SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH COUNCIL
GEORGETOWN UNIVERSITY CENTER FOR POPULATION RESEARCH
VOLUME 32 â€˘ NUMBER 2 â€˘ JUNE 1978 605 THIRD AVENUE. NEW YORK, N.Y. 10016
Conflict in Postwar Japan by Ellis S. Krauss, Thomas P. Rohlen, and Patricia G. Steinhoff*
ALTHOUGH MANY WESTERN SCHOLARS of Japan have litical process or in intrainstitutional relations. Often studied conflict-related phenomena, they have sel- these conflicts are of the type associated with social dom challenged the assumptio~ that Japan enjoys change in advanced industrial societies. For example, markedly lower levels of conflict than Western Japan in recent decades has witnessed many student societies. Attempts to explain this difference have and mass protest movements that reflect the existence tended to reinforce the image of Japan as a harmoni- of severe generational cleavages, value conflicts, and ous society that resolves those conflicts that do arise political alienation. Rapid economic growth has stimulated new tensions in industrial relations and relatively easily by consensual processes. There is a curious anomaly in Western research on has increased dissensus over the costs and benefits of Japan. On the one hand, our images of Japanese industrialization. There has been intense conflict over society and of its interinstitutional relations have emphasized collective unity in the society, ranging from Chie N akane's influential concept of Japan as a "verPresidential Search Committee Appointed tical society"! to the popular stereotype of "Japan, On May 15,1978 Alice S. Rossi, University of MassaInc." Microlevel studies have tended to reinforce the chusetts, chairman of the Council's Board of Directors, announced that Eleanor Bernert Sheldon would be . stereotype of "polite" Japanese seeking the social lea virig the presidency of the Council. Followingconsulharmony idealized in traditionalJapanese culture and tation with the Board and the Executive Committee, Confucian tradition. Thus, studies of rural villages in Mrs. Rossi appointed a Presidential Search Committee Japan have portrayed them as harmonious comcomprised of the following: munities, and studies of small-group processes have Philip E. Converse, University of Michigan (chairfocused on the important role played by group idenman) tification and consensual processes in interpersonal William Gorham, The Urban Institute relations and decision making. (Washington, D.C.) Tamara Haraven, Clark University On the other hand, numerous public issues in Lawrence R. Klein, University of Pennsylvania postwar Japan have involved conflict either in the po-
* Ellis S.
Krauss is a political scientist at Western Washington University and a member of the Joint Committee on Japanese Studies of the Social Science Research Council and the American Council of Learned Societies; Thomas P. Rohlen is an anthropologist at the University of California, Santa Cruz; Patricia G. Steinhoff is a sociologist and social psychologist at the U niversity of Hawaii. 1 Chie Nakane, Japanese Society (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1970). The original version was published under the title of Tate-shakai no Ningen Kankei "The Human Relations of a Vertical Society" (Tokyo:Kodansha, 1967).
Sally Falk Moore, University of California, Los Angeles Robert Parke, SSRC Center for Coordination of Research on Social Indicators Karl E: Taeuber, University of Wisconsin Members of the social science community who would like to propose candidates for president of the Council are urged to communicate directly with Mr. Converse, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48104. 21
environmental and minority (burakumin 2 ) rights issues. And, increasing rivalry among government and opposition parties and within the policy-making process have become major concerns of observers of japanese politics. Yet, because of the assumption of unity, consensus, and harmony prevalent both in the study of japanese society and in small group research, such conflicts have at best been interpreted as forms of ritualized expression tangential to fundamental patterns of unity. Western social science conflict theories have rarely been used to understand the genesis, dynamics, or consequences of these issues. We are confronted then with two curious paradoxes in scholarly research on postwar japan: a society portrayed as relatively nonconflictual in structure and in interpersonal relations but that obviously has been experiencing intense change and conflict; an advanced industrial society with its attendant strains and tensions to which Western social scientists have never systematically applied some of the most important theories dealing with conflict. 3 It was dissatisfaction both with the failure of the consensual paradigm to provide a fully realistic portrayal of contemporary Japan and with the failure of scholars to apply systematic theories of conflict to japan that led a small group of japan specialists in the social sciences to initiate a project on "Conflict in Postwar japan" under the auspices of the joint Committee on japanese Studies of the American Council of Learned Societies and the Social Science Research Council. 4 Two planning meetings in 1975 and 1976 2 Literallv. "special hamlet people." The burakumin are descendents of the inhabitants of communities which in the first millenium of japanese history came to be considered outcaste settlements since their residents were "defiled." See George De Vos and Hiroshi Wagatsuma, editors, Japan's Invisible Race: Caste in Culture and Personality (Berkeley: University of California Press.
developed specific goals for the project and identified needed areas of research and specialists in the United States and japan whose research was relevant to those areas. 5 This work led to the first full workshop of the project held in the summer of 1977, with a second workshop scheduled for the spring of 1979.
Project goals The goals of the project derive directly from the anomalies and weaknesses in previous research on japan. First, the project aims at revising and refining the prevailing view of "harmonious japan" by giving proper weight to the conflict which exists in that society. We intend neither merely to document the presence of such conflict nor to deny the consensual and integrating tendencies that are present-dubious and superficial intellectual tasks at best; rather, we assume the parallel reality of conflict and consensus and want to proceed to a systematic examination of the relationships between these coexisting realities as the first step toward constructing a new and more appropriate general paradigm of japanese society. A second major goal of the project is to apply the propositions of conflict theories developed by Western social scientists to japan. As noted above, this major theoretical orientation has rarely been tested in japanese society. We believe that the rich body of concepts and propositions on conflict that exists in the theoretical literature can help explicate important social and political phenomena in postwar japan. Equally important, conflict theories developed and applied solely within Western cultures may need respecification or revision to account for the facts of japanese society. The intent here is not to retreat into an emphasis on the cultural uniqueness of japan but to insist that theories which purport to be universal must also be able to explain the japanese case. A third aim of the project is to encourage the cross-fertilization of ideas and approaches among scholars from various social science disciplines. There
3 This generalization also applies to most japanese scholarship. With the exception of Marxian approaches generally, and the fields of the sociology of law and family law specifically, there have been few empirical studies using conflict theories derived from Western social science. See the bibliographic review by Tetsuo Najita, University of Chicago; David W. Plath, University Masaji Chiba, Tokyo Metropolitan University, "Conflict Studies of Illinois; Seizaburo Sato, University of Tokyo; and Ezra F. in japan: An Introductory Review," specially commissioned for Vogel, Harvard University; staff, Ronald Aqua. this project and available from the organizers. 5 Numerous scholars attended the planning meetings and con4 In addition to the organizing committee, Gerald L. Curtis, tributed suggestions, ideas, and criticisms that greatly aided the Columbia University, then chairman of the joint Committee on organizing committee in accomplishing these tasks: john W. japanese Studies, was especially instrumental in stimulating the Bennett, Washington University; Gail Bernstein, University of initiation of the project. The present membership of the joint Arizona; Scott C. Flanagan, Florida State University; Chalmers A. Committee on japanese Studies is Hugh T . Patrick, Yale Univer- johnson, University of California, Berkeley; Richard johnson, sity (chairman) ; Karen W. Brazell, Cornell University; Robert E. Stanford University; Christie W. Kiefer, University of California, Cole, University of Michigan; Haruhiro Fukui, University of San Francisco; Herbert Passin, Columbia University; David W. California, Santa Barbara; Ellis S. Krauss, Western Washington Plath, University of Illinois; and Kurt Steiner, Stanford UniverUniversity; Masao Miyoshi, University of California, Berkeley; sity.
is also a need to bring together scholars whose work relates to the individual and interpersonal level of japanese society and those whose work relates to the interorganizational, institutional, and societal levels. Only by such cross-fertilization can we hope to arrive at an understanding of how patterns of conflict and conflict resolution are linked or transformed as one goes from the individual to the small group and on to institutional and societal phenomena. Consequently, an interdisciplinary and interlevel approach can help to resolve the contradiction between the image of harmonious and stable social relations and structure on the one hand, and of conflictual and changing institutional and political processes on the other. Finally, we wish to develop a group of specialists on japan with an understanding of Western social science conflict theories and their relevance to japanese society and politics. It is hoped that these specialists will then apply insights gained from their participation in the project to future work. Given the tendency among both japan specialists and others to assume the uniqueness of japanese society, this "training" goal takes on added significance as part of a continuing interest of the joint committee in integrating research on japan into the mainstream of comparative social science theory.
Project themes and research strategy No commonly accepted "conflict theory" exists. In reality there are many theories of conflict and many theoretical approaches not explicitly focused on conflict which nonetheless offer important and relevant insights into the phenomena. Each of these approaches includes several variations proposed by individual theorists. Although some have tried to classify and synthesize,6 we still lack an accepted general theory of conflict. Thus, the state of conflict theory parallels the state of the social sciencesmultiple paradigms are in use simultaneously, either explaining different phenomena, or offering different explanations of the same phenomena. Given the state of the field and the range of disciplines and research interests represented among our participants, arbitrarily to adopt a single approach would be to force research into an artificial common mold; to 6 See, for example, Clinton F. Fink, "Some Conceptual Difficulties in the Theory of Social Conflict,"Journal of Conflict Resolution, 12 (1968); R. Mack and R. Snyder, "The Analysis of Social Conflict," Journal of Conflict Resolution, 1 (1957); Robin M. Williams, Jr., "Conflict and Social Order: A Research Strategy for Complex Propositions,"Journal ofSocinllssues, 28 (February 1972), among others.
provide no guidance in theoretical orientation would be to risk producing no integrating themes linking disparate theories from each discipline. Instead, we decided on a project strategy of allowing participants great flexibility in the selection of the conflict theory(ies) most suitable to their analysis, but that also provides them with a simple framework for ordering the mass of competing theories, for guiding their research, and for eventually integrating their findings. In reviewing the theoretical literature on conflict, we became aware of three major themes underlying approaches to the analysis of conflict, each with an identifiable body of literature in the social sciences. The first was the difznition and perception of conflict, or how people view, define, experience, and rationalize conflict. Central to this theme are questions of cultural ideals, of conscious recognition or denial of dissensus, and of ideologies and symbols that give meaning to the experience of conflict. Many theories have been concerned with these questions, ranging from theories of culture and political culture, of ideology, of class consciousness and false consciousness, and of anomie, to psychoanalytic theory, ego psychology, labeling theory, cognitive consistency theory, and field theory. The second major theme was the processes of conflict in interpersonal and intergroup behavior. This theme focuses on the expression of conflict in interaction and the patterning of such interaction over time. It is here that the issues of the emergence, development, escalation, repression, resolution, institutionalization, and ritualization of conflict behavior are raised, along with related questions concerning communication, bargaining, mediation, and decision making. Exchange theory, game theory, communications theory, coalition theory, decision-making theory, and symbolic interaction theory are relevant here. Finally, both the perception and the process of conflict are affected by the structure and patterning of the social context in which they take place, a theme we call the structure of conflict. Questions of structure include those of the socioeconomic, cultural, and political cleavages as latent sources of conflict, and the arrangement of these cleavages (e.g., cumulative versus crosscutting) as variables affecting the dynamics, intensity, and resolution or escalation potential of conflict. Also, organizational characteristics and the patterning of role expectations affect both internal and interpersonal tensions and the conflict process within and between groups. Along with game theory, role theory, organizational theory, and pluralist theory, for example, many of the theories we most
closely associate with the term "conflict theory"7 are accorded unequal status by the prevailing norms and addressed to the issue of how conflict is structured by values of the society in which symbolic status recogniits social context. tion and improvement is a central motivation for their The first workshop of the project was held at the conflict behavior. She proposes to use conflict theory University of Washington Continuing Education to examine three kinds of conflicts that have recendy Center, Lake Wilderness, Washington, August become quite salient inJapan: conflicts over the status 17-21, 1977 . Much of this workshop was devoted to of women, minorities, and younger generations. In discussing and criticizing individual research by par- the present paper, she analyzes the dynamics of a ticipants and to discussing common theoretical conflict involving a revolt of Japanese women office themes connecting our research that could be further workers against performing nonjob-specified tradiexplored at later stages of the project. 8 Individual tional tasks expected of women employees. presentations reflected the diversity we intentionally Additional research will involve case studies of the encouraged among participants in terms of the na- burakumin minority and of the formation of the New ture of their topics and the stage to which their re- Liberal Club, a splinter party composed of younger search had progressed. Some of the presentations conservative politicians. were draft papers of nearly completed new research If Pharr is concerned with the way dissatisfaction or of a rethinking of past empirical research based on with longstanding traditional roles creates conflicts a conflict approach. Others were "working papers" within and between individuals and groups, Patricia oudining the theoretical underpinnings of antici- G. Steinhoff is more concerned with how individuals pated field research following the first workshop. react to being assigned to negative roles by the conIn content, the papers represented all of the var- scious decisions of political elites. In her paper, "Politious possible combinations linking the project's un- ical Deviance and Identity in Japan," she proposes to derlying thematic categories of the perception- study the conflict process between political authorities process-structure of conflict. They also covered con- and political dissenters using Lofland's theory of deflict and conflict resolution in most of the important viance and identity. The focus is on how certain "arenas" of Japanese society; for example, small ideologies and behavior come to be labeled as "degroups, education, rural villages, industrial relations, viant" by authorities and on the reactions of individuals and politics. Further, they spanned the range oflevels defined as "deviants" to the pressures on them to of analysis. conform and be relabeled as "normal." In this paper, the theory is applied to prewar political dissidents, while future research will provide a comparative Intra- and interpersonal role conflict analysis to the postwar period. Three of the papers at the 1977 workshop focused Certain intra- and interpersonal role conflicts tranon intra- and interpersonal role conflict and at- scend specific social and political minorities and intempted to relate these to prevalent social values in volve nearly everyone in the society; for example, the wider society. Conflict between groups and orga- conflict within family units. Further, if culturally denizations often originates in the desire of individuals termined ideal images of family roles exist in every to bring about a change in their position in society or society, then images of typical conflicts involving in society itself. In "Tempest Over a Teapot: The those roles also exist-images which are often reinRevolt of the Tea-Pourers," Susan J. Pharr takes as forced and propagated by the media. This is the subher subject conflict involving "status politics," i.e., ject of Agnes Niyekawa's research on "Daikan no protests by formerly quiescent individuals and groups Hana: A Sociolinguistic Analysis of Interpersonal Conflict." Using video tapes of the popular and longrunning television family serial drama, Daikan no 7 In addition to Marx, Ralf Dahrendorf, Class and Class Conflict Hana ("Radish Flowers"), she proposes a linguistic in Industrial Society (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1959), and visual symbol analysis of the ideal-typical norms and Lewis A. Coser, The Functions of Social Conflict (New York: of conflict interaction in the Japanese family and Free Press, 1956) are important examples. 8 Comments on individual research and the development of small group as portrayed in the media. Offering an common themes during the workshop were greatly facilitated by opportunity to compare the media portrayal of typithe superb role played by three invited discussants: Ronald P. cal family conflict with its reality, at the second workDore, University of Sussex; Harumi Befu, Stanford University; and T. j. Pempel, Cornell University. Ronald Aqua, staff of the shop next year Linda Perry will also present research joint Committee on japanese Studies, also contributed by his on conflict interaction in the Japanese family but participation as a discussant. based on field research in true-life families. 24
Conflict within institutions As we move from a focus on individual and small group conflict to a focus on conflict within larger institutional environments, a major concern becomes how conflict processes are highly patterned and regularized by the structure of the setting in which they take place. Three papers at the 1977 workshop focused on this problem in three different contexts: the rural village, education, and industrial relations. As mentioned above, Western anthropological studies of Japanese villages have long emphasized the harmonious and consensual norms and relations between inhabitants. Teigo Yoshida, in his paper on "Conflict and Spirit Possession in Japanese Villages," argues that not only do many serious conflicts usually exist among Japanese villagers, but that in some regions of Japan these conflicts are integrally related to, manifested in, and patterned by beliefs in and the practice of animal spirit possession. He goes on to demonstrate the origins of spirit possession in the pre-existing tensions and conflicts between villagers, and the functional and dysfunctional consequences of the practice for conflict resolution in the community. Thomas P. Rohlen and Tadashi Hanami offer different criticisms of the Western social science literature on conflict within institutions. In "Conflict and Conflict Resolution in Industrial Relations: What Can Japan Offer? ," Hanami argues that the basic assumptions of economic rationalism and legalism and their derivative hypotheses in Western industrial relations theories of labor-management conflict are often disproven by the Japanese experience. Especially, Hanami asserts, attempting to resolve labormanagement conflict using legalist and rationalistic approaches in the changing conditions of advanced industrial societies often proves ineffective or itself creates new types of conflicts. In this regard, many of the attributes of Japanese industrial relations that hitherto have been seen by Western or Japanese observers as "backward" or "feudal" may actually be more capable of handling industrial conflict in contemporary society. Rohlen's "Political Conflict in Japanese Education" points out a further deficiency in the conflict literature: the lack of "middle-range" theories of conflict. To bridge the gap between macro- and micro levels, he develops an analytic framework for studying conflict within an institution. Focusing on the variables of organizational autonomy and environment, he applies his framework to explain patterns of conflict and cooperation between teachers' unions and public authorities at and between different educational adJUNE
ministrative levels. Although one might expect that higher echelons in an institution have more explicit conflict resolution mechanisms than the lower echelons, Rohlen finds that with some exceptions the institutionalization and resolution of conflict between teachers and authorities in Japan is more limited at the higher levels. His analysis is able to explain syste~atically ~his seeming anomaly and the way in whlch confllct and conflict resolution processes are transformed as one ascends or descends institutional levels.
Conflict in the political process It is in the political process that the conflicts between the goals and interests of societal groups, organizations, and institutions may be manifested and (well or poorly) managed. Postwar Japan has enjoyed basic political stability in the sense that it has been ruled since the mid-1950s by the same conservative political party, the Liberal Democratic Party, which has consistently won a majority of seats in the National Diet. Yet, factional rivalry and dissensus has been a perpetual problem within this party, and seemingly deep and irreconcilable polarization has existed between it and its "progressive" opposition that has often led to intense conflicts both within and outside the Diet. The dominant approach to political conflict and opposition in Western social science literature that might be used to explain such problems of partisan conflict and opposition in Japan is the analysis of the type and pattern of basic socioeconomic and political cleavages in societies. Ellis S. Krauss, however, in his "Political Opposition and Conflict in Postwar Japan," reviews this literature and numerous studies of postwar Japanese society and politics and concludes that this approach is deficient both theoretically and as a tool for explaining partisan political conflict in Japan. Instead, Krauss argues for systematic studies of political elites as crucial actors in determining levels, types, and intensity of political conflict in that society. Specifically, he proposes to conduct an empirical study of the beliefs and ideology, institutional role norms, and political strategies of party politicians in the Japanese Diet to elucidate patterns of conflict interaction between political parties and the role of the Diet as a manager of social conflict. At the next conference in 1979, Daniell. Okimoto is scheduled to present research on political party conflict in Japan, but focusing on conflict within the ruling party itself. Whatever partisan conflict has existed, many observers have seen a more underlying stability in Japan
in the existence of a dominant coalition of the government party, the powerful national bureaucracy, and (big business and agricultural) interest groups working together to achieve common goals and interests. Recent events and scholarly work have partially challenged this model by revealing the presence of contradictory aims, dissensus, and competition between and among these participants in the policymaking process. Michael W. Donnelly continues the task of testing the validity of the "ruling triad" model in his paper "Conflict in Agrarian Affairs." He proposes a case study of the interaction among bureaucratic, political, and interest group actors in government decision making concerning agriculture. In this paper, he uses the issue of rice-pricing policy to specify the major variables and relationships that can explain the sources, dynamics, and resolution of conflict in the postwar policy-making process in japan. His research for the next workshop will include a study of policies regarding land use and the importation of food. Also at the next conference, we expect a paper by john Campbell to review critically the scholarly work on the making of public policy in many different policy areas, thus providing a complementary paper to Donnelly's in-depth empirical study of one policy area.
General theoretical overviews Two participants at the 1977 workshop are looking at general societal patterns of conflict across levels of analysis and in historical perspective. In "Conflict in japan: Some Hypotheses," Lewis Austin reviews the harmony and consensus model of japanese society and derives specific testable hypotheses from it. In subsequent research, he will analyze several cases of salient public conflict in modern japan in order to examine the validity of the model and to propose new propositions about the nature of conflict in japan. While Austin is concerned with analyzing and testing the consensus model, Takeshi Ishida is seeking in his paper to develop an alternative general model on
"Conflict and Conflict Resolution in japan." Using indigeneous japanese concepts with equivalents in Western social science conflict theory, he analyzes the shifting importance and relationship of these structural features of conflct patterns in various periods of pre- and postwar japan. Among the features he examines are conflict over "principles" versus "actual practice," "in-group" versus "out-group" conflict, and conflict at and between "higher" and "lower" levels of social organization.
Emerging questions and future stages of the project At the Lake Wilderness workshop, there emerged a number of important theoretical questions common to many of the individual topics. These include such issues as an evaluation of the relative importance of (e.g., material, perceptual, structural, ideological) sources of conflict in japanese society; how conflict and conflict resolution vary at different levels and in different organizational contexts; avoidance and "displacement" mechanisms of conflict management in japanese groups; the extent of ritualization and institutionalization of conflict in japanese society; the relationship of conflict to social change in pre- and postwar japan; and an attempt to construct a taxonomy of conflict with relevance to japan. The second workshop of the project, scheduled for March 1979, will have as one of its major goals the further elaboration and discussion of these issues. Also at the second workshop, at which participants will present revised versions of their research papers, we plan to devote a large proportion of time and attention to the overarching questions of the relevance of Western conflict theory to japanese society, of how the study of conflict injapan can contribute to the development of more valid and universal social science theories of conflict, and of the implications of our findings for academic paradigms and popular conceptions of contemporary japanese society. 0
Research on the Socioeconomic Life Cycle by]ames L. Peterson *
THERE IS AN INCREASING INTEREST in research that a decade ago. The aims of the conference were to encompasses much or all of a person's lifetime. Such review the achievements of the NLS and to suggest research includes the study of occupational careers, directions it might take in the next five years. of social networks, and of changes in personality, family structure, and health over extended periods of The National Longitudinal Surveys time. One basic, underlying assumption of this type of Although the fundamental substantive focus of the research on human behavior is that our understandNLS is the explanation of labor force behavior, dising of any social or psychological phenomena is secussion at the conference often took on a somewhat verely limited unless we incorporate influences and broader perspective in which labor force participation measures from across the full range of the human life was viewed in terms of what, following Duncan, might course. A newly-formed Council committee, the 3 Committee on Life-Course Perspectives on Middle be termed the socioeconomic life cycle. Because of and Old Age, seeks to plan and encourage research the broad range of research for which the NLS might be considered an appropriate data base, and the varithat adopts this perspective.! of disciplines among the participants, issues and ety Simultaneous with-and essential to-this growing interest in research that encompasses an extended ideas were discussed which have import beyond what period of a person's life has been the design and anyone study could hope to accomplish. In 1965, the Department of Labor's Office of Polconduct of several large-scale longitudinal surveys. icy, Evaluation, and Research contracted with Ohio These studies provide researchers with extensive data on the same people for long periods of time. The State University's Center for Human Resource Remethodological problems inherent in such studies are search (CHRR) and the Bureau of the Census to the focus of another new Council committee-the conduct a large-scale national survey of labor market behavior. CHRR took responsibility for the study deMethodology of Longitudinal Research. 2 With these substantive and methodological prob- - sign, the instruments, data analysis, and reporting, lems receiving attention, the Council was pleased to and the Census Bureau took responsibility for sample have the opportunity to convene a conference on a design and data collection. The primary purpose of the NLS has been to anamajor data resource-the National Longitudinal Surlyze sources of variation in labor market behavior, veys of Labor Market Experience (NLS), a project directed by Herbert S. Parnes, Ohio State University. with emphasis given to policy relevant research issues. Held in October 1977 under the chairmanship of Since resources would not permit coverage of the Robert M. Hauser, University of Wisconsin, the con- entire labor force, four cohorts were selected because ference was occasioned in part by the Department of their labor market problems are of concern to reLabor's decision to continue its substantial financial searchers and policy makers alike. Two young support for this longitudinal study, which began over cohorts, men and women 14-24 years old, were selected because of the problems associated with the * The author, a sociologist, is on the staff of the Council's preparation for, initial entry into, and adjustment to Center for Coordination of Research on Social Indicators. He the labor force. Women 30-44 years old were selected assisted Robert Parke, the Center's director, in conducting the conference described in this article. Some of the papers and because of the problems associated with reentry into memoranda prepared for the conference are being edited by the the labor force by women whose childbearing responauthor for publication. An initial chapter, written by the author, sibilities had diminished. Finally, men 45-59 years will give a systematic overview of the conference proceedings. old were selected in order to study factors associated The present article is based on excerpts from that chapter of the with their declining labor force participation, such as forthcoming conference volume. skill obsolescence, health problems, and age discrimi1 See Items (March 1978, page 15) for a brief statement about this new committee. For an overview of research problems in this nation. Data have been collected over a ten-year period for field, see Ronald P. Abeles and Matilda White Riley, "A LifeCourse Perspective on the Later Years of Life: Some Implications each cohort, beginning in 1966 for the male cohorts, for Research," Social Science Research Council, Annual Report, 1976-1977, pages 1-16. 2 For a brief description of the committee's program, see Items (March 1977, page 15). JUNE
3 See Otis Dudley Duncan, "Discrimination Against Negroes," American Academy of Political and Social Science, Annals, 371, May 1967, pages 85-103.
in 1967 for the older women, and in 1968 for the younger women. The sample for each cohort was selected to represent the civilian noninstitutional population of the U.S. at the time of the initial survey. After an initial personal interview, data were collected annually or biennially through a combination of personal interviews, mail surveys, and telephone interviews. The questionnaires have covered a broad range of variables related to the respondents' labor market experience and social and psychological characteristics. The content of the questionnaires has varied from year to year, yet a number of items have been repeated, producing time series data for some.of the content. In addition to its responsibilities for analysis and reporting, CHRR has made the data available to the research community in the form of public-use tapes and supporting documentation. Thanks in part to this arrangement, the NLS-designed for a broad range of research on labor force behavior-has come to be used by researchers from several traditions within economics and from many other social science disciplines as well. It has become a major resource for research on social change. The NLS data have been used to produce numerous reports and publications not only by researchers at CHRR but also by an even greater number of outside researchers. This research was the subject of a comprehensive review paper prepared for the conference by William T. Bielby, Clifford B. Hawley, and David Bills. Entitled "Research Uses of the National Longitudinal Surveys," it is to be published as a Labor Department monograph. The usefulness of the NLS for economists and other social scientists interested in the study of social change has been enhanced by the 1977 decision, by the Employment and Training Administration of the Department of Labor, to continue support for the NLS for at least five more years. This decision embraces continued collection of data from the original four cohort panels and the addition of two new youth panels of men and women aged 14-2l. In the two new panels, increased emphasis will be placed on understanding the effects of employment training, particularly the effects of the formal training programs of various government agencies.
The conference The Social Science Research Council has had a long-standing interest in studies such as the NLS, an interest which has extended both to labor market research as a substantive area and to longitudinal 28
surveys as vehicles for studies of social process and social change. 4 .Recently, under the stimulus of Robert M. Hauser, the Council's Advisory and Planning Committee on Social Indicators expressed interest in these potentials of longitudinal surveys and has, as a consequence, taken an active interest in the development of plans for the NLS. At the same time, the NLS project director, Herbert S. Parnes, was interested in arranging for a review of the NLS. 5 The conference was therefore an outgrowth of the mutual interests of the Council and of the sponsors, planners, and users of the NLS. The extension and expansion of the NLS provided an opportunity for taking stock of the research that had been done and for planning ahead. Accordingly, the Council planned a conference of scholars from a variety of disciplines to outline productive directions for the NLS in the next five years from the point of view of research on specific labor market issues and from the broader perspective of research on social change. s 4 Several Council committees over the years have dealt directly or indirectly with labor market issues. Included among these are the Committee on Labor Market Research (1943-1956), the Committee on Manpower, Population, and Economic Change (1965-1968), and the Committee on the Methodology of Longitudinal Research (1976-). Among the products of the firstnamed committee is a monograph on labor mobility written by Herbert S. Parnes, who is project director for the NLS study at CHRR. See Herbert S. Parnes, Research on Labor Mobility: An Appraisal of Research Findings in the United States (New York: SSRC, 1954). The Committee on the Methodology of Longitudinal Research has planned a conference on the life cycle aspects of employment and the labor market to be held in October 1978. 5 Parnes has produced a brief overview for the National Commission for Manpower Policy. See Herbert S. Parnes, "The National Longitudinal Surveys: Lessons for Human Resource Policy," in Current Issues in the Relationship between Manpower Research and Policy, National Commission for Manpower Policy, Report No.7, March 1976. 6 The conference was held on October 14-16, 1977 and was supported by funds from the Department of Labor's Employment and Training Administration. In the planning stage, valuable assistance was given by many, especially Robert Willis, National Bureau of Economic Research (Stanford, California), who made a major contribution to developing the conference's roster of participants. The conference was chaired by Robert M. Hauser, University of Wisconsin, a member of the Council's Advisory and Planning Committee on Social Indicators. In addition to Messrs. Peterson, Parke, and Hauser, the participants at this conference were Paul Andrisani, Temple University; Jerald G. Bachman, University of Michigan; William T. Bielby, University of California, Santa Barbara; Francine Blau, University of Illinois; Michael BoTUs, Ohio State University; Elizabeth Douvan, University of Michigan; David L. Featherman, University of Wisconsin; Earle J. Gerson, Bureau of the Census; George H. Gray, Bureau of the Census; Mark Granovetter, State University of New York, Stony Brook, Clifford B. Hawley, Duke University;
In the process of evaluating the NLS research record and providing guidance for the continuation of this longitudinal labor market study, the October Council conference on the NLS produced a wealth of research ideas of interest not only to NLS researchers but also to others concerned with the study of the socioeconomic life cycle. Although the discussions were lively and disagreement not uncommon, some broad areas of consensus developed. The research agenda which emerged is in no sense exhaustive; it does, however, point to new or continuing areas of research which are important for developing a better understanding of the socioeconomic life cycle. The aim of this article is to summarize some of the main conference themes in the form of a brief agenda for socioeconomic life cycle research. While not exhaustive, this agenda identifies some of the major substantive gaps in this area of social research.
Work-family relationships In the years between ages 16 and 24, more changes and significant events take place for most people than in any other comparably short span of years. Both careers and families are launched and independence from the parental home is established. Research oriented toward discovering and understanding the most prevalent patterns in the timing and ordering of these events is needed, as is attention to antecedent Steven M. Hills, Ohio State University; Nancy Karweit, The Johns Hopkins University; Andrew I. Kohen, James Madison University; Melvin L. Kohn, National Institute of Mental Health; Kenneth C. Land, University of Illinois; Edward Lazear, University of Chicago; Daniel B. Levine, Bureau of the Census; Lee Lillard, Rand Corporation (Santa Monica, California); Karen Oppenheim Mason, University of Michigan; JohnJ. McCall, University of Chicago; Robert T . Michael, National Bureau of Economic Research (New York); Ann Ratner Miller, University of Pennsylvania; James N. Morgan, University of Michigan; Frank L. Mott, Ohio State University; Gilbert Nestel, Ohio State University; Herbert S. Parnes, Ohio State University; Harriet B. Presser, University of Maryland; Natalie Rogoff Rams~y, Institute of Applied Social Research (Oslo); Peter B. Read, Social Science Research Council; Howard Rosen, U.S. Department of Labor; Sherwin Rosen, University of Chicago; Norman B. Ryder, Princeton University; Ellen Sehgal, U.S. Department of Labor; Lois B. Shaw, Ohio State University; Eleanor Bernert Sheldon, Social Science Research Council; Richard P. Shore, U.S. Department of Labor; Burton H. Singer, Columbia University; Seymour Spilerman, Russell Sage Foundation; Frank P. Stafford, University of Michigan; Ross M. Stolzenberg, University of Illinois; Teresa A. Sullivan, University of Chicago; Larry Suter, Bureau of the Census; James A. Sweet, University of Wisconsin; Harry Travis, U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare; and Harold W. Watts, Columbia University. JUNE
conditions which influence these patterns. The events themselves are interrelated, so that once one has occurred, constraints and opportunities with respect to the other events are created. Finally, research is needed on the long-run familial and socioeconomic consequences of various patterns. An effective program of research in this area requires longitudinal designs. Labor force behavior and family life cycle stages are strongly related. The transitions to parenthood, to postparenthood, to postmarried, and the approach of retirement often trigger changes in patterns of labor force behavior, especially for females. At the same time, experiences in the labor force may affect the incidence and timing of these life cycle transitions. Cataloging differentials in labor force participation and unemployment rates is not enough. Research in this area could productively identify and seek to explain differences in more detailed aspects of labor force behavior, such as job mobility, geographic mobility, hours of work, and values associated with work. This research should focus not only on static relationships between the family and labor force behavior but also on forces underlying changes in these relationships over time. One of the most sustained changes in the labor force over the last few decades has been the increase in female participation. The relative contributions of several social changes to the increased rates of female labor force participation need to be sorted out. These changes include changes in sex-role norms; improvements in birth control technology; changes in use of time, especially that revolving around homemaking tasks; and the increase in divorce rates and in female-headed families. Research is also needed on the consequences of increased female labor force participation. The increased rate of participation may, for example, stimulate further increases as the demand for jobs by females increases the supply of jobs available to them and as working mothers socialize their daughters. Among the consequences of increased female labor force participation is an increase in the number of husband-wife families where both are pursuing a full-time career. The patterns of family activity and labor force behavior in such families differ considerably from those of more traditional families. Promising areas of research on the labor force behavior of such families include the career mobility of each spouse, the way decisions are made about whose career takes precedence, the social forces influencing such decisions, and the long-run labor force participation patterns of members of such families. In the 29
area of family life, research is needed on the consequences of dual careers for patterns of fertility, the division of household labor, and child-care and child-rearing practices, particularly those relating to children's anticipatory labor force socialization.
Labor force socialization The development of successive generations of workers takes place in part through the socialization of young people before entry into the labor market. The family and the educational system provide most of this socialization. In contrast to the plethora of relevant educational research, little has been done to assess the role of the family in labor force socialization. What sex-role norms, occupational aspirations and expectations, and labor market knowledge and skills do parents impart to their children? How strongly and in what manner do these factors influence labor force behavior, the level of labor market entry, and socioeconomic achievement? A better understanding of this socialization process may help explain the persistent influence of socioeconomic background in status attainment models. Although the role of education in preparing persons for the labor force has generally been well researched, there are a few areas of neglect. These include the socializing roles played by the increasingly diverse kinds of formal education-postsecondary schools other than college, continuing education, employer-provided job training programs-and by less formal kinds of educational experiences, such as participation in voluntary organizations. The work experience itself acts as a further socializing influence. How are knowledge, aspirations, and skills relating to work maintained, strengthened, or changed as a result of work experience? To what extent can work experience overcome initial labor force disadvantage? Experience in other domains, particularly the family, also continues to exert a socializing force. The changing dynamics of family life may be especially influential in modifying or sustaining the meanings and values attributed to work. Research in these areas might productively be directed not only toward an understanding of the process of socialization but also toward an assessment of the impact of socialization on actual labor force behavior.
Structural variables Much research on labor market experience, stratification, and mobility-including the NLS-has 30
focused on the individual as the unit of analysis. This has been an appropriate and productive focus, generating a wealth of data characterizing the individual in terms of various social, psychological, and experiential qualities. Yet one brings these characteristics to bear on situations over which one may have little influence. The outcomes are determined as much by the characteristics of the social structures and institutions which influence work behavior as by the characteristics of the individual. Labor force participation is greatly influenced by the structure of discrimination in the labor market. Research needs to move beyond a static consideration of discrimination, aiming instead at developing better concepts and measurements of discrimination as a dynamic process. This approach would develop concepts of discrimination based on differences in rates, such as differential rates of occupational mobility, of income change, or of intrafirm promotion, and differential rates of return to education or other forms of investment in future skills. Longitudinal data would be required for developing these measures and for understanding underlying forces, as would data (from employers, supervisors, job placement personnel, and from the worker) on the job finding and promotion process. The extent to which the operation of social networks (friends, kin, and coworkers) in job finding has a discriminatory effect might be a particularly fruitful subject of study. An understanding of job finding is important for the study of occupational achievement and mobility more generally than in its application to discrimination. The background characteristics of status attainment models exercise their effects through job finding, which may be viewed as a communication and decision-making process through which available jobs and individuals are matched. Job-search models have identified some of the key variables, but view the process only from the standpoint of the worker. Research is needed to develop "employee-search" ~od足 els from the standpoint of the employer, and to learn how communication is structured, what strategies individuals and employers use in searching, and how decisions are made by individuals and employers. Social networks-of friends, relatives, or coworkers-may provide one of the chief mechanisms through which individuals relate to the labor market. Such networks may be particularly helpful for job finding, yet for that very reason may contribute to the process of discrimination. Networks may also serve to cushion the impact of labor crises such as unemployment, and serve a socializing role. Data are needed to describe the variations in the structures of VOLUME
these networks (by race, class, sex, etc.) and to show perfect and test new content before it is incorporated how these varying types of networks mediate the rela- into the main set of instruments, and to check the validity and reliability of existing measures. This protion between the individual and the labor market. cedure would have both conservative and innovative consequences-both desirable. By providing for deMethodological issues velopmental and testing work before the demands for Many of the research questions and the data needs new data are reflected in the main instruments, it identified at the conference require longitudinal de- would help to insure that the demands for new data signs, often panels. The cost of such designs and the do not swamp the requirements of replication and to length of time required for the realization of the full insure that only well-measured variables have a place advantages of longitudinal research place a special in the main study. It would also offer an opportunity burden on the researcher to design and execute the to develop innovative new areas of inquiry in a setting research with the utmost of care and to see that the which provides an opportunity for reconceptualizafullest possible use of the data is made. The method- tion and restructuring, relatively free of the imperaological issues discussed at the conference have bear- tives imposed by scheduling of the main study. By ing on this responsibility. testing both new and existing measures, this procedure For most socioeconomic life cycle research, cohorts would provide the basis for judgments as to which defined in terms of birth year are most useful, al- measures are working well and which should be though cohorts defined on other bases may some- dropped in favor of measures which 路 show more times be more appropriate. Care should be taken that promIse. no significant segment of the cohort, however defined, is excluded from the universe from which the sample is taken. Otherwise, changes in the composiConclusion tion of the segment over time will introduce biases The agenda briefly outlined in the previous parainto the sample in later years. As a result of transitions graphs is broader than can be addressed by anyone between civilian and noncivilian status, for example, a sample drawn from the civilian segment of a birth study, even one as rich as the NLS. Nevertheless, cohort will no longer represent the civilian segment of many of the items on the agenda can be studied, at least in part, with NLS data. To the extent that future the same cohort a few years later. In the analysis of trends and social change, care is questionnaires reflect the input of the conference, needed to sort out the differences resulting from this will be even more the case. Even those issues which cohort effects from those resulting from age and pe- require new or different data, however, can in most riod effects. Each cohort has its own unique char- cases benefit from comparative or contextual data acteristics and has experienced significant historical provided by the NLS. The conference was held just prior to the preparaevents or social changes at points in its life cycle which are different than those of other cohorts. The impact tion of the initial drafts of the questionnaires for the of changes in cohort size upon labor market experi- next wave of the NLS. Among the participants of the conference were Herbert Parnes and others at CHRR ence, for example, has yet to be fully understood. The NLS has suffered from a lack of much truly who are responsible for conducting the study. They longitudinal analysis. This may be due in large part to were, therefore, in a position to benefit from the the state of this art: the techniques of longitudinal conference presentations and discussions in the draftanalysis are in need of much further development, ing and revising of questionnaires. Many of the discussions begun at the conference and those techniques which already exist are not well known or utilized. Consolidating and extending these between the staff of CHRR and other conference methods would be a particularly promising method- participants have been continued, widening the circle ological endeavor. of colleagues providing continued input for NLS Although replication is an essential feature of most planning. Through fostering such interaction, the longitudinal studies, the design needs to be flexible Council's Center for Social Indicators hopes both to enough to permit the modification of existing measures enlarge the community of social scientists who utilize and the addition of new measures as the need or this valuable resource for research on social change opportunity arises. Longitudinal studies would bene- and the socioeconomic life cycle and to insure the fit greatly from a program of ancillary surveys to increased usefulness of this resource. 0 JUNE
Fellowships and Grants ,..-------------------------, CONTENTS
JohnJ. Keller, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Hawaii, for postdoctoral training in tree crop horticulture and forestry at Oregon State University 32 POSTDOCTORAL RESEARCH TRAINING Melvin J. Konner, associate professor of anthropology, FELLOWSHIPS Harvard University, for training on the neuroanatomical 32-35 INTERNATIONAL DOCTORAL RESEARCH basis of the development of social behavior at Harvard FELLOWSHIPS University and the Massachusetts Institute of TechnolAfrica, China, Japan, Latin America and the Caribbean, ogy the Near and Middle East, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Catherine C. Lewis, Ph.D. candidate in developmental psyWestern Europe chology, Stanford Universi~y, for research training in 35-39 GRANTS FOR INTERNATIONAL POSTanthropological and sociological approaches to childDOCTORAL RESEARCH rearing at Harvard University . Africa, China, Eastern Europe, Japan, Korea, Latin Justin A. McCarthy, Jr., Ph.D. candidate in history, UniAmerica and the Caribbean, the Near and Middle East, versity of California, Los Angeles, for postdoctoral trainSouth Asia, Southeast Asia ing in techniques of demographic analysis at the Office of Population Research, Princeton University THESE PAGES list the names, affiliations, and topics of the Catherine B. Silver, associate professor of sociology, Brooklyn College, City University of New York, for individuals who were awarded fellowships or grants by training in equal rights law at Columbia Law School Council committees during the past few months. The grant Richard H. Trainor, Ph.D. candidate in history, Oxford programs sponsored by the Council and the grant and University, for postdoctoral training in sociology at the fellowship programs 路sponsored by the Council jointly with University of Wisconsin the American Council of Learned Societies (ACLS) are both reported here. The international research programs are supported in part by a grant from the National En- INTERNATIONAL DOCTORAL RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS dowment for the Humanities with a matching grant from the Ford Foundation. Unless it is specifically noted that a Awards for dissertation research abroad have been anprogram is administered by the ACLS, the programs listed nounced by the area committees of the Social Science Reare administered by the Council. search Council and the American Council of Learned The Council's fellowship and grants program is supSocieties. These committees administer the program of ported by funds it receives from foundations and other International Doctoral Research Fellowships (formerly the funding agencies. The programs change somewhat every Foreign Area Fellowship Program). year, and scholars interested either in predoctoral fellowships for dissertation research abroad or in postdoctoral AFRICA grants for individual or collaborative research should write The following dissertation fellowships were awarded by to the Council for a copy of the new brochure that dethe Doctoral Research Fellowship Selection Committee for scribes the 1978-79 fellowship and grants program. It will Africa-Carl E. Liedholm (chairman), Abdalla S. Bujra, be ready for mailing in early August. Allen F. Isaacman, Paul H. Riesman, and Dorothy Dee Vellenga-at its meeting on March 5, 1978. It had been POSTDOCTORAL RESEARCH TRAINING assisted by the Screening Committee-Ivan Karp, Diann FELLOWSHIPS H. Painter, Timothy C. Weiskel, and Wayne R. Williams.
The Committee on Social Science Personnel-Robert Zemsky (chairman), Cynthia H . Enloe, Howard E. Gardner, Otto N. Larsen, Nell Irvin Painter,Judith R. Shapiro, and Harold W. Watts-at its meeting on March 4-5, 1978 voted to offer the following appointments: Annette M. Adler, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Stanford University, for postdoctoral training in social history at the University of Wisconsin Charlotte H. Aull, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Duke University, for postdoctoral training in the research techniques and theoretical perspectives of geography at the University College of Swansea, University of Wales Paul E. Diener, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Stanford University, for postdoctoral training in ecology and evolutionary biology at Texas A & M University Michael P. Hanagan, visiting scholar, University of Michigan, Ph.D. in history, 1976, for training in demography at the Population Studies Center, University of Pennsylvania 32
Ismail Hussein Abdalla, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Wisconsin, for research in Nigeria on Islamic medicine and its influence on indigenous Hausa medical practitioners Mary Jo Arnoldi, Ph.D. candidate in art history, Indiana University, for research in Mali on Bambara-Bozo puppetry in the Segou region Sarah Catherine Brett-Smith, Ph.D. candidate in art history, Yale University, for research in Mali on Bogolanfini mud-dyed cloth Angelique Haugerud, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Northwestern University, for research in Kenya on changing agricultural production strategies GeoT!~e Michael La Rue, Ph.D. candidate in history, Boston Umversity, for research in Chad on the process of social stratification in the slave-supplying state of Baguirmi, 1800-1920 Chipasha P. Luchembe, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of California, Los Angeles, for research in Zambia and Peru on the proletarianization of mine workers VOLUME 32, NUMBER 2
Mary Allen McMaster, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of California, Los Angeles, for research in Zaire on precolonial cultural interactions among the Bua Nancy H. Merryman, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Northwestern University, for research in Kenya on relationships between ecological stress and the division of labor among pastoral nomads Philip M. Pochon, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Boston University, for research in Kenya on late prehistoric subsistence patterns Linda Kaye Sussman, Ph.D. candidate in sociology, Washington University, for research in Mauritius on the medical beliefs and practices of patients, healers, and physicians Larry W. Yarak, Ph.D. candidate in history, Northwestern University, for research in the Netherlands and in Ghana on the politics and administration of Dutch affairs in Asante, 1776-1872 CHINA
The following dissertation fellowships were awarded by the Joint Committee on Contemporary China-John Wilson Lewis (chairman), -Paul A. Cohen, Robert F. Dernberger, Albert Feuerwerker, Merle Goldman, Victor H. Li, Burton Pasternak, Dwight H. Perkins, and Richard Solomon-as its meeting on March 3-4, 1978. It had been assisted by the Screening Committee for Asia-Charles F. Keyes, Margaret A. McKean, Richard P. Madsen, Susan K. Matisoff, Barbara S. Miller, Norman G. Owen, James B. Palais, Lyman P. Van Slyke, and Susan S. Wadley. Robert Eno, Ph.D. candidate in Far Eastern languages and literatures, University of Michigan, for research in Taiwan on the integration of man and nature in Chou Confucian thought Robert D. Jenks, Ph.D. candidate in history and East Asian languages, Harvard University, for research in France and Taiwan on insurgency and social disorder in Kweichow during the Taiping era of the Miao Rebellion, 1855-1872 David E. Kelley, Ph.D. candidate in history and East Asian languages, Harvard University, for research in Japan and Taiwan on voluntary associations among the boatmen of the Ch'ing Dynasty grain transport fleets Jean Chun Oi, Ph.D. candidate in political science, University of Michigan, for research in Japan, Hong Kong, and Taiwan, on the local grain reserve system in China from 1644 to the present Steven D. Owyoung, Ph.D. candidate in the history of art, University of Michigan, for research in Taiwan on the painting collections and catalogues of Chinese collectors of the Ming Dynasty David Paulson, Ph.D. candidate in history, Stanford University, for research in Japan and Taiwan on traditional leadership and the growth of Communist power in Shantung Province, 1928-1948 JAPAN
Under the program sponsored by the Joint Committee on Japanese Studies, the Subcommittee on Grants for Research-Tetsuo Najita (chairman), Gail Bernstein, Haruhiro Fukui, Thomas P. Rohlen and William F. Sibley-at its meeting on March 17, 1978 voted to make JUNE 1978
awards to the following individuals. The subcommittee had been assisted by the Screening Committee for AsiaCharles F. Keyes, Margaret A. McKean, Richard P. Madsen, Susan K. Matisoff, Barbara S. Miller, Norman G. Owen, James B. Palais, Lyman P. Van Slyke, and Susan S. Wadley. Thomas William Hare, Ph.D. candidate in Far Eastern languages and literatures, University of Michigan, for research in Japan on the literary and musical structure of Zeami's plays Lorraine F. Harrington, Ph.D. candidate in history, Stanford University, for research in Japan on strategic outposts of Ashikaga rule Elizabeth G. Harrison, Ph.D. candidate in Far Eastern languages and civilizations, University of Chicago, for research in Japan on the popularization of Buddhist thought in Tokugawa Japan Wesley M. Jacobsen, Ph.D. candidate in linguistics, University of Chicago, for research in Japan on transitivity in the Japanese verbal system Dorinne K. Kondo, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Harvard University, for research inJapan on kinship, family, and economic relations in Japanese small businesses Andrew Lawrence Markus, Ph.D. candidate in East Asian languages and literatures, Yale University, for research in Tokyo on Ryutei Tanehiko, a popular novelist of the Edo period Hong Wee Tan, Ph.D. candidate in economics, Yale University, for research in Japan on human capital and technical change Arthur H. Thornhill III, Ph.D. candidate in East Asian languages and civilizations, Harvard University, for research in Kyoto on the dramaturgy of medieval Japan through the rokurin ichiro theory of Komparu Zenchiku (1405-1468) LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN
The following dissertation fellowships were awarded by the Doctoral Research Fellowship Selection Committee for Latin America and the Caribbean-Joyce Riegelhaupt (chairman), Albert Fishlow, Jean Franco, Franklin Tugwell, and James W. Wilkie-at its meeting on February 10, 1978. It had been assisted by the Screening CommitteeBarry Ames, Margaret E. Crahan, Pedro Cuperman, Joan Dassin, Peter B. Evans, and John Ingham. S. Lief Adleson, Ph.D., candidate in history, EI Colegio de Mexico, for research in Mexico on the transformation of the labor force in the town of Tampico, 1906-1938 Janis B. Alcorn, Ph.D. candidate in botany, University of Texas, for research in Mexico on the ethnobotany of the Huastec Martha Biggar Anders, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Cornell U niversitv. for research in Peru on the functions of a Wari administrative site Laird W. Bergad, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Pittsburgh, for research in Puerto Rico on the development of a coffee export economy, 1850-1900 Herbert Braun, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Wisconsin, for research in Colombia on the "Bogotazo," a contemporary urban revolt in an underdeveloped society Robert D. Daughters, Ph.D. candidate in regional plan33
ning, University of California, Berkeley, for research in Stephen B. Swensen, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Un iversity of Virginia, for research in Morocco on social Brazil on the role of intermediate size cities in Third World development change and the reformulation of religious values Kathryn G. Dewey, Ph.D. candidate in biological sciences, Mira Fromer Zussman, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Michigan, for research in Mexico on the University of California, Berkeley, for research in impact of agricultural change on diet and nutrition in Tunisia on land reform experiments and rural developTabasco ment Leslie M. Dow Jr., Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Michigan, for research in Guatemala on ethnic SOUTH ASIA boundaries and changing ethnic identity The following dissertation fellowships were awarded by Alex Dupuy, Ph.D. candidate in sociology, State University the Joint Committee on South Asia-Stanley J. Heginof New York, Binghamton, for research in France on merchant slavery and the contradictions of French col- botham (chairman), Marc Galanter, Eugene F. Irschick, onialism in Haiti and the Dominican Republic in the 18th McKim Marriott, Michelle B. McAlpin, Barbara D. Metcalf, century Maria Patricia Fernandez-Kelly, Ph.D. candidate in an- Karl H. Potter, and A. K. Ramunujan-at its meeting on thropology, Rutgers University, for research in Mexico March 9-10, 1978. It had been assisted by the Screening on the female labor force in Mexican-American border Committee for Asia-Charles F. Keyes, Margaret A. Mcindustries Kean, Richard P. Madsen, Susan K. Matisoff, Barbara S. Laurence Krute-Georges, Ph.D. candidate in anthropol- Miller, Norman G. Owen, James B. Palais, Lyman P. Van ogy, Columbia University, for research in Venezuela on the nominal morphology and semantics of the language Slyke, and Susan S. Wadley. of the Piaroa Mira Reym Binford, Ph.D. candidate in communication Maria Helena Moreira Alves, Ph.D. candidate in political arts, UnIversity of Wisconsin, for research in England, science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, for reFrance, Israel, and India on the documentary film in search in Brazil on resistance to an authoritarian state India and mass media transmission of public policy Kathryn V. Staiano, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Kansas, for research in Belize on the semiotics John S. Deyell, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Wisconsin, for research in Europe, Afghanistan, Pakisof medical systems tan, and India on the quantitative monetary history of David W. Walker, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of early medieval North India (c. 500-1200 A.D.) Chicago, for research in Mexico on a Mexican elite Tamara Gunasekera-O'Grady, Ph.D. candidate in anfamily-the Martinez del Rio family, 1830-1930 thropology, Cornell University, for research in Sri Lanka Karl A. Yambert, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Union social and cultural aspects of stratification in versity of California, Davis, for research in Peru on Sinhalese peasant society Catacaos, a traditional small-holder community in a Collett C. Harris, Ph.D. candidate in religion, Columbia capitalist export economy University, for research in Japan and India on sectarian dialogues on the nature of substance in dharma theory NEAR AND MIDDLE EAST Sharon E. Woodruff, Ph.D. candidate in music, Brown University, for research in India on rag combination and The following dissertation fellowships were awarded by change in Hindustani misra rags the Doctoral Research Fellowship Selection Committee for the Near and Middle East-Elbaki Hermassi (chairman), SOUTHEAST ASIA Renata Holod, Afaf Lutfi al Sayyid Marsot, Lawrence RoThe following dissertation fellowships were awarded by sen, and Mark A. Tessler-at its meeting on March 12, 1978. It had been assisted by the Screening Committee- the Joint Committee on Southeast Asia-Stuart A. Schlegel Dale F. Eickelman, Joel Migdal, Marilyn R. Waldman, and (chairman), Benedict R. Anderson, Alton Becker, Clifford Geertz, James C. Scott, Donald R. Snodgrass, Alexander Walter F. Weiker. Woodside, and David K. Wyatt-at its meeting on March Terry Allen, Ph.D. candidate in fine arts, Harvard Univer- 3-4, 1978. It had been assisted by the Screening Commitsity, for research in Iran and Afghanistan on the social, tee for Asia-Charles F. Keyes, Margaret A. McKean, cultural, and historical aspects of 15th century Herat Lisa S. Anderson, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Richard P. Madsen, Susan K. Matisoff, Barbara S. Miller, Columbia University, for research in Tunisia and Libya Norman G. Owen, James B. Palais, Lyman P. Van Slyke, and Susan S. Wadley. on the impact of colonial administration on rural politics Steven C. Caton, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Chicago, for research in the Yemen Arab Republic Roger Downey, Ph.D. candidate in economics, Cornell on the Arabic spoken in Sana'a University, for research in Indonesia on income distribution and poverty Joseph LeBaron, Ph.D. candidate in Near Eastern studies, Princeton University, for research in Sudan on economic J. Joseph Errington, Ph.D. candidate in linguistics and anthropology, University of Chicago, for research in Inchange and Condominium Government policy in the Anglo- Egyptian Sudan, 1925-1956 donesia on language change and interaction in southMargaret Lee Meriwether, Ph.D. candidate in history, Unicentral Java versity of Pennsylvania, for research in Syria on upper- Stephen R. Heder, Ph.D. candidate in government, Corclass families in 18th century Halab (Aleppo) nell University, for research in France and the United Thomas Bruce Stevenson, Ph.D. candidate in anthropolStates on the interaction between Cambodian domestic politics and American policy toward Cambodia since ogy, Wayne State University, for research in the Yemen 1953 Arab Republic on kinship, stratification, and mobility 34 VOLUME 32, NUMBER 2
Margaret Koch, Ph.D. candidate in history, Columbia University, for research in Malaysia on Malay peasant society in Pahang, 1889-1941 Susan Mary McKinnon, Ph .D. candidate in anthropology, University of Chicago, for research in Indonesia on kin group composition, marriage alliance, and exchange in the Tanimbar Islands Aiko Shiraishi, Ph.D. candidate in history, Cornell University, for research in the Netherlands, Japan and Indonesia on mobilization and control of Javanese society under the Japanese occupation, lY4~-lY45 R. Anderson Sutton, Ph.D. candidate in music, University of Michigan, for research in Indonesia on the nature, function and aesthetic of repetition and change in gamelan music in central Java WESTERN EUROPE
The following dissertation fellowships were awarded by the Doctoral Research Fellowship Selection Committee for Western Europe-Gerard Braunthal (chairman), Richard F. Kuisel, Richard A. Littman, Joseph Lopreato, and Michael J . Piore-at its meeting on March 3, 1978. It had been assisted by the Screening Committee-Robert J. Flanagan, Maurice A. Garnier, Penny T. Gill, Lynn H. Lees, Rayna Rapp Reiter, and William H. Sewell, Jr. James S. Amelang, Ph.D. candidate in history, Princeton University, for research in Spain on economic and political ideologies of the Catalan ruling classes in the 17th century Phillip L. Antweiler, Ph.D. candidate in sociology, Boston Umversity, for research in France and the United Kingdom on class and ethnicity in peripheral areas Rainer Lutz Bauer, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Stanford University, for research in Spain and West Germany on labor migration, household organization, and development in a rural Spanish parish William I. Brustein, Ph.D. candidate in sociology, University of Washington, for research in France on political regionalism in western and Mediterranean France Nancy Waters Carpenter, Ph.D. candidate"in history, Umversity of Oregon, for research in the United Kingdom on the ideology and politics of the late Victorian aristocracy Mark N. Friedrich, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Rochester, for research in West Germany on the society and polity of Mainz, 1500-1618 Lynn T . Garafola, Ph.D. candidate in comparative literature, City University of New York, for research in France and the United Kingdom on Diaghilev's Ballets Russes and the transformation of modern culture, 1909-1929 Christopher E. Guthrie, Ph.D. candidate in history, Northern Illinois University, for research in France on the commune of Narbonne and the general crisis of French society, 1850-1871 Maryanne Kowaleski, Ph.D. candidate in medieval studies, University of Toronto, for research in the United Kingdom on local markets in medieval Exeter, 1240-1400 Irene Lasota-Zabludowski, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Columbia University, for research in France on recent changes and tendencies in the policy of the French Communist Party James V. H. Melton, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Chicago, for research in Austria on the Felbiger schools and enlightened absolutism JUNE 1978
Julia K. Moldof, Ph.D. candidate in Spanish, University of Pennsylvania, for research in Spain on Galician oral literature and its antecedents in medieval literature Carol H. O'Day, Ph.D. candidate in government, University of Texas, Austin, for research in the United Kingdom on the politics of agricultural policy Rosa-Alicia Ramos, Ph.D. candidate in Spanish, University of Pennsylvania, for research in Spain on contemporary literature and the oral literary tradition in Galicia Steve L. Rappaport, Ph.D. candidate in history, Columbia University, for research in the United Kingdom on social structure, mobility, and change in Tudor London Steven G. Reinhardt, Ph.D . candidate in history, Northern Illinois University, for research in France on criminality in the senechaussee of Uzerche during the 18th century Rita M. Rhodes, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Illinois, Chicago Circle, for research in Ireland on the role of women in migration, family life, and landholding in 19th century Ireland James A. Secord, Ph.D. candidate in the history of science, Princeton University, for research in the United Kingdom on the Victorian geological debate on the boundary line between the Cambrian and the Silurian systems Debora L. Silverman, Ph.D. candidate in history, Princeton University, for research in France on cultural responses to the urban transformation of Paris, 1880-1910 Nancy Stieber, Ph.D. candidate in architecture, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, for research in the Netherlands on the social determinants of architectural form in working-class housing in Amsterdam, 1909-1922 Peter G. Stromberg, Ph .D. candidate in anthropology, Stanford University, for research in Sweden on secularization in Swedish society
GRANTS FOR INTERNATIONAL POSTDOCTORAL RESEARCH AFRICA
The Joint Committee on African Studies-Steven Feierman (chairman), Dan Ben-Amos, George C. Bond, Abdalla S. Bujra, John M. Janzen, Paul Lubeck, Samuel S. Mushi, Diann H. Painter, and Stanley Trapido-at its meeting on March 3-4, 1978 made awards to the following individuals: Ronald R. Atkinson, Ph.D. in history, Northwestern University, for research in Ghana on the history of politics in the late 18th and 19th centuries in the former state of Akyem Kotoku Jean M. Borgatti, assistant professor of African art, University of Florida, for research in Nigeria on the effects of social change on Okpella masking traditions and aesthetic attitudes William A. Brown, assistant professor of history, University of Wisconsin, for research in West Africa on a comparative history of Muslim revivals in the 19th century William M. Freund, senior lecturer in history, Ahmadu Bello University, for research in Nigeria on a social and economic history of the tin-mining industry of the Jos Plateau Charles L. Geshekter, professor of history, California State University, Chico, for research in Somalia on the economic and political consequences of the incorporation of Somali nomads into the global economy, 1920-1945 35
James D. Graham, associate professor of history, Oakland Vivienne Shue, assistant professor of political science, Yale University, for research in Hong Kong and the United University, for research in southern Tanzama on rural States on localism in contemporary Chinese politics development and alienation Peter C. W. Gutkind, professor of anthropology, McGill Judith Strauch, assistant professor of anthropology, Harvard University, for research in Hong Kong and University, for research in Ghana on a history of the Malaysia on cyclical labor migration among Chinese in canoemen and surfboatmen of the Gold Coast from Hong Kong and Malaysia 1600-1959, and of the dockworkers since 1928 Russell G. Hamilton, professor of Portuguese, University of Minnesota, for research in Mozambique, Angola, and Cape Verde on national culture and postindependence Research on the Chinese economy literature At its meeting on January 19, 1978, the Subcommittee Jan S. Hogendorn, professor of economics, Colby College, on Research on the Chinese Economy-Robert F. Dernfor research in Europe and Africa on the cowrie curberger (chairman), Robert M. Hartwell, Dwight H. Perrency and the slave trade George Joseph, assistant professor of French, Yale Univer- kins, Thomas G. Rawski, and Benjamin Ward-made its sity, for research in Senegal on Wolof oral praise poetry recommendations to the Joint Committee on Contempoin the former kingdom of Kayor rary China concerning grants. The Joint Committee apG. Kershaw, professor of anthropology, California State University, Long Beach, for research in Europe on the proved awards to the following individuals: Mau Mau revolution in Kenya Patrick R. McNaughton, assistant professor of art history, John C. H. Fei, professor of economics, Yale University, for research in Taiwan and the United States on stability University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, for research in Mali and inter-class mobility on daliluw-the traditional knowledge component in Nicholas R. Lardy, assistant professor of economics, Yale Bamana sculpture and technology University, for research in the United States on the role David P. Sandgren, assistant professor of history, Concorof agriculture in Chinese economic growth dia College, for research in Kenya on religion and poliBruce L. Reynolds, assistant professor of economics, Union tics among the Kamba, 1895-1950 College, for research in the United States on Chinese Sharon Baker Stichter, associate professor of sociology, industrial planning, 1949-1977 University of Massachusetts, Boston, for research in Kenya on the interaction of family and economic roles among women Mellon Fellowships for Chinese Studies Sheila S. Walker, assistant professor of education, University of California, Berkeley, for research in Cameroon on The Liaison Committee of the Joint Committee on Consocial and cultural influences on the access of Fulbe temporary China and the American Council of Learned females to modern education Societies' Committee on Studies of Chinese CivilizationJohn Wilson Lewis, Frederic Wakeman, Jack L. Dull. AlCHINA bert Feuerwerker, Merle Goldman, and Donald J. Munro-at its meeting on March 5, 1978 awarded Mellon Research on Contemporary and Republican China Fellowships for Chinese Studies. These fellowships are The Joint Committee on Contemporary China-John administered by the American Council of Learned Wilson Lewis (chairman), Paul A. Cohen, Robert F. DernSocieties. Fellowships were awarded to the following indiberger, Albert Feuerwerker, Merle Goldman, Victor H. viduals: Li, Burton Pasternak, Dwight H. Perkins, and Richard Solomon-at its meeting on March 3-4, 1978 awarded TRAINING IN EAST ASIA grants to the following: Bernie Frolic, associate professor of political science, York University, for research in the United States on models of Communist development in the Soviet Union and China Stevan Harrell, assistant professor of anthropology, University of Washington, for research in Taiwan on the structure of the cottage knitting industry in Ploughshare Village Karl P. Herbst, assistant professor of law, University of Pittsburgh, for research in Hong Kong on factory labor relations in China Hong Yung Lee, assistant professor of political science, Earlham College, for research in the United States and Hong Kong on the reconstruction of the Chinese Communist Party after the cultural revolution John E. Schrecker, associate professor of history, Brandeis University, for research in the United States on the reform movement of 1898 in China Susan L. Shirk, assistant professor of political science, University of California, San Die~o, for research in Hong Kong on equality and inequahty in China 36
Ju-hsi Chou, associate professor of art history, Arizona State University, for the study of Japanese Michael B. Fish, assistant professor of Chinese, University of Oregon, for the study of modern Chinese Janet W. Salaff, associate professor of sociology, University of Toronto, for the study of Japanese and modern Chinese Brantly Womack, assistant professor of political science, University of Texas at Dallas, for the study of classical and modern Chinese INTERNSHIPS
Charlotte Furth, professor of history, California State University at Long Beach, for the study of classical Chinese sources related to the history of the family in late traditional China Noriko Kamachi, associate professor of history, University of Michigan, Dearborn, for the study of Ch'ing legal records VOLUME 32, NUMBER 2
Louisa McD. Read, Las Vegas, Nevada, Ph.D. in the history the social history of Kyoto's townspeople, 1467-1615 of Far Eastern art, for the study of classical and modern Carol Gluck, assistant professor of history, Columbia University, for research in japan on the views of japanese Chinese with an emphasis on art-historical literature and texts related to the history and development of Chinese development that have predominated in japan in the period from the late 1920s until the present art Henry Rosemont, jr., professor of philosophy, St. Mary's Susan B. Hanley, associate professor of japanese studies, University of Washington, for research in japan and the College of Maryland, for the study of classical Chinese United States on changes in the standard of living and Robert M. Somers, assistant professor of history, Univerthe relationship of these changes to demographic and sity of Missouri, for the study of political anthropology economic behavior and to social change in japan, and regional analysis 1600-1900 Philip West, associate professor of history, Indiana University, for the study of legal education in late Ch'ing and Harry D. Harootunian, professor of history, University of Chicago, for research in japan and the United States on early Republican China the formation of political discourse in japan, 1500-1700 Kyoko Inoue, assistant professor of linguistics, University of Illinois at Chicago Circle, for research in the United EASTERN EUROPE States on perfective expressions in japanese The joint Committee on Eastern Europe (administered Noriko Kamachi, associate professor of history, University of Michigan, Dearborn, for research in japan on the city by the American Council of Learned Societies)-Peter F. of Nagasaki as the center路 of China trade in Tokugawa Sugar (chairman), Vernon V. Aspaturian, Morris Bornjapan stein, Charles Gati, William G. Lockwood, Thomas G. Win- Ellis S. Krauss, associate professor of political science, ner, and Dean S. Worth-at its meeting on March 10, 1978 Western Washington University, for research in japan made awards to the following individuals: and the United States on political opposition and conflict in japan Thomas Eekman, professor of Slavic literatures, University Gari K. Ledyard, professor of history, Columbia Univerof California, Los Angeles, for research on the origins sity, for research in japan on the japanese state from the and development of "free verse" in the poetry of the late Yayoi to the Middle Tomb periods (c. 3rd to 5th Slavs centuries, A.D.) Aleksander Gella, professor of sociology, State University Chae-jin Lee professor of political science, University of of New York, Buffalo, for research on the Polish intelKansas, for research in japan and Korea on japanese ligentsia policy toward Korea, 1965-1977 Roger E. Kanet, associate professor of political science, Carl Mosk, assistant professor of economics, University of University of Illinois, for research on integration in EastCalifornia, Berkeley, for research in japan and the ern Europe and its implications for East- West relations United States on the decline of fertility in japan Paul Marer, associate professor of international business, Donald H. Shively, professor of history and literature, Indiana University, for research on restrictions against Harvard University, for research in japan on the ad"disruptive" imports from Eastern Europe ministration of Osaka in the Tokugawa period Vojtech Mastny, associate professor of history, University Robert J. Smith, professor of anthropology, Cornell Uniof Illinois, for the research on political culture and naversity, for research in japan on popular religious belief tional interest in East European diplomacy and practice David F. Robinson, associate professor of Slavic languages and literatures, Ohio State University, for research on KOREA the development of the Slavic liturgy Yasushi Toda, assistant professor of economics, University The joint Committee on Korean Studies-Gari K. of Florida, for research on East-West comparisons of Ledyard (chairman), Bruce Cumings, john C. jamieson, standards of living Laura D. Tyson, assistant professor of economics, Univer- Chae-jin Lee, Chong-Sik Lee, Youngil Lim, and Edward sity of California, Berkeley, for research on intersectoral W. Wagner-at its meeting on March 10, 1978 awarded wage competition and the inflationary process in Yugo- grants to the following individuals: slavia Thomas A. Wolf, assistant professor of economics, Ohio Wonmo Dong, associate professor of political science, State University, for research on determinants of East Southern Methodist University, for research in the European exports to the industrialized West-the case of United States on the politics of social change in colonia! the Federal Republic of Germany Korea, 1910-1945 C. Paul Dredge, assistant professor of anthropology, Northeastern University, for research in Korea on JAPAN speech levels and status in a Korean village Under the program sponsored by the joint Committee Key H. Kim, associate professor of anthropology, University of California, Davis, for research in japan, Korea, on japanese Studies, the Subcommittee on Grants for and Taiwan on Sino-japanese rivalry in Korea, 1882Research-Tetsuo Najita (chairman), Gail Bernstein, 1894 Haruhiro Fukui, Thomas P. Rohlen, and William F. james B. Palais, associate professor of history, University of Washington, for research in japan and Korea on the Sibley-at its meeting on March 17, 1978 voted to make thought of Yu Hyong-won, a Confucian statesman of awards to the following individuals: the 17th century Mary Elizabeth Berry, assistant professor of history, Uni- Samuel R. Ramsey, assistant professor of East Asian languages and cultures, Columbia University, for research v.ersity of Michigan, for research in japan on problems in JUNE 1978 37
in the United States on the origins of Korean aspirated consonants Susan S. Shin, adjunct assistant professor of sociology, C. W. Post College, Long Island University, for research in Korea on the Tonghak movement Soon Young Yoon, visiting assistant professor of anthropology, Ehwa Woman's University, for research in Korea and the United States on management and labor in a multinational corporation LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN
The Joint Committee on Latin American StudiesCarlos Diaz-Alejandro (chairman), Eugenio ChangRodriguez, Shepard Forman, Alejandro Foxley, Friedrich Katz, Larissa Lomnitz, Juarez Rubens Brandao Lopes, and Alfred C. Stepan-at its meeting on March 3-4, 1978 awarded grants to the following individuals:
States and Cuba on revolutionary ideology and Cuban education Luciano Martins, investigator, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (Paris), for research in Paris on new patterns of business alliances in the Brazilian petrochemical sector Rolando Mellafe, professor of history, University of Wisconsin, for research in Chile on the determinants of the size and structure of the family in the 19th century Benjamin Nahum, professor of history, Instituto A. Vasquez Acevedo (Montevideo), for research in Uruguay and London on Jose Batlle and the ties of Uruguayan land owners to the British empire, 1903-1911 Jorge Notaro, researcher, Center for Economic Research (Montevideo), for research in Uruguay on development strategy and underemployment Brian H. Pollitt, lecturer in economics, University of Glasgow, for research in Cuba on agricultural development in postrevolutionary Cuba Danilo Rodriguez Silva, director of research, Center for Integral Education (Montevideo), for research in Ecuador on the Ecuadorian petroleum boom and its effects on the state, 1972-1976 Hilgard O'Reilly Sternberg, professor of geography, University of California, Berkeley, for research in the United States on the historical, political, and cultural geography of Northwest Mato Grosso, Brazil Mark David Szuchman, assistant professor of history, Florida International University, for research in Argentina on family and community in 19th century Argentina Mark E. Thompson, associate professor of industrial relations, University of British Columbia, for research in Mexico on industrial unions and the state Jose Antonio Viera-Gallo, associate professor of political science, IPALMO (Institute for the Relations Between Italy and the Countries of Africa, Latin America, and the Middle East, Rome), for research in Italy on the origins, development, and incidence of the doctrine of national security Richard Weisskoff, associate professor of economics, Iowa State University, for research in Lima on the economy of Peru's Andean region Lorna Valerie Williams, assistant professor of Romance languages, Dartmouth College, for research in the United States and Cuba on self and society in the poetry of Nicholas Guillen
Jose P. Barran, professor of history, Instituto A. Vasquez Acevedo (Montevideo), for research in Uruguay and London on Jose Batlle and the ties of Uruguayan land owners to the British empire, 1911-1916 Wendell Bell, professor of sociology, Yale University, for research in the West Indies and the United States on postindependence democracy in Jamaica Lourdes Casal, assistant professor of psychology, Rutgers University, for research in Cuba on the transition to socialism Pedro Cavalcanti, associate professor of sociology, Washington University, for research in Europe on the generation of 1964 exiles from Brazil Peter Cole, professor of linguistics, University of Illinois, for research in Peru on the Quecha language Ruth Collier, assistant professor of political science, Indiana University, for research in the United States on regime, class, and party in Latin America Scott Cook, associate professor of anthropology, University of Connecticut, for research in Mexico on craft production and capitalist development in the "central valleys" re~on of Oaxaca Rene de Costa, associate professor of Romance languages, University of Chicago, for research in Spain and Argentina on the theory and practice of ultraism in Spain and Argentina Paul W. Drake, associate professor of history, University of Illinois, for research in Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, and Chile on United States economic expansion NEAR AND MIDDLE EAST in Latin America from World War I to the depression The Joint Committee on the Near and Middle EastRicardo Ffrench-Davis, investigator, Corporation for Economic Research for Latin America (Santiago), for re- Francis E. Peters (chairman), Ali Banuazizi, Carolyn G. search in Chile on the politics of foreign commerce in Killean, Robert J. Lapham, Serif Mardin, Amal Rassam, Chile, 1973-1977 Constance Garcia-Barrio, associate professor of Hispanic Lawrence Rosen, and Abdelkader Zghal-at its meeting literature, West Chester State College, for research in on February 10-11, 1978 awarded grants to the following Cuba on the political significance of the literary image of individuals: the black in Cuba Edward Gonzalez, professor of political science, University Karl K. Barbir, assistant professor of history, Siena College, for research in England and France on Khalil of California, Los Angeles, for research in Mexico, FinMuradi, an 18th century Ottoman notable of Damascus land, and Cuba on the role of leverage states in the international order Edmund Burke, III, associate professor of history, University of California, Santa Cruz, for research in France on Lucio F. F. Kowarick, assistant professor of social sciences, social movements in colonial North Africa, 1830-1930 University of Sao Paulo, for research in Brazil on labor and the formation of the labor force at the onset of Robert D. Burrowes, Ph.D. in politics, Princeton Univerind ustrialization sity, for research in the Yemen Arab Republic on its state Marvin Leiner, professor of education, Queens College, builders and modernizers City University of New York, for research in the United Donna Robinson Divine, assistant professor of govern38 VOLUME 32, NUMBER 2
ment, Smith College, for research in Israel on the career patterns of senior civil servants Dale F. Eickelman, assistant professor of anthropology, New York University, for research in Oman on cultural values and their relation to conceptions of social differentiation Richard M. Frank, professor of Arabic, Catholic University of America, for research in Istanbul on the theological writings of the As'arite school, 950-11 00 A.D. Peter Gran, assistant professor of history, University of Texas, for research in Egypt on culture and social change at the time of Ibrahim al-Bajuri, 1835-1865 Frederick C. Huxley, assistant professor of anthropolog,Y, University of Michigan, D~.arborn, for research In Tunisia on intermediation (wasita) as a process underlying the establishment of formal bureaucratic relationships and informal personal networks Ronald C. Jennings, assistant professor of history, University of Illinois, for research in Cyprus on a history of Ottoman Cyprus, 1580--1640 Richard P. Mitchell, professor of history, University of Michigan, for research in the Islamic countries of the Middle East on Muslim fundamentalist thought in the contemporary period John E. Peterson, research analyst, Library of Congress, for research in the Yemen Arab Republic, the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen, and Oman on comparative political change John Masson Smith, Jr., professor of history, University of California, Berkeley, for research in Iraq on the numismatic and monetary history of the Mongols in the 13th and 14th centuries David S. Thomas, assistant professor of history, Rhode Island College, for research in Turkey on the historical writings of Silahdar Findiklili Mehmed Aga (1658-1724) A. L. Udovitch, professor of Near Eastern history, Princeton University, for research in Tunisia on the Jewish community of Jerba John O. Voll, associate professor of history, University of New Hampshire, for research in Egypt on the Islamic tradition of fundamentalist reform from the 16th through the 18th centuries
versity of California, Berkeley, for research in Europe and Sri Lanka on the Jaini order of nuns Ralph W. Nicholas, professor of anthropology, University of Chicago, for research on Hinduism in Bengali society Patrick Peebles, assistant professor of history, University of Missouri, Kansas City, for research in Sri Lanka.on historical demography Gregory L. Possehl, assistant professor of anthropology, University of Pennsylvania, for research on cultural integration in prehistoric and early historic India Stephen Rittenberg, assistant professor of history, Columbia University, for research in London and the United States on the impact of British rule on Pathan society in Peshawar Valley in the 19th and 20th centuries Richard G. Salomon, research associate in South Asian languages and civilizations, University of Chicago, for codification and decipherment of the shell inscriptions of the Gupta era Joanna Williams, associate professor of art history, University of California, Berkeley, for research in England on Orissan manuscript illustration Norman H. Zide, professor of linguistics and South Asian studies, University of Chicago, for research in London on comparative linguistics of the Munda languages SOUT,HEAST ASIA
The Joint Committee on Southeast Asia-Stuart A. Schlegel (chairman), Benedict R. Anderson, Alton Becker, Clifford Geertz, James C. Scott, Donald R. Snodgrass, Alexander Woodside, David K. Wyatt-at its meeting on March 3-4, 1978 awarded grants to the following individuals: Paul R. Deuster, associate professor of economics, Ohio University, for research in Indonesia on the impact of development efforts in two villages Gerard Diffloth, associate professor of linguistics, University of Chicago, for research in Europe on Mon-Khmer etymology and Sre oral literature Hildred Geertz, professor of anthropology, Princeton University, for research in Europe on Balinese paintings and their European patrons Donn V. Hart, professor of anthropology, Northern Illinois University, for research in the Philippines on SOUTH ASIA ethnomedicine and social control in two villages The Joint Committee on South Asia-Stanley J. Hegin- Charles F. Keyes, professor of anthropology, University ot Washington, for research on death rituals in Buddhist botham (chairman), Marc Galanter, Eugene F. Irschick, Thailand McKim Marriott, Michelle B. McAlpin, Barbara D. Metcalf, Daniel S. Lev, professor of political science, University of Karl H. Potter, A. K. Ramunujan-at its meeting on March Washington, for research in Indonesia and Malaysia on 9-10, 1978 awarded grants to the following individuals: social change and legal ideology Lim Teck Ghee, senior research fellow, Center for Policies Harry W. Blair, associate professor of political science, Research, University of Science, Malaysia, for research on the peasantry of Malaysia, 1945-1975 Bucknell University, for a comparative study of locallevel participatory development projects in the United Ruth T. McVey, reader in politics, School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, for research on States and Bangladesh the background of the October 1965 coup in Indonesia James F. Fisher, associate professor of anthropology and sociology, Carleton College, for research in Nepal on Onghokham, lecturer in history, University of Indonesia, social and cultural change among the Sherpas of for research in Indonesia, Europe, and the United States Khumbu on the relative socioeconomic positions of rural elites and Leonard A. Gordon, associate professor of history, Brookpeasants in the Madiun residency during the 19th cenlyn College, City University of New York, for a political tury and cultural biography of Subhas and Sarat Bose Sulak Sivaraksa, visiting lecturer, Cornell University, for Padmanabha S. Jaini, professor of Buddhist studies, Un iresearch on Prince Damrong of Thailand
Recent Council Publications Political Development in Eastern Europe, edited by Jan F. Triska and Paul M. Cocks. Product of a conference sponsored by the Joint Committee on Eastern Europe of the American Council of Learned Societies and the Social Science Research Council, held at Stanford University, December 4-5, 1975. New York: Praeger Publishers, 1977.374 pp. + xxiv. Hardbound, $30.00; paperback, $7.95.
Japan in the Muromachi Age, edited by John Whitney Hall and Toyoda Takeshi, with the assistance of Kanai Madoka and Richard Staubitz. Papers from a conference sponsored by the Joint Committee on Japanese Studies. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1977. xv + 376 pages. Modern Chinese Literature in the May Fourth Era, edited by Merle Goldman. Papers from a conference sponsored by the Joint Committee on Contemporary China, August 1974. Harvard University Press, 1977.464 pages + xiii. $15.00.
Rural Small-scale Industry in the People's Republic of China, report of the American rural small-scale industry delegation chaired by Dwight H. Perkins, Harvard University, whose travel was a part of the exchange program of the Committee on Scholarly Communication with the People's Republic of China and the Chinese Scientific and Technical Association. The Committee is jointly sponsored by the Council, the American Council of Learned Societies, and the National Academy of Sciences. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1977. 296 pages.
Modes of Perceiving and Processing Information, edited by Herbert L. Pick, Jr. and Elliot Saltzman. Papers based upon two workshops held during the spring of 1974 and 1975 and sponsored by the Committee on Cognitive Research. Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1978. Distributed by the Halsted Press Division of John Wiley and Sons.
Talking to Children: Language Input and Acquisition, edited by Catherine E. Snow and Charles A. Ferguson. Papers from a conference sponsored by the Committee on Sociolinguistics, September 6-8, 1974 at the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Boston, Massachusetts. Cambridge, London, New York, and Melbourne: Cambridge University Press, 1977. 369 pages, including an annotated bibliography.
Toward a Metric of Science: The Advent of Science Indicators, edited by Yehuda Elkana, Joshua Lederberg, Robert K. Merton, Arnold Thackray, and Harriet Zuckerman. Product of a conference sponsored by the Social Science Research Council and the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences. New York, Chichester, Brisbane, and Toronto: Wiley-Interscience, 1978. xiv + 354 pages. $19.95.
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