committee' name hould not obscure the fact that its concern are not confined to the period ince 1917; rather, they encompa the hi tory and culture of the entire region now compri ing the Soviet Union . The mandate of the committee i to concern itself with field development in it broade tense . It plan to devote seriou attention to critical problems of training and research, including the recruitment of talented people into the field; to the trengthening of graduate and po tdoctoral training, particularly in discipline which have been neglected to date; to the timulation of re earch on promi ing theme and by novel approache ; and to the y tematic improvement of the acquiition and indexing of material in the field, including the application of new technologie . It i hoped that these activitie will contribute to a new ense of intellectual excitement in and about the field. The committee plan to work closely with and complement the activitie of other important national organization , including the American A sociation for the Advancement of Slavic tudie (AAASS), the International Research and Exchange Board (IREX), and the ational Council for Soviet and Ea t European Research . In ome area, the committee will seek to identify priori tie and develop initiative of it own to addre key problem ; in other, it hope to timulate and encourage other cholar to undertake needed new program . Over time, it hope to attract ufficient funding to upport these effort . The committee is not now in a po ition to con ider individual application for research upport. Its members would, however, welcome ugge tions concerning both need and lacunae in the field a a whole and way and mean of addre ing them. The 19 3-84 member of the committee are Gail War hot: ky Lapidu , Univerity of California, 8erkele ,chair; Joseph

Berliner, Brandei University; Seweryn Bialer, Columbia Univer it ; Katerina Clark, Indiana Univer ity; tephen F. Cohen, Princeton Univer it ; Donald Fanger, Harvard University; Edward L. Keenan, Harvard Univer ity; Robert Legvold, Council on Foreign Relation ( ew York); Herbert Levine, Univer ity of Penn ylvania; and Leon Lipson, Vale Univer ity. Sophie Sa erve as taff.

Economic and ethnohistory of the Andes Under the au pice of the Joint Committee on Latin American Studie, a group of anthropologi t and hi torian met at the ational Archive of Bolivia in Sucre on July 2~30, 1983, to discu a variety of theme related to the topic of market penetration and expan ion in the Ande , from the 16th to the 20th centurie. The aim of the conference wa to combine the in ight that ethnology and anthropology have brought to bear on the tudy of indigenou hi torical experience and contemporary Andean communitie with the per pective of ocial hi torian . Recently, hi torian have devoted much attention to the destruction and tran formation of precolonial ytem of production and exchange, to the expan ion of the world market, and to variou form of capital accumulation in the southern Andean region (which today encompa e Bolivia and southern Peru). The tudy of the origin and evolution of mercantile capitali m and native reponse to market forces i particularly intere ling in the Andes because of the ab ence of organized market , a profe ional clas of merchant , and itinerant traders before the European inva ion. Although in the 16th centur , the paniard rapidly organized a colonial economy around the ilver mining industry, the expan ion of the market wa extremely uneven over the cour of the ucceeding centurie . Participant in the conference were thu a ked to explore not onl how external political and economic pre ure have remolded the indigenou Andean world, but also how Andean peoples have re ponded to and intervened in the market economy. More generally, the were asked how Andean social organization and ideology have--


both in the pa t and at pre ent-impo ed pecific condition on the processe of market penetration and expan ion. ix e ion were held, each or~anized around a defined et of i sue : (1) The "moral economy" of the Andean peasantry Aim: To explore the social and political dimen ions of Andean re ponses to the market; to evaluate the u efulne of uch concept a reciprocity, legitimacy, and ecological complementarity for under tanding the economic behavior of rural village members.

ferent form of commodity circulation affected the way Andean peasant met their tribute obligations. Roberto Choque, "Lo cacique aymara y eI comercio en el Alto Peru" (Aymara lords and commerce in colonial Bolivia). jorge Hidalgo L., "Tributo ,exacciones fiscale. ub i tencia. y mercado: Lo corregimiento de Arica, Tarapaci, y Atacama, 1750-1790" (Tribute, taxes, sub i tence, and market: The Chilean province of Arica, Tarapaci, and Atacama, 1750-1790). john V. Murra, "Existieron el tributo y 10 mercado ante de la inva ion europea?" (Did tribute and market exi t before the European inva ion?). Discussant: Carlo Sempat A adourian

Olivia Harri , "La economia etnica y eI mercado: EI ayllu laymi del norte de Poto i" (The ethnic economy and the market: The Laymi people of North Potosi). ilvia Rivera, "Dimen ione politicasideologicas de la participacion en el mercado: La rna acre de Tolata, Cochabamba, y el movimiento 'Katari ta,' 1970-1980" (Politicalideological dimen ion of market participation : The ma acre of Tolata and the Katarisa movement, 1970-19 0). Discu ant: Martin Di kin

(4) Long-tenn fluctuations in market participation Aim: To compare pattern of indigenou market participation through long weep of time and to explore how Andean intervention in the market economy ometime changed the tructure of market them e1ve .

(2) Interaction between subsistence organization and market penetration Aim: To con ider the nature of Andean ub istence organization in southern Peru and Bolivia and how it adapted to the changing pre ure of tribute exaction and commoditization.

Herbert Klein, "Pea ant re pon e to the market and the land question III 1 th and 19th century Bolivia." Brooke Lar on and Ro ario Leon, "Relation of exchange and the ethnohi torical landscape of Tapacari (Bolivia): A long-term view ."

Enrique Mayer, "La penetracion del mercado capitali ta en la cuenca del Rio Canete, Peru: 1900-19 0" (The expanion of the capitali t market in the river valle of Canete, Peru: 1900-19 0). Ramiro Molina Rivero, "La tradicionalidad como medio de articulacion al mercado: Un e tudio sobre una comunidad pa toril en Oruro" (Andean traditionali m a a mean of market participation: A tudy of a pa toral community in Oruro, Bolivia).


idney Mintz

(5) Commodities and prices in one historical period Aim: To tudy agricultural price trends in Upper Peru (Bolivia) during the I th century and the market and di tribution mechani m of one commodity-<:oca-in thi epoch; to evaluate quantitative ource (aLcabalas, price eries, etc.) for the economic hi tory of thi period .

teve J. tern, "The variety and ambiguity of Andean intervention in European colonial market: orne methodological note ." Discu ants: Xavier Aloo, juan Torrico

Enrique Tandeter and athan Wachtel, "Precio y produccion agraria: Potosi Charcas en eI iglo XVIII" (Price and agricultural production: Potosi and Charca in the 1 th century).

(3) Tribute, state exactions, and subsistence Aim: To examine how the production of tribute wa made compatible with ub i tence organization, and how dif-

Enrique Tandeter, Vilma MiHetich, Maria allier, and Beatriz Ruibal, "Indio , alcabala y mercado: Potosi, 1793). (Indian, taxe , and the market: Potosi in 1793).


Daniel Santamaria, "La participaciOn indigena en la producci6n y comercio de coca, 1780-1810" (Indian participation in the production and commercialization of coca, 1780-1810). Discussant: Herbert Klein, Mauricio Mamani. Antonio Roja

(6) Marketplaces, migration, and I.bor Aim: To examine the effects of population movement on ub i tence organization, and the economic activity of rural to urban migrants, pecifically in the urban market place. Thierry Saigne (in absentia), "Las etnias de Charca frente al i tema colonial (siglo XVIII): Caciques, migrant, y etnicidad" (Ethnic groups of the outhern Ande confront the colonial y tern: Indian lord, migrant, and ethnicity (17th century). Liliana Lewin ky. "Algunas notas sobre el trabajo de nina y mujere en la plaza de mercado de Oruro hoy dia" (N otes on the market activity of women and children in contemporary Oruro). jorge Dandier, "Diver ificacion, proceso de trabajo, y movilidad e pacial en 10 valle y errania de Cochabama" (Economic diver ification, the labor proce , and geographic mobility in the valley and highland of Cochabamba). The following cholar participated in the conference: Xavier Aloo, Center for Re earch on and Promotion of the Pea antry (CIPCA), La Paz; Rene Arze, Univer ity of San Andre (UM A), La Paz; Carlo Sempat A adourian, EI CoIegio de Mexico; jo ep Bamada, Cochabamba; Fernando Cajia , Bolivian Cultural In titute (IBS), La Paz; Roberto Choque, University of San Andre (UM A), La Paz; jorge Dandier, Center for the tudy of Economic and Social Reality (CERE ), La Paz; Martin Di kin, Ma achusetts In titute of Technology; Gonzalo Flore, Center for the tudy of Economic and Social Reality (CERES), La Paz; Olivia Harri , Gold mith College, London; jorge Hidalgo, University of Tarapaci, Arica; Herbert Klein, Columbia Univer ity; Brooke Larson, Social Science Research Council; Ro ario LeOn, Center for the Study of Economic and Social Reality (CERES), La Paz; Liliana Lewin ky, Bueno Aire ; Mauricio Mamani, La Paz; Enrique Mayer, Univer it}' of I1linoi ; Gunnar Mendoza, National Archive of Bolivia (ANB), Sucre; Ignacio VOL ME




. fendoza, Univer ity of ucre; idney \fintz, The john Hopkin Univer ity; Ramiro Molina Barrio, ational . fuseum of Ethnography and Folklore, La paz; Ramiro Molina Rivero, ational \fu eum of Ethnography and Folklore, La paz; john Murra, Cornell Univer ity; ilvia Rivera, La paz; Antonio Rojas, Univer it of ucre; Thierry aignes, Pari ; Daniel antamaria, In titute of Economic and Social Development, Buenos Aire ; teve tern, University of Wi con in; Enrique Tandeter, Center for the tudyof the tate and ociety (CEDE ), Bueno Aire , and juan Torrico, Center for the tud of Economic and Social Reality (CERE ), La Paz. The conference wa ho ted b the ational Archive of Bolivia, where a pecial exhibit of archival material related to the conference theme was organized b the archive' director, Gunnar Mendoza. The Center for the tudy of Economic and Social Reality (CERE ), La Paz, collaborated in the organization of the conference. The coordinator were Olivia Harri , Brooke Lar on, and Enrique Tandeter. It i expected that a lection of the paper will be edited for publication.

Order and conflict in Western capitalism The dimini hing effectivene of economic and ocial policies-to maintain growth, pre erve employment, reduce inflation, and cope with di tributional conflict-i one of the mo t triking phenomena of the 1970s and early 19 Thi 10 of effectivene has occurred in virtually all orth Atlantic countrie , including tho e andinavian countrie that had pioneered in the development of the interventioni t welfare tate, and it i now cau ing a profound reexamination of the economic and ocial cience theorie which underlie the uppo ed abilit of democratic government to "manage" modem capitali m. A conference on order and conflict in We tern capitali m, pon ored by the j oint Committee on We tern Europe and organized by john H . Goldthorpe, uffield College (Oxford), examined a number of critical is ues in the political econom of We tern indu trial countries, with a focu on the proce e and pro peet of "neocorporati t" in titutional arrangements a a mean of regulating the economy and channeling ocial conflict. EPTEMBER


The conference wa held on May 23-27, 19 3, at the tudienhau Wieneck near Buchenbach, Germany. Recognizing that there icon iderable variation in the ociopolitical as well as the economic context in which neocorporati t in titution have developed and operate, the participant aimed at a ytematic anal tical treatment of the growth and functioning of the e in titution which could capture the range of cro national variation within a relatively coherent conceptual framework. Accordingl , the papers prepared for the conference included, in addition to detailed empirical account of the experience of peeific We tern countries, attempt to place these experiences in hi torical, comparative, and international per peetive and to confront central conceptual and theoretical problem in the tud of corporati m. In addition to Mr. Goldthorpe' paper, "The End of Convergence: Corporati t and Duali t Tendencie in' Modern We tern Societie ," other paper were b Rune berg, Univer ity of Ume , '"The Efficiency and Legitimacy of Marketindependent Income Di tribution"; David R. Cameron, Yale Univer ity, "S0cial Democrac , Corporati m, and Labor Quiescence in Advanced Capitali t Society"; c,$ ta E ping-Ander en, Harvard University, and Walter Korpi, Univer it of tockholm, "Pattern of Power and Di tribution in Po twar Welfare tate "; Robert O. Keohane, Brandei University, "The World Political Economy and the Cri i of Embedded Liberali m"; Peter M. Lange, Duke University, "Labor, Worker , and Wage Regulation in Advanced Indu trial Democracie: The Rational Base of Con ent"; Gerhard Lehmbruch, Univer ity of Con tance, "The Logic and tructural Condition of eocorporati t Concertation"; Charle . Maier, Harvard Univer ity, "Precondition for Corporati m: Po ible Hi torical Factors Favoring Con en ual Wage Regulation"; Marino Regini, Univer ity of Milan, "Type of Political Exchange in We tern Europe: Different Condition and Output of Concertation"; Michele alvati, University of Turin, "Are Po t-Keyne ian Economic Policie Fea ible?"; Fritz W. Scharpf, International In titute of Management (Berlin), "Strategy Choice, Economic Feasibility, and In titutional Contraint a Determinant of Fullemployment Policy During the Receion"; Kerry Schott, University College, London, "Conflict around Mac-

roeconomic Distribution in a imple Dynamic Model of Capitalism"; and Don S. Schwerin, Oakland Univer ity, "Social Democracy and Capital Formation in the ordic Countrie ."

Policy implementation in Post-Mao China In a rna ive effort to tran form China into a powerful and modem country by the year 2000, China' leader have drawn up, in the wake of the death of Mao Zedong in 1976 and the ubsequent fall of the Gang of Four, a weeping agenda to bring about change in virtuall every peet of Chinese societ . Are rna ocietie, with their complex bureaucracie , in a matrix of global interdependenc , able to fix social purpo e and proceed to implement them? Can the achieve their goal ,and if so, at what ocial, economic, and political co t? The emerging literature on polic implementation in both indu trial and Third World uring congrucountrie a ert that ence between polic intent and actual outcome i extraordinaril difficult. The literature ha also produced a number of analytic framework for tudying public polic ,and ha peeified an arra of variable that facilitate or impede implementation. However, the literature ha made no reference to Communi t countrie generally, and to China peeifically. At the same time, tudent of, China have only rarel drawn upon thi literature. To bridge thi gap, the joint Com- littee on Chine tudie and Ohio ~tate Univer ity' Mer hon Center co ponsored a workshop on june 20-24, 19 3 for the purpose of increa ing undertanding of the Chinese political y tern through a clo e examination of peeific polic area in the po t-Mao era. By u ing the framework developed in the implementation literature, the work hop wa also intended elf-consciou Iy to link current disciplinary concern in political cience with ongoing re earch in the China field by providing a major te t of the propo ition coming out of that literature. Conceived and organized by David M. Lampton, Ohio tate Univer it ,in clo e collaboration with A. Doak Barnett, The john Hopkin niver ity; Thoma P. Bern tein, Columbia Univer ity; Harry Harding, The Brooking In titution (Wa hington, D.C.); and Michel Ok enberg, Univer ity of Michigan, the work-


hop brought junior and eOlor cholar of contemporary China together with holar out ide the China field who are explicitl concerned with policy making and policy implementation from a comparative perspective. The work hop wa held at the Fawcett Center, hio tate Univer ity. In all, 20 case tudie, many based on field research conducted in China and other based on documentary evidence, were presented at eparate panel under the headings of: (I) the planning and commercial y tern; (2) agricultural reform ; (3) indu trial management reform; (4) mass-elite relation and political participation; (5) education, ience, and technology policy; and (6) tate and part tructure reform. Panel chair and discu ant included Me r . Barnett and Bern tein; Merilee . Grindle, Harvard Univer ity ; <Ie r . Harding and Lampton; • icholas Lard , University of Washington; John W. Lewi, tan ford University; u an hirk, Univer ity of California, La Jolla; and Richard P. uttmeier, Hamilton College. The paper were prepared b David Bachman, tanford Universit , on tax polic ; John P. Burn, Univer ity of Hong Kong, on ubvillage election ; Chen Chung-min and Owen Hagov ky, both of Ohio tate Univer it ,on the agricultural re pon ibilit tern; Chri topher M. Clarke, ational Council for United tates-China Trade (Washington, D.C.), on central party and tate reform; Victor C. Falkenheim and Thoma G. Raw ki, both of the Univer ityof oronto, on the international dimen ion of China' economic reform; Thoma Fingar, tanford Univer it ,on the tate Energy Commi sion; William A. Fi her, Univer ity of orth Carolina, on the hanghai televiion indu try; Mr. Lampton on water policy; Hong Yung Lee, Yale University, on political participation ; Barrett L. McCormick, Universit of Washington, on local people' congre e ; Barr aughton, Yale Univer it ,on tate inve tment; Pierre M. Perrolle, ational ience Foundation, on manpower in cience and technology; tanley Ro en, Univer ity of Southern California, on econdar education; Le ter Ro ,Purdue Universit , on the Obligatory Tree Planting Program; Deni imon, Ma achusett Intitute of Technology, on importing technology; Dorothy J. Solinger, Univerit of Pitt burgh, on price control; Andrew G. Walder, Columbia Universit ,on factory wage reform ; T rene White,


Ohio tate Univer ity, on the population program; Edwin A. Winckler, Harvard Universit , on the ynthetic fiber indu try; and David Zweig, Florida International University, on hou hold contracts.

South Asian Political Economy (SAPE) The South A ian Political Economy ( APE) project of the Joint Committee on South A ia was in pired by a di ati faction among academics with the frequently narrow perspective which dominate economi ,political cience, sociology, and anthropology-as well a public policie and programs--when attempting to deal with problem of resource di tribution, power, nutrition, health, and well-being among the people of that region. The committee charged a mall international multidisciplinar group of scholars to examine the methodological and ub tantive i ue involved in under tanding these phenomena at variou level of societ . Drawing on exploratory discu ion initiated in 1977, the group met a a ubcommittee in April 1979 and developed a three-year program to use the kills and in ights of the variou discipline to account for the interaction of economic and political proce in the agrarian area of South A ia. It wa recognized at the outset that attention had to be paid both to fairly long-term hi torical proce e and to the sociocultural variation to be found within the ubcontinent. It wa recognized that new formulation would draw upon both general theory formulated with reference to "universal" economic and ocial proce e and indigenou model developed b empirical research in the field. Within thi general framework, the ubcommittee elected three pecific topic or component project for inten ive examination. I. Agricultural productivit and local power y tern II. Health, nutrition, and well-being at the hou ehold or family level II I. Societal re ponse to cri i With thi ambitiou agenda in hand, the ubcommittee composed of Michelle McAlpin, chair 1979- 0, (economics, Tuft Univer it ), Veena Da, chair 1980-83, (sociology, Univer ity of Delhi), Meghnad De ai (economic, London School of Economics), Ralph icholas (anthropology, Univer it of Chicago), u anne H. Rudolph (political cience,

University of Chicago), and A hok Rudra (economi ,Vi va Bharati, antiniketan), began to plan the format and logi tics of the South A ian Political Economy project. Initial funding wa provided by the Ford Foundation and the ational Science Foundation. The Indian Council of Social Science Re earch also agreed to co ponsor the APE project, haring local co ts for meetings in India, and ub idizing the re ulting publication . At a planning meeting in 1979, potential participant for the fir t two component project were identified. ince the invitee were to be unu uall heterogenou in their national and intellectual orientation, a two-phase format wa developed : a preliminary conference in which draft papers would be presented and critiqued by the participants, and a second meeting in which the revised paper ,circulated in advance, would receive a econd critical scrutiny before final revi ion and editing for publication. The working group for the fir t component, on Agricultural Productivity and Local Power Stem , con i ted of three scholars based in India, ukhamoy Chakravarty (economi ,Delhi School of Ec0nomic), B. B. Chaudhuri (hi tor, Jadhavpur University) and hok Rudra (economi ,Vi va-Bharati, five teaching in the United Herring (political cience, orthwcs(em University), David Ludden (hi tory, University of Penn ylvania), usanne and Uoyd Rudolph (political ience, Univerit of Chicago), and T. N. nOlvasan (economi ,Yale University); two in the United Kingdom, Meghnad Desai (economic, London School of Economics) and Hamza Alavi (anthropology, Univerit of Manche ter) ; and one teaching in Canada, Donald Attwood (anthropology, McGill Univer it ). Eight paper and two presentation generated livel debate in the two meetings held in ew Delhi in November 1979 and December 19 0, which were then augmented by written crttlque b other participant on ideological and methodological difference on two central que tion . One, how do the particular form and d nami of local power tructure affect local agricultural productivity, both in term of the availabilit and di tribution of input, and in the marketing and conumption of the final agricultural product? Two, how do change in agricultural production at the local and regional level alter the political tructure and balance in the area? Ecological and regional variaVOL ME

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tion purred further debate and the paper helped not only to ummarize current knowledge on these ubject but also identified point for further research and sugge ted new methodologie for dealing with them. The working group for the econd component, on Health and Nutrition at the Household or Family Level, drew on three sociologists, Jayanthi Beliappa, Veena Da ,and Meena Kau hik from the Delhi School of Economics; five cholar from the United tate, Charle Le lie (anthropology, Univer ity of Delaware), Michelle McAlpin (economics, Tufts Uni\'er it ), Morri D. Morri (economics, Univer ity of Wa hington), Ralph . 'ichola (anthropology, Univer it of Chicago), and ylvia Vatuk (anthropology, Univer it of Illinoi ); one based in the etherland, Klaa Van der Veen (anthropology, Univer ity of Am terdam); and two medical doctor, Lincoln Chen and tani lau D' ouza, both working at the Cholera Research Laborator in Dhaka, Banglade h. The working group met in ew York in 1979 and again in Delhi in 19 0, producing eight paper dealing with the di tribution of food within the household and within larger communitie ; the attitude toward and the consequence of everal health program ; differential ex mortality in children; i ue of health care planning; the utility and limit of the household as a unit of anal i for uch tudie; and concepts of welfare and well-being in South A ian familie and communitie . Together the papers provide an unu uall detailed view of the prioritie by which rural familie define and allocate the (often scarce) resource they can devote to nutrition and health purpo e . Again, the effort wa both to ynthe ize exi ting knowledge and theory and to point out where new research i needed. In December 1980, after the two working group had met in Delhi, an editorial committee wa e tabli hed to ready the two et of paper a eparate volume for publication. Exten ive introduction were written (b Su anne H. Rudolph for the volume entitled Agrarian Power and Agricu/Jural Productivity, and by Veena Da and Ralph Nicholas for the volume on health and nutrition) along with editorial work to increase the coherence, balance, and continuity of format and tyle. The two volume are currently in pre at Oxford Univer ity Pre in India, and negotiation are under way with an American publi her a well. SEPTEMBER


A a mean of accelerating the di mination of the re earch findings and general approach of SAPE I and II among other cholars engaged in closely-related re earch, and also in order to get a critical review of the papers from the "outside," a "reporting conference" wa held in New Delhi inJanuary 19 3. The majortheme and methodological i ue that emerged in APE I and II were discu sed in five half-day e ion by member of the original working group and a erie of "out ide" participant and discu ant, among whom the papers had been circulated in advance. Thi conference proved to be both a finale for the first two project and a beginning for identifying new direction for research. Pranab Bardhan (economi , Univer ity of California, Berkeley), a member of the Joint Committee on South A ia, ugge ted four topi that grew logicall out of the prior project and which seemed to warrant comparable auention: (I) community re ponse to Irngation ystem ; (2) the ub tantive findings and methodological problem of the growing number of village re tudie recently completed or currently under way; (3) pattern of differential male-female infant mortality; and (4) indu trial performance in South Asia. It wa agreed that all were of intere t and that effort hould be made to develop them toward a continuation of the project. The third component of the APE project, Societal Re pon e to Cri i , had a omewhat eparate trajectory from the other two project. To give direction to the component, three new cholar were added to the original SAPE ubcommittee; Paul Bra (political science, Univerit of Wa hington), T. N. Madan (sociology, In titute for Economic Growth, New Delhi), and V. S. Vya (economics, Indian In titute of Management, Ahmedabad). In a planning e ion held in Seattle in May 19 0, it wa agreed that within the overall orientation of the SAPE project to explore the context and proce e of deci ion making at different levels of society in ituation of con iderable threatmoments when it often become particularly clear how deci ion are made, who make them, what i taken into account, and what the fundamental prioritie are in resource di tribution. It wa ugge ted that cri i ituation both reveal underlying value y tern and often generate new social and in titutional arrangements. The project wa named "Order and Anomie in South A ian Culture and Soci-

et " to encompas concepts of order, cri i , and anomie a well a to explore societal re ponse to given ituations. The fir t meeting on the topic wa held at the Indian In titute of 1anagement, Ahmedabad, in December 19 I, and the second in New Delhi in December 19 2. The participant repre ented everal contra ting ideological and philosophical viewpoint eloquently embodied in a serie of note written by Veena Da and Paul Bra . In addition to those alread mentioned, the participant in these two meeting included Paul Greenough (hi tor , Univer ity of Iowa), Jan Hee terman (ociology/Indology, Universit of Leiden), Inderjit Khanna (Indian Admini trative Officer, Raja than), Jame Manor (political cience, University of Leice ter), A hi Nandy (p ychology, Centre for the tud of Developing Societies, Delhi), Gananath Obe esekere (anthropology, Princeton Univer it ), and John Thorp (anthropology, Sl. Mary' College, otre Dame). The overall concern of the paper was to examine cri e ,10 ,and the threat of 10 at individual and y temic level. The paper can be grouped around four theme: (I) cri i in political realm, violence, and the political use of cri i ; (2) natural disa ters and the strategie of coping with and averting disaster; (3) the cosmology of under tanding cri i , with papers on death in the family, the cri i of legitimacy, partition of the country; and (4) long-term, continuing political crise . The editor for this third volume-Paul Bra and T. . Madan-are currently commi ioning three additional papers to complete it, and are expecting the revised drafts of the exi ting paper later thi year. The volume hould be delivered to the publi her b next fall. The SAPE project ha been collaborative intellectuall , organizationally, and financially a well. It aw the development of clo e working relation between the member of the Joint Commiuee on South Asia and the Indian Council of S0cial Science Re earch, and of a mutual feeling that thi project i the fir t of several to come. The international and interdisciplinar character of the working group helped to generate an intense and ongoing dialogue among scholars who might not have otherwise engaged with the relevant work in other discipline, and nearly all have indicated in one wa or another that they gained ub tantiall from their participation in way which would directly effect their own thinking


and re arch. bviou Iy. any final evaluation of the project will have to await the review and u of the book that are now moving toward publicati n. David L. zanton erve a tarf to the joint Committee on South A ia; Veena T . Idenburg erved a a con ultant to the APE ubcommittee.

Child development in Japan and the United States A ian tudie as a field t picall ha been confined to uch ocial cience a demograph • economic. hi tor • and political cience. and to the arts. Recognizing that it i time for the field to be broadened to include uch behavioral science a child p ychology. a mall group wa formed at the Center for Advanced tud in the Behavioral ience ( tanford. alifornia) during 19 2- 3 to conider research and practice related to child development in hina. japan. and the United tate. Members of thi group were Hiro hi Azuma. Univer ity of Toko; Kenji Hakuta. Yale Univer ity; Lee Lee. Cornell niversit; and Harold W. teven n. niver it of ~ichigan. Two major conference have been organized b thi group. A conference on child development in japan and the nited tate wa held April 6-10. 19 3. at the Center. pon red b the joint Commillee on japanese tudie and the japan iet for the Promotion of cin e. A con~ rence on cognitive. developmental. and applied p ychology in hina and the United tate wa held in Augu t 19 3. with upport from the Committee on holarly Communication with the People' Republic of China and th l'IJational ience Foundation . Thi report de ribe the former conference. The motivation to form the group at th Center and to hold the japan- nited tate conference came from everal source . Fir t. We tern cholars of child development, child p 'chiatry. and developmental p ),choloK} are generall not aware of japan se re earch and practice dealing with child development, et uch re earch i a major component of japane e pchological re arch. ond. during the 197 , everal major cro cultural tudie of child development in japan and the United tate were begun. involving topic uch a mother-child interaction, hool achievement. cience teaching. and infan y. Thu , a primar goal of the conference wa to provide a forum for informal di u ion on the


progre and future pro pect of research and to offer the japane and meracan participants an opportunit to become more familiar with each other' approa he and view . The program of the conference coni ted of four pha . During the fir t pha e the everal project that had been completed or were under wa were di cu sed and criticall evaluated. The econd da of the conference w devoted to discu ion of papers outlining alient background i ue regarding comparative research (topi included cultural difference in language. social tructure. and famil life in japan and the United tate, and methodologicaVanalytic i ue in cro -cultural re arch). During the third and fourth day , major i ue in developmental ps chology were reviewed for their relevance to cro -national comparison . The last da of the conference involved di u ion of ub tantive and practical wa in which re arch can be timulated, improved. and broadened . The thematic foci con idered in detail acro the five day of the conference covered much of the broad and diver e field of child development. Topi included temperament and its role in development. the development of a elfconcept. famil interaction, ocialization. schooling and achievement. and language learning. Developmental concern ranged from infanc through adolecence and al involved con ideration of the connection between childhood and later life- pan development. The breadth and diver it of the conference' ubtance prevent even a ummary in uch a hort report; for a comprehen ive ummary the reader i referred to the volume which i being prepared ba ed on the proceedin of the conference. Two topical highlight are offered here. Fir t. development during infanc em to offer an opportunit for collaborative inquiry on a variet of theoretically ignificant theme . Que tion which have been popular in child development research in both countrie include (I) the univer alit of behavioral phenomena in the first three year. (2) environmental influen e on the time of the emergence of earl mile tone (walking, talking, first attachm«jilt • etc.), (3) the role of temperament in behavioral variation, and (4) the relation between parental attitude or child-rearing practice and infant behavior. jerome Kagan. Harvard Univer it • and Kazuo Mi ake, Univer it of Hokkaido, together with everal other Ameri-

can and japanese colleague have begun collaborative re arch on two uch que tion . One concern individual variation in temperament and it influence on behavior. For example. with the trange ituation Paradigm, which i t picall used in the United tate to tud infant' attachment to their parent. one find that different proportion of japanese and U.S. infant are placed in the categorie of attachment which have been derived from the babie ' behavior in the .. trange ituation." Initial collaborative re earch indicate that thi cultural variation may be due not to difference in attachment but to cultural difference in predominance of different behavioral t Ie (or temperament) which influence babie ' behavior in the trange ituation. The second aspect of the infancy research program involve an attempt to develop a method to evaluate parental attitudes regarding significant child-rearing theme. Rather than relying entirely on interview and retro pection. parent' attitude are mea ured b the accuracy of recall of tory material that empha ize different child-rearing tyles. Acro everal different current and potential collaborative projects. uch re earch promi to addre a number of other theme including the role of mother-child attachment in earl ocialization and in ub equent attachment and the acqui ition of language and the beginnings of pre hool education . The second area of exten ive actual and potential collaboration involve chooling and chool achievement. Here, general collaboration are under wa or planned among Harold W. tevenson. Universit of Michigan; Herbert Walberg, Univer it of Illinoi ; Hiro hi Azuma. Univer it of Tok 0; and others. A primar focu i on cultural difference in chool cience and mathematic a hievement. General que tion include: How are ience and mathemati taught in chool? What are the learning outcome of ience teaching? and What are the factors influencing the effectivene oflearning? There are everal reason for the importance of comparative re earch; probabl the mo t ignificant one are thatjapane e and U .. children how differential cience and mathemati performance throughout hool and these ubject are taught differently in the two countrie. Al o. the ocialization and traditional educational culture i different in the two countrie . Thu • through a variet of method • including


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cia room ob rvation, initial col1aborative research i u ing the e cultural difference to addre the three general que tion Ii ted above. Participant in the conference included Hiro hi Azuma, Univer ity of Tok 0; Giyoo Hatano, Dokkyo Univer ity; Tadahiko Inagaki, Universit of Tok 0; Keiko Ka hiwagi, Women' Chri tian University; Hideo Kojima. ago a Uni\er it ; Kazuo Miyake, Hokkaido Univerit ; Ki omi Morioka, ijo Univer ity; higefumi agano, alional In litute of Educational Research ([ok yo); Yutaka aeki, Univer ity of Tokyo; Keiko Takaha hi, SOka Univer ity; Harumi

Befu, tanford Univer ity; Loi Bloom, Columbia Univer it ; Jo ph Campo, University of Denver; fichael Cole, Univer ity of California, an Diego; George DeVo , Univer it of California, Berkeley; John Flavel1, tanford Univer ity; Kenji Hakuta, Yale Univer it ; Robert He , tanford Univer ity; Denni Hogan, Universit of Chicago; Jerome Kagan, Harvard Univer ity; u umu Kuno, Harvard Univer it ; Robert A. LeVine, Harvard Univer it : Eleanor E. Maccob , tanford Univer ity; Harold W. tevenson, Univer it of Michigan; and Herbert Walberg, Universit of Illinoi , Chicago Circle. Observer included Pat-

rick Dickson, Univer it of Wi on in; uzanne Hol1owa, tanford Univer it ; hin-yun Lee, University of Michigan; aomi Mi ake, Tok '0 Univer it ; Lonni herrod, Social cience Re arch Council; Matthew Ri poli, Columbia Univerit ; and Merry White, Harvard Universit . David Crandall, Tokyo, and Catherine Lewi , Univer it of California, an Franci 0, served a reporter and Ya uko Azuma, isen Jo hi University; Akemi Kurachi, tanford Univer it ; Fukumi Ichikawa, Univer it of Michigan; Mariko ano, tanford niversity; and To hi uki ano, tanford Univer ity, a i ted in running the conference.

Other Current Activities at the Council Biosociallife-span approaches to parental behavior and offspring development


The second conference organized by the Committee on Biosocial Per pective on Parent Behavior and Off pring Development examined bio ocial and life- pan approache to research on parental behavior and off pring development; it was held on Ma 22-25, 19 3, at the Belmont Conference Center, Elkridge, Maryland. Jeanne Altmann, Universit of Chicago, and Alice . Ro i, Univer it of Ma achu tts,joined committee chair, Jane B. Lanca ter, Univer ity of Oklahoma, in organizing and chairing the conference. The conference wa held to examine bi ial que tion regarding the development of parent and off pring acro the ful1life pan. hi general focu included everalobjective: (1) to highlight research on parental behavior regarding hool age, adolescent, and adult children, attempting to move beyond concern of infancy which have dominated research on parental behavior; (2) to examine tran action between the potentiall interlocking developmental trajectorie of parent and off pring, examining reciprocal and bidirectional influence acro parent and off pring pecifical1 in regard to developmental difference but also recognizing other dimen ion of individual variabilit , uch a of parent and off pring; (3) to u e ero -<ultural and cro - pecie comparin a aid in clarif ing the fir ttwo conEPTE 1BER

19 3

cern; and (4) to con ider the biologicalphy iological, bioecological-contextual, and social-hi torical base of parent and off pring development. The latter two components define the biosocial contribution, and it i the combination of the two approache , biosocial and life pan, that defined the broad mandate of the conference. Participant and pre entation included: tssion I: ttting the lagt-What i Part1ltillg~ Parenting and the Human Life pan: Social and BehaviQral Perspective, Alice . Ro i, University of Ma achuett ; Parenting and the onhuman Life pan: Ecological and Biological Per peetive , Jeanne Altmann, Univer it of Chicago; Parenting and the Life pan in Selected Culture, Robert A. LeVine, Harvard University (paper presented in ab entia); Demographic Trend in Human Fertility and Parenting cro the Life pan, Denni Hogan, Univer it of Chicago; matic A pect of ParentOff pring Relation Acro the Life pan, Michael Leon, Univer it of California, Irvine. t ion II: Dtvtlopmtntal Phast. Anticipator Socialization for Parenthood: Human Cro - ultural Review, Thoma Wei ner, niversity of California, Lo Angele ; Parenting from Infanc to Puberty, Richard Lerner. Penn ylvania tate Universit ; Parenting through Adolecen e, Beatrix Hamburg, Mount inai Medical Center ( ew York), and Anne Petersen, Penn Ivania late Univer ity;

Parenting in the Later Year, Gunhild Hage tad, Penn lvania tate Univer it ; Differential Parental Inve tment and It Effects on Child Qualit and taLU ttainment, Judith Blake, Univer ity of California, Lo Angele. t ion I II: Contt tual alld truetural Injlutnct. Parental upplement and urrogate : Cro -Cultural and Cro - peeie Compari on ,Jame McKenna, Pomona Col1ege; Adoption, Fo terage, and tepparenting, Jane B. Lanca ter, niver it of Oklahoma; Effect of Context on Human fothering and Fathering: Cro -Cultural Per pective, Patricia Draper, niver it of ew fexico; Hi torical Per pecti e on the Development of the Famil and Parental Behavior, Mari A. Vinov ki , Univer it of Michigan; and Parenting and Intergenerational Continuit lDi continuity, Vern Bengt on, Univer it of outhern California. In addition to the above participan , ue Doering, heJohn Hopkin Univerit , and members of the committee attended. A volume i being prepared based on the conference; the three conference organizer will al 0 erve a editor of thi manu ript. Member of th committee are J n B. Lanca ter, Univer it of Oklahoma, chair; Ri hard J. lie, niver it of Rhode I land; Kathleen R. Gib n, Univer ity of Texas, Hou ton; Beatrix Hamburg, ft. inai Medical Center ( ew York); felvin J. Konner, Emory Univerit ; Mi hael E. Lamb, niver it of


Utah; Anne Petersen, Penn ylvania tate Univer it ; Charle M. uper, Harvard University; and Mari A. Vi nov ki , Univer ity of Michigan. Lonnie R. hc:rrod serve as taff.

Social structure and aging processes A part of it con ideration of new direction , the Committee on Life-Cour e Per pective on Human Development held a meeting on Ma 5, 19 3, in ew York to identify area in which further conceptual and empirical work i needed to examine interaction between ocial tructural and aging proce e. A ubgroup of the committee met with everal con ultant representing particular area of current life-eour e research. Participant included committee member Matilda White Rile, M. Brew ter mith, Martin E. P. Seligman, and Aage B. St$ren en; Andrew J. Cherlin, The John Hopkin Univer it ; Anne Foner, Rutger Univer ity;J. Alan Herd, Baylon Ho pital (Hou ton); Karen Miller, . ational In titute of Mental Health ; and Judith Rodin, Yale Univer it . Several other committee member and con ultant could not be present but offered helpful a i tance in planning the meeting and developing preparatory material; the e included Paul B. Balte , Caleb E. Finch, George M. Martin, and John Meer; David Kertzer, Bowdoin College; and David Jenkin, Univer ity of Texa , Galve ton. Prior to the meeting, a document was prepared to ummarize pa t accompli hment and sugge t area for future work. Thi document wa circulated well in advance and participants were a ked to present the implication for their current re arch of the general conceptual framework outlined in the document-and vice ver a, how their mo t recent re earch finding might contribute to the life-cour e i ue ummarized in the planning document. Overall, thi planning document and the re ult of the planning meeting point to the need for an expanded life-course framework that i en itive to and capable of anal zing interaction between change in social tructure and aging proce e. Acro the broad area of the family, work, ph ical health, and cognition, three theme were ugge ted a needing further exploration: cro -cultural and cro -temporal comparisons, the implication of the lengthening life course, and


life-cour e difference between men and women. During the coming year, member of the committee and con ultant will continue to explore the role that committee or ubcommittee activities may play in the development of the e general and pecific area. Members of the committee are Paul B. Baltes, Max Planck Institute for Human Development and Education (Berlin), cochair; Glen H. Elder, Jr., Cornell Un iver it , cochair; Orville G. Brim, Jr., Foundation for Child Development (New York); David L. Featherman, Univer ity of Wiscon in; Caleb E. Finch, Univer ity of Southern California; George M. Martin, Univer ity of Wa hington ; John W. Meyer, tanford Univer ity; Walter Miiller, Univer it of Mannheim; Matilda White Rile, ational In titute on Aging; Martin E. P. eligman, Univer ity of Pennsylvania; M. Brew ter mith, Univer ity of California, anta Cruz; Aage B. rensen, Universit ofWiscon in; Franz E. Weinert, Max Planck In titute for P ychological Reseach (Munich). Lonnie R. herrod serve as taff.

Intimate relationships across the life span The third conference sponsored by the ubcommittee on Child Development in Life- pan Per pective wa held on May 12-13,193,in ewYork.The ubcommittee' general objective i to examine the reciprocal implication of child development and life- pan development research. The pecific aim of thi meeting was to examine the development of intimae acro the life pan from infancy through adulthood, con idering different t pe of intimacy (parent-child attachment, ibling relation hip, friend hip, marital intimac, exualit, and aggre ive intimacie) in population of different ethnic background and of varied socioeconomic tatu. everal disciplinary per pective were brought to bear on these i sues-anthropology, hi tory, p ychology, and sociology. The meeting coni ted of everal brief presentation followed b specific and general discu ion . The meeting wa organized by subcommittee member E. Mavi Hetherington, Univer it of Virginia, and John W. Me er, tanford Univer ity. M . Hetherington chaired the meeting. The program included: (1) Parent-Child Attachment, Mary Main, Univer ity of

California, Berkeley; (2) Parent and ibling Relation hip, Judith Dunn, Un iver it of Cambridge; (3) Social Interaction in Peer and Couple: The Role of Affect, John Gotteman, Univer ity of 11linoi ; (4) From Attachment to Intimacy: Close Relation hip Acro the Life- pan, Arlene kolnick, University of California, Berkele ; and (5) Family Socialization and Developmental Competence, Diana Baumrind, Univer ity of California, Berkeley. Di cu ant participants included John Gagnon, State Univer ityof New York, tony Brook; Ronald Rohner, University of Connecticut; Zick Rubin, Brandei University; Rainer K. Silberei en, Technical Univer ity of Berlin; Diana T . laughter, Univer ity of Chicago; and Robert Wei ,University of Ma aehu ett , Bo ton . Member of the ubcommiuee are Paul B. Balte, Max Planck In titute for Human Development and Education (Berlin); Orville G. Brim, Jr., Foundation for Child Development ( ew York); Judith Dunn, University of Cambridge; Glen H. Elder, Jr., Cornell Univer ity; David L Featherman; University of Wiscon in; E. Mavi Hetherington, Univerit of Virginia; Richard M. Lerner, Penn ylvania tate Univer ity; Ellen f. Markman, Stanford Univer ity; John W. Me er, tanford Univer ity; Ro D. Parke, Univer it of Illinoi ; Martin E. P. Seligman, University of Penn ylvania; M. Brew ter mith, University of California, anta Cruz; Franz E. Weinert, Max Planck In titute for P yehological Reearch (Munich). Lonnie R. herrod serve a taff. The ubcommittee function under the au pice of the Committee on LifeCour e Per pective on Human Development.

Exploring domains of giftedness With fund from the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, the Committee on Development, Giftedne ,and the Learning Proce ha initiated a re earch planning program to examine the early growth of exceptional abilitie in pecific domain of human performance. The committee believe that a more comprehensive undertanding of extraordinary ability will emerge from re earch that examine the interaction of individual abilitie and the characteri tics of the pecific domain in which the unu ual talent i expre sed. In VOL ME

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the pa t year, the committee began exploring development and giftedne in the domain of mu ical perfonnance and the vi ual arts. On March 3-4, 19 3 the committee ponsored a work hop on the earl development of performing mu ician ; participants included mu ician , teachers of mu i , developmental p ychologi 15, and child p 'chiatri . The particular focu of the work hop wa the tran ition period of 'oung performers, often occurring during midadolescence, when the talent of a prodigy mu t be haped into a career of adult artistry. Participants con idered a number of developmental que tion . To what extent i there an adolescent cri ? Are there critical period in the maturation of mu ical abilitie that interact with social and emotional factor? 1 it po ible to characterize difference between tho who develop ucce ful mu ical career and tho e who mu ical abilit doe not continue on a part of their occupational career? Are the pecial abilitie of the muical prodigy unique to the domain of mu ic or can the be tran ferred to work in other areas? What are the pecific cognitive and emotional abilitie that appear to contribute to great ucces in performing mu ic? The que tion were discu sed at great length, often in the context of report b ' the mu ician present abou t critical event in their own live or those of their peer . Participant in the work hop include E. Jame Anthony, Department of Child Pl;ychiatr , Wa hington University Medical School; Jeanne Bamberger, Divi ion for tud and Research in Education, ~fa achu etts In titute of Technology; John f. Broughton, Department of P ychology, Teachers College, ew York; Mihal C ik zentmihal i, Committee on Human Development, niver it of Chicago; David H. Feldman, Department of Child tudy, uft Univer ity; Howard Gardner, Veteran Admini tration Medical Center (Bo ton); Howard E. ruber, In titute for Cognitive tudie, Rutger Univer it ; Lorin D. Hollander, ew Yorl it; Loui Kra ner, Brookline, ~fassachuset15; Leonard B. Meyer, Department of Mu ic, Univer ity of Pennylvania; Tob Perlman, ew York Cit ; 'ence Reand Peter B. Read, Social search Council. On Ma 26-27, the committee ponsored a work hop on "Development in the Visual Arts" at the Robie Hou in Chicago. A with the work hop on performing mu ician , thi meeting conEPTEMBER


vened both arti ts and developmental p ychologi 15 in a common exploration of que tion concerning the earl live and career development of those with exceptional ability. Thi meeting provided veral uniquely valuable perspective on arti tic careers. Donald Baum, who operate an art gallery in Chicago, described to the committee how the vi ual art communit has developed in the Chicago area. Donald eiden, a culptor, and Edward Paschke, a painter, described their own careers and iIIu trated their comments with works of art representing different period in their development. The committee also con ulted with a tudent election committee at the Chicago Art In titute and wa able to di u with it the variou factors that appear crucial in detennining the movement of an arti t from the earl expre ion of abilit to the development of a productive career. In addition to tho e mentioned, participant in thi work hop included Jeanne Bamberger, Divi ion for tud and Research in Education, M achu tt In titute of Technology; Mihaly C ik zentmihal i, Department of P ychology, University of Chicago; Howard Gardner, Veteran Admini tration Medical Center (Boton); Roger Gilmore, dean, School of the Art In titute of Chicago; Howard E. Gruber, In titute for Advanced tudy (Princeton, ew Jer ey); David H. Feldman, Department of Child tudy, Tufts Univer it ; David Pari r, Department of Art Education, Concordia University; Ellen Winner, Department of P ychology, Bo ton College. The work hop have enriched the committee' under tanding of how extraordinar abilitie emerge and mature in two very different domain . It ha allowed them to identif some factors that appear unique to either the vi ual art or to mu ic and ome i ue whi h the domain appear to hare. Above all, it ha reinforced the committee' belief that giftedne mu t be tudied within the pecific context of it expre ion. Additional work hop in the domain, and others, are planned and new research project have been initiated b committee member in both mu i and the vi ual arts.

States and social structures The Council ha appointed a new Committee on tate and ocial tructures. The initial members are Peter B. Evan , Brown Univer it , and Theda kocpol, Universit of Chicago, chair;

Albert O. Hirschman, In titute for Advanced tud (Princeton, New Jer ); Peter J. Katzen tein, Cornell Univer it ; Ira Katznelson, ew School for Social Research; tephen D. Krasner, tanford Univer ity; Dietrich Rue cherne er, Brown Univer it ; and Charle ill, Univer ity of Michigan. fartha A. Gephart erve a taff. During the coming month , the committee will bring together ocial ienti t from everal di ipline for collaborative scholarl discu ion about problem in three major area: (1) tudie of the relation hip between ocial knowledge and the hi torical and contemporary development of tate intervention for ocial welfare program ; (2) tudie of the relation hip between tran national proce e and the economic policie of contemporary nation- tate; and (3) comparative inve tigation of the building of modern national tate from earl modern Europe to 20th century Latin America, A ia, and Africa. During 19 3, the committee will complete work on an edited volume of e a , " Bringing the tate Back 1n," to be publi hed b ambridge Universit Pres in 19 4. Readers who wi h to be kept informed of the activitie of the committee hould write to Martha A. Gephart and a ked to be pia ed on the committee' mailing Ii t.

Research uses of personal testimony Over the pa t two ears, the Council ha begun to explore variou way in which researcher use extended report b individual as evidence in both the humanitie and the ocial ience. Major data in virtuall ever discipline are fir t per on tatement of individual whether written or poken. These material are emplo ed in uch diver work as the preparation of biographie , the recon truction of hi torical events, the depiction of cultural practice, and the description of per onalit} development. Relativel little i known about the method and technique emploed b scholar for the collection, analy i , and interpretation of per onal te timon . It i an area of empirical investigation that ha received little tematic attention,et it i increa ingl the ource of new in ight concerning numerou facet of human behavior. The Council ha ponsored everal meeting at which cholar from a number of di ipline in the humanitie


and social science discu sed the problem involved in working with individual report and the procedure adopted by scholar to overcome these difficultie . These discu ion led to the formulation of que tion that need to be addre sed both in the conduct and interpretation of re earch that employ per onal tetimony. On March 11. four cholars were invited to present their current research and to describe the methodology they emplo in working with individual reports. These pre entation were elected for their diver ity of both content and method. A number of other scholar. man of whom had participated in previou Council meetings on thi topic. attended thi work hop and participated in an analy i and discu ion of research program . Thu • exploration of thi topic ha moved from a rather broad con ideration of methodological i ue to a working mode where interdisciplinary reearch endeavors are tudied and commented upon by mall interdisciplinary group of cholar who hare a common concern with the u e of personal tetimony a evidence.

In thi meeting John Modell. Department of Hi tory. Univer ity of Minnesota. described hi demographic tudie of family building. based upon interview with a large ample of ingle women in 1955. These interview contain ub tantial information on the value and deciion making proce of these women and he has attempted to develop quantitative technique to identify orientation which might help to explain the child-bearing plans of these women. Judith Modell. Department of Sociology. Colb College. ha worked with the arne data but examined a mall ample of the interview in a more inten ive, qualitative fashion to learn what attitude of the women might provide a more revealing explanation of the demographic data. Justin Kaplan (Cambridge, Mas achusett) reported upon hi current research in preparing a biography of Charlie Chaplin. which of nece ity involve the tudy of exi ting autobiographical material and the interviewing of numerou individual who knew and worked with Mr. Chaplin . Finally. Jeannette Haviland. Department of P ychology. Livingstone College, Rut-

gers University. presented her methodology for tudying a peets of personality development through the live and writing of uch literary figure a Virginia Woolf. Some of these re earcher di tributed ample of the te timonial material with which the work and participant in the meeting were able to put their perpeetive to the te t of raw data. In addition to those cholar who presented their re earch. participant in thi meeting included Paul Fu sell. Department of EngJi h. Rutger Univer ity; Tamara Hareven. Department of Hi tory. Clark Univer ity; Norman N. HoIland. Center for P ychological Study of the Arts, UNY at Amher t, ew York; Hugh Kenner. Department of Engli h. The John Hopkin Univer ity; Susan Krieger. Department of Sociology. Stanford Univer ity; John P. Padgett. Department of Political Science. Univer ity of Chicago; Kenneth Prewitt. Social Science Re earch Council ; and Paul Rabinow. Department of Anthropology. University of California. Berkeley. Peter B. Read erve a taff.

Council Personnel New directors and officers The Council' board of directors. at it meeting on May 20, 19 3. elected five directors. Newly-elected to board member hip for a three- ear term wa Louise A. Till • Univer it of Michigan. from the American Hi torical A ociation. Reelected to erve a three-year term wa Charle O. Jone • University of Virginia, from the American Political Science A sociation. tephen E. Fienberg. CarnegieMellon Univer ity ; Gardner Lindzey. Center for Advanced tudy in the Behavioral Science; and idney Verba. Harvard University, were all reelected for three- ear term a director -at-large. The board also elected the Council' officer for 1983-84. Eleanor E. Maccoby. tanford University. was elected chairman; tephen E. Fienberg wa elected vice-chairman ; tephen M. tigler. Univer ity of Chicago. wa elected


secretary; and Donna E. halala. Hunter College. City Univer ityofNew York. wa reelected a treasurer.

i tant to the pre ident, Athen College, Greece.

Staff appointment

Presidential sabbatical

P. Nikiforo Diamandouro, a political scienti t.joined the staff on eptember 1. Hi primary a ignments will be to staff the joint committee on We tern Europe and the Near and Middle Ea t. Mr. Diamandouro received a Ph.D. from Columbia Univer ity in 1972. with a di sertation on the formation of the modern Greek state. He has publi hed and lectured exten ively on the politic of southern Europe; he i also the author of

Kenneth Prewitt. the president of the Council. ha received a Guggenheim Fellow hip for the 1983-84 academic year. He ha also been appointed a fellow at the Center for Advanced tudy in the Behavioral Science in tanford. California, where he will pend a abba tical year. He will, however. be in the Council's office a few day each month . The day-to-day admini tration of the Council' activitie during 19 3-84 will be the re pon ibility of David L. Sill • the Executive A sociate. David L. Szanton ha been a igned responsibility for the joint area committee and Peter B. Read repon ibility for the nonarea re earch planning committee .

Southern Europe: An Introductqry Biblio-

graphical Essay (1980) and The 1974 Transitionfrom Authoritarian to Democratic Rule in Greece (19 1). Prior to joining the taff of

the Council. Mr. Diamandouro was director of the Development Office and a -


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Newly-issued Council Publications


China Among Equals: The Middle Kingdom and Its Neighbors, 10-14th Centuries, edited b Morri Ro abi. Paper from a conference pon ored by the Committee on tudies of Chinese Civilization of the American Council of Learned Societies. Berkeley: Univer it of California Pre , 19 3. xvi + 4 7 page . Cloth, 28.50; paper, 12.50. Scholars have long accepted China' own view of it traditional foreign relation : that China devised its own world order and maintained it from the econd century B.C. to the 19th century. China ruled out any equality with any nation; foreign ruler and their envoy were treated a ubordinate or inferiors, required to end periodic tribute emba ie to the Chine e emperor. The Chinese court' principal intere t were to maintain peace with what it perceived to be barbarian neighbor and to coax or coerce them into admitting China ' uperiority and accepting the Chine e emperor a the on of Heaven. The paper in China Among Equal challenge this accepted view of Chine e foreign relation by demon trating that court official in traditional times were eager for foreign trade and knowledgeable about their neighbor, and did not dogmatically enforce China' world order but rather were more reali tic and pragmatic than i commonly a umed. The book i a product of a 1978 conference organized by Mr. Ro sabi, Ca e Western Re erve University, and ponsored by one of the two predece or committee of the Joint Committee on Chine e Studie . The la t major collaborative tud of Chinese foreign relation re ulted in a 196 Harvard Univerit Pre publication, The ChiJU5e World Ordtr, edited by John K. Fairbank, which dealt primarily with Ming (1368-1644) and Ch'ing (1644-1911) China. The earlier volume has timulated important ubsequent tudies on Chine e foreign relation in late imperial China. It i expected that the pre ent volume will imilarly encourage research on ung (960-1279) and pre- ung China. In addition to Mr. Ro abi, who edited the volume, contributors to the volume include Thoma Allsen, Trenton tate College ; Herbert Franke, Bavarian Academy of Science ; Gari Ledyard, C0lumbia Universit ; Luciano Petech, UniSEPTEMBER


ver ity of Rome ; Charle Peter on, Cornell Univer it ; Igor de Rachewiltz, The Au tralian ational niver it ; 1ichael Roger, Univer ity of California, Berkeley; hiba Yo hinobu, Osaka Univer ity; Tao Jing- hen , Univer it of Arizona; Wang Gungwu, The Au tralian ational Univer ity; and Edmund Worthy, ational Council on the Aging.

Developmental Approaches to Giftednes and Creativity, edited by David Henry Feldman. New Directions for Child Development, ' umber 17, eptember 1982. William Damon, Editor in Chief. A publication of the Committee on Development, Giftedne , and the Learning Proce . an Franci 0 : Jo ey-Ba . 99 page . Paper, 7.00. Thi volume pre ent five e ay on giftedne by a group of scholar who are member of the Council' Committee on Development, Giftedne , and the Learning Proce . With fund from the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, the committee i exploring new way to tudy the emergence and development of exceptional abilitie in variou domain of human performance (see page 58-59 of thi i ue). Volume in the Jo ey-Ba erie have tended Ie to provide reports of completed research than to outline challenging new idea and method at the frontier of cientific inquir on infants and children . Thi volume i no exception. Previou research on giftedne ha cutomarily been based on a view of giftedne a general intellectual potential. In diverse way , the contributor argue that our under tanding of extraordinary human abilitie has been everely limited by uch an as umption. They que tion many of the traditional conception and research trategie employed in the tudy of giftedne and creativity and offer provocative new theme for future empirical re earch . Howard E. Gruber examine orne of the reason for tudying extraordinarine and discover a relation hip between these reason and the re earch method employed b scholars. He proposes a conception of giftedne as early promise connected to later creative work and recommend a research trategy that tart

with unequivocally extraordinary individual and work backward. David H . Feldman utilize Piaget' notion of tage, interaction, and tran ition to draw implication for tudying giftednes and creativity in children. By analyzing the component that enter into the developmental equence, he how how it i po ible to diagno and upport earl giftedne without resorting to general p ¡chometric prediction . He ugge t a particularly promi ing focu for new empirical work in the tudy of development in nonuniver al domains--the realm within which creative work i actuall done. Building upon knowledge from uch field a genetic and neurobiology, Howard Gardner propo e a reorganilation of competent functioning into even di tinct pheres, each with its own trength, developmental trajector , and probable area of application through different mbol tern . He ugge ts that b examining extreme ca e in each of the proposed realm of competence, it i poible to examine giftedne in a new and more differentiated wa . Jeanne Bamberger interpret the common breakdown in performance of mu ical prodigie a they move from adolescence to adulthood a a confrontation between intuitive, figural competence and newly emerging formal representation . Mature mu ical performance require the integration of both kind of competence, an achievement ometime be ond the gra p of even the mo t promi ing children. To comprehend better the confrontation between tern will require the joint effort of cognitive developmentali ts and tho e who tud the domain of mu i . Finall ,Nanc Robinson and the late Halbert Robin on (to whom the volume i dedicated) report preliminary findings from their a se ment of the Earl Entrance Program for exceptional tudent at the Univer ity of Washington, eattle. The ocial adju tment and academic progre of 44 radical accelerant (qualifying for admi ion by the age of fourteen) are examined for a four-year period . The author discu the accompli hment and limitation of the program and present plan for future research. The volume begin with note from the


editor and a foreword by Peter B. Read which indicate the relation hip of the work of the committee to previou Council acthitie in the field of human development.

The Origins of Chinese Civilization, edited b David . Keightley. Paper from a conference sponsored b the Committee on tudie of Chine e Civilization of the American Council of Learned Societie . joint Committee on Chine e tudie, tudie on China, l. Berkele: niver ity of California Pre , 19 3. xxxi + 617 page. Cloth, 45.00; paper, 15.00. While man We tern scholar, orne a recently a in the middle 1950 ,have held that the fundamental element of Chine e culture and civilization were tran ported from area out ide China proper, there i now little doubt that-whatever the origin of a few particular elements--the complex of cultural trait that i referred to a Chinese civilization developed in China. hou and of eolithic and early Bronze Age ite are alread known, and development in archeology, anthropology, and related di cipline and ancillary technique have enabled cholar to move from pecific artifact a emblage, decor analy e , lingui tic recon truction , and so on, toward a recon truction of the s0cial realitie that produced them . It i till premature to e tabli h a comprehen ive nthe i of the knowledge acquired b 路 all the relevant discipline with r peet to early cultural development in hina, but the 17 contributor to thi volume bring to the tud the analytical and methodological concern of arch ology, art hi tory, botan ,climatol0(0-, cultural anthropology, ethnograph , epigraphy, lingui ti ,metallurgy, phy ical anthropology, and political and ocial hi tory. U ing method from all the e field, the factual data and anal tical cherne presented in the variou chapter cover a remarkabl} wide range of topics: China' biogeographical environment and it plant dome tication, the phy ical characteri tic of the earlie t Chine e, the origin of the Chinese language, bronze metallurg , the nature of the tribe, and the formation of the tate-among others. The chapter al 0 propose a erie of h pothe e about uch i ue a the cultural importance of ecogeographical zone in China, eolithic interaction between the ea t coa t and the central plain , the re-


markable homogeneit of early Chinese crania, and the link between the H ia (220~ I I B.C.), hang (1766-1154 B.C.), and Chou (1122-255 B.C.) dynastie. More broadly, the volume addre que tion of the origin of Chine e civilization in terms of the proce e of intenification and cultural exchange, of the development of ocial and political organization, and of continually expanding areas of ettlement and the changing natural environment. The volume also delineate the problem of definition, problem of inadequate data, and the kind of re arch trategie and the u e of analytical model that future scholar ma wi h to pur ue. By etting, for the fir t time, the tudy of China' origin on an interdisciplinary course toward y tematic and cumulative under tanding, the volume has e tabli hed a landmark. B providing original and ignificant interpretation of the nature of Chinese civilization in it formative tage and the proce e b which civilization form, the volume make an important contribution to an undertanding of the gene i of civilization in general. In addition to Mr. Keightley, Univerit of California, Berkeley, who organized the 197 conference and edited the volume, the contributor are oel Barnard, The Au tralian ational Univerit ; K. C. Chang, Harvard University, Te-tlU Chang, International Rice Research In titute; Cheung Kwong- ue, The Au tralian ational Univer it ; Wayne H. Fogg, Univer it of Oregon; Ur ula Martiu Franklin, University of Toronto; Morton H. Fried, Columbia niver ity; W. W. Howell, Harvard Univer ity; Loui a G. Fitzgerald Huber, Harvard Universit ; Karl jettmar, University of Heidelberg; Fang Kuei Li, Univer it of Washington; Hui-lin Li, Universit of Penn ylvania; William Meacham, Univerity of Hong Kong; Richard Pearson, University of Briti h Columbia; E. G. Pulle blank, Univer it of Briti h Columbia; and Robert Orr Wh te, Univer ityof Hong Kong.

Social Cognition and Social Development, edited b E. Tory Higgin , Diane . Ruble, and Willard W. Hartup. A publication of the Committee on Social and Affective Development During Childhood. ew York: Cambridge Uni-

ver ity Pre ,19 3. x + 414 page. Cloth, 39.50. The contribution in this volume are revi ed ver ion of papers presented at a conference titled "Social Cognition and Social Behavior: Developmental Per peetive ," ponsored by the Council' Committee on Social and Affective Development During Childhood and held at the Univer it of We tern Ontario from ovember 9 to II, 1979. The purpose of the conference wa to focu on the social aspeet of social-cognitive development; in particular, socialization or ocial ituational force on the antecedent ide and social behavior on the re pon e ide. Although ocial cognition i currentl one of the mo t active area in both ocial and development p ychology, the field ha been dominated by the "cognitive" a pect of ocial cognition, with the "social" a peet receiving relativel little attention. B focu ing the conference on the 0cial a peet of ocial-cogniti\'e development, the organizer hoped to reformulate ome of the theoretical foundation of re arch in thi area. Each participant wa a ked to addres at lea t one of the following que tion : (1) What kind of sociocultural factor explain ob erved developmental change in social cognition? (2) How do age-related change in ocial cognition affect ocial behavior? The chapter of thi volume reflect a challenging diver it of re ponse to these que tion . ixteen chapters are grouped into four major ection . Chapter 1 introduce the volume, de ribe the purpo e of the conference, and rai e ome i ue for future con ideration. Chapter 2 through 7 focu on the interaction of ociocultural and cognitive factor in the development of ocial judgment and the utilization of social input. Chapter 8 through 12 preent variou perspective on value internalization and moral development. Chapter 13 through 16 present critical overview and commentarie on the preceding chapter, a well as on the field of social-cognitive development a a whole. Together, the chapter provide major review of ke area of ocial-cognitive development and ummarize the current reearch program and per pective of man distingui hed p chologi ts in thi area. Contributor to the volume include Thoma J. Berndt, Yale Univer ity; judith E. Brady, Universit of Minnesota; W. Andrew Collin, Univer it of Minnesota; Philip R. Co tanzo, Duke UniverVOL ME

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it); William Damon, Clark Univer ity; Theodore H. Dix, ew York Univer it ; Walter Emmerich, Educational e ting rvice (Princeton, ew Jer e ); Karla hepard Goldman, Univer ity of Colorado; Joan E. Gru ec, Univer ity of Toronto; Willard W. Hartup, Univer ity of Minne ota; E. Tor Higgin, ew York Univer it ; Martin L. Hoffman, Univerity of Michigan; Mark R. Leper, tanford Univer it ; Eleanor E. Maccob , tan ford niver it; ancy C. Much, niversit of Chicago; Andrew F. ewcomb, Michigan tate niver ity; Jacquel nne Eccle Par on, niver it of \1ichigan; Deborah L. Pool, Univer it of Chicago; Richard A. hweder, niversity of Chi ago; Diane . Ruble, ew York niver it ; Tom Traba 0, niver ity of hi ago; and Elliot uriel, Univer it of California, Berkele .

Spatial Orientation: Theory, Research, and Application, edited b Herbert L. Pick,Jr. and Linda P. Acredolo. A publication of the Committee on Cognitive Rearch. New York: Plenum Pre ,19 3. xiv + 37 page. Cloth, 49.50. How do people know where in the world the are? How do the find their wav about? The e are the ort of que tion about patial orientation with which thi book i concerned. taying patially oriented i an es ential a pect of all behavior. Animal mu t find their way through their environment earching efficiently for food and returning to their home area , and man pecie have de\eloped ver ophi ticated en ing apparatu for helping them do thi . Even little children know their wa around quite complex environment. They remember where the put thing and are able to retrieve them with little trouble. Adult in Jette aero the world have developed complex navigational tern for helping them find their way over long di tance with few di tinctive landmarks. People a ro the world u e language to com-


19 3

municale about patial de nptton a well a in problem of long range navigation. Recently re archer and cholar in a variety of discipline have become inlere ted in the ba ic proce e underlying people' abilit to maintain patial orientation. The purpose of thi book i to pre nt analyse of problem of patial orientation from the perspective of both naturally occurring behavior and carefull controlled experiment. On the one hand, the book describe patial behavior from an ethological perspective (e.g., the teaching of map reading kill to soldiers); on the other hand, it review ba ic information proce ing kill employed in a laboratory etting. In between the e are analy e of experimental studie carried out in relativel natural etting and di cu ion of how language help u communicate about and structure our thinking about patial layout. The author include peciali t in computer ciences, geography, lingui tic, and p ychology. The volume i ba ed upon a conference organized and pon ored b the Committee on Cognitive Re earch held in the ummer of 19 O. One of the major theme of the committee' effort ha been to encourage inve tigation of ba ic cognitive proce e a they operate in natural etting. The topic of patial orientation i particularly appropriate to thi theme. The book i organized in five ection : (1) comparative and developmental apect of patial orientation; (2) patial orientation in pecial population ; (3) patial orientation and map reading; (4) linguistic a pect of patial cognition; and (5) information proce ing and spatial cognition. At the end of each ection there i commentar by a di cus ant which attempt to capture orne of the major points raised in the conference di cu ion and to highlight orne of the general i ue of the paper in that ection. The chapter included are: (1)" patial Orientation: A Comparative Approach,

anc L. Hazen, Univer ity ofTexa ; (2) "The Generation and Early Development of patial Inference ," John J. Rieser, Vanderbilt niver ity; (3) "Comparative and Developmental Approache to patial Cognition," Herbert L. Pick,Jr., Univer ity of Minnesota; (4) "Procedure for Defining and Analyzing Cognitive Map of the Mildl and Moderately Mentally Retarded," Reginald G. Golledge and G. Donald Richard on, Univer ity of California, anta Barbara, and John . . Ra nor and Jo eph J. Parni k), Ohio tate Univer it ; (5)" patial Orientation in the Elderl : The Current tatu of nder tanding," Ru ell J. Ohta, We t irginia Uni'er it '; (6) " patial Abilit\ and the Limitation of Perceptual tern ," Emer on Foulke, niversit of Loui ville; (7) .. patial rientation 10 pecial Population : The Mentall Retarded, the Blind, and the Elderly," Linda P. Acredolo, Univer ity of California, Davi : ( ) Terrain Vi ualization and Map Reading," Zita M. imuti and Helena F. Bar am, nited tate Armv Re earch In titute for Behavioral and Social cience ; (9)" patial Learning and Rea ning Skill," Perr W. Thornd ke and arah E. Goldin, niver it of California, anta Barbara; (10) "Map Reading and patial Cognition," Herbert L. Pi k, Jr., Univerity of Minne ota, and Jeffrey J. Lockman, Tulane Univer it ; (II) "How Language tructure pace," Leonard aim ,Universit of California, Berkele ; (12) "Deixis and patialOrientation in Route Direction ," Wolfgang Klein, Max Planck In titute for P ycholingui tic ( ijemgen); (13) "Commentar on the Paper of Klein and Talm ," Charle J. Fillmore, niversit of California, Berkeley; (14) " 10deling and Creation of Cognitive Map ," John C. Baird and Mark Wagner, Dartmouth College; (15) "The Cognitive Map: Could It Have Been Any Other Wa ?," Benjamin Kuiper, uft niver it ; and (16) "Concerning Cognitive Map : Di u ion of Baird and Kuiper ," Fred Attneave, Universit of Oregon.


Fellowships and Grants CONTENTS 64

DOCTORAL OJ ERT ATIO RE EARCH I EMPLOYME T AND TRAI ING 65 I TERNATIO AL DOCTORAL RE EARCH FELLOW HIP Africa, Chi/ta, Japan, Korta, Latin Amtrica and tht Caribbean, Ihe ear and Middle Easl, South A ia, ottlhtast Asia, We tem Ettrope 67 GRA T FOR INTER ATIO AL PO TDOCTORAL RE EARCH Africa, China, Eastem Ettrope, Japall, Korea, Lalin Amtnca alld Ihe Caribbeall, Iht ear alld Middle East, ottth Asia, ottlhtast Asia

THE E PAGE Ii t the name, affiliation, and topics of the individual who were awarded fellow hip or grant by Council committee in the mo t recent annual competition . The grant program pon ored by the Council and the grant and fellowship program for re earch in the ocial cience and the humanities pon ored by the Council jointly with the American Council of Learned Societie (ACLS) are both reported here. The program for Re earch in Employment and Training i funded by the U.S. Department of Labor. The international program are upported b grants from the Ford Foundation, the National Endowment for the Humanitie ,and the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation. Additional funding for the China and for the Latin American and Caribbean program i provided by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation and for the japan po tdoctoral program by the japan- United tate Friend hip Commi ion. Unle s it i pecifically noted that a program i admini tered by the ACLS, the program Ii ted are admini tered by the Council. In the admini tration of it fellow hip and grant program , the Social Science Re earch Council doe not di criminate on the ba is of age, color, creed, di ability, marital tatu, national origin, or ex. The program change omewhat every year, and intere ted cholar hould write to the Council for a copy of the new brochure. DOCTORAL DIS ERT ATIO RESEARCH I EMPLOYME TAD TRAI ING The Committee on Di ertation Fellowship in Employment and Training-Ra hi Fein, Paul S. Goodman, Hylan Lewi , Frank P. tafford, Paula E. Stephan-ha recommended, and the Council ha awarded, the following di ertation fellow hip ince june 1982: Beth A ch, Ph.D. candidate in economics, Univer ity of Chicago, for re earch on the allocative role of private pen ion plan in the labor market William March Boal, Ph.D. candidate in economics, Stanford Univer ity, for re earch on unionism and productivit in We t Virginia coal mining 64

ancy Breen, Ph.D. candidate in economics, New School for Social Re earch, for research on the con equences of protective legi lation of women' work and wage Kenneth M. Chomitz, Ph.D. candidate in ocial cience, Univer ity of California, Irvine, for re earch on a relativi tic model of labor supply Thomas Coleman, Ph.D. candidate in economics, Univerity of Chicago, for re earch on the fluctuation in aggregate employment, unemployment, and participation jeremiah Cotton, Ph.D. candidate in economic, Univer ity of Michigan, for re earch on a comparative analy i of the determinant of black-white and MexicanAmerican-white male wage differential ichola DiMarzio, Ph.D. candidate in ocial work, Rutger Univer ity, for re earch on the social welfare and labor market implication of undocumented alien in the New York metropolitan area john on Aimie Edo omwan, Ph.D. candidate in indu trial engineering and operations re earch, Columbia Univerity, for re earch on the impact of computer technology on productivity and operator health in an a embly ta ik Elaine M. Gilby, Ph.D. candidate in economic, University of Wi con in, for re earch on the effect of migration deci ions on two earner couple jeanne Griffith, Ph.D. candidate in ocial relation, The john Hopkins Univer ity, for re earch on the effect of late life, long-term unemployment and occupational mobility on retirement behavior in the United State janet Holtzblatt, Ph.D. candidate in economic, Univer ity of Wi con in, for re earch on the effect of plant clo ings on worker' earning and tran fer receipts Mitchell P. LaPlante, Ph.D. candidate in ociology, Stanford Univer ity, for re earch on the health cost of metropolitan unemployment Timothy J. Maloney, Ph.D. candidate in economic, Univer ity of Wi con in, for re earch on di equilibrium unemployment and the cyclical labor upply respon e of married women Walter S. McManus, Ph.D. candidate in economics, Univer ity of California, Lo Angele, for re earch on the role of Engli h language proficiency in Hi panic earning and occupational differentials Tere aJ. Menke, Ph.D. candidate in economic, Univer ity of Wiscon in, for re earch on the effect of urban amenitie and di amenitie on intercity wage differentials Gary Mucciaroni, Ph.D. candidate in political cience, Univer ity of Wi con in, for re earch on the politics of manpower policy from the Manpower Development and Training Act of 1962 to the job Training and Partnerhip Act of 1982. KevinJ. Murphy, Ph.D. candidate in economic, Univer ity of Chicago, for re earch on a theoretical and empirical inve tigation of optimal labor contracts ba ed on ability, performance, and compen ation W. Robert Reed, Ph.D. candidate in economics, Northwe tern Univer ity, for re earch on job atisfaction, compen ating wage differential ,and the importance of nonpecuniary job characteri tics joyce M. Richmond-Cooper, Ph.D. candidate in regional cience, Univer ity of Penn ylvania, for re earch on a theoretical and empirical inve tigation of local labor market, geographic mobility, and imperfect information VOL ME

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Loriann Rober on, Ph.D. candidate in p ychology, Univer- Barbara A. Worley, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Coity of Minne ota, for re earch on a new approach to the lumbia Univer ity, for re earch in iger on the economic mea urement of work motivation role of Tuareg women Jame Robin on, Ph.D. candidate in indu trial relation , Univer ity of California, Berkeley, for an economic CHI A analy i of the effects of worker mobility and trade he following di ertation fellow hip wa awarded durunion on the policie of the Occupational afety and ing the year b the joint Committee on Chine e tudie Health Admini tration Dougla W. Roblin, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Uni- (admini tered b the American Council of Learned ver ity of Michigan, for re earch on the labor market Societie )-Frederic E. Wakeman, jr. (chair), Hok-Iam behavior of di advantaged immigrants, with particular Chan, Wm. Theodore de Bar, Robert F. Dernberger,jack reference to Samoan in the San Francisco Bay area L. Dull, Albert Feuerwerker, Victor Ho Li, Michel C. OkCarolyn M. Ro en tein, Ph.D. candidate in indu trial relaenberg, Evel n . Raw ki, G. William kinner, and Antion , Univer ity of California, Lo Angele, for re earch thony C. Yu-with the a i tance of the committee' ubon the effect of immigration on the occupational career committee on Grants-jack L. Dull, judith . Berling, of recent immigrants to Canada teven tern, Ph.D. candidate in economic, Yale Univerichola R. Lard, u an aquin, tephen Owen, Lyman ity, for re earch on earch, vacancie , application, and P. Van Ike, jame L. Watson, and Allen . Whiting. long-term equilibrium labor market Jo eph Tracy, Ph.D. candidate in economics, Univer ity of Michael D. waine, Ph.D. candidate in government, Harvard Univer ity, for re earch in japan on contemporar Chicago, for a theoretical and empirical tud of U. . ino-japane e relation as a ca e tudy in the applied trike activity u ing pooled time- erie cro - ectional bureaucratic politic approach to Chine e foreign ecodata from 1973-1978 nomic policy making (cofunded b the joint Committee Shinichi Watanabe, Ph.D. candidate in economic, Univeron japane e tudie) ity of Minne ota, for re earch on bu ine cycle, unemployment, and job earch Amy Wharton, Ph.D. candidate in ociology, Univer ityof J PA ' Oregon, for re earch on the role of occupation and innder the program pon ored b the Joint Committee du trial organization on blue-collar ex egregation Jeffre Stephen Zax, Ph.D. candidate in economics, Har- on japane e tudie, the ubcommittee on Grant for vard University, for re earch on compen ation and em- Re earch-J. Thoma Rimer (chair), William Kell ,jeffre ployment in American city government Ma , T. J. Pempel, Gar R. axonhou e, Patricia G. teinhoff, and Ma akazu Yamazaki-at it meeting on Februar 11, 19 3, voted to make award to the following individual: I TER ATIO AL DOCTORAL RESEARCH FELLOW HIP

Andrew E. Bar ha ,Ph .D. candidate in hi tor, Univer it}' of California, Berkele , for re earch in japan on the AFRICA public man a an in ider and an out ider in the earl howa period, 1925-1945 The following di ertation fellow hip were awarded b the Joint Committee on African tudies-Allen F. I aac- Bruce L. Batten, Ph.D. candidate in hi tor\" tan ford niver ity, for research in japan on the Dazai headquarter, man (chair), jane I. Guyer, Bennetta W. jule -Ro ette, local government, and foreign relation in the . 'ara and Thandika Mkandawire, V. Y. Mudimbe, Peter Anyang' Heian period I' ong'o, Harold Scheub, and Michael J. Watts-at it Paul A. Berr , Ph.D. candidate in the hi tory of art, Univer it of Michigan, for re earch in japan on Tanomura meeting on March 25-26, 1983. It had been a i ted b Chikuden and the development and tran mi ion of the Screening Committee-Sandra T. Barne , Frederick Bungo anga painting in the 19th centur Cooper, T . Dunbar Moodie, Chri topher D. Roy, and Mar C. Brinton, Ph .D. candidate in ociology, Uniyer it} \fichael G. hatzberg. of Wa hington, for re earch in japan on the determinant of differential male and female emploment patBenjamin N. Davi , Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Unitern in urban japan ver ity of Michigan, for re earch in Zimbabwe on cia Frank L. Chance, Ph .D. candidate in the hi tor} of art, formation and cla con ciousne in rural Zimbabwe .Univer ity of Wa hington, for re earch in japan on the Bernard de H. de Grunne, Ph .D. candidate in the history painting, book iIIu tration , and theorie of Tani Bunof art, Yale University, for re earch in Mali on the form cho (1763-1 40) and meaning of ge ture in ancient Mali art jennifer E. Robert on, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Corinne A. Kratz, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, UniCornell Univer it}', for re earch injapan on Itilldenmura versity of Texa , for re earch in Kenya on the creation and the proce of village building and communication of cultural identit among the Okiek Kermit L. Schoenholtz, Ph.D. candidate in economics, Yale Chri topher C. Taylor, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Univer it}, for re earch inJapan on bu ine ime tment, Univer ity of Virginia, for re earch in Rwanda on ocial rational expectation, and credit market imperfection innovation and therapy in Rwandan traditional medicine Michael D. waine, Ph .D. candidate in government, HarJeffre G. Un icker, Ph.D. candidate in international devard Univer it ,for re earch in Japan on contemporar velopment education, Stanford University, for re earch ino-Japane e relation a a ca e tud in the applied in Tanzania on adult education, rural development, and bureaucratic politic approach to Chine e foreign ecoociali m in Tanzania: the political economy of the nomic policy making (cofunded b the joint Committee Folk Development College on Chine e tudie) EP1 EMBER

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The Joint Committee on Korean Studies-Chae-jin Lee (chair), Martina Deuchler, Michael C. Kallon, Han-Kyo Kim, Hagen Koo, and Peter H. Lee-voted at its meeting on March 5-6, 1983, to award fellow hip to the following individual: Seong-Nae Kim, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Univerity of Michigan, for re earch in Korea on continuity and tran formation of Cheju hamanic healing in urban Korea Seonbok Yi, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Arizona tate Univer it , for re earch in Korea on lower Paleolithic indu try

Pamela Ellen I rael, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Univer it of California, Berkele , for re earch in Ecuador on female identity and-the maintenance of ethnicity during social and economic change among the huar people of ea tern Ecuador Alejandra Cri tina Mizala alee, Ph.D. candidate in economic, Univer ity of California, Berkeley, for re earch in Chile on tabilization and liberalization policie and their impact on the foreign and financial ector Alfon 0 Walter Quiroz, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Columbia University, for re earch in Peru on the role of financial intermediarie and the importance of dome tic aving and inve tment in the Peruvian financial tructure, 1890-1930 Knut Walter, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Univer it of North Carolina, for re earch in icara~a on the regime of Ana ta io Somoza and tate formation in Nicaragua, 1933-1956


The following fellow hip were awarded by the Doctoral Re earch Fellow hip election Committee for Latin America and the Caribbean-Jorge I. DomInguez (chair), John Coatsworth, Elizabeth J. Garrel, ilvia Ann Hewlett, and Carol A. Smith-at it meeting on March 4, 1983. It had been a i ted b the Screening Committee-Bruce Bagle, ara Ca tro-Klaren, Douglas H. Graham, Gilbert Jo eph, Norma Klahn, Chri topher Mitchell, and Kay Warren. Diana de G. Brown served as a consultant to the committee. Ana Marla Alon 0, Ph .D. candidate in anthropology, Univer ity of Chicago, for research in Mexico on the ethnographic hi tory of two communities in northern Mexico during the Revolution William Harry Fi her, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Cornell Univer ity, for research in Brazil on the repreentational u e of natural phenomena in the ymbolic ordering of ociallife and the cultural definition of natural re ource for the Kayapo-Xikrin of Bacaja in the Amazon ba in . Andre Miguel Fontana, Ph.D. candidate in government, Univer ity of Texa , for re earch in Argentina on the neocon ervative ideology of "state- hrinking" of the Argentine militar regime Nancy R. For ter, Ph.D. candidate in development tudie , University of Wi con in, for research in Ecuador on the impact of commercialization on the socioeconomic survival strategie of two pea ant communitie in the highlands Charle Guy Gillespie, Ph.D. candidate in political cience, Yale University, for re earch in Uruguay on authoritarianism and the role of political parties in redemocratization. Paul Eliot Gootenberg, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Univerit of Chicago, for re earch in Peru and the United Kingdom on the emergence of "free trade" policie and their impact on ocial and economic development, in Lima, 1820-1880 Chri topher Healy, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Yale Univer ity, for re earch in urinam on tradition and improvi ation in Ndjuka architectural painting 66

The following di ertation fellow hip were awarded by the Joint Committee on the Near and Middle Ea t-Peter von Siver (chair), Leonard Binder, Eric Davi , Abdellah Hammoudi, Michael C. Hudson, Robert J. Lapham, Afaf Lutfi al-Sayyid Marsot, Alan R. Richard, and John Waterbury-at its meeting on February 25-26, 1983. George E. Bisharat, Ph .D. candidate in anthropology and Middle East studies, Harvard Univer ity, for re earch in the We t Bank on the legal profe ion of the We t Bank Nora L. Guhl, Ph.D. candidate in education, Univer ity of Chicago, for research in Egypt on the effect of child labor on fertility and chooling deci ion in urban Egypt amira Haj, Ph.D. candidate in hi tory, Univer ity of California, Lo Angele , for re earch in Egypt, England, Iraq, and Jordan on uneven development in Iraq Mina Marefat, Ph.D. candidate in architecture, Ma achusett Institute of Technology, for re earch in England, France, and Iran on a case tudy of hou e, form, and culture in Teheran, 1900-1940



The following di sertation re earch fellow hip were awarded by the Joint Committee on South A ia-Myron Weiner (chair), Pranab Kumar Bardhan, Richard M. Eaton, Barbara S. Miller, Ralph W. ichola, Harold S. Power, John F. Richard , Norman T. Uphoff, and Susan S. Wadley-at it meeting on March 4-5, 1983: Rebecca R. French, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Yale Univer ity, for re earch in Nepal on law in Tibetan culture and society Christopher V. Hill, Ph.D. candidate in history, Univer ity of Virginia, for research in the United Kingdom on the social ecology of Purnea District, India, 1793-1955 John Dunham Kelly, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Univer ity of Chicago, for re earch in Fiji on the folk ontology and ocial organization of the Indian population VOLUME






The following di ertation re earch fellow hip were awarded b the Joint Committee on Southea t A ia-Jame C. cott (chair). Alton Becker. David O . Dapice. Charle F. Keye • Lim Teck Ghee. Mary R. Holln teiner. David Marr. and Ruth T. McVe -at it meeting on March 31-ApriI2. 19 3: Katherine A. Bowie. Ph .D. candidate in anthropology. Univer it of Chicago. for re earch in Thailand on 19th century pea ant/court relation in the Chiang Mai valle Regina T. Clifford. Ph.D . candidate in the hi tor of religion. Univer ity of Chicago. for re earch in Thailand on literar genre and ceremonial and ethical action in the Theravada Varna a literature Alan H. Fein tein. Ph .D. candidate in ethnomu icology. Univer it of Michigan. for re earch in Indone ia and the etherland on the role of mu ic in the 19th century Javane e world view Sek an Pra ertkul. Ph.D. candidate in government. Cornell Univer ity. for re earch in Thailand on the relation hip between the tate and economic change. 1 60-1960



The following di ertation fellow hip were awarded b the Joint Committee on We tern Europe-Philippe C. hmitter (chair). Peter A. Gourevitch. Gudmund Herne. Peter J. Katzen tein. Charle S. Maier. and Fritz W. Scharpf-at it meeting on March 11. 1983. It had been a i ted b the Screening Committee-Ronald R. Aminzade. Herrick E. Chapman. Judith Chubb. Jan E. Goldstein. Katherine M. Verder • and teven B. Webb. Leonard . Amico. Ph.D. candidate in the hi tory of art. Yale Univer it • for re earch in France on Bernard Pali (1510-1590) and the thought and art of the Hu~uenot arti an cia of the French Reformation hanl1 M. A efa. Ph.D. candidate in hi tory. Princeton Univer ity. for re earch in France on popular oppo ition to the French monarchy during the Maupeou chancellor hip. 1770-1774 Carol G. Bloodworth. Ph .D. candidate in anthropology. Cornell Univer ity. for re earch in Ireland on the influence of cu tomary law on modern conception of order in communit and tate Colleen A. Dunlav • Ph .D. candidate in political cience. Ma achu ett In titute of Technology. for re earch in We t Germany on a comparative tudy of the development of the railroad in Pru ia and the United State. 1830-1914 Caroline C. Ford. Ph .D. candidate in hi tory. Univer ityof Chicago. for re earch in France on religion and politic in Brittany. 1880-1914 Peter A. Fritz che. Ph.D. candidate in hi tory. Univer ityof California. Berkeley. for re earch in We t Germany on middle-cia politic in Lower Saxony. 1924-1930 Ellen Furlough. Ph.D. candidate in hi tory. Brown Univerity. for re earch in France on con umer cooperative. 1885-1920 SEPTEMBER


Ellen M. Immergut. Ph.D. candidate in ociology. Harvard Univer ity. for re earch in France. Sweden. and Switzerland on the political economy of private medical practice Iwona Irwin-Zarecka. Ph.D. candidate in ociology. Univer ity of California. San Diego. for re earch in France and the United Kingdom on the ilence urrounding the "Jewi h problem" in po t-1945 Poland Karen A. Kahn. Ph .D. candidate in anthropolo~. Univerity of Michigan. for research in the United Ktngdom on the contemporary nationali t movement in Wale Steven H. Katz. Ph.D. candidate in ociology. Univer ity of California. Santa Cruz. for re earch in We t Germany on the interaction between urban ocial movement and the tate in We t Berlin Hudson C. Meadwell. Ph.D. candidate in political cience. Duke Univer it • for research in Canada and France on cultural mobilization in Quebec and Brittany. 18701970 Geor~e P. Steinmetz. III. Ph.D. candidate in ociology. Umver ity of Wi con in. for research in We t German on local and federal government expenditure for unemployment relief. 1880-1930 Sven H. Stein mo. Ph.D. candidate in political cience. Univer ity of California. Berkeley. for re earch in Sweden and the United Kingdom on the political economy of corporate taxation ancy E. Triolo. Ph.D. candidate in anthropology. Univerity of California. Berkeley. for re earch in Italy on the modernization of maternal and infant health care in Sicil since the Fa ci t period


The following postdoctoral re earch grant were awarded by the Joint Committee on African StudiesAllen F. I aacman (chair). Jane I. Guyer. Bennetta W. Jule -Ro ette. Thandika Mkandawire. V. Y. Mudimbe. Peter Anyang' Nyong'o. Harold Scheub. and Michael J. Watts-at it meeting on March 25-26. 1983. Robert Cancel. a i tant profe or of literature. Univer it of California. San Diego, for re earch in England. Kenya. and Zambia on the collection. translation. and analy i of Tabwa oral tradition David B. Coplan. a i tant profe or of comparative hi tory. idea. and culture. State University of New York. College at Old We tbury. for re earch in Lesotho on performance. elf-definition. and ocial experience among Ba otho migrant mineworker Svend E. Holsoe. as ociate profe or of anthropology. Univer ity of Delaware. for re earch in the United State on interactions and changes in indigenou and euler Liberian in titutions Igor Kopytoff. profe sor of anthropology. Univer ity of Pennsylvania. for research in the United State on the social economy of ecret power in African societie Louise D. Lennihan. a i tant profe sor of anthropology. City Univer ity of New York. Hunter College. for reearch in England and Nigeria on the origins and development of agricultural wage labor in northern Nigeria 67

Kri tin Mann, a i tant profe or of hi tory, Emory Univer ity, for re earch in igeria on economy, tate, and society in 19th century Lago William M. Minter, re earch director, Africa ew Service (Durham, orth Carolina), for re earch in Bot wana, \10zambique, South Africa, and Zimbabwe on the root of We tern involvement in the Southern Africa cri i Gregor} A. Pirio, enior editor, Marcu Garvey Paper Project, African tudie Center, Univer ity of California, Lo Angele, for re earch in Angola, Guinea-Bi au, \fozambique, Portugal, and Zimbabwe on a hi tory of Garveyi m in the development of African nationali m in Lu ophonic Africa Joel amoff, a ociate profe or of international development education, tanford Univer ity, for re earch in Tanzania on participation, decentralization, and education in Tanzania Peter E. Schmidt, a ociate profe or of anthropology, Brown Univer ity, for re earch in Tanzania on ancient iron technology and civilization CHl~'A

The Joint Committee on Chine e tudie (admini tered by the American Council of Learned Societie )-Frederic E. Wakeman, Jr. (chair), Hok-Iam Chan, Wm. Theodore de Bar. , Robert F. Dernberger, Jack L. Dull, Albert Feuerwerker, Victor Ho Li, Michel C. Ok enberg, Evelyn . Raw ki, G. William kinner, and Anthony C. YuancVor it ubcommittee awarded grant during the year to the following individual in the categorie indicated. Rt. tareh


Chine t Studie

Richard Barnhart, profe or of the hi tory of art, Yale Univer it , for re earch on orthern ung landscape painting Kenneth J. DeWo kin, a ociate profe or of Chinese language and literature, Univer it of Michigan, for reearch on the theor and practice in early Chine e mu ic, from the mid-Chou to the Han d na ty Albert E. Dien, profe or of Chine e language and hi tory, tanford Univer ity, for re earch on material culture of the ix Dyna tie period Patricia Ebrey, a ociate profe or of A ian tudie, Universit of IIIinoi , for research on marriage in ung China David . Keightle ,prote or of Chine e hi tory, Univerit} of California, Berkele , for re earch on the world of the ro al diviner: temperament and mentality in late hang China Yau-moon Ma, profe or of Chine e, Univer ity of Hawaii, for re earch on the text, source, and compo ition of the Hsiian-ho i- hih \1aurice J. Mei ner, profe or of Chinese hi tory, Univerit} of Wi con in, for research on Chine e Marxi m in the po t-Maoi t era Ramon H. M 'er , enior fellow and curator- cholar of the Ea t A ian Collection, Hoover In titution of War, Revolution and Peace, for re earch on the patial tructure of earlv 20th centur rural China Gar ' W. eaman, a i tant profe or of anthropology, Univer it} of Southern California, for re earch on geomancy and geomancer in a Chine e land cape


Lawrence R. Sullivan, a ociate profe sor of political cience, Adelphi Univer ity, for re earch on political reform in the Chinese Communi t Party from December 197 to September 1982 Pre ton M. Torbert, Chicago, IIlinoi , for re earch on the in titution of contract in late traditional China L nn T. White, a ociate profe or of politic and Ea t Asian tudies, Princeton University, for research on peri tence and change in urban communitie during China's revolution

Mellon Program in Chine e tudie for Rt earch ami Advanced tudies

Richard E. Barrett, as i tant profe or of ociology, Univer ity of IIlinoi , Chicago Circle, for re earch on the mortality tran ition from the Chinese population of Taiwan between 1905 and 1965 Robert S. Bauer, as ociate profe sor of lingui tic , Fu Jen Catholic Univer ity (Taipei), for re earch on variable in Hong Kong Cantone e Catherine M. Bell, Taipei, Taiwan, for the tudy of modern and cia ical Chinese Ruth W. Dunnell, Seattle, Wa hington, for the tud of the Tibetan and Tangut language Peter N. Gregory, lecturer in Chine e tudie, Stanford Univer ity, for re earch on the thought of Kuei-feng T ung-mi Harry A. Kaplan, an Franci co, California, for re earch on the ymboli t movement in modem Chinese poetry Paul . Levine, a i tant professor of Chinese hi tory, York Univer it , for re earch on the early urban economy of the Yangtze valley. Jo eph P. McDermott, vi iting a i tant profe or of A ian tudie, t.John' Univer ity, for re earch on the Ch'eng clan ofCh'i-men Count from early Ming to early Ch'ing Michael ylan, ACLS/Mellon fellow, Princeton Univer ity, for an annotated tran lation of Yang H iung' T'ai Hsuan ching (Classic of the Great Unknown) Loui Putterman, a ociate profe or of economic, Brown Univer ity, for re earch on economic production incentive at hou ehold, team, and higher level in Chine e agriculture Le ter S. Ro ,a i tant profe or of political cience, Purdue Univer ity, for re earch on the policy proce and the environment in China P. teven angren, a i tant profe or of anthropology, Cornell Univer it , for research on the social and cultural dimen ion of religiou integration temming from pilgrimage in China Edward L. haughne ,candidate in A ian language, tanford Univer ity, for research on we tern Zhou bronze in cription u ed to describe the military hi tory of the period Robin D. S. Yate , postdoctoral fellow in hi tory, Harvard Univer it , for a reevaluation of the cultural hi tor of the period 700-221 B.C. John L. Wither, New Haven, Connecticut, for research on • 'anjing under the Taiping rule Madeleine Zelin, as i tant profe or of Chinese hi tory, Columbia Univer ity, for research on the re ettlement and economic development of zechuan during the Ch'ing d 'na t





J1tLlon Program in Chint e Studit for Summer Language Training at the Inttr-Univer. it Program for Chint e Language tudie (Taipei)

Kenneth j. DeWo kin, a ociate profe or of Chine e language and literature, Univer ity of Michigan Robe~t P. Gardella, a ociate profe or of Chine e histor , Untted tate Merchant Marine Academy Hong Yung Lee, vi iting a ociate profe or of political cience, Yale Univer ity Peter R. Mood , jr., a ociate profe sor of government Univer it of otre Dame ' Loui Putterman, a ociate profe or of economic Brown Univer ity , Paul . Ropp , a ociate profe or of hi tor , Memphis tate Univer it janet W. alaff, profe or of ociology, Univer ity of Toronto

Mellon Program in Chint e Studie China Conference Travel Grant

To attend the Fir t ational Conference on Generative Grammar, Heilongjiang Univer ity, Harbin, june 14-21, 19 3 hou-h in Teng, profe or of Chine e lingui tic , Univerity of Ma achu etts

Donka F. Farka , a i tant profe or of lingui tic and French, Penn Ivania State Univer it , for re earch on the phonological proce of vowel harmony in Hungarian Karen J. Freeze, re earch a ociate, Harvard Univer it , for re earch on Czecho lovak textile machinery in global market: innovation and rever e technology tran fer Eugene A. Hammel, profe or of anthropology, Univer ity of California, Berkeley, for re <:arch on pari h-Ievel demographic record in Croatia and lovenia Andrew C. janos, profe or of political cience, Univer ity of California, Berkeley, for re earch on Eastern Europe in the modern world Charle jelavich, profe or of hi tory, Indiana Univer it , for re earch on the Yugo lav idea and South lavic nationali m, 1804-1918 David M. Kemme, a i tant profe or of economi , Univer ityof orth Carolina at Green boro, for re earch on indu trial production and re ource allocation in Poland john Komlo , a i tant profe or of bu ine admini tration, Roo evelt Univer ity, for re earch on economic development in the Czech Crownland in the econd half of the 1 th centur David S. Ma on, a i tant profe or of political cience, Butler Univer it , for re earch on political change and public opinion in Poland, 19 0-19 2 eal Pea e, lecturer in hi tory, Yale Univer it , for reearch on American- Poli h relation , 1924-1933 Albert A. imku, a i tant profe or of ociology, Univerit of Michigan, for re earch on comparative ocial tratification in Ea tern Europe

To attend the Conference on A ian (Chine e) Archeology, Beijing and Xi'an, Augu t 18-26, 1983 Kwang-chih Chang, profe or of archeology, Harvard Univer it


Under the program pon ored b the joint Committee on japane e tudie with upport from the japan- United tate Friend hip Commi ion, the ubcommittee on EA TER E ROPE Grant for Re earch-J. Thoma Rimer (chair), William The joint Committee on Ea tern Europe (admini tered Kelly, jeffre Ma , T . J. Pempel, Gary R. a onhou e, b the American Council of Learned Societie )-Harold B. Patricia G. teinhoff, and Ma akazu Yamazaki-at its Segel (chair), Daniel Chirot, jane L. Curry, Edward A. meeting on February 11, 19 3, voted to make award to the Hewett, Keith A. Hitchins, Ken jowitt, William G. following individual : Lockwood, and Piotr S. Wandycz-at it meeting on February 25-26, 1983 made award to the following individuGeorge Akita, profe or of hi tor, Univer ity of Hawaii, al: for re earch in japan on Yamagata Aritomo (18381922) and modern japane e political leader hip julia Ali andrato, a i tant profe or of lavic language, Bela Gold, profe orofindu trial economics, Ca e We tern Re erve Univer it , for re earch in japan on approache Ma achu ett In titute of Technology, for re earch on to re tructuring the tee I indu tr South and Ea t Slavic eccle ia tical and political eulogie Andrew D. Gordon, a i tant profes or of hi tory, Harvard Ivo Banac, a ociate profe sor of hi tory, Yale Univer ity, Univer ity, for re earch in japan on working cia profor re earch on Ea t Central Europe ince 1939 te t in japane e hi tor jack Biela iak, a ociate profe or of political cience, Indiana Univer ity, for re earch on cri e and cri i man- Helen Hardacre, a i tant profe or of religion, Princeton Univer it , for re earch in japan on the ocial role of agement in the Sociali t bloc religion in the 19th century Richard Blanke, a ociate profes or of hi tory, Univer ity A. Ho ton, a i tant profe or of political ciGermaine of Maine, for re earch on the German minority in interence, The john Hopkin Univer ity, for re earch in war Poland japan on comparative per pectives on Marxi m and Ralph Bogert, a i tant profe or of lavic language , Harnation ali m in China and japan vard Univer ity, for re earch on hi tor and critici m of J. Victor Ko chmann, a istant profe or of hi tory, Cor500 year of Yugo lav theatre nell Univer ity, for re earch in japan on po twar Anna M. Cienciala, profe orofhi tory, Univer ity of Kanjapane e conception of ubjectivity and hi tory as, for re earch on the Poli h que tion in World War I I


19 3


Robert M. Mar h, profe sor of ociology, Brown Univer- Darlo Julio Canton, re earcher, In tituto Provincial de la it , for re earch in Japan on change in Japane e facVivienda, Chubut (Argentina), for re earch in Arr~entina torie , 1976-1983 on the relation hip between occupation and young beKenneth B. Pyle, profe or of hi tor and A ian tudie, havior in Bueno Aire during the October 1983 pre iUniver it of Wa hington, for re earch in Japan on dential election changing conception of Japanese nationality, 1945- John Cordell, re earcher, Department of Con ervation and 19 0 Resource tudie, Univer ity of California, Berkele ,for Judith . Rabinovitch, a i tant profe or of Ea t A ian research in Brazil on territorial conflict over fi hing language and literature, Yale Univer it ,for research in right in the Bahian region Japan on a comprehen ive tudy of hentai kambun (var- Liliana De Riz, re earcher, Center for tudie of tate and iant Chine e character) Societ (CEDES), Bueno Aire, for research in ArgenRichard J. amuel, a i tant profe or of political cience, tina, Brazil, and Chile on political partie and party yMa achu ett In titute of Technology, for research in tern in authoritarian regime Japan on public energy corporation and public polic Warren Dean, profe sor of hi tory, ew York Univer it , Richard J. methur t, a i tant profe or of hi tory, Unifor re earch in Brazil on the environmental hi tor of ver it of Pitt burgh, for research in Japan on the comrubber plantation experiment between the 1 60 and merciali m of agriculture and farm tenanc di pute , the pre ent 1 90-1940 Elizabeth Dore, independent re earcher, for re earch in Robert M. tern, profe or of economi ,Univer it of icaragua on food production, di tribution and conMichigan, for re earch in the United tate on the effect umption ince the andini t revolution of protection on the factor content of Japanese and Peter Loui Eisenberg, profe or of hi tory, tate UniverAmerican foreign trade it of Campina , Brazil, for research in Brazil on the Melinda Takeuchi, a i tant profe or of art, tan ford tran ition from ub i tence agriculture to ugar export Univer it , for re earch in Japan on Ike Taiga (1723in ao Paulo, 1765-1 29. 1776) Carlo Escude, profe sor of international relation, UniJame W. White, profe or of political cience, Univer it ver ity of Belgrano, Bueno Aire, for re earch in of orth Carolina, for research in Japan on prote t and Argentina, Great Britain, and the United State on the violence in Japane e politics, 1590-1877 impact of U .. polic on the economic development of Argentina, Brazil, and Chile between 1940 and 1950 David Fo ter, profe or of pani h, Arizona tate UniverKOREA it , for re earch in Argentina on ocial reali m in Argentine novel a a coherent vi ion of Argentine ocial The Joint Committee on Korean tudies-Chae-jin Lee hi tor between 1930 and 1950 (chair), Martina Deuchler, Michael C. Kalton, Han-kyo Ramon Arturo Gutierrez, a i tant profe or of hi tory, Univer ity of California, an Diego, for re earch in Kim, Hagen Koo, and Peter H . Lee-voted at it meeting Mexico and pain on the cultural hi tory of kin hip in on March 5-6, 19 3, to award grant to the following colonial ew Mexico, 1598-1 21 individual : Marla de la Luz Hurtado Merino, re earcher, Center of Cultural and Arti tic Expre ion and Re earch (CE ECA), Santiago, for re earch in Chile on the role of Wa ne K. Patter on, a i tant profe or of hi tor ,S1. orthe tate in the development of televi ion programming bert College, for re earch in Korea, Japan, and the Julieta Kirkwood Baiiado, profe or, Latin American United tate on Korean immigration to the United Facult of Social Science (FLAC 0), antiago, for retate in the earl 20th century earch in Chile on the relation hip between the femini t George Y. M. Won, profe or of ociology, Univer ity of movement and political mobilization in contemporary Hawaii, for re earch in Korea on tatu maintenance and Chile career orientation of Korean medical tudent Me a-Lago, profe or of economics, Univer ity of ung Chul Yang, a ociate profe or of political cience, Carmelo Pitt burgh, for re earch in the United tate on method Univer it of Kentuck , for research in Korea on politifor mea uring economic growth in revolutionary Cuba cal premi e and policy performance in the Democratic Liliana Mina a-Rowe, as i tant profe or of education, People' Republic of Korea and the Republic of Korea Univer it of Connecticut, for re earch in Peru on the development of Peruvian pani h a a national language Antonio Mitre Canahuati, adjunct profe or of political LATI .' MERICA AIIID TilE CARIBBEA cience, Federal Univer ity of Mina Gerai, Brazil, for re earch in Bolivia and the United tate on monetar The Joint Committee on Latin American tudiespolicie and regional Andean market zone , 1 30-1 70 Richard R. Fagen (chair), Jorge Balan, Charle W. lvia Molloy, profe or of pani h, Princeton Univer ity, Bergqui t, Martin Di kin, Bori Fau to, Enrique Flore for research on the textual anal i of Hi panic Americano, Manuel Antonio Garreton, Saul So now ki, Verena can autobiographie tolcke, and Ro emar Thorp-at it meeting on March Robert Pota h, profe sor of hi tory, Univer ity of Ma a24-26, 19 3 awarded grant to the following individual: chu ett, for re earch in Argentina, pain, and the United tate on the militar and politics in Argentina, 1962-1973 Richard E. Blanton, a ociate profe or of anthropology, Lui Alberto Romero, researcher, Program of Studie in American Economic and Social Hi tory (PEHE A), Purdue Universit , for research in Mexico on earl Bueno Aire, for re earch in Argentina on popular Zapotec architecture a a source of information on change in the social, political, and economic organizaculture project organized b anarchi t and sociali ts in the earl 20th centur tion of Zapotec ociet . 7





Beatriz Sarlo, re earcher, Center for Studie of State and Madeline C. Zilfi, a ociate profe or of hi tory, Univer ity of Maryland, for research in Turkey on ocioreligiou Society (CEDES), Bueno Aire, for research in Argenchange in the Ottoman Empire, 1600-1850, according tina on popular magazine fiction in the modernization of to thefttvas (legal pronouncement) of the &: hiili lam the Argentine literary cene, 1912-1922 (religiou dignitarie) Richard Schaedel, profe or of anthropology, Univer ityof Texa , for archeological re earch in Peru on cultural continuitie among indigenou north coa tal populations so TH A IA between 1 and 1480 A.D. Jeanette Evelyn Sherbondy, re earch a sociate, Indiana The Joint Committee on South A ia-Myron Weiner Univer ity, for re earch in the United State on Inca (chair), Pranab Kumar Bardhan, Richard M. Eaton, Barresource management of land and water right in the Cuzco (Peru) valley at the time of the Spanish conque t bara S. Miller, Ralph W. ichola, Harold S. Power ,John Brian Smith, a i tant profe or of political cience, Ma a- F. Richard, orman T. Uphoff, and Su an S. Wadley-at chu ett In titute of Technology, for re earch in Canada, it meeting on March 4-5, 1983 awarded grant to the Chile, Colombia, icaragua, We tern Europe, and the following individual: United State on private voluntary organization a tran national agents of development in Latin America u an Socolow, a i tant profe or of hi tory, Emory Univer ity, for re earch in Argentina, Spain, and the United John S. Deyell, Univer ity of Wi con in, for re earch in Banglade h on 13th-16th centur Bengali hi tor from tate on the ocial and demographic evolution of a monetary per ,pective Bueno Aire, 1744-1869 Mary Kay Vaughan, a ociate profe or of hi tory, Univer- Robert E. Frykenberg, profe or of hi tory and South A ian tudie, Univer ity of Wiscon in, for research in ity of Illinoi ,Chicago Circle, for re earch in Mexico on the United Kingdom on conflicting value and tructural public education a an agency of tate centralization, integration in South India 1920-1940 David Walker, research a ociate, Northwe tern Univer- Paul R. Greenough, a ociate profe or of hi tory, Univerity of Iowa, for re earch in the United Kingdom on ity, for research in on the transformation of e tate agsmallpox and vaccination in South A ia, 1700-1975 riculture in Northern Mexico during the porfiriato and Linda He ,vi iting a i tant profe or of religion, Barnard Mexican Revolution. College, for re earch on a 30 day performance of the Ramayana epic in India Arnold P. Kamin ky, a i tant profe or of hi tory, Univerity of Alabama in Birmingham, for re earch in the United Kingdom on propaganda and World War II Steven E. G. Kemper, a oclate profe or of anthropology, • EAR A D MIDDLE EA T Bate College, for re earch in Sri Lanka on an 18th century reformation of the Buddhi t monkhood The following po tdoctoral re earch grant were Muhammad Umar Memon, associate profe or of South awarded by the Joint Committee on the ear and Middle A ian tudie, Univer ity of Wi con 10, for re earch on Ea t-Peter von Sivers (chair), Leonard Binder, Eric Davi , narrative technique in the fictional work of Enver Sajjad Abdellah Hammoudi, Michael C. Hudson, Robert J. David Rubin, tenured faculty in literature, arah Lawrence College, for re earch on the parallel evolution ince 1947 Lapham, Afaf Lutfi ai-Say id Mar ot, Alan R. Richard , of Engli h and I ndian fiction and John Waterbur -at it meeting on Februar 2!>-26, Lucy C. Stout, a ociate, Centre for South Asian tudie, 19 3. Univer ity of Cambridge, for research on Mu lim famil law in South A ia Richard P. Tucker, profe or of hi tory, Oakland UniverFeroz Ahmad, profe or of hi tor, University of Ma aity, for re earch in the United tate and the United chu etts, for re earch in Turke on tate and ociet in Kingdom on fore t eco- tern in Upper Burma and Sri republican Turkey, 1923-1950 Lanka during Briti h coloniali m Philip S. Khoury, a i tant profe or of history, Ma achu- Joanne Punzo Waghorne, as i tant profe sor of the tud setts In titute of Technology, for re earch in France and of religion, Univer ity of Ma achu ett , Bo ton, for reyria on the root of radical nationali m: Syria and the earch on acral king hip and the ca e of Pudukkottai, French Mandate, 1920-1946 16 6-1948 Con uelo LOpez-Morilla , a ociate profe or of pani h and Portugue e, Indiana Univer ity, for re earch in Egypt and the United tate on Romance kharjas in mod- so THEA TAlA ern Arabic critici m The Joint Committee on Southea t A ia-Jame C. Scott Ian S. Lu tick, a ociate profe or of government, Dartmouth College, for re earch in England, France, (chair), Alton Becker, David O. Dapice, Charle F. Keye , and I rael on a comparative tudy of the Pale tinian Lim Teck Ghee, Mary R. Holln teiner, David Marr, and problem in I raeli politics, the Iri h problem in Briti h Ruth T. McVey-at it meeting on March 31-April 2, 1983 politic , and the Algerian problem in French politic Ju tin A. McCarthy, a i tant profe or of history, Univer- awarded grant to the following individual : ity of Loui ville, for research in the United State on the population of the Middle Ea t, 1800-1939 M. azif M. Shahrani, a i tant profe or of anthropology, Kyaw Aye, visiting cholar of history, Payab College, Chiang Mai, for research on cu tomary law in Burma Pitzer College, for re earch in Turkey on traditional and Thailand local leader ,hip and modern political conflicts SEPTEMBER 1983


Jennifer W. Cu hman, re earch officer, Far Ea tern hi Univer ity of Wi con in, for re earch on major yntactic tory, Re earch School of Pacific tudie, The Au tralian change in the development of modern Indone ian from ational Univer ity, for re earch on the rise and conthe Malay of the late 19th century solidation of a Chine e bureaucratidcapitali t family in Waller M. Spink, profe or of Indian art, Univer it of the econom and politics of outhern Thailand, 1820Michigan, for re earch in Indone ia on Indone ia's link 1920 with Indian art in the 5th and 6th centurie A. David apier, vi iting a i tant profe or of art, Jayne S. Werner, re earch a ociate, Southern A ian InMiddlebury College, for re earch in Indone ia toward a titute, Columbia Univer ity, for re earch in Vietnam on comparative tudy of Balinese dance rna k iconography women' mobilization at the viJIage level during early Ellen Rafferty, a i tant profe or of South A ian tudie, agrarian collectivization, 1958-1965




.Y. 1015

IIICOT/JOrattd ill tlu tale of 1I1i1l0is, DeCtm~ 27, 1924, for tlu purpo~ of advallcillg u~aTch ill the ocial cimet

D'TtCtO~, 19 3- 4: TEPIIES E. FIE.'8ERG, Carnegie--Mellon niversit ; HOWARD GARDNER, Veteran dmini tration Medical Center (Bo ton); CII RLE.~ O . JO"lES, ni\er ity of Virginia; R08ERT W. KAT ,Clark niver it ; R08ERT A. LEVINE, Harvard niversity; GARD. ER LI . DZE\, Center for dvanced tud in the Behavioral Science ; ELEANOR E. MACC08Y, tanford niver ity; fAR NERLOVE, niver ity of Penn ylvania; H GH T . PATRICK, Yale niver it ; KENNETH PREWI IT, Social Science Research Council; MURRAY L. ScIlWARTZ, niversity of California, Lo Angele ; DoNNA E. HALALA, Hunter College, Cit niver ity of . ew York; TEPHEN M. TIGLER, niver ity of Chicago; Lo lEA. TILLY, University of fichigan; IDNEY VER8A, Harvard niver ity; hI IAMEL WALLERSTEIN, tate niver it of ew York, Binghamton; WILLIAM J L1U WILSO. , niver ity of Chicago.


Social Science Research Council 605 Third Avenue New York, N.Y. 10158







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