SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH COUNCIL
VOLUME 33 â&#x20AC;˘
NUMBER 2 â&#x20AC;˘ JUNE 1979
605 THIRD AVENUE. NEW YORK, N.Y. 10016
New Opportunities for Research in China by Anne F. Thurston* 1950 to the signing of the Shanghai communique in 1972 to the normalization of diplomatic relations on January 1, 1979, opportunities for scholarly exchanges between the United States and China have been tied to prevailing political trends. In the 22 years of official enmity that followed the outbreak of the Korean War in 1950, contacts between American scholars and their counterparts in China were virtually nonexistent. A few Western visitors regarded as "friends of the Chinese people" provided occasional first-hand reports on society an? politics under the new socialist system. Most AmerI- Kenneth Prewitt, President, Social Science Research ~oun~iI, and can academics, however, learned about contemporary Huan Xiang, Vice President, Chinese Academy of the SOCIal SCIences China through the medium of the Chinese press and Limited in duration and sometimes frustrating befrom interviews with emigres in Hong Kong. Until cause of their superficiality, most of these exchanges the Cultural Revolution in 1966, foreign scholars in a focused on the natural sciences, medicine, and enlimited number of fields could continue to learn gineering. While none of the delegations from. Chin.a about the research of their Chinese counterparts by to the United States was focused on the SOCIal SCIreading the few academic journals published after ences, American delegations composed of experts in 1949. But with the outbreak of the Cultural Revoluearly childhood development, paleoanthropology, tion, most of those journals ceased publication, and rural small-scale industries, language and linguistics, the fate of many scholars in China was conveyed and Han studies permitted a few social scientists and through the attacks against them in the Chinese press. humanists to visit and meet with their counterparts in The advent of Ping Pong diplomacy in 1971 and China. The facilitated exchanges also provided the the agreement between the United States and China opportunity for China scholars to visit the People's in 1972 to develop mutually beneficial "people-toRepublic, usually as the "China expert" accompanypeople" contacts saw the beginning of a series of liming a scientific delegation organized by the CSCPRC ited scholarly exchanges. Under the auspices of the or a cultural or sports delegation organized by the Committee on Scholarly Communication with the National Committee on U.S.-China Relations. People's Republic of China (CSCPRC),l a number of Under the terms of a memorandum of agreement "facilitated" d elegations traveled from China to the worked out between China and the United States two United States and from the United States to China. months before the announcement in December 1978 of full diplomatic recognition, scholarly exchanges Special section on are increasing in number, scope, and substance. Under the terms of this agreement, 500 to 700 CHINA FROM THE OUTBREAK OF THE KOREAN WAR IN
Contents of this issue-6ee page 14
* The author, a political scientist, serves at the Council as staff of the Joint Committee on Contemporary China. 13
Chinese could begin advanced study in the United States this year, and some 60 American graduate students and more advanced scholars will begin language training and research in China under the national program administered by the CSCPRC. Other exchanges have been or are being worked out through private or university-to-university arrangements. This new phase of scholarly exchanges, still in a formative stage, contains a substantial component for the social sciences and humanities, and many of the American scholars going to China for training and research are social scientists and humanists. While the majority of Chinese coming for study and research in the United States will, in the foreseeable future, be drawn from either the natural or the physical sciences, social scientists in the United States with an interest in scholarly contacts with China have been heartened by the recent visit of a high-ranking and prestigious delegation from the Chinese Academy of the Social Sciences (CASS) which toured this country from April 16 to May -16. The delegation was headed by Huan Xiang, vice president of CASSo Huan was once secretary to the late Premier Zhou Enlai, and is a former ambassador to Belgium, to Luxembourg, and to the European Economic Community. Through a variety of discussions and interchanges with Ambassador Huan and other members of the ten-man delegation, the American academic community has been
CONTENTS OF THIS ISSUE 13 15 18-19 21 23
36 37 39 40 48
New Opportunities for Resean.h in China-Ann" F. Thurston Delegation of the Chinese Academy of the Social Sciences. April- May 1979 Chinese and American scholars meet at the Council. April 25. 1979 The United States-China Exchange Program ConferenLes and Workshops Sponsored or CoSponsored by the Joint Committee on Contemporary China, 1978-79 Social Science Reports on China: A Sampling from Earlier Items -Dwight H . Perkins on the economy -Robert F. Dernberger on economic development -Margery Wolf on women -Baruch Boxer on environmental management -Herbert A. Simon on computer technology -William Kessen on children -Charles A. Ferguson on language Books on China : A Selection of 21 Council Publications of the 1970s Recent Council Publications Staff Appointments Fellowships and Grants Council's Board Honors Eleanor Bernert Sheldon
provided with an authoritative and up-to-date account of the goals and priorities of the social science establishment in China. (For a list of the delegation members, see box on page 15.)
The social sciences in China Neither the social sciences and humanities nor individual scholars in these fields fared well in the decade between the outbreak of the Cultural Revolution in 1966 and the establishment of the CASS in 1977. Scholarly research came to a standstill. Universities, closed for several years, reopened with course content diluted, student quality downgraded, and student numbers diminished. Libraries were ransacked during the height of the turmoil; card catalogues were frequently destroyed; and new acquisitions were reduced to a trickle. Scholars themselves came under sustained attack. Public humiliation was followed for many by a prolonged stint of physical labor in rural areas. Others, including several members of the delegation from CASS, suffered several years of imprisonment. The political rehabilitations that have accompanied the rising power of Vice Premier Deng Xiaoping and his like-minded colleagues have been extended to scholars as well. The goal of modernizing China's industry, agriculture, science and technology, and military defense-the policy known in China as the "four modernizations"-demands not only a welltrained and sophisticated scientific establishment but a cadre of equally productive social science researchers and policy advisers as well. A necessary stimulus to the process of modernization broadly conceived is an academic milieu of open debate and free exchange-an atmosphere, to use the Chinese phrase, in which a hundred flowers are encouraged to bloom.
The Chinese Academy of the Social Sciences Until 1977, national-level social science programs in China were administered through the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and hence were largely subordinate to the direction of the natural scientific establishment. The formation of a separate Academy and the government's current need for policy advice gives China's social scientists both greater prestige and greater independence than at any time since the establishment of the People's Republic in 1949. Encompassing the social sciences, humanities, and philosophy, the Academy is headed by Hu Qiaomu, former deputy director of the Chinese Communist party's VOLUME
Delegation of the Chinese Academy of the Social Sciences April-May 1979 Chairman : HUAN XIANG
Vice President, Chinese Academy of the Social Sciences.
Members: SONG YIPING
Secretary General, Chinese Academy of the Social Sciences.
Professor, Central Nationalities Institute and Deputy Director, Institute of Nationalities of the Chinese Academy of the Social Sciences. Former Professor, Foreign Languages Department, Qinghua University and Researcher of the Institute of Literature, Chinese Academy of the Social Sciences.
Professor of Law, Peking University and Deputy Director of the Institute of Law, Chinese Academy of the Social Sciences.
Former Associate Professor of the Chemical Engineering Department of Jiaotong University and Deputy Director of the Institute of Industrial Economics of the Chinese Academy of the Social Sciences.
propaganda department, author of the official history of the first 30 years of the Chinese Communist party, and long-time associate of Vice Premier Deng Xiaoping. 2 Under the Academy's aegis are many of China's outstanding social scientists and humanists, several of whom accompanied the recent delegation to the United States: Fei Xiaotong, China's leading anthropologist, author of Life of the Chinese Peasants and numerous other studies of rural China, and vicarious mentor to all American social anthropologists who study China, is deputy director of the Academy's Institute of National Minorities and head of China's newly-established Society of Sociology. Oxfordeducated Qian Zhongshu, a distinguished scholar of ancient Chinese literature and a novelist who is also well-versed in the Western tradition, is a senior researcher at the Institute of Literature. Rui Mo, professor of law at Peking University and once a visiting scholar at Columbia University, is the deputy director of the Institute of Law. Zhao Fusan, a theologian who is also an Episcopal priest, is deputy director of the Institute of World Religion, which has as one of its JUNE 1979
Researcher and Deputy Director of the Institute of Modern History of the Chinese Academy of the Social Sciences.
Deputy Director of the Institute of Religion, Chinese Academy of the Social Sciences.
Deputy Director of the Institute of Information, Chinese Academy of the Social Sciences (Secretary of the delegation).
Associate Researcher of the Institute of Linguistics of the Chinese Academy of the Social Sciences (Translator of the delegation) .
Calligraphy: Lorel Joslyn-Mukherjee
tasks the translation of the Bible into modern spoken Chinese. Altogether, the Academy has 20 separate institutes, ranging from several in the field of economics and finance to institutes of information, world religion, archeology, history, literature, philosophy, and journalism. A new institute of world politics is being formed and a sociology institute is under active consideration.
The Academy's priorities Under Hu Qiaomu's direction, and with the support of party chairman and Premier Hua Guofeng and Vice Premier Deng Xiaoping, the Academy is currently drawing up long-term plans, paralleling those for the "four modernizations," for the development of the social sciences by 1985, by which time the Chinese optimistically hope that the pool of social science researchers will have grown from its current 20,000 to some 200,000. By the turn of the century, when the goal of transforming China into a modern industrial state is projected for completion, the Chinese hope that the social sciences will also meet international standards. 15
In the next two years, the Chines~ will set up the organizational framework through which the development of the social sciences will proceed. A recent preparatory meeting for a nationwide conference on the social sciences and humanities outlined several aspects of this long-term plan. The first task of the Academy will be the study of theoretical and practical questions relating to the "four modernizations." But the Academy is also charged with sponsoring the preparation of major studies of Chinese history, philosophy, and literature; with the compilation of a series of reference books in the social sciences; with supervising the processing, translation, and exchange of social science materials; and with insuring the establishment of a nationwide network of social science institutes that can facilitate the implementation of these plans. Huan Xiang, at several points during the recent visit, outlined the priorities of the Chinese Academy of the Social Sciences in some detail. The priorities are largely utilitarian, and governed by the demands of China's developmental goals. Enterprise management. First priority is being given to the study of economics, and in particular to what the Chinese refer to as "enterprise management" and to development economics. Not only do the Chinese have to find ways to decentralize control over stateowned factories, thereby facilitating greater flexibility and innovation in industrial development, but the government is also searching for new ways of organizing and administering the factories. The organization and management practices of Japan and Yugoslavia are being given closest scrutiny by China's policy advisers, but the success of American management techniques is hardly being overlooked. This country's leading business schools are the objects of considerable Chinese interest. Similarly, the economic experts within the Academy are charged with the broader task of learning from the experience of the developed nations, of finding lessons in the growth of the industrialized world that might be adapted to the Chinese case. The links between the economic institutes of the Academy and the various national-level ministries charged with implementing the country's modernization goals are expected to be close, and to a large extent the success of the new Academy will be judged inside China by the quality and success of its policyrelevant research and advice. World politics. Second in importance to the study of economics is the study of world politics. In contrast to recent statements by Chinese authorities that war with the Soviet Union is inevitable, and in even sharper contrast to the recent "punishment" of Vietnam by 16
China, the current view from Peking holds that the success of China's development program depends upon an international environment of peace and cooperation. But if war with the Soviet Union is to be avoided, China's neighbor to the north is regarded as no less an enemy which must, through study and research, be known. Soviet studies and questions of international security are thus the first priority in China's research on world politics. But the new Institute of World Politics will also devote itself to the study of Japan, the United States, Western Europe, and the developing nations as well. The days of autarky and isolation from the outside world are gone, and in order to enter the world scene as a major actor and to conduct diplomacy, business, and trade, the Chinese intend to lay a solid foundation for research on the domestic politics and international relations of a wide variety of countries. Law. A third priority within the Academy is to foster research on law-again for reasons that are directly related to China's development plans. Not only are the Chinese currently engaged in a major effort at reform and codification of their own legal system, but China's increasingly complex relations with countries beyond its borders necessitate a body of experts in international law. Rui Mo, who accompanied the Academy delegation, has been given the task of organizing studies of comparative law. Sociology. Finally, the new academy will focus on building sociology-on sociological studies of Chinese society. Sociology is the most recent category added to the list of priorities, and the rationale for its inclusion has been less well articulated. Presumably the Chinese are interested both in gathering the demographic data that can be used in economic planning and in understanding the effects on society of its ambitious plans for modernization. Fei Xiaotong can be expected to play a major role in fostering sociological studies.
Policy-oriented research The Chinese are not disinterested in basic social science research or in social science theory. The Chinese delegation which visited the United States was sensitive to the distinction between basic and applied research and reported that some of the Academy's resources will be committed to basic social inquiry. But the bulk of the Academy's efforts will be in linking the social sciences to concrete policy issues. In informal meetings with their Chinese colleagues, many American social scientists argued that basic social science and policy-oriented research are not only part of a continuum but that carefully calculated polVOLUME
icy must necessarily be based on a solid foundation of social science research. As the Chinese continue to assess the appropriate role of the social science community in a modernizing China, the relationship between basic and applied research can be expected to come under careful scrutiny. Despite a greater emphasis on the utilitarian side of the social sciences than is often found in American academic institutions, there is much that American universities and national institutions like the Social Science Research Council can do to cooperate with Chinese social scientists. The Chinese must develop institutions appropriate to their tasks and will want, as with other aspects of their broader development program, to study examples of successful institution building in the social sciences. The curriculum of most American universities is probably less policyoriented than the Chinese might want, but some Chinese students will no doubt begin work in social science programs. In the short run, however, the constraints of finance and admission requirements medi-
ate against large enrollments of Chinese scholars in America's graduate programs. Most potential students have neither the langllage training nor the educational background necessary for admission, ,and the Chinese may initially choose a less expensive, more direct course of action. The Council, for instance, is currently exploring the possibility of sponsoring a series of training workshops and seminars on a variety of topics of interest to the Chinese.
Reciprocity The issue of reciprocity has loomed large in negotiations over scholarly exchanges at the national level. Not only has there been an imbalance in the numbers of scholars the Chinese want to send to the United States compared to the number of Americans going to China, but there has also been an imbalance of interests. The overwhelming majority of Chinese scholars sent to the United States have been natural scientists. Most Americans interested in studying and doing research in China are social scientists and
Delegation from the Chinese Academy of the Social Sciences From left to right: Zhao Fusan. Fei Xiaotong. Sun Fang. Rul Mo. Huan Xiang. Song Yiplng. and Oian Zhongshu,
Chinese and American Scholars
Top left: David Wang, University of Maryland, interpreter; Song Yiping; James Liu, Princeton University
Bottom left: Fei Xiaotong; Qian Zhongshu; Merle Goldman, Boston University
Bottom right: Burton Pasternak, City University of New York; Fei Xiaotong; Gilbert Rozman, Princeton University
Meet at the Council, April 25, 1979
Photos: Greig Cranna
Above: Sun Fang; Paul A. Cohen, Wellesley College
humanists, and of these, most are in the field of China studies. Hence, the issue of reciprocity has revolved largely around the acceptance by China of a greater number of social scientists and humanists in return for even larger numbers of Chinese scholars in the natural sciences. The issue has been a difficult one. Not only are the Chinese currently preoccupied with their own domestic policies, but they are as yet not prepared to receive large numbers of Western students and scholars. Libraries remain ill-equipped and poorly catalogued, with many of their more attractive holdings in storage or otherwise inaccessible. University curricula are still being revised, and dormitory facilities are both in short supply and far from commodious.
Field research Anthropological research in China came to a halt shortly after liberation and has yet to be revived. The only "outsiders" who ordinarily spend long periods of time in Chinese villages are political cadres, whose knowledge of peasant sentiment is considered important in determining rural policies, and students, now numbering some 18 million, who were sent to the countryside in the aftermath of the Cultural Revolution. Proposals from American anthropologists and other field researchers intent upon analyzing the changes in China's social structure have been difficult for Peking to accept. Indeed, negotiations on behalf of American field researchers selected in the first round of national exchanges have proven extremely complex. But the principle of field research has been accepted by the Chinese, both in informal arrangements with individual American scholars and under the national programs administered by the CSCPRC. A number of scholars with close personal ties to China, including Victor Nee of the University of California, Santa Barbara, Silas Wu of Boston College, and Norma Diamond of the University of Michigan, have been permitted to do field research in the years since 1972. Last summer, Edward Friedman of the University of Wisconsin, Kay Johnson of Hampshire College, Paul Pickowicz of the University of California, San Diego,. and Mark Selden of Washington University in St. Louis, spent a month conducting survey research in a northern Chinese village. This summer, three more social scientists will begin research in China under the auspices of the Committee on Scholarly Communication. Deborah DavisFriedman of Yale will spend several months studying welfare policies toward the elderly and Jack and Sulamith Potter of the University of California, 20
Berkeley, will conduct an anthropological study of a village in Guangdong province. The Joint Committee on Contemporary China and its Subcommittee on Research on the Chinese Economy are also sponsoring the short-term field research of three social scientists. Norma Diamond will do a re-study of a Shandong village; Victor Nee is planning a month of field work in Fujian province; and Dennis Chinn of Stanford University will spend a month surveying several Chinese communes.
The universalization of the social sciences Reciprocity will remain an issue in future negotiations, both to insure implementation of the principle of "mutual benefit" first articulated in the 1972 Shanghai communique and to promote what might be called the universalization of the social sciences. Mutual benefit and the principle of reciprocity must take account of differences between the goals of "scholarly collaboration" and "transfer of knowledge." Scholarly collaboration stresses exchange programs in areas where the Chinese have strong and developed research traditions. Many American scholars would give emphasis to exchanges in literature, history, village studies, and, in the near future, contemporary politics. Transfer of knowledge, in contrast, stresses programs that will help build the social sciences in China. The CASS delegation gave priority in exchange programs to those research areas where they are weakest: development economics, adminstration and management, international security, law. Different formats will have to be worked out for both scholarly collaboration and the transfer of knowledge to proceed simultaneously. The Council anticipates playing a role in both types of programs, but it has stated that the principle of reciprocity will not be served if exchange programs are exclusively tailored to knowledge transfer. This point was well received by members of the CASS delegation in the concluding talks with members of the Committee on Scholarly Communication. Participating in these talks were Kenneth Prewitt; Frederic E. Wakeman, University of California, Berkeley; and Mary Brown Bullock, staff director of CSCPRC. But reciprocity is more than building the social sciences in China and furthering collaboration between China scholars in the United States and China. As Kenneth Prewitt noted in toasting Huan Xiang and the delegation at a CSCPRC dinner honoring the Chinese, and subsequently elaborated in an editorial scheduled for publication in Science (June 22, 1979), "China contains a quarter of the world's population. Isolation from the history and contemporary develVOLUME
The United States-China Exchange Program As the result of an agreement worked out in October 1978 between Chou Pei-yuan, acting chairman of the Science and Technology Association of the People's Republic of China, and a U .S. delegation headed by Richard C. Atkinson, director of the National Science Foundation, China and the United States have begun an exchange of students and scholars. Under the terms of the agreement, China can send 500 to 700 students and scholars to the United States in the academic year 1978-79. In exchange, the United States will send some 60 students and researchers to China through the national program in 1979. The national program is administered by the Committee on Scholarly Communication with the People's Republic of China (CSCPRC), which is jointly sponsored by the Social Science Research Council, the American Council of Learned Societies, and the National Academy of Sciences. The program has two components. The advanced training program for graduate students or recent recipients of advanced degrees includes language instruction at the Peking Language Institute, followed by study at Chinese universities or research institutes. The research program, open to natural scientists, social scientists, and humanists, provides for three months to a year of research in China. In addition, the Committee on Scholarly Communication with the People's Republic of China will provide grants for up to 15 senior
scholars for research projects in China as part of its ongoing reciprocal program with China's Scientific and Technical Association. The senior scholar research program is designed for distinguished scholars in the natural sciences, the social sciences, and the humanities. To implement the advanced training and research programs, the CSCPRC has designated an 11member Committee on Advanced Study in China, chaired by Frederic E. Wakeman, University of California, Berkeley, to review applications and to devise policies and procedures for their implementation. The Joint Committee on Contemporary China has been designated as the screening committee for social science and humanities research for the study of China since 1911. The Committee on Studies of Chinese Civilization of the American Council of Learned Societies has been designated the screening committee for research proposals on the study of pre-1911 China. Both committees provide recommendations on research applications to be considered by the Committee on Advanced Study in China for its final selection of grantees. Scholars wishing information about grants for research and study in China in future years should write to the Committee on Scholarly Communication with the People's Republic of China, National Academy of Sciences, 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418.
opment of this rich, diversified civilization cripples the social sciences." The experiences of China will be incorporated by social scientists as they study the varieties of human behavior and social conditions. Reciprocity is thus important not just as part of an exchange program; in the long run it is critical to the vitality of social scientific inquiry. The Council looks forward to the time when Chinese scholars will participate as active members of its research planning committees, as it now welcomes scholars from Africa, Europe, Latin America, and other countries in Asia. The various goals of reciprocity have been kept firmly in mind by the Joint Committee on Contemporary China as it begins to explore scholarly collaboration and exchange with Chinese colleagues.
evolved-in the United States, Hong Kong, and Taiwan-to service social scientists and humanists engaged in the study of China. This network has provided scholars with primary source materials of unquestionable quality. The China field itself has undergone considerable change in recent years. Until the late 1950s and early 1960s, the primary focus of the field was on the creation of "sinologists"individuals trained in all aspects of Chinese civilization, but particularly in history, language, and the arts. With funds provided under the National Defense Education Act of 1958, and with the substantial support from the Ford Foundation that began in 1959, the field entered a transitional period, a decade of development. The shift away from sinology. To a large extent, the directions of this decade of development were charted by the Joint Committee on Contemporary China, first appointed in 1959 at the same time new resources were being committed to the field. s The main focus of the joint committee's program has been away from sinology and toward the ultimate univer-
The Joint Committee on Contemporary China In the absence of opportunities to carry out research in China itself, a complex, loosely interlocking, but very effective network of research centers, libraries, language-training centers, and interview sites has JUNE
salization of the social sciences. In encouraging the integration of China studies into the mainstream of social science theory and methodology, the joint committee has endeavored to insure that China would no longer be treated as a special case but as a comparative example from which generalizable hypotheses can be constructed. The presumption of the committee has been that the inclusion of data from China will ultimately result in the modification and clarification of prevailing social science theories. The program of the joint committee. The accomplishments of the joint committee are indicated by the success of its conferences and publications on Chinese history, politics, econ.omics, society, and culture, and by the contributions to the field of those scholars it has supported through its predoctoral dissertation fellowships and its postdoctoral grants. Many of the committee's conference volumes are basic works in the field, required reading for graduate students of China and standard texts in even the most modest library of publications on China. Through the appointment of subcommittees focusing on the development of China studies within particular disciplines, the committee has encouraged the growth of discipline-specific research on China. The Subcommittee on Chinese Government and Politics and the Subcommittee on Research on the Chinese Economy are two examples. (See the box on page 23 for a list of recent joint committee conferences and workshops.) The participation of non-China scholars. But the tasks of the committee remain unfinished. The study of China now has a place in the social sciences, but many scholars would argue that it has yet to enter the disciplinary mainstreams. Genuinely multidisciplinary endeavors, which the Council is designed to promote, have only recently begun. To facilitate the inclusion of China into the mainstreams of the social science disciplines, the committee has encouraged and will continue to encourage the participation of non-China scholars--outstanding scholars in their respective disciplines-at its conferences and workshops: as critics, contributors, and teachers. Efforts to encourage multidisciplinary research are also expanding. In January 1979, the committee sponsored a workshop, organized by Richard Baum of the University of California, Los Angeles, which brought economists, political scientists, and sociologists together with scientists, engineers, and representatives of major businesses engaged in trade with China to discuss the development of science and technology in the PRC. This summer, the committee will support a workshop at the University of California, Berkeley, to train anthropologists, historians, and sociologists of China, 22
Japan, and Korea in the techniques and methods of historical demography. The committee has invited Chinese representation at this workshop. With expanded scholarly exchanges, the joint committee is being presented with new opportunities to fulfill its tasks, and many of the factors that have been cited as impediments to the absorption of China into the social sciences are changing. Interest in the study of China is expanding beyond the narrow realm of China specialists to include many leading nonChina scholars as well. Hopes for genuinely multidisciplinary research are being fueled by a sustained interest in China on the part of scholars from the natural sciences, social sciences, and the humanities who have visited the country in a variety of capacities. And many of the questions scholars are currently asking about China require multidisciplinary efforts to answer. The previously mentioned workshop on science and technology is one such example; efforts to understand the transformation of rural China, the development of industry, and urban planning are others. Collaboration with Chinese scholars. It is China's own efforts to develop and to "modernize" its social sciences and the exchange relationship that is evolving from these efforts that provide the greatest hope for the long-term advancement of the China field and for consequent progress toward the internationalization of the social sciences. Last October, when China and the United States agreed on the principle of scholarly exchanges, the joint com mittee designated seven of its members as a Subcommittee on Field Research, chaired by Burton Pasternak. While the mandate of the subcommittee is both broad and flexible, the primary focus of its efforts has been on finding means to promote the development of China studies and the social sciences through the changing academic relationship with the People's Republic of China. In preparation for its first meeting, held on December 15-16~ 1978, members of the subcommittee solicited the views of nearly 200 of the most active modern historians and social scientists of China on a series of questions related to field research. Over 100 responded, and while suggestions as to which types of research might most fruitfully be undertaken in China were highly diverse, there was widespread, nearly unanimous agreement across disciplines, generations, and institutions on two primary points. First, if social scientists and humanists can in fact begin to do research in China, the implications for the field will unquestionably be positive. Second, American scholars are by and large not well prepared to take advantage of potential research opportunities. VOLUME
Conferences and Workshops Sponsored or Cosponsored by the Joint Committee on Contemporary China 1978-79 Regionalism and Economic Development in China and India • Chaired by Robert M. Hartwell, University of Pennsylvania • Sponsored by the Subcommittee on Research on the Chinese Economy • Held in January 1978 in Philadelphia Historical Demography and Family History in East Asia • Chaired by Susan B. Hanley, University of Washington, and Arthur P. Wolf, Stanford University • Cosponsored by the Joint Committee on Japanese Studies and the American Council of Learned Societies' Committee on Studies of Chinese Civilization • Held in August 1978 in Oxford. England Chinese Communist Rural Bases, 1922 to 1949 • Chaired by Roy M. Hofheinz, Jr .• Harvard University; Kathleen Hartford, Amherst College; and Steven M. Goldstein. Smith College • Supported by funds from the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation • HelcJ..in August 1978 in Cambridge, Massachusetts
East Asian Economic Development • Chaired by Ramon H. Myers, The Hoover Institution • Sponsored by the Subcommittee on Research on the Chinese Economy • Held in January 1979 in Stanford, California Rural-Urban Relations in Early Modem China • Chaired by Susan Mann Jones, University of Chicago • To be held in August 1'979 on Mackinac Island, Michigan Contemporary Chinese Literature and the Performing Arts • Chaired by Bonnie S. McDougall. Harvard University • Supported by funds from the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation • To be held in June 1979 in Cambridge, Massachusetts Training Workshop on Historical Demography • Taught by Nancy Howell, University of Toronto • Supported in part by funds from the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation • To be held in August 1979 in Berkeley, California
Chinese Law and the Economy • Chaired by Victor H. Li, Stanford University, and Jerome A. Cohen, Harvard University • Held in August 1978 in Cambridge, Massachusetts Industrial Science and Technology in the PRC • Chaired by Richard Baum, University of California, Los Angeles • Funded in part by the Henry Luce Foundation and the Committee on Scholarly Communication with the People's Republic of China • Held in January 1979 on Bermuda
In the 30 years since Americans have studied in China, several new generations of China scholars have received their training and undertaken research in the United States, Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Japan with little knowledge of research facilities in China. Scholars whose primary research sources are documents have only limited knowledge of China's archival holdings. Many do not know where materials of interest are currently housed, which scholars in China are now actively engaged in research, or what kind of access Americans are likely to be granted. Scholars whose primary sources are in the "field" know little about the nature of information contained in local JUNE
Unless indicated otherwise, the conferences and workshops oj the Joint Committee on Contemporary China are supported by grants made to the Council by the Ford Foundation.
records, which documents might be made available, or how able the Chinese will be to accommodate the various types of social science field research done in the West. Given the very strong interest in the possibilities for research in China and the lack of knowledge about how to proceed, the subcommittee concluded that the greatest service the joint committee can perform at this juncture is a thorough investigation of research possibilities in China and the rapid and widespread dissemination of its findings. To this end, the Joint Committee on Contemporary China wiil sponsor several new initiatives. 23
A delegation of scholars to China In order to provide American scholars with the information necessary to begin on-going contacts and collaborative projects with counterparts in China, the joint committee and the Committee on Studies of Chinese Civilization of the American Council of Learned Societies plan to send a delegation of schol. ars to visit the Chinese Academy of the Social Sciences, the Ministry of Education, and other relevant institutes, universities, and libraries. The purpose of the visit will be largely informational-to find out about the present state and future plans of China's social scientists so that scholars in this country can ' begin communication and contact with Chinese institutes and scholars. Not only should the information gathered prove useful to Americans seeking greater collaboration with Chinese counterparts, the visit should also be of use to the Committee on Scholarly Communication when it negotiates future scholarly exchanges.
Survey of libraries and archives Following these initial explorations, the joint committee, again in cooperation with the Committee on Studies of Chinese Civilization, will designate a small delegation of four or five outstanding bibliographers, librarians, and researchers to survey library and archival facilities in China. The primary purpose of the archival delegation will be to cooperate with the Ministry of Education to locate resources of interest to foreign scholars and to determine their accessibility. Since maximal use of China's archival resources-by Chinese and foreign scholars alikewill depend upon both reorganization of library facilities and the training of skilled library personnel, the delegation should also be designed to promote future cooperation in the long-term Chinese effort to upgrade its library programs.
A national information clearinghouse Finally, the joint committee proposes to work with other national committees to seek funding for a national information clearinghouse. It will have two primary purposes: to identify Chinese scholars active in the social sciences and humanities, and the types of research they are doing, and to continue the process of identifying resources and their accessibility. Many ' American China scholars trained since the 1950s do
not know who their counterparts in China are. The success of scholarly exchanges between the two countries, collaborative efforts between Chinese and American researchers, and Chinese participation in conferences in the United States will depend to a large extent on a concerted effort to identify Chinese counterparts and to begin communications with them. Moreover, the two delegations will be able only to scratch the surface of research possibilities and a continuing effort must be made to keep the American China community informed of changing opportunities. A primary function of the information clearinghouse will be to provide the field with up-to-date information on the expanding opportunities for scholarly exchange. Both scholarly collaboration and the transfer of knowledge demand new and innovative mechanisms, and discussions of the variety of ways the exchange relationship may develop are already under way. For China, the anticipated long-term outcome of the exchange relationship is the upgrading of its social science research to international standards. For China scholars and social scientists interested in China, the goal is the full incorporation of the Chinese experience into social science theory. The process will be long and undoubtedly sometimes difficult, and the Chinese have frequently warned their sometimes impatient American counterparts to move slowly, to think in terms of the long-term relationship rather than trying to accomplish everything at once. The long-term success of the exchange relationship depends ultimately on a continuation of the general policies articulated by Premier and party chairman Hua Guofeng and Vice Premier Deng Xiaoping-i.e., on the political stability of the Chinese government. American scholars must not lose sight of the wide swings in Chinese politics over the past 30 years, of the possibility that current priorities in China could change both rapidly and dramatically. The benefits of the new relationship to either the Chinese or the Americans have yet to be demonstrated. For this reason, the complex network of research centers, libraries, language-training centers, and interview sites that evolved in a period when contact with China was minimal must be maintained. But the new relationship is one that holds great promise. With a continuation of the present policies of the Chinese government and considerable goodwill and patience on the part of Americans, the long-term goals of both Chinese and Western scholars will be fulfilled. 0
1 The committee is sponsored jointly by the American Council of Learned Societies, the National Academy of Sciences, and the Social Science Research Council. The current members are Lewis M. Branscomb, IBM Corporation (Armonk, New York), chairman; Frederic E. Wakeman, University of California, Berkeley, vice-chairman; John Baldeschwieler, California Institute of Technology; James Ebert, Carnegie Institution of Washington; Gordon Guyer, Michigan State University; Roy M. Hofheinz, Jr., Harvard University; John D. Jamieson, University of California, Berkeley; Carl Kisslinger, University of Colorado; Donald J. Munro, University of Michigan; Dwight H. Perkins, Harvard University; Walter R. Rosenblith, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; William D. Terry, National Institutes of Health; ex officio, N. Bruce Hannay, Bell Laboratories (Murray Hill, New Jersey); Robert M. Lumiansky, American Council of Learned Societies; Thomas F. Malone, Butler University; Walsh McDermott, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (Princeton, New Jersey); Kenneth Prewitt, Social Science Research Council; staff director, Mary Brown Bullock, National Academy of Sciences.
2 For more detailed information about the Academy, see Alexander DeAngelis, "Establishment of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences," China Exchange Newsletter, 6(3 & 4), June/August 1978, pages 9-14. The Newsletter is published by the Committee on Scholarly Communication with the People's Republic of China, National Academy of Sciences, 2101 Constitution Avenue, Washington, D.C. 20418. 3 The Joint Committee on Contemporary China is cosponsored with the American Council of Learned Societies. The current members are John Wilson Lewis, Stanford University, chairman; Burton Pasternak, Hunter College, City University of New York, vice-chairman; Cyril Birch, University of California, Berkeley; Paul A. Cohen, Wellesley College; Robert F. Dernberger, University of Michigan; Merle Goldman, Boston University; Victor H. Li, Stanford University; Richard Solomon, Rand Corporation (Santa Monica, California); Martin K. Whyte, University of Michigan; staff, Anne F. Thurston. .
Social Science Reports on China: A Sampling from Earlier ITEMS THE ACTIVITIES OF TWO OF THE COMMITTEES sponsored by the Council-the Joint Committee on Contemporary China (cosponsored with the American Council of Learned Societies) and the Committee on Scholarly Communication with the People's Republic of China (cosponsored with the American Council of Learned Societies and the National Academy of Sciences)have provided the pages of Items with a number of
reports on China, particularly since the new phase of scholarly activity concerning China was initiated in 1972. The following pages provide a sampling of these reports. Some observations have perhaps been overtaken by. developments in Chin3: during recent years. In retrospect, however, some of the judgments expressed in the early 1970s are remarkably prescient. 0
The economy in historical perspective by Dwight H. Perkins*
. . . Several of the early sessions were devoted to discussion of what had held back economic progress in China before the 1949 revolution. Were foreigners and foreign intervention to blame or, as one paper put it, was foreign involvement in China a necessary if not a sufficient condition for China's entrance into modern economic growth? Certainly, little dynamism seemed to be left in China's traditional economy in the first half of the twentieth century. Indigenous technological innovation had largely ceased after the thirteenth century; and agriculture, the principal sector, was approaching a high-level equilibrium with the opening up of the last available arable land and the exhaustion of the potential of traditional techniques. JUNE
If there was little dynamism remaining in the traditional economy, why did it take Chinese governments and entrepreneurs so long to take advantage of the new technology available from Europe and America? Net investment in the Chinese economy prior to 1949 was negligible, but this was not because China was caught in a vicious circle of poverty, too poor to save and hence to invest. One paper estimated the total potential "surplus" to be roughly 37 percent of net domestic product, and tapping this surplus allowed the Communists to raise both the rate
* Selections from his "The Chinese Economy in Historical Perspective: Report on a Conference," Items, 28,1 (March 1974), pages 8-10. The author is professor of economics at Harvard University; 25
of investment and per capita consumption. Prior to 1949, these surplus funds had been expended largely on consumption by the well-to-do. If both capital and modern technology were potentially available before 1949, China's failure to develop must be attributable to the nation's governmental and social structure and to the values and experiences of the people. Few participants in the conference disputed the limitations of China's pre-1949 government and the social structure that reinforced it, but there was much less agreement about the nature and effects of the values of traditional Chinese society and the skills of its people. ... A second major theme of the conference was that China did experience considerable economic change and modernization prior to 1949, but not enough to raise per capita income significantly or to modernize the economic life of more than a small fraction of the population. By 1949, however, China did have a large modern textile industry and even the beginning of a machine-building sector completely managed and operated by Chinese. In fact, most of the increase in industrial output prior to 1958 came not from new plants, but from the rehabilitation and enhanced productivity of enterprises built during the first four decades of the twentieth century. The standard analyses of the Chinese economic experience of the 1950's and 1960's conclude that the People's Republic began by attempting to emulate the Stalinist model of economic growth and, increasingly
Historical perspectives Dwight H. Perkins on the economy
Aspects of contemporary China Robert F. Dernberger on economic development Margery Wolf on women Baruch Boxer on environmental management
Visitor reports Herbert A. Simon on computer technology William Kessen on children Charles A. Ferguson on language
dissatisfied with the results, moved to a more Maoist or at least more Chinese model. There is much truth in this standard picture, but this formulation neglects the fact that many features of Chinese development in both the 1950s' and the 1960's reflected not so much deliberate policy as an underlying economic heritage. Thus, the rapid growth in the share of industry relative to the share of agriculture in national product continued unabated in both periods, in spite of a major shift in Chinese investment priorities toward agriculture in the early 1960's. A likely explanation is that even a major shift in priorities could not offset the effects of an inherited labor-surplus landshort factor endowment. In fact, much the same pattern also prevails in other large labor-surplus landshort, but nonsocialist, economies such as Japan and South Korea. he is currently chairman of the Council's Committee on Problems The third theme of the conference was that even and Policy. As chairman of the Subcommittee on Research on the Chinese Economy of the Joint Committee on Contemporary the peculiarly socialist features of Chinese economic China, he organized and served as chairman of the conference institutions after the revolution owed something to upon which this article is based, held June 18-21, 1973. The the past. This was clearly true of the size and strucother members of the subcommittee, Robert F. Dernberger, Uni- ture of rural communes, which had to be related to versity of Michigan; Albert Feuerwerker, University of Michigan; the existing village-market town structure, which in John G. Gurley, Stanford University; K. C. Yeh, Rand Corporation; and staff, David L. Sills, also attended the conference. The turn had evolved out of a need to limit transport costs other participants were Kang Chao, University of Wisconsin; while taking advantage of specialization and ecoAlexander Eckstein, University of Michigan; Mark Elvin, Univer- nomies of scale. And cooperation within and between sity of Oxford; John C. H. Fei, Yale University; Robert M. families, particularly on water control projects, was Hartwell, University of Pennsylvania; Albert Keidel, Harvard nothing new to rural China, although it was carried University; Paul W. Kuznets, Indiana University; Simon Kuznets, out on a vastly increased scale after 1949. Finally, it Harvard University; Ramon H. Myers, University of Miami: Thomas G. Rawski, University of Toronto; Bruce Reynolds, Uni- was not just the traditional heritage that shaped some versity of Michigan; Carl Riskin, Columbia University; Peter Chinese policies and institutions after 1949. The Schran, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign; Yeh-chien Chinese Communist Party had in its own past rich Wang, Kent State University. The conference was supported by experience in wartime Yenan, one of the most backfunds made available by the Ford Foundation for the program of ward areas of China, the inspiration for many of the the Joint Committee on Contemporary China. The papers presented at the conference have been published in Dwight H. policies of the late 1950's and 1960's. The conference, of course, did not conclude that all Perkins, editor, China's Modern Economy in Historical Perspective, aspects of China's post-1949 economic performance Stanford University Press, 1975. 26 VOLUME 33, NUMBER 2
could be traced back to an earlier period. In fact, the effort to relate the present to the past placed in bold relief some of the enormous changes that have occurred. In a few years, China's rate of capital formation rose from negligible levels to one of the highest rates anywhere in countries with per capita incomes of under $500 (U.S.). Whereas before 1949 only the Japanese seemed capable of building and operating steel mills in China, after 1949 large mills were soon both built and operated by Chinese in many parts of the country.
However, it is in the area of income distribution that China has departed furthest from its own past and from the experience of most other less developed countries. By the late 1950's, China had only begun to modernize its economy, but it had confiscated the income of most of the rich and redistributed it to investment and to the poor. This move, together with the rationing of basic food and clothing, effectively eliminated the extreme forms of poverty so apparent to all before 1949. All of this was accomplished without a significant rise in national per capita consumption. . . . 0
Aspects of Contemporary China
Economic development by Robert F. Dernberger*
lieves, as did Myrdal in his study of the countries of South Asia, that any differences in the results of their Thomas E. Weisskopfs "Patterns of Economic Dedevelopment efforts can be traced to differences in velopment in India, Pakistan, and Indonesia," turns their social, economic, and political institutions and directly to an examination of the empirical record of policies .... the results of development efforts in an attempt to . . . Recognizing the relatively small size of his determine the extent to which non-Chinese apsample and the possibility of alternative explanations, proaches have been successful in achieving their obWeisskopf draws the following conclusions: jectives. Weisskopf also seeks to explain the dif(1) Higher growth rates in the nonrevolutionary ferences among the results of the development efsocieties are directly related to "authoritarian" govforts of these three countries. Although he does not ernments which assign a high priority to growth explicitly compare the record of these countries with among the various objectives of development. that of China, that comparison is implicit in his dis(2) Compared with the more "democratic" recussion because of the success indicators presented gimes, these "authoritarian" governments have a and the record of the particular countries he selects as greater preference for liberal, i.e., free-market and representative of the non-Chinese approach. internationalist, as against interventionist, economic To explain the difference between the results policies. achieved by these countries as a whole and by China, (3) These policies lead to higher growth rates beWeisskopf points to the significant differences because higher growth rates in the nonrevolutionary tween their social and political structures and the societies are directly related to capital inflows. absence of revolutionary changes in the non-Chinese Asian countries after World War II. Weisskopf also describes other characteristics which the three non- Soviet and Chinese models Chinese Asian countries share. All three-again unWeisskopfs arguments emphasize how and why like China-are former colonies that gained their differences in social and political environments may independence following World War II and all have a explain differences in economic performance both mixed capitalist economic system with extensive among the countries of the non-Communist Third rights of private property. Although they have enWorld and between these countries and China. Much countered different problems and achieved different more obvious and direct in its effect on the economic degrees of success in the development of national results obtained is a country's economic system. Any integration and parliamentary democracy, they also share common political institutions. Finally, all three * Selections from his "The Relevance of China's Development countries contain considerable ethnic heterogeneity. Experience for Other Developing Countries," Items, 31, 3 (SepGiven these common characteristics, Weisskopf be- tember 1977), pages 25-34. The author, who organized and
The examples of India, Pakistan, and Indonesia
attempt to explain differences in China's economic performance over the past 25 years, compared with that of the other developing countries, must begin with an account of the economic institutions and policies which make up China's economic system, i.e., the Chinese model. This is the purpose of "The Chinese Approach to Economic Development," by Benjamin Ward .... The term "Soviet-type economy" is used by Ward as an abstraction of the important common features of the economic institutions and policies in at least seven other communist countries. Ward believes there are four fundamental economic, institutional, and policy characteristics which are shared by each of these countries and which are the essential conditions for being classified as a Soviet-type economy: (1) nationalization of the means of production in industry; (2) the collectivization of agriculture; (3) the mobilization of the state and population by means of a Leninist party; and (4) a "big push" industrialization effort as a central economic policy objective. China's economi~ system over the past two decades has continuously met these four qualifications. To support this conclusion, Ward devotes the major portion of his discussion to an examination of the fundamental and analytically meaningful differences between Soviet-type economies and the capitalist economies in regard to "big push" growth chaired the conference described in this article, is professor of economics and a member of the Center for Chinese Studies, University of Michigan. He is now chairman of the Subcommittee on Research on the Chinese Economy of the Joint Committee on Contemporary China of the Council and the American Council of Learned Societies, which sponsored the conference. In addition to Mr. Dernberger, the participants at this conference were John Bresnan, Ford Foundation; Hollis B. Chenery, World Bank; Audrey Donnithorne, The Australian National University; Alexander Eckstein, University of Mighigan; Albert Feuerwerker, University of Michigan; John G. Gurley, Stanford University; Tehwei Hu, Pennsylvania State University; Shigeru Ishikawa, Hitotsubashi University; James Kilpatrick, Washington, D.C.; Nicholas R. Lardy, Yale University; Dwight H. Perkins, Harvard University; Thomas G. Rawski, University of Toronto; Carl Riskin, Queens College, City University of New York; Michael Roemer, Harvard University; Charles Robert Roll,Jr., The Rand Corporation (Santa Monica, California); Peter Schran, University of Illinois; Dudley Seers, University of Sussex; Amartya Sen, London School of Economics; Subramanian Swamy, Member of Parliament, India; Peter C. Timmer, Stanford University; Bertiamin Ward, University of California, Berkeley; Thomas E. Weisskopf, University of Michigan; and Kung-chia Yeh, The Rand Corporation (Santa Monica, California); staff, Patrick G. Maddox. The conference was held on January 31 through February 2, 1976, and was supported by funds made available by the Ford Foundation for the program of the Joint Committee on Contemporary China. The papers prepared for the conference are being edited by its chairman for publication.
strategies, autarkic development policies, egalitarianism, collectivized agriculture, and the use of teleological instruments for obtaining economic growth. Ward presents arguments to show the considerable extent to which China's experience is similar to that of the other Soviet-type economies.
Reasons for the Chinese success The presentation and evaluation of the empirical estimates of development efforts in China since 1949 is the subject of "The Central Features of China's Economic Development," by Dwight H. Perkins. Before examining the empirical record, Perkins presents a brief survey of several aspects of China's economic system which differentiate it from the other deVeloping countries. Compared to Ward's discussion, which stresses the similarities between China and the Soviet-type economies, Perkins' emphasizes several of the important adaptations the Chinese have made in the model of the Soviet-type economy to meet China's particular needs and objectives: the extensive limits to the private sector, the Chinese system of planning, and the extent to which the Chinese have been able to use their system of planning relatively effectively and efficiently in controlling production .... Perkins does not believe the important question is whether China, in a statistical sense, did better or worse than the other developing countries. Rather, before we can draw any conclusions about the relevance or transferability of China's development experience to these other countries, it is necessary to know why China did as well as it did. Thus, in the final section of his paper, Perkins presents those factors he believes responsible for China's distinctive and comparatively successful record. None of these factors, it is important to note, is characteristic of the economic system. In other words, the comparative success China has had in using its economic system to obtain the objectives of economic development is to be explained not as a consequence of the attributes essential to the Chinese economic system or model itself, but as consequences of special historical, political, and economic features of China's environment which may be very difficult to replicate in the other developing countries ....
Income equality In "Regional Growth and Income Distribution: The Chinese Experience," Nicholas R. Lardyadmits the impossibility of obtaining direct evidence for the size distribution of personal income. He believes that VOLUME
the indirect evidence available does support Chinese claims for a reduction in the inequality of income distribution. The major portion of his analysis, however, is devoted to showing how the leadership has used the fiscal and planning system to redistribute investment and social service expenditures in favor of the poorer provinces. Using estimates for provincial per capita net value added in agriculture and industry and calculating population weighted coefficient~ o~ va~ation, ~r~y shows that regional, i.e., provmcIal, mequahty m China in the 1950s was quite high-even higher than in other countries often cited as having serious socalled "north-south" problems. Lardy also shows that the extent of regional inequality has been gradually, but steadily, reduced over the past two decades. Inasmuch as there is evidence for a direct correlation between a growing regional inequality and a growing inequality in the size distribution of personal incomes in the other developing countries, Lardy believes that the evidence for a growing regional equality in China can be used as a first approximation of a growing equality in the size distribution of personal incomes .... ,
Technical and managerial skills Whereas Lardy emphasizes the role of physical capital accumulation and its redistribution as a major explanatory variable in China's record of both national and regional economic growth, "Choice of Technology and Technological Innovation in China's Economic Development," by Thomas G. Rawski, puts the emphasis on China's inherited stock of tec~nical skills in 1949 and the development of those SkIlls by means of learning by doing after 1949. Rawski defines technical skills very broadly; much more importance is given to management and administrative skills than to engineering techniques used in production. According to Rawski, both types of skills are acquired by experience, i.e., in learning by doing, rather than through formal education or from capital investment .... Taking issue with Alexander Gerschenkron's hypothesis that the "late comer" nation can accelerate economic development because of its ability to borrow technology already developed by the developed countries, Rawski argues that the developing countries must rely on the development of their own human technical skills, not only to absorb and utilize the foreign technology effectively, but also to adapt and deVelop technology to meet their own particular and ever-changing needs. The short-run costs of import substitution and learning by doing involved in China's JUNE 1979
policy of self-sufficient industrial developm~nt. must therefore be compared with the outward shIft m the technical capabilities frontier in China's economy which has been a result of this policy ...
The health care delivery system There have been considerable gains in the achievement of another objective of economic development: the provision of health care services to a large segment of the population. In "Health Car~ Services in China's Economic Development," Teh-wel Hu provides a detailed analysis of the organization of China's health care delivery system and of how these services are distributed and financed. A major feature of this analysis is the many points at which it serves as a correction for the erroneous, but very widespread, image of China's health care delivery system held in the West. China's health care system embodies a remarkable degree of local autonomy, with most of the major tasks for the supply and financing. of health care services assigned to the 'local unit of which the recipient of these services is a member. Thus, there is a significant diversity in health care delivery among the different local units, both in the extent to which these services are available and in the extent to which their costs are borne by the recipient. ... Although all health personnel are part of the socialist sector, i.e., they are not in private practice, Hu points out that China does not have socialized medicine, if by that is meant health insurance for the entire population. Only about three-fourths of China's rural communes have a cooperative, mostly voluntary, medical insurance program with widely varying fees paid by the individual households. Inasmuch as the costs of the local health care delivery system are borne by the local unit and its members, the availability of these services is related to the wealth and level of income of the local unit. ... As was argued in the case of income redistribution, Hu argues that the possibility of transferring Chi~a's health care delivery system to the other developmg countries is doubtful because of the many important differences in China's economic and political system and the system of incentives which is an integral part of the health care delivery system.
Linkages between the economic system and other systems It would be possible to analyze several other success indicators, but the analyses of these three alone serves to make clear the importance of China's contempo29
rary economic and political system, its resource endowment, and its traditional social system in explaining its particular and comparatively successful record of economic growth after 1949. To examine further the question of the extent to which the post-1949 economic development experience is imbedded in the Chinese environment, "Characteristics of the Chinese Economic Model Specific to the Chinese Environment," by Albert Feuerwerker, identifies and analyzes the "complementarities" over the past 25 years between various aspects of the Chinese economic model and underlying factors in the rest of the social system.
cially its attempt to transform the consciousness of the people, the leadership has been able to draw upon traditions in the Chinese value system. Feuerwerker argues that the contemporary Maoist belief in the malleability of man is a Marxist import, or is Mao's reinterpretation of Marx, not a traditional Confucian concept. On the other hand, the state did have the traditional role of shaping the value content of man's consciousness by establishing what is to be taught and learned. Thus, the post-1949 leadership was better able to utilize the educational system for the sole purpose of teaching skills required for development and Maoist values for changing the superstructure ... The Chinese strategy of development involves conWhile a social revolution was not an important insiderable institutional change, which in turn involves gredient in the Chinese Revolution, modern Chinese (1) political development to create a national outlook nationalism was, and anti-imperialism is an imperaand replace traditional values and (2) institutional tive for any legitimate leader in modern China. Alchanges to mobilize and utilize actual and potential though the Chinese were forced to rely on the transeconomic surpluses. Feuerwerker also argues that this fer of Soviet goods and technical advice in the 1950s, model of economic development-in which political this large-scale presence and face-to-face encounter objectives often take precedence and may even be at with foreigners came to an end abruptly in 1960. A the expense of short-run increases in economic policy of isolating the Chinese from these face-to-face output-was a necessary, rational, and effective strat- encounters with foreigners has been in force ever egy. Mao and the Thoughts of Mao obviously played since. Technology is obtained from abroad, but by a crucial role in the effort to "put politics in com- importing goods and books, not people. Although the mand" of China's economic development. Con- motivation for this policy is to isolate the consciousfucianism has not been destroyed by the Chinese ness of the Chinese population from the pernicious Revolution in the 19th and 20th centuries, i.e., it has effects of foreigners, it has also reduced the need to not been a fundamental social revolution, and the admit dependence on the foreigner. Equally impordeep hold of Confucianism on the Chinese people has tant, however, the experiences of the Chinese during had to be replaced by a new commitment to Mao and the 1950s made them realize the extent to which Maoism if the changes in institutions aod values, many characteristics of foreign models of economic which were an essential part of the Chinese model of development were integrated with those foreign envidevelopment, were to take root. ronments and, therefore, were not transferable to In its attempt to "put politics in command," espe- China. 0
Women by M aTgery W olf* The influence of the women's movement in the United States is being felt in many parts of academia, not all of which are political. China scholars, both men and women, are now more inclined to treat the status, activities, influence, and roles of the female half of Chinese society as legitimate subjects for research. Where ten years ago women in traditional China were dismissed as the pathetic but not particularly interesting victims of an androcentric patrilineal 30
social system, many students of the society (though by no means all) are now beginning to take a closer look at such things as the political effect of Chinese peasant women's domestic power, or the uncomfortable compromise made by elite intellectual women early in
* Selections from her " Half of China: A Report on a Conference," ill' liS, 27,3 (September 1973), pages 25-27. The conference upon which this article is based was sponsored by the Joint VOLUME
this century between the principles of feminism and revolution .... Some very clear themes for future research emerged from the conference, the most salient of which is the relationship between women and various apsects of the economy. By assuming that peasant women conformed to the elite stricture enforcing seclusion on women, we accepted uncritically the pre1949 observations that women had a limited role in productive labor, including agriculture. We do not know what the traditional division of labor between the sexes really was, nor do we know to what extent it varied with the agricultural base of a community. One of the themes of the women's movement in the United States and an important variable in studies of women in all social sciences is the relationship between the status of women in a society and the extent of their involvement in productive labor. Marjorie Topley provided evidence for this relationship: young women in Kwang-tung around the turn of the century used their unusual earning capacity in the silk industry to reject the conventional path of marriage and subjugation by the family. On the other side of the issue, men who labored certainly did not have higher status than those who did not, and the status of women in the family increased at the same time that they were withdrawing from whatever involvement in productive labor they may have had. On yet another level of societal analysis, Hakka women who on the whole (again our data are gross) are considerably more active in labor outside of the home seem to have considerably more status and power than other
Committee on Contemporary China and held in San Francisco on june II-IS, 1973. The papers have subsequently been published in Margery Wolf and Roxane Witke, editors, Women in Chinese Society, Stanford University Press, 1975. The conference was cochaired by the author, of Stanford, California, and Roxane Witke of Stanford University, who together developed the plans for the conference with the assistance of the joint Committee on Contemporary China. The other participants were: Emily M. Ahern, Yale University; Charlotte L. Beahan, Columbia University ; FlI-lllei Chen, Vestal, New York; Delia Davin , University of York, England; Norma Diamond, University of Michigan; Yi-tsi Feuerwerker, University of Michig-an (who prepared a paper but was unable to attend); joanna F. Handlin, University of California, Berkeley: Elizabeth L. johnson, Vancouver, British Columbia ; Leo Oll-fan Lee, Princeton University; Victor Li, Stanford Cniversity; \1:11") B. Rankin, Washington, D.C.; G. WiJliam Skinner, Stanfurd University; Maljorie Topley, University of Hong Kong; Sophie Sa Winckler, Harvard University; Arthur P. Wolf, Stanford University; l'v[arilyn Young, University of Michigan; and john Cn:itihwn CampbeJl, staff, Joint Committee on Contemporarv China . JUNE
Chinese women. In the People's Republic this theoretical relationship between involvement in productive labor and status is accepted to the point of being the basis for policy on the bumpy path toward women's equality. Clearly, the economic variable is one of those having major priorities in research on women in China, be it from the perspective of history, political science, economics, or anthropology. It is not possible here to do more than mention some of the other topics that came up during the conference and were deemed to be in great need of research. Naturally sexism was a frequent issue both as a practical problem and as one of theoretical interest. For example, on the practical level, why has the People's Republic not been more successful in its attempt to deal with sexism; and on the theoretical level, why does sexism seem to be one of the most difficult tasks in any revolution? The role of feminism in China, as a movement and as a set of principles, also was a central subject of discussion. The relationship between feminism and nationalism, between the feminist cause and political revolution, between feminism in the elite and family reform in peasant society were issues that arose again and again only to be put aside for lack of conclusive information ... We have accepted for so long the view of Chinese society contained in the male ideology that we have casually labeled as "deviant" families that did not conform to the patrilineal structure. When Arthur Wolf examined the biographies of hundreds of Taiwanese women born early in this century or late in the last century (and anecdotal evidence from elsewhere in China), he found "deviant" families to be more typical than "conventional" families, and he hypothesizes that much of this variation from the presumed norm results from the decisions women make about the marriages of their children. This calls into question many of our assumptions about the nature of Chinese domestic life. Who does make decisions about major family events so crucial to male-descent principles? Have we been led astray only by male ideology or have we further muddled our understanding of the society by inappropriately saddling peasants with elite values and elite behavior? In trying to sort out male ideology, peasant behavior, and elite values, we would do well to take a long look at studies of social mobility. A few men in China made huge social leaps but, since women were expected to marry into families slightly higher on the social scale than their own, nearly all women took a few steps upward every generation with their own marriages, the marriages of their daughters, and of their granddaughters. . . . 0 31
Environmental management by Baruch Boxer*
The problems of understanding the meaning of continuity and change in China may be related to the more basic question of how Chinese ideas about the natural environment came about and whether these ideas are representative of uniquely Chinese ways of thinking. China's unusual ability in premodern times to maintain clusters of communities capable of supporting large populations at minimum but adequate living standards for long time periods may represent distinctive Chinese environmental choices that are not yet fully understood. The main features of the traditional Chinese model-size, organization, governance, and longevity-are a reflection of cumulative decisions as to the most appropriate use of human and natural resources. Yet the striking contrast between stylized notions of harmony with nature and the reality of environmental degradatiQn, such as that brought about by the destructive deforestation of most of South China during an early period, indicates how little we know about the attitudinal grounds for particular management decisions. Another set of questions relates to the functions of ideology in the fostering of attitudes toward nature in the People's Republic. Is China's current environmental policy a reflection of orthodox MarxistLeninist notions of the correct relations between nature and society or of specifically Maoist interpretations of these ideas? Do day-to-day responses to problems of pollution control, waste recycling require-
ments, or energy use truly reflect ideological or pragmatic concerns? While the three research areas outlined above are of special interest to geographers working on China, they are significant only to the extent that they point to larger issues in man-environment relations in China. The seminar participants agreed that longterm consideration of this intriguing topic might appropriately fall into four major categories: Chinese environmental attitudes and values; the management of the natural environment in the interest of achieving particular social or political goals; the physical nature of environmental transformation in China, with attention to the uses of technology; and the study of regional variations in the character and form of accommodations to the natural environment. 0
* Selections from his "The Geography of China: A Report on a Seminar," Items, 28, 3 (September 1974), pages 44-46. The seminar upon which this article is based was held at Rutgers University on June 6-8, 1973 under the sponsorship of the Joint Committee on Contemporary China. The seminar was chaired by the author, who is professor of geography at Rutgers and was organized by him with the help of Marwyn Samuels, University of British Columbia, who was unable to attend, and Joseph R. Whitney, University of Toronto. Others who attended included Kueisheng Chang, University of Washington; Norton Ginsburg, University of Chicago; Rhoads Murphey, University of Michigan; Ramon H. Myers, University of Miami; James Thorp, Richmond, Indiana; Paul Wheatley, University of Chicago; and Christopher Salter, University of California, Los Angeles.
Computer technology by Herbert A. Simon*
The interchanges with our colleagues in computer science were extensive and meaningful. ... We saw both the computers and the factories in which they were made. Everything, from components to systems, appears to be produced in China without direct foreign assistance . The computer scientists are well read in the Western literature, but no foreign technicians or imported hardware are in evidence. Although the factories are small, China appears to be producing several hundred medium-large, modern solid-state computers per year. The computers appear to be used mainly for scientific and engineering calcula32
tions; we learned nothing of applications to economic planning or management. . .. Our Chinese colleagues showed strong interest in learning about recent developments in time-sharing (which they do not yet use) and so-called extensible programming languages; and they were eager to tell us, in turn, about the design of their computers, and the ALGOL compiler they had produced for one of them ....
* Selections from his "Mao's China in 1972," Items, 27,1 (March 1973). pages 1-4. The author is professor of computer science and psychology at Carnegie- Mellon University and a former VOLUME
I have nothing new to report on wage inequalities, but the contrast between urban commuters on bicycles (one in every two with a wrist watch), and peasants on a showpiece commune near Peking (austerely neat) was quite visible-as visible, perhaps, as the corresponding contrast would be in this country. Thus the picture fits together. There are no major pieces of discrepant evidence to explain away. What the casual traveler, the eyewitness, sees is what others have been seeing before him, and what the China watchers have told him he would see. But why should we expect it to be otherwise? A society is fundamentally a simple system, not a complex one. In organization, it is more akin to a mass of colonial algae than to a highly synchronized machine. Its main regularities are statistical regularities, and its parameters statistical aggregates. These aggregates-their rough magnitudes at least-cannot be long hidden either from the members of the society or from distant observers. The general level of life is revealed by the artifacts that dot the landscapebuildings, tools, means of transport-and by the visible physical condition of people. The most sophisticated component of social structure is its system of symbol flows, its communications. But these too are extremely difficult to disguise. The Renmin Ribao is not published to give foreigners false notions about China; it is published as a major
medium for official communication of public policy to the masses of the population. For certain purposes, and within severe limits, it can lie to the Chinese people, but it cannot tell a different story at home and abroad . . .. Nothing I have learned about China has simplified for me the decisions with which we shall be confronted in the years ahead . My admiration for genuine economic progress does not blind me to the fact that achievement of the messianic Maoist mission-not our version of it, but Mao's versionwould destroy the human values I place highest in my scale. My genuine concern for that prospect-or rather for the damage that can be done by attempts to realize it-does not blind me to both the undesirability and the unrealizability of changes in Chinese society that would destroy its economic and social gains. I do not wish for counterrevolution, although I might be gratified at signs of that middle-left deviationism which the far-left Maoists brand counterrevolution. What then? The slim, or not so slim, hope that in a longer run human beings in China will find the same things valuable that are valued by human beings in the United States. The hope that we can avert apocalyptic confrontations between two messianic visions-for ours is that too--until those visions are moderated by a third vision, the vision of tolerance for human diversity. Vietnam has reminded us, as if we needed that reminder, of the human costs of confrontation. On the more hopeful side, coexistence member of the Council's board of directors, of which he was between the West and Russia has been managed, chairman, 1961-65. He was among the computer scientists who short of disaster, for a half century. Perhaps with that spent 19 days in China in July 1972 under the auspices of the Committee on Scholarly Communication with the People's Re- experience behind us, the next half century will be 0 public of China. This article is a personal report upon that trip. easier.
Children by William Kessen*
We were, of course, interested in all aspects of child rearing and child care from the prenatal period through adolescence and it was unfortunate that the Chinese named our group the "Kindergartener Education Group," a translation that accounts for our seeing as many kindergartens as all other levels of school combined. We quickly and somewhat forcefully told our hosts about the much broader scope of our interests and they, with remarkable efficiency, made it possible for us to observe children at all ages short of the university though obviously with a heavy emphasis on children between three and six. JUNE
Some Chinese children enter group care at eight weeks, usually in a "feeding station" attached to a factory or commune. Many more apparently attend kindergarten between three and six; all the primaryage cohort is reported to be in school between seven and about twelve; and a smaller but increasing number of children attend middle school between
* Selections from his "An American Glimpse of the Children of China," Items, 28,3 (September 1974), pages 41-44. The author is professor of psychology at Yale University. He served as chair33
twelve and seventeen. At the end of middle school, urban youth are now sent to the countryside to work in rural communes. Only a small fraction of the cohort attends a university (in 1973, perhaps only 250,000) .... Chinese education and Chinese children can be understood only when it is recognized that they exist in an ideological ocean. A little boy sang of his happy brother; when he asked why his brother was happy, the brother replied, "Last night I dreamed of Chairman Mao." In one kindergarten, the first ideograph the children learned was the one for Mao; the first words in English eleven-year-olds learn are "Quotations from Chairman Mao"; and, when we taught some college-level students an English song ("Deep Blue Sea"), they taught us a Chinese one:
docile and perfectible. When we spoke to one of our hosts about the absence of research on children, in comparison to the apparently sizable investment in agricultural research, he replied, "But we carry out research on plants because they are different; it is important for us to believe that all children are the same." ... A vignette may measure our sense of contrast with children of other cultures. One of Peking's kindergartens admits the children of foreign diplomats as well as the children of Chinese officials. We watched as the teacher showed to all a fine new mechanical Ping Pong game that moved and made noises fascinating to the children. The Chinese children, most of them about four years old, gathered around the toy in a tight circle and watched the Ping Pong game, with no shoving and no reaching out. As soon as one of the On Peking'S golden hill non-Chinese children appeared, he lurched in a wild Shines light forth far and wide grab for the toy. Chairman Mao is the bright golden sun We talked a great deal to teachers about the control Oh how warm, oh how kind and restraint of Chinese children; we inquired about Lighting up our peasants' hearts hyperactive and aggressive behavior; we tried, not We are marching on the broad and happy socialist very successfully, to describe some of the behavior road. problems of an American school. By and large, Chinese teachers did not understand what we were Communist ideology and the needs of the state seem to come together in a theory of the child as talking about; they testified that they had never seen a hyperactive or disruptive child-of course, some children were sometimes "naughty" but apparently not man of the delegation on early childhood development that visited China in November and December 1973 under the program for long-and, truth to tell, neither did we among the of the Committee on Scholarly Communication with the People's thousands of Chinese children we saw .... Republic of China. The other members of the delegation were From a mountain of images, memories, and obserUrie Bronfenbrenner, Cornell University; Bettye Caldwell, Uni- vations, the American delegation drew out two home versity of Arkansas; John A. Clausen, University of California, truths-first, that the relation between teacher and Berkeley; Alexander P. DeAngelis, Committee on Scholarly student, parent and child, can only be defined in the Communication with the People's Republic of China; Jerome context of an entire culture (a fact that makes sysKagan, Harvard University; Eleanor Maccoby, Stanford University; George A. Miller, Rockefeller University; Harold W. Steven- tematic comparison almost impossible) and, second, son, University of Michigan; Jeannette G. Stone, Vassar College; that China and Chinese attitudes toward children in Martin K. Whyte, Universities Service Center, Hong Kong; Joe 1973 force an examination of American values and Wray, Rockefeller Foundation, Bangkok; and Marian RadkeAmerican attitudes toward children. Since our reYarrow, National Institute of Mental Health. This article is based turn, we have been thinking anew and in new ways upon that experience; a fuller account has been published in about the cultural and ideological forces that have William Kessen, editor, Childhood in China, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1975. shaped American education. 0
Language by Charles A. Ferguson*
Linguistics in China Linguistics as a social science or independent scholarly discipline does not exist as such in the People's Republic; there are no courses in it, no professional organizations, no discussion of linguistic theory as an intellectual enterprise, no obvious points of contract 34
with the field in other countries. Yet there are Chinese linguists whose earlier published works in Chinese dialectology, research on minority I;mguages,
* Selections from his "Linguistics Senes the People: Lessons of a Trip to China," Items, 29,1 (March 1975), pages 5-8. The author VOI.UME
and sophisticated historical study are all known outside China. The explanation is that linguistics, like many other disciplines, now exists in the People's Republic of China only to "serve the people" and to "help in socialist construction." Lacking the high priority of such fields as nuclear physics which are allotted resources for basic research, linguistic work is always tied to the solution of the nation's language problems. The linguists we met were all working in this context, engaged in the processes of language reform or language teaching or in the interpretation of ancient texts important for an understanding of Chinese history ....
parallel to this massive planned language change taking place anywhere else in the world. If Chinese linguists wished to study the behavioral changes as they occur and were free to do so, their vast naturallaboratory of language use could make profound contributions to an understanding of the processes of standardization, language shift, dialect and register variation, and language planning. In any case, we may hope that the Chinese linguists' use-oriented studies of dialect convergence will provide interesting data for sociolinguists outside China to ponder and speculate about. Language planners from other countries could learn much from China's experience.
In accordance with Marxism-Leninism-Mao Language reform receives little attention in the na- Tsetung Thought and Stalin's 1950 article on lantional planning of most countries, hardly, if ever ap- guage, the People's Republic of China allocates cerpearing in five-year plans or as a line item in govern- tain public functions to minority languages. Thus, for mental budgets. In China, on the other hand, the example, Chinese currency has four languages in developUlent of a viable, standardized national lan- addition to Chinese printed on it, and publications guage for the communication needs of the country is such as newspapers and school books appear in an given considerable visibility, and the efforts of the even larger number of languages. In line with this Language Reform Committee have the ultimate backpolicy, highly competent linguistic research in minoring of Chairman Mao, the Communist Party, and the ity languages was in evidence, carried out in relation State Council. ... to language teaching and the creation and reform of Hundreds of offically promulgated simplified orthographies. characters (each having fewer strokes than the older Of broader social science interest was research on form) are now in regular use. Putonghua (common the determination of nationality status. Fei Xiao-tong, speech) is spreading rapidly among the more than 30 known internationally as a distinguished anper cent of the population who speak language vari- thropologist, explained in some detail the problems eties that are not mutually intelligible with putonghua. of investigating the degree of linguistic and cultural Romanized spelling is slowly being extended to distinctiveness, ethnic awareness, and size of populaadditional uses, and progress is being made toward tion which entitle a group to be designated a nationalthe final, long-term goal of replacing the traditional ity. Fifty-four such nationalities have been officially as well as the simplified characters. There is no near recognized in the People's Republic. Comparison of this nationality research with current American reis professor of linguistics at Stanford University and a member search on ethnicity could be highly instructive if a and former chairman of the Council's Committee on Sociolinguis- scholarly exchange were possible. Unfortunately, we tics. He was a member of the linguistics delegation that visited were unable to view the nationality policies on lanChina in October and November 1974 under the program of the guage in action since we had no chance to visit the Committee on Scholarly Communication with the People's Reminority areas where they are carried out. public of China. Other members of the delegation were Chin-chuan Cheng, University of Illinois; Anne FitzGerald, Committee on Scholarly Communication with the People's Republic of China; Victoria Fromkin, University of California, Los Angeles; William Labov, University of Pennsylvania; Anatole Lyovin, University of Hawaii; Winifred P. Lehmann, University of Texas; john B. Lum, National Institute of Education; Frederick W. Mote, Princeton University; jerry Norman, University of Washington; Howard E. Sollenberger, Foreign Service Institute; and james j. Wrenn, Brown University. This article is based upon that experience; a fuller account has been published in Winifred P. Leh mann, edi tor, Language and Linguistics in the People's Republic of China, Austin : University of Texas Press, 1975. JUNE
The English language in China In the United States, foreign languages are studied in part to give access to a different culture and way of life. Teaching materials, therefore, are expected to be as genuinely foreign as possible, based on actual language use in the countries where the language is spoken. In China, on the other hand, foreign languages are studied as weapons in the revolutionary struggle and the teaching materials for at least the 35
first three years are based on life and thought in China, not in the foreign country. The student of English learns to talk about the Chinese countryside and factories, to sing songs in honor of Chairman Mao and the Party. The content of beginning English courses may even be checked for appropriateness by monolingual Chinese workers and peasants. The Chinese student of English learns how to talk to foreign visitors about his own country; only the advanced student is exposed to texts from foreign countries-and then with political interpretation and commentary. When these fundamental differences in approach finally became very clear in a long discussion with English teachers and students one evening in Shanghai, we had something to think about. Is it possible that in the long run the advantages of higher motivation, greater community support, and familiarity of content in the early stages of foreign language study payoff in learning to use the language-in spite of inevitable linguistic, cultural, and political distortions?
Impact of the visit The total impact of the China visit on the linguists and language specialists of the delegation is difficult to assess. In the area of research and teaching in linguistics and related fields, it was the confrontation of two opposed methods of the social sciences which probably made the deepest impression. American linguistics is primarily theory-oriented. The application of linguistic expertise to the language problems of our society tends to be incidental and nonprestigious. Chinese scholarly concern with language, in contrast, is so completely problem-oriented and politicized that linguistic theory as such is incidental and nonprestigious. My own reaction is to ask whether there could not be a third model somewhere between the two. 0
Books on China: A Selection of 21 Council Publications of the 1970s Unless indicated otherwise, these books are based upon conferences or other activities of the Joint Committee on Contemporary China, which is sponsored by the Council and the American Council of Learned Societies. The Committee
on Scholarly Communication with the People's Republic of China, administered by the National Academy of Sciences, is cosponsored by the Academy, the Council, and the American Council of Learned Societies.
Rural Small-scale Industry in the People's Republic of China. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1977.-+The report of a delegation to China sponsored by the Committee on Scholarly Communication with the People's Republic of China. W. E. WILMOTT, editor Economic Organization in Chinese Society. Stanford University Press, 1972.
CHARLOTTE FURTH, editor The Limits of Change: Essays on Conservative Alternatives in Republican China. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1976. CHALMERS JOHNSON, editor Ideology and Politics in Comtemporary China. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1973. JOHN M. H. LINDBECK, editor China: Management of a Revolutionary Society. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1971. ROBERT A. SCALAPINO, editor Elites in the People's Republic of China. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1972.
The Economy ALEXANDER ECKSTEIN, editor Quantitative Measures of China's Economic Output. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, in press. VICTOR H. LI, editor Law and Politics in China's Foreign Trade. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1977. DWIGHT H. PERKINS, editor China's Modern Economy in Historical Perspective. Stanford University Press, 1975.
Family and society Maurice Freedman, editor Family and Kinship in Chinese Society. Stanford University Press, 1970. William Kessen, editor Childhood in China. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, 1975.-+The report of the delegation to China on early childhood development sponsored by the Committee on Scholarly Communication with the People's Republic of China. ARTHUR P. WOLF, editor Religion and Ritual in Chinese Society. Stanford University Press, 1974. Studies in Chinese SOCiety. Stanford University Press, 1978.-+Selections from seven Council books on China published between 1970 and 1977. MARGERY WOLF AND ROXANE WITKE, editors Women in Chinese Society. Stanford University Press, 1975. VOLUME
The city MARK ELVIN AND G. WILUAM SKINNER, editors The Chinese City Between Two Worlds . Stanford University Press, 1974. G. WILLIAM SKINNER, editor The City in Late Imperial China. Stanford University Press, 1977. JOHN WILSON LEWIS, editor The City in Communist China. Stanford University Press, 1971.
Other books JEROME ALAN COHEN, editor Contemporary Chinese Law: Research Problems and Perspectives. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1970.
MERLE GOLDMAN, editor Modern Chinese Literature in the May Fourth Era. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1977. WINFRED P. LEHMANN, editor Language and Linguistics in the People's Republic of China . Austin: University of Texas Press, 1975.-+The report of the linguistics delegation to China sponsored by the Committee on Scholarly Communication with the People:s Republic of China. G. WILLIAM SKINNER AND OTHERS, editors Modern Chinese Society: An Analytical Bibliography. Stanford University Press, 1974.-+Volume 1, Publications in Western Languages, 1644-1972, edited by G. William Skinner. Volume 2, Publications in Chinese, 1644-1971, edited by G. William Skinner and Winston Hsieh. Volume 3, Publications in Japanese, 1644-1971, edited by G. William Skinner and Shlgeaki Tomita.
Recent Council Publications Chile, Cronologia del Perlodo 19701973, by Manuel Antonio Garreton et al. Published as the result of a project cosponsored by the joint Committee on Latin American Studies between 1974 and 1978 on Ideology and Social Processes in Chilean Society. 1970-73. Santiago. Chile: Latin American Faculty of Social Sciences (FLACSO). 1978. 9 volumes. 3860 pages. This nine-volume chronology and bibliography is the outcome of four years of research conducted by a team of scholars associated with the Latin American Faculty of Social Sciences (FLACSO; Santiago) . FLACSO is a regional Latin American institution for graduate study in the social sciences. with branches in Buenos Aires. Mexico City. Quito. and Santiago. Under the direction of sociologist Manuel Antonio Garreton. the researchers compiled data from Chilean newspapers. magazines. and other sources to produce an extraordinarily detailed record of news coverage of the Allende years. Short individual summaries of major stories are presented for each day of the three-year period under a variety of headings. such as Politics. Foreign Relations. Economy. Armed Forces. and Unions. The ninth volume of the set contains the most complete bibliography on the Allende period yet published. FLACSO has published a limited number of these chronologies for 路distribution to major research libraries in the United States. Europe. and Latin America. Scholars or institutions wishing to acquire sets are urged to contact FLACSO's Santiago office directly before supplies are exhausted. In addition to Manuel Antonio Garreton. contributors JUNE 1979
to the chronology include Leopoldo Benavides. Cristiim Cox. Eugenia Hola. Eduardo Morales. and Diego Morales.
The Family in Latin America, edited by Francesca M. Cancian. Louis Wolf Goodman. and Peter H. Smith. Papers produced as the result of two conferences on the Social History of the Family sponsored by the Joint Committee on Latin American Studies and held April 29-May I. 1977. in San Francisco. and October 23-24. 1977, in Cuernavaca. Mexico. A special issue of ~he Journal of Family History. III. 4 (Winter 1978). 159 pages. Recent research on family structure and family history has tended to focus on Europe and North America. This collection of essays seeks to redress the balance and promote a fuller understanding of how family structure varies among different societies and cultures. An introduction by editors Francisca M. Cancian. University of California. Irvine; Louis Wolf Goodman. Yale University; and Peter H. Smith. University of Wisconsin. briefly surveys the existing literature on the family and the broad outlines of Latin America's history of dependent development. and then presents a series of hypotheses concerning the ways in which that development has affected regional patterns of family structure. Seven articles document and explain variations in family structure and kinship networks encountered in Latin America in selected historical periods and geographical settings. and among different classes and ethnic groups. A postscript by Journal editor Tamara K. Hareven. Clark Uni-
versity. locates the essays in the broad context of family-oriented research. Besides the editors. contributors include Silvia M. Arrom. Yale University; George A. Collier, Stanford University; Carmen Diana Deere, University of Massachusetts; Larissa A. Lomnitz, National Autonomous University of Mexico; Marisol Perez Lizaur, National Autonomous University of Mexico; Donald Ramos, Cleveland State University ; Raymond T. Smith, University of Chicago; and Catalina H . Wainerman, Center of Population Studies (CENEP, Buenos Aires).
Fuerza de trabajo y movimientos laborales en America Latina, edi ted by Ruben Kaztman and jose Luis Reyna. Papers from conferences cosponsored by the Joint Committee on Latin American Studies and the Latin American Council of the Social Sciences (CLACSO), July 13-16, 1975, at Yale University, and June 28-30, 1976, at the Social Science Research Council. Mexico: EI Colegio de Mexico, 1979. viii + 337 pages. This volume is an effort to evaluate and synthesize the existing literature on the Latin American labor force and labor movements. Its individual contributions examine the present state of theory and knowledge relating to selected aspects of Latin American labor studies and offer suggestions for future research and theory building in those areas. The authors are particularly concerned with identifying and understanding the ways in which Latin America's late industrialization, relative to that of Western 37
Europe and North America, resulted in patterns of labor force development and labor relations distinct from those in the industrialized nations. The book is devoted almost entirely to urban phenomena; questions associated with the rural labor force and movements have been purposely excluded in order to sharpen its focus. The volume is divided into two sections prefaced by an introduction by editors Ruben Kaztman, United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America (ECLA, Santiago), and jose Luis Reyna, EI Colegio de Mexico. The first section, containing four essays, deals with the structure of both the labor force and the labor market. A recurring theme is the phenomenon of the marginal, informal, or secondary market (terminology varies according to author) within which many, if not most, Latin American workers sell their labor. Section II, containing six articles, examines urban labor movements throughout Latin America. The only country-specific essay is an appendix on working-class organizations in postrevolutionary Cuba. Besides the editors, contributors to the volume include juan Carlos Blasco, Bariloche Foundation (Bariloche, Argentina); Susan Eckstein, Boston University; Enzo Faletto, Latin American Faculty of Social Sciences (FLACSO, Santiago); Elizabeth jelin, Center for the Study of State and Society (CEDES, Buenos Aires); Humberto Munoz, EI Colegio de Mexico; Orlandina de Oliveira, EI Colegio de Mexico; Paul Singer, Brazilian Center for Analysis and Planning (CEBRAP, Sao Paulo); Lisa Peattie, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Silva Sigal, Center of Social Studies (Paris); Victor Tokman, United Nations Regional Program on Employment for Latin America and the Caribbean (PREALC, Santiago); juan Carlos Torre, University of London; and Francisco Zapata, EI Colegio de Mexico. Health and Society in Africa: A Working Bibliography, compiled by Steven Feierman. Published as a preparatory guide for a series of conferences sponsored by the joint Committee on African Studies. Waltham, Massachusetts: Crossroads Press of the African Studies Association, 1979. Two major sets of issues are addressed by the Council's project on health and society in Africa, of which this bibliography is a working paper. First, what are the implications of pluralism in African 38
therapeutic systems (and by extension in such systems elsewhere in the world)? In most African settings, a person suffering disability or distress has a wide range of choices, not only among particular therapies, but among entire therapeutic systems. In anyone locality the choices might include herbal cures, countermagic against hostile sorcerers, rituals for the propitiation of spirits, Islamic healing practices, allopathic clinical medicine, and others. A single patient will often shuttle from one therapy to another as an illness progresses . An understanding of pluralism in therapy leads to a new set of questions on the cultural content, social organization, and historical course of African medical systems. If these systems are open and pluralistic, rather than closed and homogeneous, how do people construct chains of reasoning about causality in illness in order to organize health care in individual cases? What is the changing balance among competing therapies, and the changing role of each therapeutic alternative within the total system? The history of anyone cult or kind of treatment (including treatment in the clinical scientific tradition) must be considered within the larger therapeutic context. How are normal health and the varieties of illness defined in relation to one another? The second set of issues concerns the way in which changes in disease are tied both to the therapeutic systems, and to more general changes in society and economy. Does the balance among plural therapies change with alterations in the distribution of disease? What is the relationship between public health measures on the one hand, and the creation of new disease environments through alterations in the pattern of production on the other? What possibilities are there of integrating both curative and preventive services into units of production? These broad definitions of the therapeutic system, of illness, and of the ties between disease, production, and health services lead one into virtually every aspect of African society and culture. This bibliography attempts to cover the literature of this large field. Works on witchcraft, sorcery, spirit possession, economic change, government structure, and political economy are all included if they are directly related to therapeutic practices, to disease patterns, or to public health. The bibliography is divided into two parts. The first is an annotated list of previous bibliographies on the subjects
covered. The second is a list of published works on all the relevant subjects, with an index. The bibliography was compiled by Steven Feierman, University of Wisconsin, who is chairman of the joint Committee on African Studies of the Social &ience Research Council and the American Council of Learned Societies. Japan: A Comparative View, edited by Albert M. Craig. Papers from a conference sponsored by the joint Committee on japanese Studies. Princeton University Press, 1979. 437 pages. Until recently most Western scholarship onjapan has judged that society in terms of propositions based on the Western experience. Only rarely have such propositions been judged in terms of their J:elevance to japan. Thus, when a proposition appeared irrelevant, it was often assumed that japanese history was distorted, and not that the proposition was deficient. The conference of which this book is the product was organized with a number' of aims in mind. First, the participants were encouraged to prepare papers that explicitly compared japan with nonWestern countries, or, when comparing japan with the West, to view the japanese experience as an equally valid standard for scholarly comparison. Second, the papers were selected to represent a diverse group of disciplines and topics, on the assumption that there are many kinds oflegitimate comparisons and many valid ways of making them. Finally, each researcher was asked to integrate the materials from the various cases studied and to draw some more general conclusions about the japanese experience. By showing how this experience relates to that of other contexts, the authors were able to provide important new insights into japan as well as other societies undergoing a modern transformation. In addition to the editor, the contributors to the volume are Orin Borders, University of California, Davis; George A. De Vos, University of California, Berkeley; Takeo Doi, Tokyo University; R. P. Dore, University of Sussex; Lizabeth Hauswald, University of California, Davis; Marius B. jansen, Princeton University; Takehiko Noguchi, Kobe University; john C. Pelzel, Harvard University; Seizaburo Sato, Tokyo University; Henry D. Smith II, University of California, Santa Barbara; Ezra F. Vogel, Harvard University; and Kozo Yamamura, University of Washington . VOLUME
Strangers in African Societies, edited by William A. Shack and Elliott P. Skinner. Papers from a conference sponsored by the Joint Committee on African Studies, held October 16-19, 1974 at the Smithsonian Conference Center, Belmont, Maryland. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1979. Georg Simmel's seminal 1908 essay on the social attributes of the "stranger" provides the conceptual framework for this collection of essays. Papers by Herschell Sullivan Challenor, Committee on International Relations, United States Congress; Jeremy S. Eades, Darwin College, University of Kent; Jessica Kuper, Leiden, The Netherlands; Neil O. Leighton, University of Michigan, Flint; Donald N. Levine, University of Chicago; Ali A. Mazrui, University of Michigan; Ruth Schachter Morgenthau, Brandeis University; Catherine Obbo, University of Wisconsin; Margaret Peil, University of Birmingham; Enid Schild krout, American Museum of Natural History (New York); William A. Shack, University of California, Berkeley; Elliott P. Skinner, Columbia University; Aidan Southall, University of Wisconsin; Niara Sudarkasa, University of Michigan; and Monica Wilson, University of Cape Town examine the attitudes and reactions of African hosts to strangers, both historically and under changing political conditions in the postcolonial era.
African, Asian, and EuropeaR strangers, who were an integral part of the social and economic fabric of colonial African societies, enjoyed privileged positions usually at the expense of indigenous populations. Since the 1960s, many new African nation-states have introduced politicolegal legislation distinguishing strangers and citizens. Subsequently defined as legal aliens, strangers were denied access to citizenship and were mandated for repatriation to their homelands. Since birthright in the new nations was not allowed as a legitimate claim to citizenship, thousands of would-be citizens were forced to join the exodus of true strangers seeking other host societies. The authors assess the ideological, social structural, and politicoeconomic variables that affect stranger-host relations in East, West, and Central Africa. Their interdisciplinary and cross-cultural approach contributes to the development of a sociological perspective on the dynamic aspects of the position of strangers both in African societies and elsewhere.
Studies in Chinese Society, edited by Arthur P. Wolf. Selected papers from conferences sponsored by the Joint Committee on Contemporary China. Stanford University Press, 1978. xii + 372 pages; paperback.
The papers in this volume were first published in the seven-volume series Studies in Chinese S()(.iety, published for the Joint Committee on Contemporary China by the Stanford University Press. They were selected by the editor in consultation with a dozen colleagues in order to serve the needs of students in courses taught by anthropologists, sociologists, and social historians. An introduction by the editor reviews the highlights of each paper. The following papers are included: "Cities and the Hierarchy of Local Systems," by G. William Skinner; "Peasant Insurrection and the Marketing Hierarchy in the Canton Delta, 1911-1912," by Winston Hsieh; "School-Temple and City God," by Stephen Feuchtwang; "Gods, Ghosts, and Ancestors," by Arthur P. Wolf; "Developmental Process in the Chinese Domestic Group," by Myron L. Cohen; "The Sociology of Irrigation: Two Taiwanese Villages," by Burton Pasternak; "Child Training and the Chinese Family," by Margery Wolf; "Marriage Resistance in Rural Kwangtung," by Marjorie Topley; "The Power and Pollution of Chinese Women," by Emily M. Ahern; "Doing Business in Lukang," by Donald R. DeGlopper; and "Cantonese Shamanism." by Jack M. Potter.
Staff Appointments Donald J. Hernandez, a sociologistdemographer, joined the Council in June as a staff associate at the Council's Center for Coordination of Research on Social Indicators in Washington, D.C. Mr. Hernandez received a B.A. in sociology from the University of Illinois in 1970. Also in sociology, he received an M.A. in 1972 and a Ph.D. in 1976 from the University of California, Berkeley. He was an assistant professor of sociology at the University of South Carolina at Columbia from 1976 to 1979. He is completing a monograph on the relative impact on fertility of socioeconomic development and family planning programs in developing countries. He is presently a member of a committee of the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council advisory to the National Science Foundation-the Committee on Continuity and Vitality in Academic Research Performance: Future Demands for JUNE 1979
Young Researchers in Science and Engineering. Richard C. Rockwell, a sociologist, joined the Council staff in June as a staff associate at the Council's Center for Coordination of Research on Social Indicators in Washington, D.C. He will serve primarily as staff director of a program of science planning for social indicators, funded over a three-year period by the National Science Foundation. Mr. Rockwell received a B.A. in zoology in 1965, an M.A. in sociology in 1966, and in 1970, a Ph.D. in sociology-all from the University of Texas. In 1967-68, he was awarded a Junior Liberal Arts Fellowship to Harvard Law School and during that year he served as a social science research associate in Harvard's Community Legal Assistance Office. From 1969-76, he was director of the Social Science Data Library at the Institute for Research in Social Science, University of North
Carolina. From 1970-1976, he was also an assistant professor in the Department of Sociology at Chapel Hill. In 1976, he became a visiting fellow at the Boys Town Center for the Study of Youth Development in Omaha, Nebraska, where he conducted basic research on life-course processes, in a project directed by Glen H. Elder, Jr. He coedits The Review of Public Data Use, published by Elsevier NorthHolland. His publications include "Historical Trends and Variations in Educational Homogamy," Journal of Marriage and the Family, 1976, "The Depression Experience in Men's Lives" (with Glen H. Elder, Jr.) in Community, Kinship, and the Family, Smithsonian Press, 1979, and "Life Course and Human Development: An Ecological Perspective" (with Glen H. Elder, Jr.) to appear in the International Journal of Behavioral Development.
Fellowships and Grants 40
CONTENTS POSTDOCTORAL RESEARCH TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS INTERNATIONAL DOCTORAL RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS Africa, China, Japan, Korea, Latin America and the Caribbean, the Near and Middle East, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Western Europe GRANTS FOR INTERNATIONAL POSTDOCTORAL RESEARCH Africa, China, Eastern Europe, Japan, Korea, Latin America and the Caribbean, the Near and Middle East, South Asia, Southeast Asia
THESE PAGES list the names, affiliations, and topics of the individuals who were awarded fellowships or grants by Council committees during the past few months. The grant programs sponsored by the Council and the grant and fellowship programs sponsored by the Council jointly with the American Council of Learned Societies (ACLS) are both reported here. The international research programs are supported in part by a grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities with a matching grant from the Ford Foundation. Additional funding for the Latin America and Caribbean programs is provided by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation. Unless it is specifically noted that a program is administered by the ACLS, the programs listed are administered by the Council. The Council's fellowship and grants program is supported by funds it receives from foundations and other funding agencies. The programs change somewhat every year, and scholars interested either in predoctoral fellowships for dissertation research abroad or in postdoctoral grants for individual or collaborative research should write to the Council for a copy of the new brochure that describes the 1979-80 fellowship and grants program. It will be ready for mailing in early August. POSTDOCTORAL RESEARCH TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS The Committee on Social Science Personnel-Robert Zemsky (chairman), Richard D. Alba, Cynthia H. Enloe, Howard E. Gardner, Otto N. Larsen, Judith R. Shapiro, and Harold W. Watts-at its meeting on March 3-4, 1979, voted to offer the following appointments: Riva Berleant-Schiller, assistant professor of anthropology, C. W. Post Center, Long Island University, for research training in geography at Columbia University Katherine P. Ewing, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Chicago, for postdoctoral training in psychoanalytic theory and techniques at the Institute for Psychoanalysis (Chicago) Diane P. Gifford, assistant professor of anthropology, University of California, Santa Cruz, for training in ecology at the University of New Mexico 40
Kathleen D. Gordon, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Yale University, for postdoctoral training in biomechanical and functional anatomy at The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine Joan Bybee Hooper, associate professor oflinguistics, State University of New York, Buffalo, for training in the study of child language development at the University of California, Berkeley Paul Lubeck, assistant professor of sociology, University of California, Santa Cruz, for training in neoclassical economic theory at the University of California, Berkeley John J. McCarthy, Ph.D. candidate in linguistics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, for postdoctoral training in Akkadian philology and Mesopotamian history at the University of California, Los Angeles William H. Ridgway, ;;lssociate professor of history, University of Maryland, for training in historical geography at the University of Wisconsin Anthony Seeger, associate professor of anthropology, National Museum, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, for training in ethnomusicology at Indiana University INTERNATIONAL DOCTORAL RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS Awards for dissertation research abroad have been announced by the area committees of the Social Science Research Council and the American Council of Learned Societies. These committees administer the program of International Doctoral Research Fellowships (formerly the Foreign Area Fellowship Program). AFRICA
The following dissertation fellowships were awarded by the Doctoral Research Fellowship Selection Committee for Africa-Diann H . Painter (chairman), Rene A. Bravmann, Abdalla S. Bujra, Bennetta Jules-Rosette, Paul H. Riesman, and Marcia Wright-at its meeting on March 2, 1979. It had been assisted by the Screening Committee-Monique P. Garrity, Ivan Karp, Gayle H. Partmann, and Timothy C. Weiskel. Carla A. Glassman, Ph.D. candidate in history, Cambridge University, for research in Kenya on crime in Nairobi: ideology and behavior in a colonial city, 1899-1945 Alma Gottlieb, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Virginia, for research in the Ivory Coast on a socio-symbolic study of Ngan sex roles Karen R. Keirn, Ph.D. candidate in comparative literature, Indiana University, for research in Cameroun on an analysis of the characteristics and origins of picaresque elements in the modern literature of Cameroun. Frederick J. Lamp, Ph.D. candidate in art history, Yale University, for research in Sierra Leone on ancient concepts of space and time in a Temne society Peter D. Little, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Indiana University, for research in Kenya on socioeconomic change in the pastoral sector of the Baringo District Deborah L. Mack, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Northwestern University, for research in the Sudan on law and social change in a stratified society in the eastern Sudan VOLUME
Elias C. Mandala, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Minnesota, for research in Malawi, Mozambique, and Portugal on the Lower Shire Valley of Malawi and the world economy, the 1830s to the 1920s Pauline E. Peters, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Boston University, for research in Botswana on the social organization of deep well ownership Raymond A. Silverman, Ph.D. candidate in art history, University of Washington, for research in Ghana on the cultural integration of Arabic-inscribed vessels among the Akan Robert D. Whittemore, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of California, Los Angeles, for research in Senegal on nonparental caretaking in West Africa: a rural-urban comparison CHINA
The following dissertation fellowships were awarded by the Joint Committee on Contemporary China-John Wilson Lewis (chairman), Burton Pasternak (vice chairman), Cyril Birch, Paul A. Cohen, Robert F. Dernberger, Merle Goldman, Victor H. Li, Richard Solomon, and Martin K. Whyte-at its meeting on February 23-24, 1979. It had been assisted by the Screening Committee for AsiaStephan V. Beyer, Bruce Cumings, Susan Mann Jones, Richard Madsen, Susan K. Matisoff, Margaret A. McKean, Donald K. Swearer, Jean Taylor, and Sylvia J. Vatuk. Katheryn Bernhardt, Ph.D. candidate in history, Stanford University, for research in Japan and Taiwan on rent resistance in the lower Yangtze delta region from late Ming to the Opium War Cynthia J. Brokaw, Ph.D. candidate in history and East Asian languages, Harvard University, for research in Japan and Taiwan on popular education in late Ming China Emily Honig, Ph.D. candidate in history, Stanford University, for research in Taiwan and Japan on women industrial workers in Shanghai, 1895-1937 Steven W. Mosher, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Stanford University, for research in Taiwan on occupation, fertility, and family structure in rural Taiwan, 19051978 Andrew G. Walder, Ph.D. candidate in sociology, University of Michigan, for research in Hong Kong on authority and administration in Chinese industrial enterprises, 1958-1978 Angela Rose Zito, Ph.D. candidate in Far Eastern langUages and civilizations, University of Chicago, for research in Taipei and Hong Kong on the cult of the city god in late imperial China
Mann Jones, Richard Madsen, Susan K. Matisoff, Margaret A. McKean, Donald K. Swearer, Jean Taylor, and Sylvia J. Vatuk. Andrew D. Gordon, Ph.D. candidate in history, Harvard University, for research in Tokyo on labor relations in heavy industry in Japan, 1850-1950. Richard H. Okada, Ph.D. candidate in Oriental languages, University of California, Berkeley, for research in Kyoto on three Heian narratives Vladimir Pucik, Ph.D. candidate in the management of organizations and international management, Columbia University, for research in Tokyo on career dynamics in middle management Judith N. Rabinovitch, Ph .D. candidate in East Asian languages and civilizations, Harvard University, for research in Tokyo on Shomonki, a tenth century warrior epic, and the gunkimono or "warrior tale" genre
The following dissertation fellowship was awarded by the Joint Committee on Korean Studies-John C. Jamieson (chairman), Bruce Cumings, Gari K. Ledyard, Chae-Jin Lee, Young I. Lew, Youngil Lim, David R. McCann, and James B. Palais-atits meeting on March 11-12, 1979. The committee had been assisted by the Screening Committee for Asia-Stephan V. Beyer, Bruce Cumings, Susan Mann Jones, Richard Madsen, Susan K. Matisoff, Margaret A. McKean, Donald K. Swearer, Jean Taylor, and Sylvia J. Vatuk. Donald L. Baker, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Washington, for research in Seoul and Tokyo on the Korean response to Western learning in the 18th century LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN
The following dissertation fellowships were awarded by the Doctoral Research Fellowship Selection Committee for Latin America and the Caribbean-Jean Franco (chairman), Allen Johnson, Frank R. Safford, Lance Taylor, and Franklin Tugwell-at its meeting on February 9, 1979. It had been assisted by the Screening Committee-Pedro Cuperman, Joan Dassin, Peter B. Evans, Merilee S. Grindle, John Ingham, and Stuart Schwartz. Mary J . Alexander, Ph .D. candidate in sociology, Tufts University, for research in Trinidad and Jamaica on disease distribution in Trinidad and Tobago Christine C. Brewster, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, State University of New York at Binghamton, for research in Peru on pre-Columbian Andean urbanism Karen S. Canfield, Ph.D. candidate in history, University ot JAPAN New Mexico, for research in Mexico on cultural myths and public policy concerning children during the Under the program sponsored by the Joint Committee Porfiriato, 1884-1910. on Japanese Studies, the Subcommittee on Grants for Deborah A. Caro, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, The Research-Haruhiro Fukui (chairman), Koya Azumi, Gail Johns Hopkins University, for research in Bolivia on commercial and subsistence activities of Aymara Lee Bernstein, Masao Miyoshi, Thomas P. Rohlen, and pastoralists Gary R. Saxon house-at its meeting on March 16, 1979 Margaret A. Chowning, Ph.D. candidate in history, Stanvoted to make awards to the following individuals. The ford University, for research in Mexico on socioecosubcommittee had been assisted by the Screening Commitnomic power and political change in Michoacan, 1810tee for Asia-Stephan V. Beyer, Bruce Cumings, Susan 1867
Mariano Diaz-Miranda, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Texas, for research in Brazil and Cuba on the transition from slave to free labor in two tropical export economies Paul H. Dillon, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Cornell University, for research in Peru on the articulation of subsistence and capitalist forms of production Mauricio A. Font, Ph.D. candidate in sociology, University of Michigan, for research in Brazil and Colombia on. patterns of collective action by Brazilian and Colombian coffee planters, 1886-1946 Eleanor E. Glaessel-Brown, Ph.D. candidate in political science and population science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, for research in Colombia, the Dominican Republic, and the United States on Latin American immigrant labor in New England manufacturing William F. Hanks, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology and linguistics, University of Chicago, for research in Mexico on Yucatec Maya demonstrative particles in grammar and conversation Michael F. Jimenez, Ph.D. candidate in history, Harvard University, for research in Colombia on the history of Viota, a coffee-producing municipality, 1870-1970 Kathleen Kelleher, Ph.D. candidate in political science, University of Texas, for research in Cuba on the family and the state in revolutionary Cuba Alida C. Metcalf, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Texas, for research in Brazil on the relationship between the family and society in a Brazilian community, 17001850 Jeff D. Needell, Ph.D. candidate in history, Stanford University, for research in Brazil on elite culture and society in Rio de Janeiro, 1880-1922 Peter L. Reich, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of California, Los Angeles, for research in Mexico on the effects of government policy on popular participation in the Catholic church since 1930 Stephan Schwartzman, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Chicago, for research in Brazil on the division of labor in Panara society NEAR AND MIDDLE EAST
The following dissertation fellowships were awarded by the Doctoral Research Fellowship Selection Committee for the Near and Middle East-Elbaki Hermassi (chairman), Renata Holod, Afaf Lutfi al-Sayyid Marsot, Francis E. Peters, and Mark A. Tessler-at its meeting on March 17, 1979. It had been assisted by the Screening CommitteeMichael E. Bonine, Dale F. Eickelman, Joel Migdal, and Marilyn Waldman . Kenneth M. Cuno, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of California, Los Angeles, for research in Egypt on the social effects of economic change in rural Egypt during the reign of Muhammad Ali Pasha (1805-1848) Jo-Ann Gross, Ph.D. candidate in Near Eastern studies, New York University, for research in Turkey and the United Kingdom on concepts of political legitimacy and religious authority in the late Timurid period, as exemplified by the Naqshbandi Order Kristin Koptiuch, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Texas, for research in Egypt on traditional craftsmen in the modern market: the urban potters of Cairo and Qina Michael A. Marcus, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, New York University, for research in Morocco on how life 42
histories illuminate changes in social structure and cognitive style in an Islamic society Bruce A. Masters, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Chicago, for research in Syria on the commercial policies and practices of the 17th century merchants of Aleppo Thomas H. Park, Ph.D . candidate in anthropology and history, University of Wisconsin, for research in Morocco on jural and economic constraints on urban development Nadine F. Posner, Ph.D. candidate in Near Eastern studies and history, New York University, for research in Syria, Iraq, and Turkey, on regional administration in the Jazlrah in the first two centuries of the Muslim era SOUTH ASIA
The following dissertation fellowships were awarded by the Joint Committee on South Asia-Stanley J. Heginbotham (chairman), Marc Galanter, McKim Marriott, Michelle B. McAlpin, Barbara D. Metcalf, Wendy D. O'Flaherty, Karl H. Potter, andJohn Richards-at its meeting on March 18-19, 1979. The committee had been assisted by the Screening Committee for Asia-Stephan V. Beyer, Bruce Cumings, Susan Mann Jones, Richard Madsen, Susan K. Matisoff, Margaret A. McKean, Donald K. Swearer, Jean Taylor, and Sylvia J. Vatuk. Edith Brandstadter, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Wisconsin, for research in Madras and London on an administrative and social history of the French in South India, 1749-1759 Douglas E. Goodfriend, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Chicago, for research in New Delhi on cultural conceptions of space in urban India Manuel Moreno Arcas, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Chicago, for research in India on the social and cultural construction of solidarity within the bhakti traditions of South India Ann T. Grodzins Rose, Ph .D. candidate in anthropology, University of Chicago, for research in India on the values, motives, and practices of pilgrimage in popular Hinduism SOUTHEAST ASIA
The following dissertation fellowships were awarded by the Joint Committee on Southeast Asia-Stuart A. Schlegel (chairman), Benedict R. Anderson, Alton Becker, Daniel S. Lev, Michelle Z. Rosaldo, Donald R. Snodgrass , Alexander Woodside, and David K. Wyatt-at its meeting on March 28-29, 1979. The committee had been assisted by the Screening Committee for Asia-Stephan V. Beyer, Bruce Cumings, Susan Mann Jones, Richard Madsen, Susan K. Matisoff, Margaret A. McKean, Donald K. Swearer, Jean Taylor, and Sylvia J. Vatuk. Jean Bush Aden, Ph .D. candidate in political science, Cornell University, for research in Indonesia on the political factors affecting the disposition of oil revenues by the Indonesian state oil enterprise, Pertamina Elizabeth Coville, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Chicago, for research in Indonesia on ritual language and healing in Toraja medicine Uthai Dulyakasem, Ph.D . candidate in education, Stanford University, for research in Thailand and Malaysia on VOLUME
education and ethnic nationalism among the Muslim Malays in southern Thailand Nancy j. Eberhardt, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Illinois, for research in Thailand on cultural contributions to moral development among the Shan in northern Thailand janet A. Hoskins, Ph.D. candidate in social anthropology, Harvard University, for research in Indonesia on kinship categories and their symbolic representations among the Kodi on the island of Sumba Anna Tsing Lowenhaupt, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Stanford University, for research in Indonesia on the social creation of gender Philip Yampolsky, Ph.D. candidate in ethnomusicology, University of Washington, for research in Indonesia on the interaction of court and village music styles in central Java
University, for research in Ireland on the Irish Land League and the politics of popular insurrection Susan D. Mulcahy, Ph.D. candidate in ~nthropology, l!~i足 versity of Massachusetts, for research m Spam on pobtIcs and symbolism in Catalonia Robert F. Owen, Ph.D. candidate in economics, Princeton University, for research in France and Belgium on a disequilibrium model of credit rationing in France Anne T. Quartararo, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of California, Los Angeles, for research in France on the ecoles normales primaires d'institutrices, 1879-1914 Robert H. Ross, Ph.D. candidate in sociology, Yale University, for research in Italy on the politics of Italian university reform, 1958-1978 Michael H. Shank, Ph.D. candidate in the history of science, Harvard University, for research in Austria and West Germany on natural philosophy at the University of Vienna in the late 14th and early 15th centuries Paula L. Spilner, Ph.D. candidate in the history of art, Columbia University, for research in Italy on city design WESTERN EUROPE and civic ideals in Florence, 1282-1434 The following dissertation fellowships were awarded by Sharon K. Stephens, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Chicago, for research in Finland on ecothe Doctoral Research Fellowship Selection Committee for nomic rationalization among Finnish Lapps in the disWestern Europe-Juan j. Linz (chairman), Gerald D. trict of Inari Feldman, j. Lionel Gossman, Joseph Lopreato, and Elizabeth A. Williams, Ph.D. candidate in history, Indiana Michael J. Piore-at its meeting on March 2, 1979. It had University, for research in France on anthropological been assisted by the Screening Committee-Robert J. Bethought and institutions in France, 1839-1898 zucha, Robert j. Flanagan, Penny T. Gill, Jan T. Gross, Colin M. Winston, Ph .D. candidate in history, University of Wisconsin, for research in Spain and Italy on the Susan Harding, and Thomas W. Laqueur. Catholic right and social conflict in Catalonia, 1900George M. D. Anastaplo, Ph.D. candidate in the history of 1936 science. Princeton University, for research in the United Kathryn A. Woolard, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Kingdom on the community of academic mathemaUniversity of California, Berkeley, for research in Spain ticians in early 18th century Britain. on language, ethnicity, and power in Barcelona Gail M. Bossenga, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Michigan, for research in France on corporatism in Lille during the French revolution Herrick E. Chapman, Ph.D. candidate in history, Univer- GRANTS FOR INTERNATIONAL sity of California, Berkeley, for research in France on POSTDOCTORAL RESEARCH industrial conflict in the French aircraft industry, 1930-1950 Caridad de Moya, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Yale AFRICA University, for research in Spain on the Spanish ComThe Joint Committee on African Studies-Steven munist party from Marxism-Leninism to EurocomFeierman (chairman), Dan Ben-Amos, Abdalla S. Bujra, munism Barry j. Eichengreen, Ph.D. candidate in economics, Yale john M. janzen, Paul M. Lubeck, August H. Nimtz, jr., University, for research in the United Kingdom on Peter Anyang' Nyong'o, Diann H. Painter, Stanley British com mercial policy, 1919- 1939 Trapido, and Marcia Wright-at its meeting on March Catherine A. Esser, Ph.D. candidate in government, Cornell University, for research in France on the Caisse des 3-5, 1979, made awards to the following individuals: Depots in four French regions Brenda F. Berrian, assistant professor of black studies, Miriam A. Golden, Ph.D. candidate in government, CorUniversity of Pittsburgh, for research in Ghana, Nigeria. nell University, for research in Italy on the political conand Kenya on the image of the African woman in the sequences of internal labor migration in Turin literary works of female African writers A. Richard Gringeri, Ph.D. candidate in history, University John Miller Chernoff, research fellow, Trinity College, of California, Berkeley, for research in France on Marcel Ghana, for research in northern Ghana on an ethnoMauss and the development of French ethnology, graphic survey of the Dagomba people Ann Fleuret, associate professor of anthropology, Califor1917-1950 nia State University, Los Angeles, for research in Kenya Anita j. joplin, Ph.D. candidate in the history of art, University of California, Berkeley, for research in Austria, on an ecological assessment of nutritional status in the Taita Hills Belgium, Italy, the United Kingdom, and West Germany on the flower paintings of jan Brueghel the Elder and Alan Frishman, assistant professor of economics, Hobart the encyclopedic collections of the 16th and 17th cenand William Smith Colleges, for research in Nigeria on turies small-scale residential location and spatial growth in Jeffrey Kallberg, Ph.D. candidate in music, University of Kano Chicago, for research in France on compositional pro- Irving Gershenberg, associate professor of economics, Boscess in the works of Frederic Chopin ton State College, for research in Kenya on the education Katherine M. McFate, Ph.D. candidate in sociology, Yale and training of managers by transnational corporations JUNE
consin, for research in Taiwan and the United States on Kenneth W. Grundy, professor of political science, Case Western Reserve University, for research in the United the development of Taiwanese fiction from 1923 to the present Kingdom on the racial component in the South African armed forces Victor Nee, assistant professor of sociology, University of Peter C. W. Gutkind, professor of anthropology, McGill California, Santa Barbara, for research in Hong Kong University, for research in Ghana on a history of the and the People's Republic of China on the impact of canoemen and surfboatmen of the Gold Coast, from collectivization on peasant life in a Chinese lineage village 1600 to 1959, and of the dockworkers since 1928 Jane I. Guyer, research associate, Boston University, for Edwin A. Winckler, assistant professor of sociology, research in Cameroun on regional and historical variaColumbia University, for research in the United States tion in Beti food cultivation on the "participation crisis" in Taiwan Martha B. Kendall, associate professor, Indiana University, Arthur P. Wolf, associate professor of anthropology and for research in Mali on mother-infant interactions and human biology, Stanford University, for research in the the Bambara-Maninka theory of the child. United States on social and economic determinants of fertility in rural China Peter Koehn, principal research fellow, Ahmadu Bello University, for research in northern Nigeria on the impact of contemporary political change on urban develResearch on the Chinese economy opment Patrick Manning, instructor, Canada College, for research At its meeting on January 27, 1979, the Subcommittee in France on the public finance of French West Africa Sally Falk Moore, professor of anthropology, University of on Research on the Chinese Economy-Robert F. DernCalifornia, Los Angeles, for research in Tanzania on law berger (chairman), Robert M. Hartwell, Dwight H. Perkins, in changing political contexts from 1880-1980 in Thomas G. Rawski, and Benjamin Ward-made its recKilimanjaro District ommendations to the Joint Committee on Contemporary Maxwell K. Owusu, associate professor of anthropology, China concerning grants. The Joint Committee approved University of Michigan, for research in Ghana on representation, indigenous political cultures, and constitution awards to the following individuals: making Dennis L. Chinn, assistant professor of economics, StanWilliam J. Samarin, professor of linguistics, University of ford University, for research in the People's Republic of Toronto, for research in Western Europe and the China and the United States on the structure, performUnited States on colonization and the development of ance, and relevance of Chinese team farming for other African linguae francae developing countries Marc R. Schloss, visiting professor of anthropology, Uni- Norma Diamond, professor of anthropology, University of versity of South Carolina, for research in Senegal on Michigan, for research in the People's Republic of China taboos and blood symbolism in Ehing initiation on economic development and social change in Taitou village since 1949 (jointly supported with the Joint Committee on Contemporary China) CHINA Yeh-chien Wang, associate professor of history, Kent State Research in Contemporary and University, for research in Taiwan and the United States Republican China on grain prices during the Ch'ing dynasty The Joint Committee on Contemporary China-John Wilson Lewis (chairman), Burton Pasternak (vice chair- M elton Fellowships for Chinese Studies man), Cyril Birch, Paul A. Cohen, Robert F. Dernberger, The Liaison Committee of the Joint Committee on ConMerle Goldman, Victor H. Li, Richard Solomon, and Martemporary China and the American Council of Learned tin K. Whyte-at its meeting on February 23-24, 1979 Societies' Committee on Studies of Chinese Civilizationawarded grants to the following individuals: Guy S. Alitto, assistant professor of history, University of John Wilson Lewis, Frederic Wakeman,Jack L. Dull, Merle Akron, for research in Taiwan on local social and politi- Goldman, Donald J. Munro, and Burton Pasternak-at its cal history of the Wan Hsi area from late Ch'ing through meeting on March 4, 1979 awarded Mellon Fellowships for 1949 Chinese Studies. These fellowships are administered by the Chin~-mao Cheng, professor of Chinese and Japanese, American Council of Learned Societies. Fellowships were University of Massachusetts, for research in Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Japan on the Japanese impact on mod- awarded to the following individuals: ern Chinese writers Deborah Davis-Friedmann, assistant professor of sociolADVANCED STUDY AND RESEARCH AT MAJOR UNIVERSITY ogy, Yale University, for research in the United States on CENTERS OF CHINESE STUDIES the Chinese rural and urban elderly Donald R. DeGlopper, assistant professor of anthropology, Katheryn Linduff, assistant professor of fine arts, University of Pittsburgh, for the study of Chinese archeology at Cornell University, for research in Taiwan on variation Harvard University in social relations of people in several occupational Paul S. Ropp, assistant professor of history, Memphis State groups University, for the study of historical sociology and Norma Diamond, professor of anthropology, University of Michigan, for research in the People's Republic of China Chinese literature of the Ch'ing period at the University of Michigan on economic development and social change in Taitou village since 1949 (jointly supported with the Subcom- William Wei, assistant professor of history, Indiana State University, for the study of sociology and political scimittee on Research on the Chinese Economy) ence at the University of Michigan Joseph S. M. Lau, professor of Chinese, University of Wis-
ADVANCED LANGUAGE STUDY AND RESEARCH
versity of Pittsburgh, for research in japan on the residential mobility and changing composition of families in R. David Arkush, assistant professor of history, University a former samurai neighborhood of a japanese town, of Iowa, for the study of japanese and for research in 1872-1979 japan on Chinese peasant ideas and values in the first Patricia M. Clancy, Ph.D. in linguistics, University of half of the 20th century California, Berkeley, for research in the United States on Susan N. Arkush, assistant professor of fine arts, Indiana the emergence and development of discourse skills University, for the study of japanese in japan among japanese children ... . Miriam Levering, assistant professor of religion and East Asian studies, Oberlin College, for the study of Gerald L. Curtis, professor of polItical SCience, Columbia University, for research in japan on patterns of japanese Taiwanese, modern Mandarin, and classical Chinese, official policy making on development assistance and and for research in Taiwan on the ,ritual, practice, and social security pension programs . social context of a Buddhist convent Norman j. Glickman, associate professor of city planmng and regional science, University of Pennsylvania, for reEASTERN EUROPE search in the United States and japan on inter-regional welfare differentials and government policies to reduce The joint Committee on Eastern Europe (administered disparities between high and low-welfare regions in the by the American Council of Learned Societies)-Peter F. United States and japan Sugar (chairman), Vernon V. Aspaturian, Morris Born- V. Lee Hamilton, assistant professor of sociology, Universtein, William G. Lockwood, Thomas G. Winner, and Dean sity of Michigan, for research in the United States and S. Worth-at its meeting on March 9, 1979 made awards to japan on public judgments of responsibility and punishment for wrongdoing the following individuals: Howard S. Hibbett, professor of japanese literature, HarBohdan R. Bociurkiw, professor of political science, Carlevard University, for research in the United States and. ton University, Ottawa, for research on institutional relijapan on the survival, vitality, and social, historical, and gion and political-social change in the socialist systems of critical context of traditional japanese humor Eastern Europe Akira Komai, professor of japanese, University of Melvin Croan, professor of political science, University of Chicago, for research in the United States and japan on Wisconsin, for research on the cultural revolutIOn, the syntax and morphology of documentary style sociocultural reactions, and political change In Eastern japanese of the late Edo and prewar periods Europe Margaret A. McKean, assistant professor of political sciThomas j. Doulis, professor of comparative literature, ence, Duke University, for research in the United States, Portland State University, for research on modern Greek japan, and the People's Republic of China on the implihistorical fiction, 1830-1880 cations for democratic values and institutions of current Zbigniew M. Fallenbuchl, professor of economics, U~iver足 problems in the allocation of scarce public goods in sity of Windsor, Ontario, for research on economIC dejapan velopment under socialist central planning: The case of Robert M. Marsh, professor of sociology, Brown UniverPoland sity, for research in the United States on size, orgaCharles Gati, professor of political science, Union College, nizational structure, and other characteristics as causes for research on the quest for power in Hungary, 1944of conflict in japanese universities, 1968-69 48 Masako Osaka, adjunct assistant professor of sociology, joan E. Holmes, assistant professor of German, University University of Illinois, Chicago Circle, for research in the of Kansas, for research on cultural politics in the GerUnited States and japan on the role of religious ideas in man Democratic Republic, 1975-1978 the development of forest preservation in Tokugawa Vida T. johnson, assistant professor of Slavic languages, japan Tufts University, for research on the major fiction of Ivo Gilbert Rozman, associate professor of sociology, Princeton Andric University, for research in the United States on japan's Nicholas M. Nagy-Talavera, professor of history, Califor19th century transformation from a country of castle nia State University, Chico, for research on the cities into one of modern urban centers historian-politician in Eastern Europe during the 19th Thomas A. Stanley, visiting lecturer, University of Arizona, and 20th centuries for research in japan on the japanese police and their Frank Sysyn, assistant professor of history, Harvard Unieffect on thought in the Taisho period, 1912-1926 versity, for research on the national consciousness, his- Marian Ury, associate professor of comparative lite~ature, tory, and political culture of early modern Eastern University of California, Davis, for research 10 the Europe: the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth United States and japan on the Tales ofGenji as a whole Katherine M. Verdery, assistant professor of anthropolin terms of Western critical techniques ogy, The johns Hopkins University, for research on D. Eleanor Westney, assistant professor of sociology, Yale social and economic systems in Transylvania, 1700-1918 University, for research-in the United States on industrialization and organizational change in Tokugawa and JAPAN Meiji j a p a n . .. . Under the program sponsored by the joint Committee james W. White, associate professor of pol~tlcal sCle~ce, University of North Carolina, for research 10 the Umted on japanese Studies, the Subcommittee on Grants for States and japan on internal migration and political and Research-Haruhiro Fukui (chairman), Koya Azumi, Gail social change in japan, 1850-1880 Lee Bernstein, Masao Miyoshi, Thomas P. Rohlen, and KOREA Gary R. Saxonhouse-at its meeting on March 16, 1979 voted to make awards to the following individuals: The joint Committee on Korean Studies-john C. L. Keith Brown, associate professor of anthropology, Uni- jamieson (chairman), Bruce Cumings, Gari K. Ledyard, JUNE 1979
Chae-Jin Lee, Young I. Lew, Youngil Lim, David R. McCann, and James B. Palais-at its meeting on March 11, 1979 awa~ded grants to the following individuals: George Glnsburgs, professor of law, Rutgers University, for research in the Soviet Union on the legal framework of economic relations between the U.S.S.R. and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea from 1949 to the present Fujiya Kawashim~, ass~ciate professor .of history, Bowling Green State Umverslty, for research In the United States on the role and structure of the local gentry association (hyangan) in Ch'angnyong county (Korea) from 1607 to 1820 Hee Sung Keel, assistant professor of world religion, St. Olaf College, for research in the United States on the life and thought of Sosan Taesa, a 16th century Korean Buddhist monk Hagen Ko~, a~sociate professor of sociology, Memphis State Umverslty, for research in Korea on class relations and the transformation of class structure in relation to rapid economic development Paul \Y. K~znets, associate professor of economics, Indiana U mverslty, for research in Taiwan and Korea on the ~mpact of export expansion on industrialization MIchael ~. Robins(;>n, University of Washington, for research In the Umted States on the origins and development of ~orean. nationalist ideology Dong Jae Ylm, assIstant professor of history, Bridgewater State College, for research in the United States on the elite of the Yi bureaucracy LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN
The Joint Committee on Latin American Studies-Carlos Diaz-Alejandro (chairman), Engenio Chang-Rodriguez, Albert Fishlow, Shepard Forman, Friedrich Katz, Larissa Lomnitz, Juarez Rubens Brandao Lopes, Guillermo O'Donnell, and Hans-Jiirgen Puhle-at its meeting on March 8-10, 1979 awarded grants to the following individuals: Rodn~y D. Ande~son,. associate professor of history, Flonda State Umverslty, for research in Mexico on the social history of workers in Guadalaiara Mexico 18601930 :J' , Lyle ~ampbell, associate professor of anthropology, State Um,:erslty of New York at Albany, for research in ~exlco and Guatemala on Mesoamerican linguistic prehIstory David Collier, associate professor of political science University of California, Berkeley, for research on' state, labor, and regime in Latin America Joan D~ssin, ass~stant professor of English and Latin Ame;lcan studIes, Amherst College, for research in BrazIl on press censorship, 1964-1978 Jose Francisco de la Peria, research assistant, Institute for Adv;:mced StU?y (Princeton, New Jersey), for research on the formation of Latin American oligarchies Gonzalo E. Falabella, researcher, St. Anthony's College, Oxford, for research on labor unions in Chile since 1973 Boris Fausto, legal officer, University of Sao Paulo for research in Brazil on crime and delinquency in the city of Sao Paulo, 1884-1924 Juan-Carlos Garavaglia, conference director, School of Advanced Studies in Social Science, Paris, for research in Bolivia, Brazil, and Paraguay on the peasant economy of Paraguay and the comunero rebellions, 1680-1750 Manuel Antonio Garret6n, professor and research coor-
dinator, Latin American Faculty of the Social Sciences (F~AC~O), S~ntiago, for research on the university and socIety In ChJle, 1967-1977 Robert? Gonzalez-Echevarria, associate professor of Spamsh, Yale Uni~ersity, fo~ research .on the concept of cUltur.e and the Idea of hterature In modern Latin Amenca Leandro Gutierrez, associate researcher, Center for the Study of the .State and. Society (CEDES), Buenos Aires, for research In Argentina on conditions of material life among the Buenos Aires working class, 1880-1914 Thomas Clevel':lnd ~olt, associate professor of history, Harvard Umverslty, for research in England and Jamaica on Jamaica's political, economic, and social adjustments to .emancipation, 1833-1884 He~bert S. Klein, professor of history, Columbia UniverSlty, for research in Bolivia on the social and economic history of the Aymara Indians, 1750-1870 Norbert Lechner, professor and researcher, Latin American Facu~ty of .Social Sciences (FLACSO), Santiago, for research In ChIle on the foundations of the democratic state Murdo J. MacLeod, professor of history, University of Pittsburgh, for research on forms and styles of work and the acculturation of the Indian in colonial Mesoamerica Edward M. Mendelson, professor of comparative literature, Rutgers University, for research in Guatemala on the Maximon Scandals and the religious history of Santiago Atitlan, Guatemala Mar~o. Palacios, professor and researcher, EI Colegio de M~xlco, for research in Colombia on regional fragmentation of power. and political centralization, 1903-1930 Dagmar RaczynskI, researcher, Corporation for Economic Research .on L':ltin America (CIEPLAN), Santiago, for research In ChJle on the determinants of rural-urban migration, 1965-1970 Dario Sarachaga, researcher, Center for Economic Research (CINVE )'. M?ntevideo, for research in Uruguay on import substitutIOn and development strategies Jorge Schvarzer, researcher, Center for Social Research on the State and Administration (CISEA), Buenos Aires for research in Argentina on the national bourgeoisie 'and models of development, 1966-1976 Doug~as ~. Sharon,. assis~ant researcher in anthropology, Umverslty of Cahforma, Los Angeles, for research in Peru on northern Peruvian folk-healing therapy Robin Shoemaker, assist~nt pro~essor, Damavand College, Teheran, for research In MeXICO on the effects of the oil boom on ~exico's t~opical frontier agriculture Karen Spalding,. assocIate professor of history, University of Delaware, for research in Peru on the origins of the Peruvian bourgeoisie, 1850-1895 . Barb~ra L. Stark, .asso~iate professor of anthropology, Anzona State Umverslty, for research in Guatemala on the economic organization of a prehistoric center in coastal Guatemala William B. Taylor, professor of history, University of Colorado, for research in Mexico on peasants and brokers in rural Mexico, 1750-1876 Miguel Urrutia, executive director, Foundation for Higher Educa,tion and Dev~lopment (FEDESARROLLO), Bogota, for research In Colombia on the relations betwe.en government institutions and interest groups and theIr effect on the design and implementation of macroeconomic policy NEAR AND MIDDLE EAST
The Joint Committee on the Near and Middle EastVOLUME
Francis E. Peters (chairman), Ali Banuazizi, Richard W. Robert 1. Levy, professor of anthropology, University of California, San Diego, for research in London on the Bulliet, Elbaki Hermassi, Robert J. Lapham, $erif Mardin, spatial and social organization of the Newar Hindu city Ann Elizabeth Mayer, and Amal Rassam-at its meeting on of Bhaktapur, Nepal February 17-18. 1979 awarded grants to the following: Ludwig W. Adamec, professor of Near Eastern studies, James G. Manor, lecturer in politics, University of Leicester, for research in Sri Lanka and the United Kingdom University of Arizona, for research in Afghanistan on on S.W.R.D. Bandaranaike and the politics of modern the leftist movement in the 20th century Sri Lanka Said A. Arjomand, assistant professor of sociology, State A. K. Ramanujan, professor of Dravidian Studies, UniverUniversity of New York, Stony Brook, for research in sity of Chicago, for a study of Kannada folk tales Iran on religion, ideology, and politics, 1848-1978 Rosane Rocher, associate professor of Indo-Aryan lanL. Carl Brown, professor of Near Eastern studies, Princeguages, University of Pennsylvania. for a study of the ton University, for research on the "Eastern Question" Sanskrit legal text, Vivadarnavasetu and contemporary interpretations of Middle Eastern in- Ruth Laila Schmidt, research associate, Center for South ternational relations and Southeast Asian Studies, University of California, Norman L. Cigar, assistant professor of history, University Berkeley, for research in Pakistan on the oral traditions of Wisconsin, for research in Morocco on society and of Shina politics in Fez, 1660-1830 Weiner, professor of political science, MassachuCarter V. Findley, assistant professor of history, Ohio State Myron setts Institute of Technology, for research in Kuwait and University, for research on the social, economic. and other Persian Gulf states on the determinants, consecultural life of the late Ottoman bureaucracy quences, prospects, and long-term implications of Indian Jeffrey G. Heath, assistant professor oflinguistics, Harvard labor migration (joint with the Joint Committee on the University, for research in Morocco on colloquial Arabic Near and Middle East) in the city of Meknes Noel Kaplowitz, assistant professor of political science, Mills College, for research on Arab and Israeli self and adversarial images SOUTHEAST ASIA Brinkley Messick, visiting assistant professor, New York The Joint Committee on Southeast Asia-Stuart A. University, for an ethnographic study in the Yemen Arab Republic of legal processes in the Shari'a courts Schlegal (chairman), Benedict R. Anderson, Alton Becker, Fauzi M. Najjar, professor of social science, Michigan State Daniel S. Lev, Michelle Z. Rosaldo, Donald R. Snodgrass, University, for research in Egypt on constitutional Alexander Woodside, and David K. Wyatt-at its meeting change and modernization in Egypt, 1952- 1970 William L. Ochsenwald, associate professor of history, Vir- on March 28-29, 1979 awarded grants to the following: ginia Polytechnic Institute, for research in the United Michael Aung-Thwin, research associate, Center for South and Southeast Asian Studies, University of Michigan, for Kingdom on the history of the Hijaz, 1840-1908 research on the classical Burmese state Myron Weiner, professor of political science. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, for research in Kuwait and William A. Collins, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of California, Berkeley, for a translation and other Persian Gulf states on the determinants, conseanalysis of a traditional Indonesian guritan epic quences, prospects, and long-term implications of Indian labor migration (joint with the Joint Committee on Bruce Cruikshank, research associate in Southeast Asian area studies, University of Wisconsin, for a study of the South Asia) Franciscans in the Philippines, 1578- 1898 Madeline C. Zilfi, assistant professor of history, University of Maryland, for research in Turkey on the Ottoman Judith L. Ecklund, postdoctoral fellow, Tulane University, for research in Indonesia and the Netherlands on Sasak religious establishment, 1669-1703 marriage patterns, allegiance, and the use of traditional SOUTH ASIA texts The Joint Committee on South Asia-Stanley J. Hegin- John F. Hartmann, assistant professor of foreign languages and literatures, Northern Illinois University, for botham (chairman), Marc Galanter, McKim Marriott, research on the function and meaning of a Black Michelle B. McAlpin, Barbara D. Metcalf, Wendy D. Thai origin myth O'Flaherty, Karl H. Potter. and John Richards-at its meet- Noeleen Heyzer, research assistant in sociology and politiing on March 18-19, 1979 awarded grants to the following: cal science, Cambridge University, for research in Singapore on the problems of small-scale local industries Jnanabrata Bhattacharyya. associate professor of political science, Southern Illinois University, for research in Franklin E. Huffman, associate professor of linguistics and Bangladesh on peasant movements in Bengal Asian studies, Cornell University. for a descriptive and Carol A. Breckenridge, research associate, Institute for the comparative study of Austroasiatic languages in ThaiStudy of Human Issues (Philadelphia). for research on land the social implications of a sacred cuisine in South India. Judith A. Nagata, associate professor of anthropology, James M. Freeman, professor of anthropology, San Jose York University, for research on the ethnic, political, and State University, for completion of a book on the life class implications of religious movements in Malaysia histories of five South Asians Jerome Rousseau. associate professor of anthropology, Judith Mara Gutman, Nyack, New York, for research on McGill University, for research in Indonesia on inIndian accomodation to technology, 1840-1920, terethnic relations and social structure in central Borneo through a study of the photograph as a cultural artifact Keith Taylor, visitins- lecturer in English language and Richard W. Lariviere, visiting lecturer in South Asian reliterature, Meiji Umversity, for research on the transition gional studies, University of Pennsylvania, for editing, of Vietnamese society from a dependency of the Chinese translating, and annotating the Hindu legal treatise. imperial system to a fully independent kingdom in the 9th, 10th, and lith centuries Naradasmrti JUNE 1979
Council's Board Honors Eleanor Bernert Sheldon The Council's Board of Directors, at a special meeting held on March 24, 1979, unanimously passed a resolution honoring Eleanor Bernert Sheldon, who had been succeeded in the presidency of the Council by Kenneth Prewitt four days previously, on March 19, 1979. The text of the resolution, which was signed by Otto N. Larsen, chairman of the board, Philip W. Jackson, chairman of the Executive Committee, and Dwight H. Perkins, chairman of the Committee on Problems and Policy, is as follows:
To Eleanor Bernert Sheldon, who led the Social Science Research Council as president in the years from 1972 to 1979, guiding the enterprise skillfully while preserving a vision of its larger purposes, expanding its program in a variety of new directions, seeking to maintain the highest standards in its research projects and committees, and serving the interests of both the social sciences and society in vigorous representation at home and abroad, The Board of Directors extends this expression of gratitude and admiration.
SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH COUNCIL 605
THIRD AVENUE, NEW YORK, N .Y .
Incorporated in the State of Illinois, December 27, 1924, for the purpose of advancing research in the social sciences Directors. 1978-79: IRMA ADELMAN , ROSEDITH SITGREAVES BOWKER, ROB ERT EISNER, jACOBj. FELDMAN, CLIFFORD GEERTZ, PETER R. GOULD, PHILIP W . JACKSON, FRANKLIN W. KNIGHT, GERALD H . KRAMER, JANE B. LANCASTER, OTTO N. LARSEN, ROBERT A. LEVINE, CORA BAGLEY MARRETT, PAUL H. MUSSEN, SAMUEL C. PATTERSON, KENNETH PREWITT, MURRAY L. SCHWARTZ, STEPHAN A. THERNSTROM Officers and Staff'
ExeClltive Associate; L.
MARTHA A. GEPHART, DONALD j. HERNANDEZ, ROBERTA BALSTAD MILLER, ROWLAND READ, RICHARD C. ROCKWELL, LONNIE R . SHERROD, DAVID CARMICHAEL McMANUS, Librarian
GEORGE REID ANDREWS, RONALD AQUA, ROBERT A. GATES,
L. PETERSON, PETER B. Assistant Treasurer; NANCY
MITCHELL, jR., ROBERT PARKE, JAME'S
SZANTON, ANNE F. THURSTON; MARTHA W . FORMAN,