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SOCIAL

SCIENCE

RESEARCH

COUNCIL

VOLUME 31 . NUMBERS 1/2· MARCH/JUNE 1977 605 THIRD AVENUE· NEW YORK, N.Y. 10016

Chinese Foreign Policy: A Workshop Report by Allen S. Whiting·

THE STUDY OF CHINESE FOREIGN POLICY has evolved more slowly in the United States than has the study of Chinese domestic politics. During the 1950s, the stigma of suspicion engendered by McCarthyism discouraged faculty and students alike from focusing systematically on contemporary China's international relations. Although foundation funding facilitated research and conferences on both Chinese economics and domestic politics during the 1960s, little support was available for research or conferences on foreign policy. Neglect begets neglect. The failure to stimulate research leads to a paucity of senior scholars; this inhibits the multiplier effect, thus limiting the size of future generations of doctoral students. Thus, when President Nixon's historic 1972 visit to Peking suddenly reawakened American interest in China, only a handful of studies on Chinese foreign policy was on hand as compared with a burgeoning literature on various aspects of Chinese society and culture. Cognizant of the need to redress this imbalance, the Joint Committee on Contemporary China-cosponsored by the Council and the American Council of Learned Societies-established a steering group on Chinese foreign policy and international relations which undertook an initial survey of the field in order to identify those engaged in relevant researchwhether as specialists in Chinese affairs or as generalists in the field of international relations. The work of this steering group led to a committeesponsored workshop on Chinese foreign policy held in Ann Arbor, Michigan, August 12-14, 1976, at which 14 junior scholars presented findings from ongoing or re-

cently completed doctoral dissertation and postdoctoral research. 1 The emphasis was on exploratory and experimental approaches rather than on substantive conclusions. The problems and promise of differing methodolo1 In addition to Mr. Whiting. the participants at this conference on Chinese foreign policy were Richard Ashley. University of South· ern California; Steve Chan. University of Maryland; Roy F. Grow. Brandeis University; Harry Harding. Stanford University; James C. Hsiung. New York University; Samuel S. Kim. Monmouth College; John A. Kringen. University of Maryland; Steven Levine. Chapel Hill. North Carolina; John Wilson Lewis. Stanford University; Patrick G. Maddox. Social Science Research Council; James K. Morrison. University of Utah; Suzanne Ogden. Northeastern University; Andres D. Onate. University of Arizona; Jonathan Pollack. Harvard University; Satish Raichur. University of Denver; James Reardon-Anderson. School of Advanced International Studies. The Johns Hopkins University (Wash. ington. D.C.); Seiichiro Takagi. Stanford University; Tang Tsou. University of Chicago; Arnold B. Urken. Stevens Institute of Technology; Peter Van Ness. University of Denver; Olin L. Wethington. Cambridge. Massachusetts; and Kim Woodard. Princeton University.

CONTENTS OF THIS ISSUE I Chinese Foreign Policy-Allen S. Whiting 3 Scholarly Exchanges with China- Mary Brown Bullock 5 Project LINK in 1976-Lawrence R. Klein 7 The Economic History of Latin America-Roberto Cortes· Conde, Louis Wolf Goodman, and Stanley J. Stein 10 African Cultural Transformations-James W. Fer· nandez 14 Current Activities at the Council -Occupational careers and social support - The methodology of longi tudinal research - Social and affective development during child· hood 16 Fellowships and Grants 24 Donald Ramsey Young: 1898-1977

• Allen S. Whiting. who organized and chaired this workshop. is professor of political science at the University of Michigan.

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gies thus received prior attention over content; in fact, some studies were still in the data-gathering stage. The relative contribution of quantitative techniques, content analysis, and traditional methods was demonstrated in actual application rather than debated in the abstract. In addition, the applicants enriched their understanding of such matters as Sino-Japanese relations, China's future energy resources and the likely export thereof, and China's behavior in the UN Security Council.

Two schools of scholarship Because the steering group deliberately sought out new or lesser known scholars from widely scattered institutions, considerable surprise and excitement attended the collective discovery of who was doing what, and how. The mutual sharing of difficulties and obstacles encountered in research on complex and obscure phenomena associated with Chinese foreign policy engendered a feeling of community among previously isolated individuals. The interaction of traditional China specialists with language competence and international relations analysts emphasizing statistical techniques helped to throw a bridge over the troubled methodological waters whidi so often separate these two schools of scholarship. Although these schools do their research on opposite banks, they do observe the same stream of human behavior. The two schools are often separated by gaps in terminology and technical comprehension. Nonetheless, it was generally agreed that so far as foreign policy outputs are concerned, the problem is less the availability of data than the frequent incapacity of conventional research methods to manipulate these data for maximum utility. For example, the Van Ness-Raichur study of Chinese economic aid to Third World countries covers $3.5 million worth of loans extended between 1949 and 1974, examined on a country-by-country basis. Uncertainties of information, variance of estimates, and conversion into U.S. dollars combine with the testing of alternative hypotheses and the role of varying factors to require statistical techniques and computer analysis. Similar needs were posed by the Maddox examination of 3,633 delegations exchanged between China and 125 noncommunist countries from 1964 to 1971. Rigorous use of the data disconfirmed both conventional wisdom and h unchesabout China's foreign interactions during the Cultural Revolution of the late 1960s, for example-while suggesting other hypotheses for further examination. A different use of these techniques emerged in the Takagi survey of Sino-Japanese relations from 1950 to 1965. Employing quantitative methods to identify spe2

cific variables and to formalize a description of their interrelationship, this study compared the appropriateness of competing models to explain Chinese policy: a simple action-reaction construct; a modification of the "lateral expansion" concept advanced by Robert C. North and Nazli Choucri; 2 and a construct which centered on the evolution of U.S.-Japanese relations as perceived through Mao Tse-tung's concept of nations being in an "intermediate zone" between the two superpowers. Mr. Takagi combined content analysis with an explicit qualitative approach to show the greater relevance of the third model as against the first two. These longitudinal studies highlighted the consider路 able accumulation of data available on China's foreign policy over the past 28 years. With the prospect in coming decades of increased Chinese participation in international conferences-most of the proceedings of which can be examined in translation-the utility of quantitative methods for data control and factor analysis will be enhanced. In addition to these retrospective studies, Woodard utilized alternative mathematical models to project varying future rates of Chinese energy output, domestic consumption, and foreign exports, up to 1990. With an historical data series of 1949-72 as a base, he demonstrated the interrelationship of differing GNP growth rates and energy requirements; of extraction and depletion rates; and of mixes of coal, petroleum, natural gas, and hydroelectric production.

Linking quantitative and qualitative measures The need to link quantitative and qualitative methods was repeatedly emphasized. Statistical manipulations can produce misleading descriptions if they reveal correlations with only assumed causal inference, or if they lack specific context referents. The addition of historical and cultural perspectives increases the potential payoff of quantitative methods which can supplement traditional approaches but rarely substitute for them. Kim's analysis of Chinese voting patterns in the Security Council showed graphically how the expanded utilization of established Security Council practices, e.g., abstention and nonparticipation, permitted China to maintain its avowed principles without obstructing Council decisions by the use of its veto power-as had been predicted prior to 1971. This was seen to have wider relevance for un-

2 See their "Dynamics of International ConHict," World Politics (Spring 1972 supplement "Theory and Policy in International Rela路 tions"), Volume 24, pages 80-123.

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derstanding the role of tacit compromise in Chinese negotiatory behavior outside the U.N. framewo.k, where Peking's insistence on acceptance of principle need not preclude compromise in practice. Chinese language facility proved essential where content analysis involved the subtle nuances and contextual associations inherent in the use of specific characters or phrases, as in the Kringen-Chan study of Chinese crisis perception and reaction. Similarly, Maddox discovered omissions in available translations of Chinese materials, as well as problems of un translated material, that could be remedied only through surveying original sources. While it was agreed that the ideal scholar should have both quantitative skills and language competence, the inordinate time, effort, and talent required for "walking on two legs" argues for much more collaboration between those with either set of skills. Alternatively, greater familiarization with linguistic and statistical methods requires more released time from teaching as well as support for summer training, not only for the initial acquisition but also for the intermittent refurbishing of these capabilities. An optimal solution is to combine area specialists with international relations generalists in periodic workshops and regional seminars. The isolation of China specialists at smaller institutions, together with the Sinocentrism of area training, can be countered by greater communication and collaboration among scholars on and from other countries dealing with China. Many decisions in Peking, as elsewhere, are reactive to external stimuli and not initiatory. Grow's examination of transnational interactions in the Sino-Soviet relationship during the decade 1949-59 was coupled with his more recent interviews in Japanese trading firms active in China; he thus demonstrated the need to examine bilateral and multilateral relationships as they impact on policy makers in Peking. In addition, he stressed the subtle influence of technology transfer upon

societal structure and values. By implication, Grow pointed out the value of Japanese sources and scholars for information and perspective on China.

Prospects for future research Despite the frustrations of a workshop which focused more on research techniques than on findings, and the limitations inherent in oral reports on projects still in process, the participants agreed that a highly promising start had been made in advancing Chinese foreign policy analysis in terms of both scholarly objectivity and methodological rigor. Freed of past political inhibitions and intellectual constraints, the field now needs adequate financial nourishment to produce a solid and systematic series of studies comparable to those which have emerged in the study of Chinese domestic politics over the past decade. At some point, these two types of inquiry should combine in analyzing foreign policy making, although little immediate encouragement for this prospect emerged at the meeting. Foreign policy outputs are observable, whereas inputs to the policy process can at best only be inferred, except for partial glimpses occasioned by polemical materials revealed in such personal and factional denunciations as have occurred during and since the Cultural Revolution. Nevertheless, ¡the linkages between domestic politics and economic planning, on the one hand, and foreign policy and technology imports on the other hand-as explicitly argued in recent attacks on the "Gang of Four"-raise the possibility of combining research on these various questions. This multidimensional perspective on Chinese foreign policy will complete the "normalization" process so necessary to remove analysis from the category of exotic inquiry and embed it firmly in the comparative and generic study of world politics. D

Scholarly Exchanges with China by Mary Brown Bullock'"

THE COMMIITEE ON SCHOLARLY COMMUNICATION WITH THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA (CSCPRC) has recently concluded negotiations for the 1977 exchange programs. Among the six delegations traveling to China • The author. an historian. is staff director of the Committee on Scholarly Communication with the People's Republic of China. The committee is sponsored by the American Council of Learned Societies. the National Academy of Sciences. and the Social Science Research Council. ~ARCH/JUNE

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during the coming year are an applied linguistics and a Chinese painting delegation. These programs reflect the CSCPRC's continuing efforts to represent both the social sciences and the humanities. The other new exchange groups are astronomy, vegetables, cancer, and a delegation from the committee to negotiate future programs with the Chinese. In return, the CSCPRC will host six Chinese delegations. Their fields of inquiry reflect China's present-day 3


emphasis upon industrial and agricultural modernization. The exchange groups are chemistry, metrology, hematite ore dressing, drilling techniques and equipment, pomology, and tunnel boring equipment. These 1977 programs continue the CSCPRC's yearly exchange program which began in 1972, shortly after the Shanghai Communique renewed Sino-American relations. The CSCPRC is the primary organization promoting scholarly exchanges with China; it has hosted 25 Chinese delegations and sent 20 American groups to China. A major goal of the committee is to increase American understanding of Chinese values and society. It has sought to design programs which would enable social scientists and humanists, especially China specialists, to visit China. These programs include sending social science and humanities delegations and designing scientific programs to consider the social context of Chinese science. After three full years of operating exchanges, the CSCPRC is able to report qualified success.

Delegations in the social sciences and humanities Approximately one-third of the exchanges which the CSCPRC has negotiated with its counterpart organization, the Scientific and Technical Association of the People's Republic of China (ST APRC), have been in the social sciences and humanities. In addition to the forthcoming applied linguistics and Chinese painting delegations, these include the following earlier programs: art and archeology, early childhood education, linguistics, rural small-scale industry, and paleoanthropology. Although these were survey delegations of approximately four weeks duration, the itineraries were, for the most part, substantive in nature. The trip reports of these groups have resulted in a number of publications, several of which have been widely acclaimed. 1 Twenty-five per cent of the 190 persons sent to China under CSCPRC auspices are China specialists. These 47 individuals represent the following disciplines: art history and painting (14), history (9), archeology (6), political science (5), linguistics (5), economics (3), anthropol.ogy (3), and sociology (2). Seventeen of these China scholars were chosen to ac1 ,V. W. Howells and Patricia Jones Tsuchitani, editors, Paleoanthro路 pology in the People's Republic of China. Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Sciences, 1977. Winfred P. Lehmann, editor, Language and Linguistics in the People's Republic of China. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1975. Dwight H. Perkins, editor, Rural Small-scale Industry in the People's Republic of China. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1977.

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company scientific delegations. This escort program was designed to provide delegations with a scholar who could assist in interpreting Chinese customs and politics to primarily scientific groups_ It was also designed to provide China scholars with the opportunity to travel in China during the early years of renewed relationships. It was correctly anticipated both that the Chinese would be reluctant to approve social science delegations and that modern China specialists in particular might encounter difficulties in gaining access to China. Social scientists who are not China specialists have constituted 13 per cent of the total number of individuals sent to China. These have included economists, psychologists, and anthropologists. Several delegations had a very profitable interdisciplinary approach. For example, the rural small-scale industry delegation included three China-specialist economists, one China-specialist sociologist, one historian, one rural sociologist, and three industrial experts. The Liaoning earthquake prediction delegation was comprised mainly of geophysicists and seismologists, but it also included a sociologist who is studying the social effects of earthquakes.

Chinese and American priorities These successful social science programs represent a small but positive return on several years of CSCPRC negotiating efforts. In repeated discussions with the Scientific and Technical Association, the CSCPRC has emphasized that the exchange priorities of the two countries are different. Implicit in these discussions is an understanding that the CSCPRC's willingness to continue hosting Chinese scientific and technological visits is, in some measure, dependent upon Chinese receptivity to American social science and humanities programs. The CSCPRC has endeavored to propose areas in which Chinese scholars are known to be currently active (art, archeology, linguistics, paleoanthropology) or areas in which delegations can learn from relatively easily arranged itineraries (rural industry, childhood education). The Chinese have accepted only a token number of these delegations. The balance between Chinese technological delegations and American social science delegations has not been entirely satisfactory. Nonetheless, the institutional alliance between American scientists and social scientists, represented by the CSCPRC, appears to be an effective mechanism for promoting social science programs. The CSCPRC has established a pattern in which the Chinese are asked to respond to exchange proposals and itinerary requests (e.g., longer stays at fewer places, less tourism) for scientists and social scientists in a similar manner. VOLUME

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And, in terms of format and itinerary, the development of these exchanges has been remarkably parallel. Scientific programs are beginning to move towards more specialized return visits. Similarly, the Chinese painting and the applied linguistics delegations are more focused versions of earlier survey visits. The CSCPRC has now established institutional relationships with the Scientific and Technical Association and the Chinese Academy of Sciences which stand ready to serve American social scientists and humanists as well as natural scientists. Social science exchanges have been hampered by the fact that most social science and humanities institutes have been closed since the Cultural Revolution. Prior to the Cultural Revolution, one of the five branches of the Chinese Academy of Sciences was the Department of Philosophy and Social Sciences, which included a number of major institutes in the fields of philosophy, economics, languages, literature, history, international relations, and archeology. Recent information indicates that 12 of these institutes have been reconstituted and remain under the purview of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. It is difficult to predict how soon these institutes will become both active and receptive to visits by American scholars. However, access to them should be greatly facilitated by existing institutional ties between the CSCPRC and the Scientific and Technical Association.

Evaluation On balance, these fairly limited exchanges in the social sciences and humanities continue to fill a major void in Chinese-American relations. The programs compare quite favorably with those of Western Europe and Japan, which have had the advantage of diplomatic relations with China. While formal diplomatic ties have enabled these countries to establish language exchange programs, they have not yet resulted in an increase of social science or humanities delegations or of in-depth research visits. In fact, the narrowly focused CSCPRC delegations of child psychologists, paleoanthropologists, rural economists and industrialists, and theoretical and applied linguists are quite unique. During the past few years, CSCPRC exchange programs have begun the task of re-establishing communication between the scholarly communities of the United States and China. In June of 1977, the CSCPRC will send a formal delegation to China to explore ways of expanding and strengthening this new relationship. Specific program suggestions are always welcome. Any recommendations should be sent to the Committee on Scholarly Communication with the People's Republic of China, National Academy of Sciences, 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20418. The committee would be pleased to send a list of its publications upon request. 0

Project LINK in 1976 by Lawrence R. Klein ,.

FOR THE EIGHTH CONSECUTIVE YEAR, PROJECT LINK, sponsored by the Committee on Economic Stability and Growth, continued its program of international research and contemporary analysis of the world economy. Following a new meeting format begun in 1975, the participants gathered in the spring for a short working meeting on the international outlook and again in the early autumn for a lengthier, broader meeting. Each year, the various econometric model centers, distributed throughout the world, send their latest data • The author is Benjamin Franklin professor of economics at the University of Pennsylvania. He has been a member of the Council's Committee 011 Economic Stability and Growth, which sponsors Project LINK, since its appointment in 1959. The other members of the committee are Bert G. Hickman, Stanford University (chairman); Irma G. Adelman, University of Maryland; Barry Bosworth, Brookings Institution; Martin Bronfenbrenner, Duke University; Otto Eckstein, Harvard University; Stephen M. Goldfeld, Princeton University; R. A. Gordon, University of California, Berkeley; Franco Modigliani, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Geoffrey H. Moore, National Bureau of Economic Research; Arthur M. Okun, Brookings Institution; Rudolf R. Rhomberg, International Monetary Fund; staff, Louis Wolf Goodman. ~ARCH/JUNE

1977

up-dates, together with system changes, to LINK Central at the Ur.iversity of Pennsylvania. These are assembled in central data files and checked so that LINK Central model solutions agree with those of each country or region. In a meeting in Philadelphia, March 24-26, 1976, each separate LINK center was able, for the first time in the year, to get a good chance to look at each other's economic forecast. Country (or area) by country (or area), we discussed each projection, with an examination of assumptions, political inputs, and early-month performances. The meeting was small (restricted to one participant per model center) and intensive for the full three days. At the same time, there were some general presentations on LINK research dealing with commodity modeling, socialist country modeling, adding models for the "rest-of-the-world," and medium-term extrapolation. For the most part, LINK has concentrated on short term analysis and projections were discussed in detail for the limited horizon, 1976-78. LINK system applications will continue to focus on three-year forward projections, but 5


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longer term simulations of the past and techniques for stretching the overall time horizon on a trend growth basis are also being investigated. The meeting format-having one intensive but small gathering, early in the year, followed by a longer meeting of a more general character later in the year-appears to be working out well and will be continued. Communication facilities among LINK research centers are improving. The standardized computer programs built exclusively for the LINK system have been adapted to all the different models and to several hardware installations. The system as a whole is functioning in many more parts of the world and an achievement of 1976 has been the installation of the whole system on a time-sharing network so that many users can have access to it for their own purposes. Many government and international agencies based in Washington, D.C. are now using LINK in a remote access time-sharing mode. A new approach was taken in 1976 to discussions of new frontiers in international econometric analysis through the medium of the yearly world meeting. The second meeting of the year (Venice, Italy, September 27-0ctober 2, 1976) was designed to reassess the LINK world economic outlook, but it was also organized to deal systematically with new investigations of importance to the project. The topics of prepared papers included capital flow modeling, prediction of exchange rates, alternative methods of linkage, extended link simulations, and international capacity measurement. A full listing of the papers gives a better understanding of the range of subjects covered:

F. Gerard Adams, University of Pennsylvania, "Commodity Prices in the LINK System: An Empirical Appraisal of Commodity Price Impacts" Paul Armington, Forex Research, Ltd., "A Model of Exchange Rate Movements in the Short-run, Under Conditions of Managed Floating" Jacques Artus, International Monetary Fund, "Measures of Potential Output in Manufacturing for Eight Industrial Countries, 1955-1978" R. J. Ball and Terrence Burns, London Graduate School of Business Studies, "Long-term Properties of Econometric Models" Richard Berner, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, "Simulation of Tariff and Exchange Rate in an EEC Multisector Model" Klaus Conrad, Gerald Grisse, and Wilhelm Krelle, University of Bonn, "Effects of Foreign Monetary Policy Changes on the German Economy" Antonio Costa and Stanislav Menshikov, United Nations, "Models of the Eastern European Economies Within the LINK System" Franz Ettlin and Johan Lybeck, Stockholm School of Economics, "The Measurement and Impact of Credit Rationing"

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D. K. Foot and John Sawyer, University of Toronto, "Analysing the Dynamic Response of a Model to a Shock" Walter Frerichs and Knut Kubler, University of Bonn, "The Determination of Wage-Profit Frontiers on the Basis of a Disaggregated Forecasting System for Germany" Jorge Gana, University of Pennsylvania, Bert G. Hickman and Lawrence Lau, Stanford University, and Chikashi Moriguchi, Kyoto University, "Alternative Approaches to Linkage of National Econometric Models" Heinz Glueck and Stefan Schleicher, Institute for Advanced Studies (Vienna), "Capital Flow Equations for the Major Industrial Countries" Bert Hickman and Anthony Lima, Stanford University, "Price Determination and Transmission of Inflation in the LINK System" Keith Johnson, Columbia University, "Optimal Control of a World Interactive Model" Lawrence R. Klein, University of Pennsylvania, "LINK Forecasts to 1978" and "Some Estimates of Capital Flows" Lawrence R. Klein, University of Pennsylvania, and Asher Tishler, University of Tel Aviv, "Long-run Extrapolation of the LINK System" Wilhelm Krelle, University of Bonn, "Factor Shortages and Disequilibrium Prices in Econometric Forecasting Models" Kei Mori, Keio University, "A Design of an Integrated Modeling System for LINK" Chikashi Moriguchi, Kyoto University, "Econometric Models and Japan's Economic Plans" Duncan Ripley, International Monetary Fund, "The IMF Trade Model: A Preliminary Report" Stefan Schleicher, Institute for Advanced Studies (Vienna), "Stochastic Aspects of Large Econometric Systems" Carl Weinberg, International Business Machines Corporation (Italy), "A Wealth-Parity Theory of Exchange Rate Deter路 mination"

The meetings of 1976 showed evidence of continuing enhancement of the LINK system through cumulative research efforts that have been persistently pursued over the years. The areas of improvement are: 1. Uniform computer programming for the wide range

of different country and area models, together with better data management. 2. Improvement of individual models to show more price response, and more monetary information. 3. Testing of alternative linkage methods through different approaches to extrapolation of the world trade matrix. 4. Introduction of capital flows with eventual targets on estimation of exchange rates. 5. Introduction of world commodity models into the LINK system of country/area models. 6. Extension of the time frame of LINK simulations, both retrospectively and prospectively. 7. Introduction of new models for smaller developed countries, socialist countries, and developing coun路 tries. VOLUME

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Some progress was registered on all these issues during the year. These subjects formed the basis for presentation and detailed discussion at the two meetings. Given the inherently difficult nature of these problems, it is likely that they will continue to be on the agenda for future meetings. Alongside these research and application developments, interest continues to be focused on LINK projections of trade, activity levels, inflation rates, and other macroeconomic magnitudes in ex ante forecast modes as well as policy simulation modes. Hopefully, the accessibility of the LINK system to public sector users will facilitate its use in policy analysis. After the Venice meetings, the LINK projection round for 1976 (spanning 1977 and 1978) was completed during the remaining months of the year and released to the media in December as world summary statistics. A notable event during 1976 was the publication of the second LINK project volume. l The different models 1 Jean L. Waelbroeck. editor. The Models of Project Link (Amsterdam: North-Holland Publishing Company. 1976) _ The first LINK volume is R_ J. Ball. editor. The International Linkage of National Economic Models (Amsterdam: North-Holland Publishing Company. 1973)_

used in the LINK system are listed in detail in the new book, as they were specified some two years ago. Although most of them have been revised since that time, it is useful to have all the constituent parts listed together in one place. In addition, there are two general chapters dealing with exemplary simulation applications and an explanation of the computer programming problems involved in LINK. A third LINK volume, under the editorship of John Sawyer of the University of Toronto, is now in preparation. It will consist of the project papers delivered to the Second World Congress of the Econometric Society, Toronto, August 1975, and some papers presented at subsequent international meetings of LINK. The LINK computer program, with a complete data management system, has been made available to research groups in countries that are developing model capabilities. Many of these countries are requesting eventual direct participation in the LINK project. There has been considerable interest in sublinkage models for area groupings of countries, especially developing countries, which have shown an interest in some formal association with the project. 0

The Economic History of Latin America by Roberto Cortes-Conde, Louis Wolf Goodman, and Stanley J. Stein • of Latin America: A Guide to Its Economic History, 1830-1930, edited by Roberto Cortes-Conde and Stanley J. Stein, will complete a major attempt by the Joint Committee on Latin American Studies to advance collaborative social science THE PUBLICATION LATER THIS YEAR

• Roberto Cortes-Conde is senior researcher at the Torcuato di Tella Institute (Buenos Aires); Louis Wolf Goodman is a sociologist who serves as staff for the Joint Committee on Latin American Studies of the Social Science Research Council and the American Council of Learned Societies; and Stanley J. Stein is professor of history at Princeton University_ 1 The current members of the Joint Committee on Latin American Studies are Carlos Diaz-Alejandro. Yale University. chairman; Guillermo Bonfil Batalla. Center for Advanced Study of the National Institute of Anthropology and History (Mexico City); Francesca Cancian. University of California. Irvine; Eugenio Chang-Rodriguez. Queens College. City University of New York; Alejandro Foxley. Center for the Study of National Planning (Santiago); Juarez Rubens Brandlio Lopes. Brazilian Center for Analysis and Planning (Slio Paulo); Peter H. Smith. UniverSity of Wisconsin; and Alfred C. Stepan. Yale University; staff, Louis Wolf Goodman and Patricia R. Pessar.

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1977

research on problems of the area. l During the 1960s, the committee, together with the Latin American Council of the Social Sciences (CLACSO), directed its attention to the subject of economic history because analyses of problems of economic development and prognoses for future development were often justified by referring to historical developments, trends, and precedents-all sometimes of dubious verification. Furthermore, the committee felt that intellectual ties among an incipient network of economic historians focusing on Latin America could be strengthened both by the undertaking of a collaborative project by a group of these scholars and by indicating new sources for research by the production of a heavily annotated bibliographical guide. The project had the purpose of collecting, analyzing, and publishing materials on the economic history of Latin America-both to illuminate the broad pattern of Latin America's development process and to intensify contact among scholars working on these problems.

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A new guide to the economic literature Latin America: A Guide to Its Economic History, 1830-1930, to be released by the University of California Press during the summer of 1977, is the first published result of this project. This 700-page volume, the result of the collaborative work of ten North American and Latin American scholars, contains annotated bibliographies on the economic history of six major Latin American natio~s during the period 1830-1930: Argentina, Brazil, ?hlle, Colo~bia, Mexico, and Peru. Each bibliography lS accompamed by a lengthy explanatory essay and the volume is introduced by general essays by the coeditors. Th~ chapter on Argentina was prepared by Tulio Halpenn Donghi, University of California, Berkeley; on Brazil by Nicia Vilela Luz, University of Sao Paulo; on Chile by Osvaldo Sunkel and Carmen Cariola of the Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex; on Colombia by William Paul McGreevey, Smithsonian Institution (Washington, D.C.); on Mexico by Enrique Florescano, National Institute of Anthropology and History (Mexico City); and on Peru by Shane J. Hunt, Boston University and Pablo Macera, University of San Marcos (Lima). The international collaboration which formed the basis of the projeot has been an important part of the committee's objective of advancing scholarly research. International collaboration was initiated by the establishment of a Subcommittee on the Economic History of Latin America to set the goals for the project.2 As a first step, a North American historian, Stanley J. Stein, and an Argentinian historian, Roberto Cortes-Conde, were appointed codirectors. Participants were selected on the basis of their qualifications as economic historians. The international collaborative nature of the project is signaled not only by the nationalities of the editors, contributors, members of the subcommittee, and sponsors, but also by the intense interaction among contributors and editors throughout the life of the project and by the final trilingual publication of the essays, each chapter 2 The Subcommittee on the Economic History Project was formed in 1968. Three of its six members are appointed annually by CLACSO and three by the Joint Committee. Its current members are Joseph Grunwald. Brookings Institution (Washington, D.C.), chairman; Her路 aclio Bonilla, Institute of Peruvian Studies (Lima); Enrique Florescano, National Institute of Anthropolgy and History (Mexico City); Tulio Halperin, University of California, Berkeley; Stanley R. Ross, Univer路 ~ity of Texas; and Stanley J. Stein, Princeton University. Past members mclude Roberto Cortes路Conde, Torcuato Di Tella Institute (Buenos Aires), 1968-1971; Isaac Kerstenetzsky, Getuilo Va~gas Foundation (Rio de Janeiro), 1968-1971; L. N. McAlister, University of Florida, 1968; Miguel Urrutia Montoya, Ministry of Finance and Public Credit (Bogota), 1968-1971. Staff for the subcommittee has included Bryce Wood, 1968-1973, Michael Potashnik, 1969-1975, and Louis Wolf Good. man, I 974-present.

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i? the ~ative language of its author. Trilingual publication,. wlth t~ree sets of essays written in English, two sets m Spamsh, and one set in Portuguese, will make the utility of particular essays more immediate in the thr~e language areas native to the participants in the proJect. By 1959, the field of Latin American economic history was not explored, although the lag behind the history of x,nore industrialized areas may not have been as large as lt appeared. Before 1930, Latin American scholars were accustomed to relate politics and economics, but the interplay of economics and history was given less attention. Following World War II, the industrialized nations placed emphasis upon war-devastated industrial areas and the problems of economic recovery. In "underdeveloped" areas, intense interest arose in economic growth ~nd developx,nent, and planning agencies, economic pollCY formulatlOn, and mechanisms to stimulate economic performance became key concerns. The most important organization created at that time to stimulate economic performance in Latin America was the United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America. Its director, Raul Prebisch, published a volume in 1950 which became the foundation for critiques of past Latin American development strategies and the basis for the formation of future policies (The Economic Development of Latin America and Its Principal Problems, New York: United Nations, 1950). Through an analysis of patterns of trade agreements, Prebisch's publication reflected the importance of the study of economic history for the formation of public policy.

Economic history and economic development By the 1960s development economists had come to view the study of the economic history of Latin America as an essential task for uncovering long-term patterns or structures which might be basic for sparking development in the region. By this time, economists had come to feel that economic planning based on theoretical models borrowed from industrialized nations and focusing only on current problems had not been successful, since economic performance continued to lag far behind expectations. There was a growing perplexity over what was later termed "import substitution industrialization" S and policy makers broadened the scope of their 8 "Import substitution industrialization" is a label which has been applied to the period in the economic history of a nation in which national industrialization plans focus on the production of goods which have traditionally been imported from abroad. Recent work, how-

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analysis searching for the roots of inadequate economic performance, not only among the shortcomings of national economies but also from the nature of the international economic order itself. Of special concern at this time were the "terms of trade," under which 路the prices Latin American nations obtained for the raw materials they sold to industrialized nations were continually declining while the prices they paid for imported manufactured goods were steadily increasing. This questioning of the international economic order was implicit in Prebisch's analysis, but it became explicit with the emergence of a new analytic framework among Latin American scholars. This framework stressed a systematic analysis of the international economic order and found explanations for underdevelopment in the old-style phrases of "colonialism," "neocolonialism," and "imperialism," and the then emergent concept of "dependence."

International scholarly collaboration It is against this background that the committee initiated a review of the field which culminated in the project that led to The Guide. By the mid-l 960s, the committee recognized that these theoretical and policy related issues highlighted the need for establishing firm bases for, and stimulating further research on, the economic history of Latin America. In addition, the committee wished to further the application of the methodology of the so-called "new" economic history, which aHempted to advance economic theory through the statistical analysis of serial data. At a committee meeting with Latin American economists held at the Colegio de Mexico in December 1966, it was agreed that within the committee's integrated program of fellowships, grants, and research planning, a special priority should be accorded to the Latin American Economic History Project which would broaden and deepen the committee's coverage of Latin American studies. After much discussion, it was decided that the final step should be work on a bibliographical survey of ma路terials available for the national-level analysis of the economic history of Latin America. Further, the project was to be a model of international collaboration, was to demonstrate the existence and availability of hitherto neglected research materials, and was to specify-in essays accompanying the national bibli-

ever, has questioned the utility of this label, indicating that processes of import substitution, autonomous production, and export production overlap rather than occur at separate stages in a nation's economic history. ~ARCH/JUNE

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ographies-significant problems and issues for further investigation. National coverage was to be limited to seven major countries in Latin America: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Mexico, and Peru. However, it proved impossible to enlist the collaboration of the Cuban academic communi-ty, and the volume thus does not include materials on Cuba. It was decided to limit the period of coverage to the 100 years between 1830 and 1930. The initial date corresponds to the effective start of the so-called "national period" of independence from Spain for most Latin American nations, the corresponding termination of anticolonial movements, and the beginning of what may loosely be called postwar reconstruction. An equally important factor in choosing 1830 as a starting date was the general opinion of the collaborators that the inclusion of the early years of independence would enable them to ascertain the survival of colonial structural elements in the economy, politics, society, and culture of these countries. The terminal date, on the other hand, was based on other considerations: (1) the opinion that the 1930s economic depression marked a watershed in the trajectory of Latin America's economic growth and development, closing one major cycle and inaugurating another; (2) the fact that the 40-year interval between depression-era Latin America and the 1970s would more readily provide project participants with "historical perspective"; and (3) the opinion that the final decades of the 19th century and the first decades of the 20th century have been particularly neglected by scholars. It was hoped that the bibliographical investigation would make a distinct contribution to scholarship by presenting published materials from annual reports of goverr.mental agencies, pamphlet literature containing polemics on such issues as protection and free trade, railroad finance and construction reports, immigration studies, and fiscal, monetary, and land policies. Furthermore, it was hoped to uncover materials in national, regional, and municipal government archives, and in the papers of enterprises in the private sector-primarily those of merchant firms, banking establishments, and investment firms. The emphasis upon quantitative and often serial materials basic to economic history has resulted in a substantial identification of new data sources. Central to the committee's involvement in the Economic History Project has been a preoccupation with the stimulation of substantive studies, descriptive and/ or quantitative, and with directing such studies to basic issues in the economic history of Latin America. Linked to this was the hope that the clarification of major subsidiary issues, and the perception of their interrelationships, would crystallize in the form of a more refined pe9


riodization and a sharper definition of what one might Drafts of the essays and bibliographies for The Guide call "moments of decision making" or "turning points." were completed by the summer of 1973. They were then It was hoped that The Guide's bibliographies and in- reviewed by the editors and participants through an exterpretative essays would furnish materials for those change of letters. Final drafts were completed by the interested in economic history to use to gain access to spring of 1974, and the manuscript was delivered to the the insights, approaches, and techniques burgeoning in University of California Press in late 1974. the social sciences as a whole. A major accomplishment has been the completion The desire to develop substantive studies surfaced of a research enterprise that has been fully collaborative repeatedly during the early planning stages of the proj- from beginning to end, involving scholars from seven ect. different nations. This has not been an easy task. Because In 1973, a project with the unifying theme "The Do- of difficulties in coordinating work schedules among mestic Impact of External Factors Upon the Growth and such a diverse group of scholars and the difficulties of Developmen t of Latin American Economies Between international communication, it was critically important 1880 and 1930" was proposed to the Joint Committee on for ·the coeditors and staff constantly to monitor the acLatin American Studies. The committee approved the tivities of the participants in the project so that all could project, appointing as codirectors Shane J. Hunt, and be kept aware of each other's progress, and so that deadRoberto Cortes-Conde. This research is currently being lines could be met. The result of this collaboration and completed and can be considered as representing a seccoordination is a volume which should substantially adond phase of the development of the committee's jnvance the study of the economic history of Latin America terests.4 and the increased mutual visability of a network of eco• Chapter authors for this second project include: Argentina, Roberto nomic historians (both project participants and others) Cortes-Conde; Brazil, Maria da Conceicao Tavares. Economic Commiswho work in a framework of international scholarship. sion for Latin America; Chile, Carmen Cariola and Osvaldo Sunke1; Co·

o

lombia, William Paul McGreevey; Peru, Shane J. Hunt.

African Cultural Transformations by James W. Fernandez· THE STUDY OF CULTURE CHANGE IN AFRICA or elsewhere deals with changes in the concepts and images people use to give meaning to their lives and with the ways in which those concepts and images are linked together. The Joint Committee on African Studies, as part of its recent efforts to assess the status of social science and humanities research in Africa, has sought to reexamine current research on culture change in sub-Saharan Africa. A committee-sponsored workshop on this topic 1 • The author is professor of anthropology at Princeton University and a member of the Joint Committee on African Studies, cosponsored by the Council and the American Council of Learned Societies. 1 The participants were Thomas O. Beidelman, New York University; Charles S. Bird, Indiana University; George C. Bond·, Teachers College, Columbia University; Lee V. Cassanelli, University of Pennsylvania; Michael Cole, Rockefeller University; Christopher Ehret, University of California, Los Angeles; Steven Feierman, University of 'Visconsin; James W . Fernandez ., Princeton University; Douglas Fraser. Columbia University; Jean Herskovits·, State University of New York at Purchase; Daniel P. Kunene, University of Wisconsin; Bernth O. Lindfors, University of Texas; Wyatt MacGaffey, Haverford College; Daniel F. McCall. Boston University; Benjamin C. Ray, Princeton University;

10

was held in May 1976, and a conference is planned for January 1978. What follows is a review of what seem to me to be the essentials of an interdisciplinary approach to the topic as they emerged from the workshop discussions. An interdisciplinary approach to a topic always risks the confusion of multiple frames of reference, methods, and vocabularies of analysis. This is particularly the case where the concept involved is one which, like culture, has always suffered a wide variety of definitions. To avoid some of this confusion, the committee attempted to concentrate on studies of culture change as evidenced in African concepts and images, as found in textual materials gathered or elicited by anthropologists, folklorists,

Peter Seitel. Smithsonian Institution (Washington, D.C.); William H. Sewell, Jr., Institute for Advanced Study (Princeton, New Jersey); Her· bert Shore, UNESCO; Absolom Vilakazi, American University; Marcia Wright, Columbia University; Aristide R. Zolberg·, University of Chi· cago; staff, Martha A. Gephart, Roland L. Mitchell, Jr., David L. Sills. • Member, Joint Committee on African Studies VOLUME

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historians, psychologists and sociologists, and students of African literature and art. In this way, the committee tried to minimize the inevitable biases which result from using Western constructs to analyze African culture. This focus, while of scientific interest, can also be of great utility today, since in virtually every African nation, government ministries are actively fostering culture change through programs of mass education and rural development. There is now a substantial literature concerning African cultural processes in which African thought, however interpreted by its students, is very much present. In the last several decades, essays in a series of symposium volumes have explored worldviews, systems of thought, symbolic representations, natural philosophies, modes of thought, and intellectual reactions to external influences. 2 These discussions proceed from terminological diversity but continually return to questions of content and coherence. Which aspects or domains of experience does a society focus on as it communicates its culture to itself and to others--hunting, agriculture, industry, warfare, disease, material well-being, kinship, kingship, community, the supernatural, etc.? How are these various aspects or domains linked together in such cultural expressions as judicial courts, legislatures, literature, and the arts generally? By examining changes in such expressive activities, one can see how people perceive and respond to the structural changes in their lives, and thus study changes in the concrete domains themselves. For example, shifts in the themes of recent African literature reveal shifts in recurring preoccupations about experience, such as from a focus on kinship loyalties to one on bureaucratic allegiances. In studying culture change in Africa, then, one might inquire into shifts in the content of salient domains of experience, as from a preoccupation with hunting and agriculture to wage labor, from disease and misfortune to material well-being, from kinship to national community, and from the supernatural to the international or multinational. One can also examine shifts in the nature of the linkages among such domains from the unifying force of cosmologic principles which produce images and concepts of overall order to the more diffuse integration necessary for dealing with pluralism, familism, in2 DaryU Forde (editor), African Worlds. London: Oxford University Press, 1954; Meyer Fortes and Germaine Dieterlen (editors), African Systems of Thought. London: Oxford University Press. 1965; Philip Curtin (editor), Africa and the West: Intellectual Responses to European Culture. Madison : University of Wisconsin Press, 1974; Robin Horton and Ruth Finnegan (editors), Modes of Thought: Essays on Thinking in Western and Non- Western Societies. Atlantic Highlands, New Jersey: Humanities Press, 1974; Douglas Fraser (editor), African Art as Philosophy. New York: Interbook, 1974.

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1977

dividualism, and the pragmatic concepts and images of daily adaptation or episodic problem solving. In reviewing the key issues discussed at the workshop, I will first examine two approaches to the study of African culture change-the study of changes in lexicon and the study of changes in image. Afterwards, I will discuss some of the conditions under which such transformations take place.

Lexicon-anchored approaches As students of culture history and historical linguistics have long recognized, language is a valuable tool for studying long term culture change. Basic data are found in the surviving or reconstructed vocabularies of a people. Thus, the study of kinship terms and associated social and economic vocabularies is central to Murdock's culture history a as it is to Ehret's 4 southern Nilotic reconstructions and to the studies of Vansina. 5 Though much can be learned from vocabulary shifts alone, the configurations of words provide important clues to the salient and central terms in social domains, the weight to be given to certain terms, and the identification of terms which are derived from loaning and syncretism in vocabularies. Lexicon-anchored studies of contemporary culture in societies which have accessible histories can show us, for example, how ideas of justice and images of "the reasonable man" are linked together in the domain of jurisprudence. 6 As a consequence of a common cultural ancestry or of diffusion there are concepts that seem to be shared by many societies which encourage the formulation of wider frameworks of analysis. Thus, Joseph Greenberg, an anthropological linguist, has suggested, by reference to cognate terms, some semantic universals in sub-Saharan Africa. 7 Although the existence of even a limited kind of pan-African culture is not easily confirmed because of the large number of relevant variables, the dearth of comparable data, and the lack of agreement on defining criteria, still many scholars are convinced of its reality, 8 George P. Murdock, Africa: Its Peoples and Their Cultural History. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1959 . • Christopher Ehert, Southern Nilotic History: Linguistic Approaches to the Study of the Past. Evanston, Illinois: Northwestern University Press, 1971. eJan Vansina, "The Kingdom of the Great Makoko," in Daniel F. McCall, Norman R. Bennett, and Jeffrey Butler (editors), Western African History. :'IIew York: Praeger, 1969. 6 Max Gluckman, The Ideas in Barotse Jurisprudence. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1965. 1Joseph H. Greenberg. "Africa as a Linguistic Area," in William R. Bascom and Melville J. Herskovits (editors), Continuity and Change in African Cultures. University of Chicago Press, 1958.

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which was early argued by Cheikh Anta Diop.8 Several important studies which are lexicon-oriented--of aesthetics by Thompson, of religious authority structure by Kopytoff, and of religious belief by Ranger and Kimambo-have recently demonstrated that such central concepts as that of "coolness" and "elderhood" 9 have a wide distribution. In some l'espects this research is a return, by way of vocabulary analysis, to the culture area notion of the 1930s. Words do not exist alone in culture, but in contextin association and opposition to other words and in relation to social, political, and economic structures. Considerable attention has been paid to dualistic systemssystems of binary oppositions-in African cultures,lo often summed up in a lexicon of opposing terms for objects, actions, or qualities. For example, the opposition set, red-white, female-male, sky-earth, left hand-right hand, village-forest, etc. is very widespread. In such an opposition set, all left hand terms are associated with each other-as are all right hand terms. An important kind of transformation which occurs in culture change is a shift in the terms of opposition, say from female to male identification with the village as a consequence of changing subsistence patterns. Particular terms within domains of experience, such as law, disease, the supernatural, and the human, are arranged in lexical hierarchies, from discrete to more abstract, generic levels of organization. Variations in the density of vocabulary within a domain or on a particular level of a domain, as well as changing preferences in discourse for generic or specific terms, represent cultural transformations. An increase in the number of words in a domain signifies an increasing concern with its content. Thus, shifts in the salience of kinship systems and bureaucratic organization in Africa can be traced from a decline in the number of words used to describe the former, and an increase for the latter. It is noteworthy that the trend in modernization is often toward generic, that is, more abstract, description, although this is not always the caseY Finally, there are relationships which are predicated to exist between the domains or categories of experience. These characteristic linkages reveal the 8 Cheikh Anta Diop, L'Unite Culturelle de L'A/rique Noire. Paris: Presesence Africaine, 1959. B Terence O. Ranger and Isaria Kimambo, The Historical Study 0/ African Religion. Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1973; Rob路 ert Thompson, "An Aesthetic of the Cool," African Arts: 7, (Spring 1974), pages 41-43, 64-67, 89-92; Igor Kopytolf, "Ancestors as Elders in Africa," Africa: 41, 2, (April 1971), pages 129-143. 10 Rodney Needham, Right and Left: Essays on Dual Symbolic Classi路 fication. University of Chicago Press, 1973, 11 James W. Fernandez, "Fang Representations Under Acculturation," in Philip Curtin (editor), Africa and the West: Intellectual Responses to European Culture. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1974.

12

attributes predicated most characteristically upon persons, the thematic preoccupations of a culture (the recurrent propositions about the relationship of the parts of existence), and even cosmologies themselves. For a cosmology can be viewed as a particular kind of coherence in the ordering of the domains of experience. This process of the linkage of domains is shown quite clearly in those studies of African cosmologies steeped, as such studies must be, in local idiom. 12

Image.based approaches The humanistic approach to African studies often deals in images rather than with lexical items and tends to view culture as a formation of images. The visual and kinesthetic properties of images are particularly relevant to the humanists' efforts to imaginatively grasp experience as the unfolding of a dramatic scenario. In the study of changing images, one can also begin with words which evoke or express visualized experiences, although the relationship between words and images is problematic. However, there are undoubtedly recurrent dramatic experiences in African cultures which are best approached in terms of image. For example, while one may speak of concepts of person, of health, or of disease, it is often more revealing to speak of body image--of images of self and other-for it is these images that are involved in therapeutic or redemptive episodes in ritual or ceremony which can otherwise be regarded as scenarios of the transformation of personal states. IS The study of images has many of the same problems as does the study of lexicon: problems concerning which images are central and recurrent, and problems concerning forms in which images cohere. One basic form in which images cohere in a fairly stable way is oral narratives-folktales, legends, myths, and the like. The close study of oral narratives suggests the existence of core images in set relations which undergo characteristic expansion and transformation 14 in the process of the narrative. Similarly, core images or metaphors in ritual scenarios are arranged hierarchically, and undergo sequential transformation-both within the performance of a single ritual and between rituals over time. The ways in which traditional narrative forms are utilized in the modern literature of different parts of 12 Fu-kiau Kia Bunseki, Le Mukongo et Ie Monde qui L'Entourait: Cosmogonie-Kongo. Kinshasa: Office National de la Recherche et de Developpement, 1969. 13 Raymond Prince, "The Yoruba Image of the Witch," British Jour路 nal 0/ Mental Sciences: 107, (1961), pages 795-805. H Harold Scheub, "The Techniques of the Expansible Image in Xhosa Ntsomi Performance," Research in African Literatures: I, 2 (1970), pages 119-146.

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Africa provide rich material for students of comparative literature. 15 Likewise, it is essential for historians of Africa whose primary resource is very often an oral narrative of past events to be alert to the recurrent organizing images and their coherence.1o

The conditions of transformation: Cultural responses to modernization There are many conditions, such as changes in the way a society maintains itself politically or economically, that cause transformation in images and concepts, conditions -that are not built into the narrative process itself. One of the major pressures towards transformation which cultures experience, pointed out for Africa decades ago,11 is an "increase in scale," or an increase in the time and space of relevant knowledge and relationships. Such increases bring changes in consciousness to societies. As the frontiers of knowledge and experience expand, people begin to experience a decentering effect, a sense of peripherality, powerlessness, and even ignorance of the transcendant world. Such changes in consciousness can be best understood as cultural transformations. Most contemporary vocabulary change is linked to increasing literacy, which is also the chief agent of increase in scale since it makes present knowledge which was previously distant in time and space. Close examination of the way in which old and new vocabularies, and old and new concepts and images, cohere reveals the realities of culture transformation. This is both a rationalizing and an expressive process, since it involves a conscious attempt to reorder concepts so as to explain and locate one's place in a wider world more adequately, as well as an attempt to resurrect, syncretize, or invent images that can provide a basis for a more satisfactory representation, often through performance, of one's situation. It is a process in which many new li~kages are attempted. Consider, for example, two interrelated examples of cultural responses to modernization in Africa: the outpouring of popular literature 18 and the new awareness of class structure in society. On the one hand, the class concept, although usually introduced by an intellectual elite in an attempt to explain, control, and master peri ph1~ Bernth Lindfors. Folklore in Nigerian Literature. New York: Holmes and Meier. 1973. 18 Steven Feierman. The Shambaa Kingdom. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. 1974. 17 Godrey Wilson and Monica Wilson. The Analysis of Social Change. New York: Cambridge University Press. 1945. 18 Emmanuel Obiechina. An African Popular Literature. New York: Cambridge University Press. 1973.

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1977

eral status and powerlessness, can become an important term in the everyday life of working men and women. It can act also to establish relationships between previously separated domains of experience. The popular literature, on the other hand, provides an image laden scenario for acting out, if only in the imagination, of that peripherality and powerlessness. What has been called "working class images of society" would then be a mixture of the class concept and popular literature scenarios. a Indeed, concepts and images are themselves in a relationship of transformation as concepts are translated into images and vice versa. Any adequate study of culture transformation must consider both processes: concept and image formation and transformation. The increase in scale that took place during the colonial period, when accompanied by barriers to political and economic participation in wider-scale relationships, led to depersonalization, economic individualism, and a consumption orientation to the world market system. It also led to the persistence of privilege, even secrecy, in the sharing of the new knowledge which was coming into existence to manage the wider realities. An important transformation in colonial and postcolonial societies is the appearance of a culture of the "knowledge elite," borne by a privileged and self-perpetuating class similar to the colonial elite but often not previously known indigenously except in institutions of secret knowledge such as secret societies and cult groups. But this new elite culture is not integrated into a microcosm as these former institutions were and it is constantly buffeted by the rising expectations of a consumptionoriented, individualistic (or familistic), and skeptical populace. There is inevitably pressure from both above and below in contemporary Africa to discover or devise concepts or images to deal with this situation. We cannot review here the many diverse ways that culture change has been connected with social, economic, and political changes in Africa. This connection is enduring subject matter for discussion, as the workshop made clear. On the other hand, we cannot automatically grant primacy to these maintenance structures, as they are called, for they are also conditioned by the ideological formations and transformations. In addressing a topic such as this, local idioms are at least as important as the better known international idioms of ideological dispute over materialistic or idealistic perspectives. For it is Africans themselves, such as Vilakazi,20 who have long been most acutely aware of the transformations we have 19 Peter Lloyd, Power and Independence : Urban Africans Perception of Social Inequality. London: Routledge &: Kegan Paul. 1974. 20 Absolom Vilakazi. Zulu Transformations . Pietermaritzberg: University of Natal Press. 1962.

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discussed, and who, like Ngugi,21 have struggled in their own idiom to make themselves at home amidst the emergence of new national cultures. Only the most determined mechanist could ignore the degree to which Afri21

James Ngugi, Homecoming. New York: Lawrence Hill, 1973.

can thinkers themselves are in interaction with a changing situation, grappling with that situation, influencing activity, giving it a sense of direction or of achievement or failure, and enabling or inhibiting engagement with the larger forces and structure of the colonial and postcolonial world. 0

Current Activities at the Council Occupational careers and social support The Council's Committee on Work and Personality in the Middle Years sponsored two study groups-on occupational careers and on social support-under a contract with the National Institute on Aging. Occupational careers analysis. While knowledge is accumulating about the so· ciological nature of particular jobs and about the psychological impact of one's current job, very little is known about the nature and impact of the sequencing of jobs. Many basic questions have yet to be adequately and systematically ad· dressed: for example, how and when to conceptualize a sequence of jobs as a "career"; what are the social and psychological forces that shape career lines; and what aspects of job sequences are relevant to adult personality development. With these and other questions in mind, the Committee on Work and Personality in the Middle Years convened a study group under the diretcion of Mr. Ladinsky on March 26-28, 1976 at the Center for Creative Leadership (Greensboro, North Carolina). The study group was organized around three broad topics: (I) The structure . of occupational careers: This included discussions of concepts relevant to job-sequence analysis drawn from socioj ogy and economics; the social organization of work and occupational careers; the influence of economic conditions upon occupational careers; career analysis considered in terms of social mobility; the

14

implications for career analysis of economic models of segregated labor markets (e.g., separate labor markets for men and women); and career analysis and life cycle analysis. (2) Data and measurement for the study of occupational careers. Consideration was given to cross·sectional and longitudinal data sets available for career analysis; complexities in the measurement of job sequences; industrial and occupational classifications for career analysis; and quantitative methods for career analysis in cross-sectional and longitudinal data. (3) Social and psychological correlates Of occupational careers. Under this heading were discussed such topics as the relationships between careers and socialization; social and psychological determinants of occupational careers; and the impact of careers upon personality, family, health, and work attitudes. Members of the study group, in addition to Mr. Ladinsky, were Paul 1- Andrisani, Temple University; Orville G. Brim, Jr., Foundation for Child Development (New York~; Rayman W. Bortner, Pennsylvania State University; Francine D. Blau, University of Illinois; John A. Clausen, University of California, Berkeley; Glen H. Elder, Jr., University of North Carolina; Hilda Kahne, Radcliffe Institute; Melvin L. Kohn, National Institute of Mental Health; Duane E. Leigh, Washington State University; Helena Z. Lopata, Loyola University; Valerie K. Oppenheimer,

University of California, Los Angeles; Seymour Spilerman, University of Wiscon· sin; Paula E. Stephan, Georgia State University; Ross M. Stolzenberg, The Johns Hopkins University; staff: Ronald P. Abeles. Life roles, life cycle, and social support. Based upon the idea that each person moves through the life cycle surrounded by a set of significant others from whom he receives social support and to whom he gives support, Mr. Kahn organized a study group in order to explore social support as a determinant of psychological and physical well-being. One of the first issues with which the group struggled was the fact that social support seems to be one of those terms that is used with more enthusiasm than agreement or precision. The wide variety of definitions led to the comment that social support is not a single variable but rather a class or set of variables. All of the definitions discussed at the study group of course in· cluded the notion that social support involves the communication of positive affect. However, definitions differed to the extent that they included instrumental as well as expressive or affective support and that they emphasized objective as opposed to subjective or phenomenological data as the defining elements of social support. In addition to discussing how to define and delimit the concept, the group considered what objective and subjective meaVOLUME

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surements might be taken as indicators of social support and how best to seek out appropriate research sites and populations. Issues included here were the advantages and limitations of the individual actor as an informant regarding received support (or support given to others), possibilities for direct observation or other independent measurement of support, and the complexities involved in locating appropriate populations for the study of social support. There was much discussion of the possible effects of social support, for example, whether social support acts directly and by itself, indirectly, and/or in combination with other variables. It was suggested that attention should be given to when social support is received during the sequence of events between an environmental stress and its psychological andlor physiological effects. Another research issue that evoked interest was the distinction between potential support and the actual support received. Perhaps only knowing that one can draw upon support is just as important as actually receiving it. Finally, the group considered the applicability of social network analysis and other sociometric techniques as possible stimulants to research on social support. The study group met at the University of Michigan on May 23-25, 1976. It was chaired by Mr. Kahn. Others attending were Robert Caplan, University of Michiban; Dorwin Cartwright, University of Michigan; Sidney Cobb, Brown University; John R. P. French, Jr., University of Michigan; David Mechanic, University of Wisconsin; Mrs. Riley; Robert Weiss, University of Massachusetts, Boston; staff: Ronald P. Abeles. The members of the Committee on Work and Personality in the Middle Years are Orville G. Brim, Jr. (chairman), Foundation for Child Development, New York; Paul B. Baltes, Pennsylvania State Univer-

MARCHI JUNE 1977

sity; Janet Z. Giele, Brandeis University; David A. Hamburg, Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C.; Robert L. Kahn, University of Michigan; Jack Ladinsky, University of Wisconsin; Robert A. LeVine, Harvard University; Gardner Lindzey, Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences, Stanford, California; Matilda White Riley, Bowdoin College; staff: Ronald P. Abeles.

The methodology of longitudinal research At its September meeting, the Council's Committee on Problems and Policy approved the establishment of a Committee on the Methodology of Longitudinal Research-defined broadly as the study of changes over time by the successive measurements of the same individuals or groups. The Council has been examining issues in this area for the past few years; some of these background activities were reported in the September 1976 issue of ltems. A grant from the National Institute of Education will support the committee's work for two years. The first meeting was held on November 6 and 7, 1976. At this meeting, activities for the coming year were discussed, including plans for several conferences and workshops on specific aspects of longitudinal research. Two consultants were invited to attend this meeting: Paul Holland (Educational Testing Service, Princeton) and Gary Chamberlain (Department of Economics, Harvard University). The initial members of the Committee on the Methodology of Longitudinal Re· search are Burton H. Singer, Columbia University (chairman); James S. Coleman, University of Chicago; James J. Heckman, University Of Chicago; Douglas A. Hibbs, Jr., Massachusetts Institute of Technology;

John R. Nesselroade, Pennsylvania State University; Seymour Spilerman, University of Wisconsin; Nancy B. Tuma, Stanford University; staff: Peter B. Read.

Social and affective development dur~ childhood The newly-formed Committee on Social and Affective Development During Childhood has received funding for three years from the Foundation for Child Develop. ment and the Bush Foundation. The committee, which will seek to stimulate new research and theory on social and emotional growth between infancy and adolescence, met in November 1976 and March 1977. Discussions at these meet· ings focused primarily on strategies for encouraging new work in two areas of developmental research: emotions and social cognition. Work groups have been formed in these two areas to plan con· ferences that would not only summarize existing work but would begin to build a view of child development that integrates the cognitive, social, and emo· tional components. The initial members of the Committee on Social and Affective Development During Childhood are Jerome Kagan, Harvard University (chairman); John H. Flavell, Stanford University; Martin L. Hoffman, University of Michigan; CaTToli E. Izard; University of Delaware; Gloria J. Powell, University of California, Los Angeles; Marian Radke-Yarrow, National Institute of Mental Health; Lee D. Ross, Stanford University; Theodore Schwartz, University of California, San Diego; Richard A. Shweder, University of Chicago; Elliot Turiel, University of California, Santa Cruz; Eugene A. Weinstein, State Univer· sity of New York, Stony Brook; staff: Peter B. Read and David Jenness.

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Fellowships and Grants CONTENTS 16 POSTDOCTORAL RESEARCH TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS 16-19 INTERNATIONAL DOCTORAL RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS Africa, China, Japan, Korea, Latin America and the Caribbean, the Near and Middle East, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Western Europe 19 GRANTS TO MINORITY SCHOLARS 19-23 GRANTS FOR INTERNATIONAL POSTDOCTORAL RESEARCH Africa, China, Japan, Korea, Latin America and the Caribbean, the Near and Middle East, South Asia, Southeast Asia

THESE PAGES list the names, affiliations, and topics of the individuals who were awarded fellowships or grants by Council committees during the past few months_ Most of the grant programs sponsored by the Council and the fellowship programs sponsored by the Council jointly with the American Council of Learned Societies are reported here; other lists will be published in a subsequent issue of Items_ The Council's fellowship and grants program is supported by funds it receives from foundations and other funding agencies. The programs change somewhat every year, and scholars interested either in predoctoral fellowships for dissertation research abroad or in postdoctoral grants for individual or collaborative research should write to the Council for a copy of the new brochure that describes the 1977-78 fellowship and grants program. It will be ready for mailing in early August. POSTDOCTORAL RESEARCH TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS The Committee on Social Science Personnel-Paul Kay (chairman), Cynthia H. Enloe, Howard E. Gardner, Otto N. Larsen, Karen Spalding, Harold W. Watts, and Robert Zemsky-at its meeting on March 5-6, 1977 voted to offer the following appointments: Donald L. Donham, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Stanford University, for postdoctoral training in economics, political economy, and theories of economic development at Cambridge University Peter B. Evans, assistant professor of sociology, Brown University, to study finance, accounting, and managerial economics at Brown University Margaret S. Fearey, Ph.D. candidate in Near Eastern studies, University of Michigan, for postdoctoral study of psycholinguistics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Murray H. Grossman, Ph.D. candidate in neuropsychology, Boston University, for postdoctoral training in cognitive development at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology James J. Heckman, associate professor of economics, University of Chicago, to study modern statistical theory, measure theory, and mathematics at the University of Chicago 16

Ellen Messer, assistant professor of anthropology, Yale University, for training in botany, ecology, statistics, analytical methods, and nutrition at Yale University Melvin M. Sakurai, Ph.D. candidate in sociology, University of Hawaii, for postdoctoral training in mathematics, set theory, and linear programming at the University of Wisconsin John R. Shepherd, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Stanford University, for postdoctoral training in legal research and Chinese law at Harvard University Marc B. Trachtenberg, assistant professor of history, University of Pennsylvania, for training in economic theory and econometrics at the University of Pennsylvania Stanley S. Wasserman, Ph.D. candidate in statistics, Harvard University, for postdoctoral study of sociology and political science at Carnegie-Mellon University Ellen M. Woolford, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Duke University, for postdoctoral training in theoreticallinguistics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology

INTERNATIONAL DOCTORAL RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS Awards for dissertation research abroad have been announced by the area committees of the Social Science Research Council and the American Council of Learned Societies. These committees administer the program of International Doctoral Research Fellowships (formerly the Foreign Area Fellowship Program). AFRICA

The following dissertation fellowships were awarded by the Doctoral Research Fellowship Selection Committee for Africa-Inez S. Reid (chairman), Babatunde A. Agiri, Steven Feierman, Bennetta Jules-Rosette, and Carl E. Liedholmat its meeting on March 6, 1977. It had been assisted by the Screening Committee-William Arens, Dennis L. Dresang, Diann H. Painter, and Adell Patton, Jr. Robert M. Baum, Ph.D. candidate in history, Yale University, for research in Senegal on belief and value change among the Diola-Esulalu in 19th and 20th century Senegambia Marc H. Dawson, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Wisconsin, for research in Kenya on changing patterns of epidemic diseases and their social consequences, 18801920 Janet J. Ewald, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Wisconsin, for research in the Sudan on a history of political and religious l~adership in the Nuba mountains, 1750-1925 Alan Page Fiske, Ph.D. candidate in behavioral sciences, University of Chicago, for research in Kenya on conceptions of norms among the Samburu Daniel W. Kops, Jr., Ph.D. candidate in city and regional planning, Cornell University, for research in Senegal on the role of small towns in regional change David R. Massey, Ph.D. candidate in geography, Boston University, for research in Botswana on the effects of international labor migration on rural development VOLUME

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Elias N. Saad, Ph.D. candidate in history, Northwestern University, for research in Mali on the role of Muslim scholars and notables in Timbuktu, 1400-1900 Connie L. Stephens, Ph.D. candidate in African languages and literature, University of Wisconsin, for research in Niger and Nigeria on the performance of Hausa Tatsuniya oral narratives Dennis Tully, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Washington, for research in Ethiopia on indigenous institutions for the cooperative use of labor and capital among the Ari CHINA

The following dissertation fellowships were awarded by the Joint Committee on Contemporary China-John Wilson Lewis (chairman), Myron L. Cohen, Albert Feuerwerker, Merle Goldman, Philip A. Kuhn, Victor H. Li, Michel Oksenberg, and Dwight H. Perkins-at its meeting on February 25-26, 1977. It had been assisted by the Screening Committee for Asia-Alan Heston, Charles F. Keyes, Richard C. Kraus, Terry MacDougall, Penelope E. Mason, James B. Palais, William R. Roff, Lyman Van Slyke, and Susan S. Wadley. Peter K. Bol, Ph.D. candidate in East Asian studies, Princeton University, for research in Kyoto on the transformation of learned elite culture in II th century China James Lee, Ph.D. candidate in Chinese history, University of Chicago, for research in Hong Kong, Osaka, and Tokyo on the expansion and consolidation of China's southern frontier from the 4th century B.C. to the 18th century A.D. Peter C. Perdue, Ph.D. candidate in history, Harvard University, for research in Tokyo and Taipei on population movements and social conflict in 18th century China and Japan Marsha S. Weidner, Ph.D. candidate in the history of art, University of California, Berkeley, for research in Tokyo and Taipei on painting and patronage at the Mongol court of China, 1260-1368 Robert P. Weller, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, The Johns Hopkins University, for research in Taipei and Sanhsia on unity and diversity in the religion of Taiwan JAPAN

Under the program sponsored by the Joint Committee on Japanese Studies, the Subcommittee on Grants for Research -Kozo Yamamura (chairman), Marlene J. Mayo, Tetsuo Najita, T.]. Pempel, Thomas P. Rohlen, William F. Sibley -at its meeting on March 25, 1977 voted to make awards to the following individuals. The subcommittee had been assisted by the Screening Commi ttee for Asia-Alan Heston, Charles F. Keyes, Richard C. Kraus, Terry MaCDougall, Penelope E. Mason, James B. Palais, William R. Roff, Lyman Van Slyke, and Susan S. Wadley. Gina L. Barnes, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University ?f Michigan, for research in Japan on the socioeconomIc development of the Nara basin, 300-550 A.D. Sheldon M. Garon, Ph.D. candidate in history, Yale University, for research in Japan on political parties and party government, 1927-1932 ~ARCH/JUNE

1977

Van C. Gessel, Ph.D. candidate in East Asian languages and cultures, Columbia University, for research in Japan on a group of ~stwar Japanese novelists known as the Dai-san no shinJin Maribeth Graybill, Ph.D. candidate in the history of art, University of Michigan, for research in Japan on kasen-e, the tradition of poet portraiture during the Kamakura and Muromachi periods (c. 1200-1550) Leonard H. Lynn, Ph.D. candidate in sociology, University of Michigan, for research in Japan on the diffusion of a major technological innovation in the Japanese and United States steel industries Genevieve]. Shulick, Ph.D. candidate in political science, University of Washington, for research in Japan on the public corporation in the postwar period Prescott B. Winter, Ph.D. candidate in history, Stanford University, for research in Japan on language, knowledge, and institutions in Tokugawa Japan KOREA

The following dissertation fellowship was awarded by the Joint Committee on Korean Studies-Chong-Sik Lee (chairman), John Jamieson, Gari K. Ledyard, Chae-Jin Lee, Youngil Lim, Richard]. Pearson, and Edward W. Wagner -at its meeting on March 24, 1977. It had been assisted by the Screening Committee for Asia-Alan Heston, Charles F. Keyes, Richard C. Kraus, Terry MacDougall, Penelope E. Mason, James B. Palais, William R. Roff, Lyman Van Slyke, and Susan S. Wadley. Michael Robinson, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Washington, for research in Tokyo on the search for national identity during the Korean Enlightenment and cultural movement, 1900-1927

LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN

The following dissertation fellowships were awarded by the Doctoral Research Fellowship Selection Committee for Latin America and the Caribbean-Alejandro Portes (chairman), Albert R. Berry, Joyce Riegelhaupt, Riordan Roett, and James Wilkie-at its meeting on February Il, 1977. It had been assisted by the Screening Committee-Barry Ames, Ralph Bolton, Margaret E. Crahan, Pedro Cuperman, Peter B. Evans, and Ronald W. Sousa. Janet M. Chernela, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Columbia University, for research in Colombia on unilineal descent and resource allocation Brian D. Dillon, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of California, Berkeley, for research in Guatemala on the role of economic and prestige factors on the Classic Maya frontier Richard M. Estrada, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Chicago, for research in Mexico on the social origins of the Mexican revolution in Western Chihuahua, 19001920 Inge Maria Harman, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Cornell University, for research in Bolivia on the organization of obligation among the Yura of the South Central Bolivian Andes 17


Terry Lynn Karl, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Stanford University, for research in Venezuela on the uses of petroleum revenues in Venezuela Thomas Frederick Love, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of California, Davis, for research in Peru on the effects of capitalization on land tenure in Arequipa John Lucy, Ph.D. candidate in human development, University of Chicago, for research in Mexico on the conceptualization of space and causality among the Yucatec Maya Scott V. Parris, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, The Johns Hopkins University, for research in Colombia on the patterns and consequences of migration from two Colombian cities to the New York metropolitan area Rebecca J. Scott, Ph.D. candidate in history, Princeton University, for research in Spain and Cuba on the transition from slave to free labor in Cuba, 1868-1898 Judith Seeger, Ph.D. candidate in Romance languages and literature, University of Chicago, for research in Brazil on tradition and creativity in Brazilian oral ballads Richard Wayne Slatta, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Texas, for research in Argentina on the gaucho of Buenos Aires Province, 1860-1914 Donald L. Wyman, Ph.D. candidate in history, Harvard University, for research in Mexico on the formation of public policy in Mexico, 1929-1946

NEAR AND MIDDLE EAST

The following dissertation fellowships were awarded by the Doctoral Research Fellowship Selection Committee for the Near and Middle East-Elbaki Hermassi (chairman), Renata Holod, Lawrence Rosen, Norman A. Stillman, and Mark A. Tessler-at its meeting on February 27, 1977. It had been assisted by the Screening Committee-:Daniel G. Bates, Afaf Lutfi al Sayyid Marsot, Joel Migdal, and Walter F. Weiker. Scott Atran, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Columbia University, for research in Damascus, Syria on the social organization of Druze life Mark F. Dyer, Ph.D. candidate in history, Boston University, for research in Paris, London, and Tunis on transSaharan merchants of Tunisia and Tripolitania, 17501870 Rose W. Haberer, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Purdue University, for research in Israel on the status, power, and influence of women in an Arab village Mary E. Hooglund, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, State University of New York, Binghamton, for research in Iran on the social organization of credit relations in rural Iran Laurence O. Michalak, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of California, Berkeley, for research in Tunisia on markets and socioeconomic change in rural Tunisia Kristina Nelson, Ph.D. candidate in Near Eastern studies, University of California, Berkeley, for research in Cairo on styles of Koranic recitation Ehud Toledano, Ph.D. candidate in social history, Princeton University, for research in London and Turkey on slavery and its abolition in the Ottoman empire in the 19th century William C. Young, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of California, Los Angeles, for research in the Sudan on the voluntary settlement of nomads 18

SOUTH ASIA

The following dissertation fellowships were awarded by the Joint Committee on South Asia-Stanley J. Heginbotham (chairman), Marc Galanter, Eugene Irschick, McKim Marriott, Michelle B. McAlpin, Karl H. Potter, and A.K. Ramanujan-at its meeting on March 24, 1977. It had been assisted by the Screening Committee for Asia-Alan Heston, Charles F. Keyes, Richard C. Kraus, Terry MacDougall, Penelope E. Mason, James B. Palais, William R. Roff, Lyman Van Slyke, and Susan S. Wadley. Stuart H. Blackburn, Ph.D. candidate in South and Southeast Asian languages and literature, University of California, Berkeley, for research in India on the character and concept of the Tamil folk hero Warren Edward Fusfeld, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Pennsylvania, for research in Pakistan on Islamic religious change during the colonial period Catherine Herbert Howell, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Virginia, for research on Hindu belief and practice among urban, educated women in Delhi, India Durga Prashad Ojha, Ph.D. candidate in city and regional planning, Cornell University, for research on planned versus spontaneous land settlement in the Terai, Nepal Gloria Goodwin Raheja, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Chicago, for research on concepts of person and social relatedness in western Uttar Pradesh, India SOUTHEAST ASIA

The following dissertation fellowships were awarded by the Joint Committee on Southeast Asia-Stuart A. Schlegel (chairman), Benedict R. Anderson, Alton Becker, Clifford Geertz, James C. Scott, Donald R. Snodgrass, Alexander Woodside, and David K. Wyatt-at its meeting on March 5, 1977. It had been assisted by the Screening Committee for Asia-Alan Heston, Charles F. Keyes, Richard C. Kraus, Terry MacDougall, Penelope E. Mason, James B. Palais, William R. Roff, Lyman Van Slyke, and Susan S. Wadley. G. Carter Bentley, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Washington, for language training and research in the Philippines on legal pluralism and Muslim ethnicity John Bowen, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Chicago, for language training and research in Indonesia on structure and tradition in the Gayo Highlands, Sumatra Ward Keeler, Ph.D. candidate in social thought, University of Chicago, for research in Indonesia on the Javanese shadow theatre Paul M. Taylor, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Yale University, for research in Indonesia on subsistence strategies in a Moluccan fishing community Julian K. Wheatley, Ph.D. candidate in linguistics, University of California, Berkeley, for field research in London and Rangoon or Bangkok on Burmese grammar WESTERN EUROPE

The following dissertation fellowships were awarded by the Doctoral Research Fellowship Selection Committee for Western Europe-Donald R. Hodgman (chairman), Gerard VOLUME

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States on the impact of emigration on the community Braunthal, Richard F. Kuisel, Richard A. Littman, and of origin of emigrants Guenther Roth-at its meeting on February 25, 1977. It had Thomas M. Wilson, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, City been assisted by the Screening Committee-Michael EdelUniversity of New York, for research in Ireland on the stein, Maurice Garnier, Penny T. Gill, Lynn H. Lees, Rayna application of the European Community'S common agriRapp Reiter, and William H. Sewe'l, Jr. cultural policy in an eastern Irish county Judith M. Bennett, Ph.D. candidate in medieval studies, Alison E. Woodward, Ph.D. candidate in sociology, University of California, Berkeley, for research in Sweden on University of Toronto, for research in the United Kingsocial life in the new community of Farsta dom on family life and village society in three villages in the 14th and 15th centuries Edward G. Berenson, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Rochester, for research in France on democratic-social- GRANTS TO MINORITY SCHOLARS FOR RESEARCH ON RACISM AND OTHER ist politics and popular culture in rural southern France, 1848-1851 SOCIAL FACTORS IN MENTAL HEALTH Nancy G. Bermeo, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Yale The Committee on Grants to Minority Scholars for ReUniversity, for research in Portugal on the establishment of structures for worker participation search on Racism and Other Social Factors in Mental Frances Gouda, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Health-Charles V. Willie (chairman), Rodolfo Alvarez, Washington, for research in the Netherlands and in James P. Comer, Bernard M. Kramer, Cora Bagley Marrett, France on public policy concerning poverty in the first Marian Radke Yarrow, and Lloyd H. RogIer-at its meethalf of the 19th century ing on April 17, 1977 awarded grants to the following Peter F. Hayes, Ph.D. candidate in history, Yale University, for research in West Germany on I. G. Farben and the individuals: Third Reich Aubrey W. Bonnett, assistant professor of sociology, HunKathleen E. Killorin, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Uniter College, City University of New York, and versity of New Mexico, for research in Spain on class Frank L. Douglas, 4th year medical student, Cornell Medistratification and role adaptations of urban women cal College, for research on the psycho-social adaptation Ned C. Landsman, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Black medical students of Pennsylvania, for research in the United Kingdom and Bruce R. Hare, assistant professor of educational psychology, University of Illinois, for research on sociocultural the United States on community life in Scottish villages, variations in adolescent self-concept 1680-1750 Robert C. Liebman, Ph.D. candidate in sociology, Univer- David E. Lopez, assistant professor oT sociology, University of California, Los Angeles, for research on the relationsity of Michigan, for research in France on collective ship of bilingualism to social status and discrimination action among artisans and industrial workers in Lyon, among Chicanos 1830-1872 Gary W. McDonogh, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, The Margarita B. Melville, assistant professor of anthropology, University of, Houston, for research on migration and Johns Hopkins University, for research in Spain on the mental health among Mexican-American women Barcelona commercial-industrial elite since the late 18th Georg~ F. Rivera, Jr., assistant professor of sociology. Unicentury versity of Colorado, for research on differential family Robert G. Moeller, Ph.D. candidate in history, University a~justment I?attern~ in endogamous and exogamous marof California, Berkeley, for research in West Germany on .nages of ChIcanos 1!1 an Eastern metropolis peasants, pressure groups, and economic development in RIchard R. Scott, assIstant professor of psychology Unithe Rhineland and Westphalia, 1896-1929 versity of Florida, for research on factors related 'to the Kathleen M. Pearle, Ph.D. candidate in history, State Uniachievements of Black educators versity of New York, Stony Brook, for research in West Germany on charitable organizations and poor relief in Roland M. Smith, assistant professor of history, Carnegie~el1on University, for research on caste, class, and sothe German Empire, 1873-1914 CIety on the Southwestern frontier, 1850-1880 (extension Thomas R. Peck, Ph.D. candidate in history, Ohio State of 1976 award) University, for research in the United Kingdom on the demographic history of Middleton during industrialization GRANTS FOR INTERNATIONAL Lon L. Peters, Ph.D. candidate in economics, Yale Univer- POSTDOCTORAL RESEARCH sity, for research in West Germany on cartels and organizational innovation. 1871-1914 Jeremiah M. Riemer, Ph.D. candidate in government. Cor- AFRICA nell University, for research in West Germany on the The Joint Committee on African Studies-Sara S. Berry conflict between monetary stability and social reform, and Aristide R. Zolberg (cochairmen), Dan Ben-Amos, 1966-1976 Beate K. Schempp, Ph.D. candidate in history, University George C. Bond, Abdalla S. Bujra, B. J. Dudley, Steven of Pittsburgh, for research in West Germany on family Feierman, James W. Fernandez, and Edward W. Soja-at life in the Neckar valley in the late 18th and 19th centuries its meeting on March 4-5, 1977 made awards to the followBarbara E. Schmitter, Ph.D. candidate in sociology, Univer- ing individuals: . sity of Chicago, for research in West Germany and Switzerland on foreign workers and the political sociology Willi~m E: Arens, associate professor of anthropology, State of emergent immigrant societies UnIversIty of New York, Stony Brook, for research in Frances A. White, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Univerthe Sudan on the history and symbolism of the divine sity of Wisconsin. for research in Portugal and the United kingship of the Shilluk MARCH/JUNE

1977

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Sandra T. Barnes, assistant professor of anthropology, Uni- werker, Merle Goldman, Philip A. Kuhn, Victor H. Li, versity of Pennsylvania, fo~ ~ese~rch in the United .States Michel Oksenberg, and Dwight H. Perkins-at its meeting on comparative urban pohtICS 10 sub-Sah~ran Afnc~ on February 25-26, 1977 awarded grants to the following: Beryl L. Bellman, assistant. professor of socI~logy! U~llver足 sity of California, San DIego, for research 10 LIbe.na .on Alfred H. Bloom, assistant professor of linguistics and psythe initiation ceremonies and bush school orgamzatlOn chology, Swarthmore College, for research in Taipei, of the Poro secret society Hon~ Kong, and the United States on the impact of linLouis Brenner, adjunct professor of history, Boston Univerguistic structures on cognition in Chinese and English sity, for research in Mali on concepts and methods of Kenneth E. Folsom, associate professor of history, University human development in Islamic mystical education of Maryland, for research on grass roots revolutionary Lina M. Fruzetti, assistant professor of anthropology, Brown education and political indoctrination in China during University, for research in the Sudan on the effects. of the years 1921-1927 social, economic, and political change in Sudanese native Bernard Gallin, professor of anthropology, Michigan State courts and customary law University, for research on the effects of migration on Walton R. Johnson, associate professor and chair~an. of socioeconomic change and development in rural Taiwan Africana studies, Livingston College, Rutgers Un~verslty, Kai-yu Hsu, professor of comparative literature, San Franfor research in Lesotho and Umtata on European 1Otegracisco State University, for research on an intellectual tion in the Transkei biography of a modern Chinese poet, Wen I-to (1899Lansine Kaba, associate professor of history, "!1niversi~~ of 1946) Minnesota, for research in Senegal and Mah on pohucal Andrew T. Nathan, associate professor of political science, and socioeconomic change in the Western Sudan fro~ Columbia University, for research on the modernization the Moroccan invasion of 1591 to the French conquest 10 of China's political community, 1895-1919 1894 William L. Parish, Jr., associate professor of sociology, UniIvan Karp, assistant prof.essor of anthropology,. Ind~ana University of Chicago, for research on urban life in China versity, for research 10 Kenya on the epIdemIOlogy of Shou-hsin Teng, associate professor of Chinese linguistics, spirit possession among lteso women . University of Massachusetts, for research on syntactic Bonnie B. Keller, visiting assistant professor of Afnc~n structures of Amoy (also supported by the Committee on studies, University of Illinois, for archival resear~h 10 Studies of Chinese Civilization of the American Council the United States on the perceptions and strategIes of of Learned Societies) Zambian townswomen in their relationships with men James L. Watson, lecturer in Asian anthropology, University D. P. Kunene, professor of African languages and literature, of London, for research on dominance and hierarchy in University of Wisconsin, for research in Lesotho on the a Chinese lineage parish role of the newspaper Leselinyana la Lesotho in promot- Martin King Whyte, associate professor of sociology, Univering literacy and literary creativi.ty ., sity of Michigan, for research on urban life in China Bernth Lindfors, professor of Enghsh and Afncan hterature, University of Texas, for research in Tanzania and Kenya on the forms of popular literature which have been pro- Research on the Chinese economy . ' . duced in English At its meeting on January 6, 1977, the Subcommittee on Joseph C. Miller, associate professor of hIs.tory, UmversIty Research on the Chinese Economy-Dwight H. Perkins of Virginia, for research in Angola, BrazIl, and Portug:al on the Portuguese slave trade in the southern AtlantIc, (chairman), Robert F. Dernberger, John G. Gurley, Robert 1760-1830 M. Hartwell, and Thomas G. Rawski-made its recommen. James H. Mittelman, assistant professo; of politic~l science, dations to the Joint Committee on Contemporary China Columhia University, for research!!l Mozam~Iq.ue and concerning grants. The Joint Committee approved awards Tanzania on problems of the transItIOn to sOCIalIsm Claire C. Robertson, assistant professor of history, State to the following individuals: University of New York, Oswego, for research in Ghana Shannon R. Brown, assistant professor of economics, Union women and the family in Kanesh~e a~d. Accr~ . versity of Maryland, Baltimore County, for research on Carol M. Scotton, associate professor of hngUlstIcs, MIchIgan the transfer of technology to China in the 19th century State University, for research in Kenya on the facto:s Bruce L. Reynolds, assistant professor of economics, Union influencing a person's choice among different styles 10 College, for research on economic planning in China, a language or among different languages . 1949-1975 W. S. Simmons, associate professor of anthropology, UmYeh-chien Wang, associate professor of history, Kent State versity of California,. Berkeley, for rese~rch in Senegal 0." University, for research on money and prices in China, social and economIC changes resultmg from IslamIc 1644-1937 conversion Sharifa Zawawi assistant professor of classical languages and Hebrew,' The City College, The City Uni,versity of Advanced training in Chinese studies New York, for research in Kenva and Tanzama on the The Liaison Committee of the Joint Committee on Conhistorical development of Swahili, 1833-1963 temporary China and the American Council of Learned Societies' Committee on Studies of Chinese CivilizationJohn Wilson Lewis and Frederic Wakeman (cochairmen), CHINA Jack L. Dull, Albert Feuerwerker, Merle Goldman, and Research on Contemporary and Republican China Donald J. Munro-at its meeting on February 27, 1977 The Joint Committee on Contemporary China-John made awards for advanced training in Chinese studies to Wilson Lewis (chairman), Myron L. Cohen, Albert Feuer- the following individuals: 20

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TRAINING IN EAST ASIA

Barry B. Blakeley, associate professor of Asian studies, Seton Hall University, for the study of modern Chinese Joseph W. Esherick, associate professor of history, University of Oregon, for the study of Japanese Ronald G. Knapp, associate professor of geography, State University of New York, College at New Paltz, for the study of classical Chinese Nicholas R. Lardy, assistant professor of economics, Yale University, for the study of modern ~h~nese. . Jeffrey F. Meyer, assistant professor of relIgIOUS studIes, Umversity of North Carolina, Charlotte, for the study of classical and modern Chinese Axel H. Schuessler, assistant professor of history, Wartburg College, for the study of modern Chinese INTERNSHIPS

Wellington K. K. Chan, assistant professor of history, Occidental College, for the study of economic theory and history at Harvard University . Dennis L. Chinn, assistant professor, Food Research Instltute, Stanford University, for the study of Chinese economics, politics, and society at Harvard University Stephen M. Olsen, assistant professor of sociology, S~anford University, for the study of urban development m contemporary China at the University of California, Berkeley JAPAN

Under the program sponsored by the Joint Committee on Japanese Studies, the Subcommittee on Grants for Research-Kozo Yamamura (chairman), Marlene J. Mayo, Tetsuo Najita, T. J. Pempel, Thomas P. Rohlen, William F. Sibley-at its meeting on March 25, 1977 voted to make awards to the following individuals: George Akita, professor of history, University of Hawaii, for research in Japan on Hoshi Toru (1850-1901), japan's first modern party politician Gary D. Allinson, associate professor of history, University of Pittsburgh, for research in the United States on political change in suburban Tokyo Bela Gold, professor of industrial economics, Case-Western Reserve University, for research in Japan on the co~足 puterization of steel processes and related managenal controls William B. Gould, professor of law, Stanford University, for . research in Japan .on labor law Phyllis I. Lyons, aSSlStant professor of Japanese lIterature, University of Washington, for research in Japan on the Japanese Romantic School (Nihon romanha) of the 1930s David R. McCann, visiting assistant professor of Japanese literature, Cornell University, for research in Japan on a comparative study of the structural ?evelopmen.t of modern poetry in Japan and Korea durmg the penod 18751925 Terry E. MacDougall, assistant professor of government and foreign affairs, University of Virginia, for research in Japan on Asukata Ichio and postwar Japanese socialism. Mark R. Peattie, associate professor of history, Pennsylvama State University, for research in the United States on the Japanese colonial empire Kenneth B. Pyle, professor of history and Asian studies, University of Washington, for research in Japan on official views of conflict and dissent in industrial society, 1918-1930 Samuel R. Ramsey, assistant professor of East Asian lan~ARCH/JUNE

1977

guages and cultures, Columbia University, for research in the United States on a study of accent in the Wakayama dialect Jay Rubin, associate professor of Japanese literature, University of Washington, for research in the United States on the censorship of literature in the Meiji period (18681912) . Yoshiaki Shimizu, assistant professor of history of art, Umversity of California, Berkeley, for research in Japan on late Muromachi ink painting Richard J. Smethurst, associate professor of history, University of Pittsburgh, for research in Japan on tenancy and tenancy disputes in modern rural Japan Thomas C. Smith, professor of history and comparative studies, University of California, Berkeley, for research in Japan on hierarchy and class in Tokugawa society KOREA

The Joint Committee on Korean Studies-Chong-Sik Lee (chairman), John Jamieson, Gari K. Ledyard, Chae-Jin Lee, Youngil Lim, Richard Pearson, and Edward W. Wagnerat its meeting on March 24, 1977, awarded grants to the following individuals: Jong S. Jun, associate professor of public administratio~, California State University, Hayward, for researcll m Korea on the influence of public administration on public policy and development Young Whan Kihl, professor of political science, Iowa State University, for research in Korea and the United States on political culture and mass-elite linkage in Korea Kichung Kim, associate professor of English, San Jose St~te University, for research in the United States on the nse of the modern Korean novel, 1906-1918 Byong Won Lee, assistant professor of ethnomusicology, University of Hawaii, for research in Korea on the role and status of the three strata of professional musicians Chung Hoon Lee, professor df economics, Miami Unive~sity, for research in Korea on the causes and effects of pnvate foreign investment in Korea . " Young I. Lew, associate professor of history, Umverslty of Houston, for research in the United States on the assassination of Queen Min in 1895 David R. McCann, visiting assistant professor of Japanese literature, Cornell University, for research in Korea on a comparative study of the structural development of modern poetry in Japan and Korea during the period 18751925 John K. Whitmore, assistant professor of history, University of Michigan, for research in the United States ~n a co~足 parative study of social structure and bureaucratIc recrUItment in Korea and Vietnam in the 15th century Dong Jae Vim, assistant professor of history, Bridgewater State College, for research in the United States on t?e social backgrounds of the holders of the office of speCIal counselors in Yi Dynasty Korea . Kwan Ha Vim, professor of political science, Manhattanvllle College, for research in !<-orea ,,:nd Japan on linkages of domestic sources of foreign polIcy m Korea-Japan relations LA TIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN

The Joint Committee on Latin American Studies-Carlos Diaz-Alejandro (chairman), Guillermo Bonfil Batalla, Francesca Cancian, Eugenio Chang-Rodriguez, Alejandro Foxley, 21


Juarez Rubens Brandao Lopes, Peter H. Smith, and Alfred C. Stepan-at its meeting on March 17-19, 1977 awarded individual and collaborative research grants to the following: Alice H. Amsden, lecturer in economics, University of California, Irvine, for research in Colombia, Peru, and Argentina on the machine tool industry Luiz Alberto Dias Lima de Vianna Bandeira, researcher University of Sao Paulo, for research in Brazil on Brazilia~ penetration into the River Plate region Charl~s ",:. Bergquist, ass.i stant pr~fessor of history, Duke Umverslty, for research 10 Argentma, Uruguay, and Chile on the relationship between increased exports and the growth of nationalism Horacio Manuel Boneo, senior researcher, Center for Studies on State and Society, Buenos Aires, for research in Argentina on the state as entrepreneur in Argentina, 1963-1976 Manuel Casanova-Demarchi, director. Institute for Latin American Integration, Buenos Aires, for research in Chile on the participation of Latin America in the establishment of the post-World War II international order Jose Manuel Del Castillo. director of scientific research. University of Santo 'Domingo. for research in the Dominican Republic on the sugar cane industry and the labor force. 1870-1930 Peter Louis Eisenberg. professor of history. University of Campinas. for research in Brazil on the formation of a rural proletariat. 1850-1888 Philip John Foster, professor of education, University of Chicago, for research in Jamaica on university education and occupational attainment in the West Indies Merilee Serrill Grindle, assistant professor of political science. Wellesley College, for research in Colombia on policy implementation and agrarian reform James Howe. assistant professor of anthropology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, for research in Panama on the political activities of the San Bias Cuna Friedrich Katz. professor of history, University of Chicago, for research in Mexico on Pancho Villa and the Mexican revolution Kenneth Franklin Kiple. assistant professor of history, Bowling Green State University, for research in Puerto Rico. Jamaica. Barbados. Colombia, and Brazil on disease among slave populations Luis Macadar, director, Center for Economic Research, Montevideo, for research in Uruguay on employment during a period of economic transition John Danhouse Martz, professor of political science. University of North Carolina, for research in Ecuador on patterns of conHict and bargaining in oil politics Patricio Meller, researcher in economics. Corporation on Economic Research on Latin America. Santiago. for research in Chile on determinants of the level and composition of employment in the Latin American manufacturing sector Frederick McKinley Nunn, professor of history, Portland State University, for research in England on European military professionalism in Argentina. Brazil, Chile, and Peru, 1890-1940 Gabriel Penco Palma. Latin American research fellow, Institute of Latin American Studies. University of London, for research in England on the role ~f the state in Chilean industrialization, 1930-1950 .J ohn Crothers Pollock, assistant professor of political science, Rutgers University. for research in the United States and South America on the depiction by the mass media of political change in Latin America 22

Saskia Sasse~-Koob,. assi~tant professor of sociology, Queens College, CIty Umverslty of New York, for research in the United States and Venezuela on the role of labor immigration in the economic development of Venezuela Lars Gustav Schoultz, associate professor of political science, Miami University, for research in the United States on huma!! rights and United States policy toward Latin Amenca Jose Serra, researcher, Institute for Advanced Study (Princeton, New Jersey), for research in the United States on the economic bases of authoritarian regimes in Latin America Horacio Armando Sormani. director. Center for Regional Studies of Northeastern Argentina. Resistencia, for research in Argentina on class conflict and land distribution in Northern Argentina Saul Sosnowski, professor of Latin American literature, University of Maryland, for research in Mexico on conflict, contradictions. and resolutions in the contemporary works of Jewish Argentinian writers James Mounsey Taggart. assistant professor of anthropology. Franklin and Marshall College, for research in Mexic? on oral tradition among the Nahuat Indians Ennque Tandeter, associate member. Institute of Latin American Studies. University of London. for research in England on the determination of prices in 18th century South America Ronald George Waterbury. associate professor of anthropology. Queens College. City University of New York. for rese~ch in Mexico on modernization in a peasant commumty John Womack, Jr .â&#x20AC;˘ professor of history, Harvard University. for research in Mexico on the Moctezuma Brewery and its workers. 1896-1940 Reiner Tom Zuidema. professor of anthropology. University of Illinois. for research in Peru on the Andean calendar (modern and Incaic) in the Cuzco Valley

Collaborative research grants Pedro Carvalho de Mello. director of research. Brazilian Institute of Capital Markets. Rio de Janeiro. and Robert W. Slenes. assistant professor of history. University of Colorado, for research in Brazil on slavery in the coffee regions of Brazil, 1850-1888 Marysa Navarro. associate professor of history. Dartmouth COllege, and Catalina Haydee Wainerman. associate researcher. Center for Population Studies. Buenos Aires. for research in Argentina on the ideology of the female labor force NEAR AND MIDDLE EAST

The Joint Committee on the Near and Middle EastFrances E. Peters (chairman). Ali Banuazizi, Shmuel N. Eisenstadt, Bent Hansen, Carolyn G. Killean, Sherif Mardin, Amal Rassam, Lawrence Rosen, and Abdelkader Zghalat its meeting on January 28-29, 1977 awarded grants to the following individuals: Ervand Abrahmian. assistant professor of history, Baruch College, City University of New York, for research on changes in the social bases of politics in Iran since the late 19th century Michael E. Bonine, assistant professor of Oriental studies, University of Arizona, for geographical research on the commercial districts of Yazd, Iran Meir M. Bravmann, adjunct professor of ancient Semi tics, VOLUME

31,

NUMBERS

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Columbia University, for research on the Arabic dialect of the Jews of Baghdad Frank M. Clover, III, associate professor of history and classics, University of Wisconsin, for research on the rise of Islam in the central and western Mediterranean Mark R. Cohen, assistant professor of Near Eastern studies, Princeton University, for research on Jewish self government in medieval Islamic Egypt Bridget Connelly, Ph.D. in comparative literature, University of California, Berkeley, for research on oral Arabic folk narratives Roderic H. Davidson, professor of European history, George Washington University, for research on the relations of the Ottoman Empire with the great powers of Europe, 1856-1889 Peter Gran, lecturer in history, University of California, Los Angeles, for research on the relationship of conflicts in mystical theology in 19th century Egypt to the social structure R. Stephen Humphreys, visiting assistant professor of history, University of Chicago, for research on concepts of change and causation in medieval Arabic historiography before Ibn Khaldiin (extension of 1976 award) Jacob Lassner, professor of Near Eastern and Asian studies, Wayne State University, for a study of the relationships between the Abbasid ruling family and its clients in the first century of its rule Rudi P. Lindner, assistant professor of history, Tufts University, for research on Anatolian nomads under Ottoman rule in the 16th century Natalie K. Moyle, assistant professor of Slavic languages and literature, University of Virginia, for research on the Turkish popular novel as a transition from folklore to literature Guity Nashat, research associate in history, University of Chicago, for research on the relationships between the commercial development of Tabriz and the Iranian constitutional movement Howard A. Reed, professor of history, University of Connecticut, for research on early 19th century Ottoman reform Thomas M. Ricks, assistant professor of history, Georgetown University, for research on landlords and peasants in 18th century Iran

SOUTH ASIA

The Joint Committee on South Asia-Stanley J. Heginbotham (chairman), Marc Galanter, Eugene Irschick, McKim Marriott, Michelle B. McAlpin, Karl H. Potter, and A. K. Ramanujan-at its meeting on March 24, 1977 awarded grants to the following individuals. Richard B. Barnett, assistant professor of history, University of Virginia, for research in London on regional autonomy and political change in 18th century Hyderabad, India Paul R. Brass, professor of political science and South Asian studies, University of Washington, for research in London on the poli tical conseq uences of the transfer of agricultural technology in north India Richard M. Emmerson, professor of sociology, University of

MARCH/JUNE

1977

Washington, for research in Pakistan on the Raja of Khapalu-a study of traditional authority in patrimonial rule, 1400-1972 Robert Eric Frykenberg, professor of history and Asian studies, University of Wisconsin, for research in London and the United States on religious and social conflict in south India, 1790-1860 Paul G. Hiebert, associate professor of anthropology, University of Washington, for research on religious fairs and regional social structure in Andhra Pradesh, India Donald L. Horowitz, senior fellow, Research Institute on Immigration and Ethnic Studies, The Smithsonian Institution, for research in England on coup theories, ethnic structure, and the motives of military officers in Sri Lanka in 1962 Karen B. Leonard, assistant professor of history, University of California, Irvine, for research on kinship and social mobility in modern India Susan J. Lewandowski, assistant professor of history, Amherst College, for research in London on the social history of Madras from 1850 to the present Norman Uphoff, associate professor of government, Cornell University, for research in Sri Lanka on the political economy of equity-oriented development

SOUTHEAST ASIA

The Joint Committee on Southeast Asia-Stuart A. Schlegel (chairman), Benedict R. Anderson, Alton Becker, Clifford Geertz, James C. Scott, Donald R. Snodgrass, Alexander Woodside, and David K. Wyatt-at its meeting on March 5, 1977 awarded grants to the following individuals: Michael Aung Thwin, Ann Arbor, Michigan, for historical research on Burmese kingship Daniel F. Doeppers, associate professor of geography, University of Wisconsin, for research in the Philippines on neighborhood-forming processes and intraurban migration Mason C. Hoadley, guest lecturer in history, Gothenburg University, for research in Indonesia on precolonial Javanese land tenure and administration Thomas M. Kiefer, visiting associate professor of anthropology, University of New Mexico, for research on folk Islam in the Philippines Hermann Kulke, lecturer in history, University of Heidelberg, for research in Indonesia on state formation in early East Java Richard A. O'Connor, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Cornell University, for research in Thailand on urbanism from the Fifth Reign to the present Jose Rocamora, staff, Indonesia Resource Center, for research on authoritarianism in Southeast Asia Chai-Anan Samudavanija, professor of political science, Chulalongkorn University, for research on political conflict in Thailand William Henry Scott, lecturer in history, University of the Philippines, for research in the Philippines on social patterns in the un-Hispanized regions Donald K. Swearer, professor of religion, Swarthmore College, for research on the history, practices, and teachings of northern Thai Buddhism

23


DONALD RAMSEY YOUNG: 1898-1977 Donald Young joined the staff of the Social Science Research Council in 1932, at the end of its first decade, and was closely associated with it through 1964. Like the leaders among its founders-Charles E. Merriam, Wesley C. Mitchell, and Robert T. Crane-he was a key figure in the Council's development. He was named Executive Director in 1945, upon the retirement of Robert T. Crane, who credited him with unique contributions to the Council's role in the advancement of the scientific study of society. Donald Young was given the title of President of the Council in 1948, but resigned in that year to become General Director of the Russell Sage Foundation. He continued to serve as a director-at-large of the Council and as a member of its executive committee through 1964. In selfless, dedicated performance of Council tasks, Donald Young was surpassed by none. His record of accomplishments for the Council is impressive. He implemented its decision to emphasize the improvement of training for research in the social sciences through its fellowships. With his guidance, experimental programs to provide un usual training through research experience or study appropriate to the individual's interests were designed; the counseling of fellowship applicants on needs and opportunities in the social sciences was highly developed; and recruitment of persons of exceptional promise for research in these fields was a constant concern. In the emergency situation created by the outbreak of World War II, Donald Young's extensive knowledge of the work of social scientists throughout the country enabled the Council to respond adequately to the increasing requests of government agencies for assistance in obtaining qualified personnel. The Council office established in Washington under his direction provided other advisory and professional services to government. It anticipated the postwar problems of social scientists and developed the Council's program of demobilization awards to aid their return to peacetime pursuits.

The Council's selection of important areas of social science, or areas overlapping social and other sciences, for planning and stimulation of research owed much to Donald Young's wide acquaintance with the status of knowledge, or its lack, and resources in many fields; and the success of those efforts, similarly, to his ability to persuade highly competent scholars to participate in them. The program of the Committee on Social Aspects of the Depression, for which he prepared his Research Memorandum on Minority Peoples in the Dep,.ession (1937), is illustrative. The products of other committees in behavioral science fields which he encouraged, e.g., on the prediction of social adjustment, the appraisal of the use of personal documents in research, and the analysis of the experience of the Army's Research Branch in World War II, were especially significant for later research. Donald Young had particular talent for developing cooperative relations with scholars and organizations in fields sharing interests of social scientists. He was a founder of I terns and gave it its name. The Council is deeply indebted to Donald Young for a lasting legacy of enthusiastic belief in the practical value of the social sciences, in the ability of the Council to advance social science research, and in the need for ex'panding and intensifying its efforts. Many members of the social science community that it serves have been warmly grateful over the years for his unfailing willingness to respond to their needs for information and counsel. He is remembered with affection, appreciation, and respect by a multitude of associates in academic, philanthropic, and governmental fields. Donald Young was born in Macungie, Pennsylvania on July 5, 1898. He received the Ph.D. in sociology from the University of Pennsylvania in 1922. In 1955 he was elected president of the American Sociological Association. Following his 14 years at the Council and his 16 years at the Russell Sage Foundation, he taught at the Rockefeller University from 1964 to 1969. He died in Allentown, Pennsylvania on April 17, 1977.

SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH COUNCIL 605 T

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NEW Y

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Incorporated in the State o/Illinois, December 27, 1924, for the purpose 0/ advancing research in the social sciences Directors, 1976-77; BRIAN J. L. BERRY, PETER B. DEWS, ROBERT EISNER, JACOB J. FELDMAN, CUFFORD GEERTZ, PHIUP W. JACKSON, HAROLD H. KEu.EY, FRANKUN W. KNIGHT, WILLIAM H. KRUSKAL, Ono N. LARsEN, LEON LIPSON, CORA BAGLEY MARRETT, HERBERT MCCLOSKY, MURRAY G. MURPHEY, PAUL H. MUSSEN, GUY H. ORcun, SAMUEL C. PATTERSON, AUCE S. ROSSI, PECGY R. SANDAY, ELEANOR BERNERT SHELDON, ALBERT J. STUNKARD Officers and Staff: ELEANOR BERNERT SHELDON, President; DAVID JENNESS. DAVID L. SILLS. Executive Associates; RONALD P. ABELES. RONALD AQUA, ALVIA Y. BRANCH. ROBERT A . GATES. MARTHA A . GEPHART. LOUIS WOLF GOODMAN. PATRICK G. MADDOX. ROBERTA BALSTAD MIu.ER, ROWLAND L. MITCHELL. JR â&#x20AC;˘â&#x20AC;˘ ROBERT PARKE. PATRICIA R. PESSAR., PETER B. READ, DAVID SEIDMAN, DAVID L. SUNTON; MARTHA W. FORMAN, Assistant Treasurer; CATHERINE V. RONNAN. Financial Secretary; NANCY L. CA~MICHAEL, Librarian

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Items Vol. 31 No. 1-2 (1977)  
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