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SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH COUNCIL

VOLUME 29 . NUMBER 1 MARCH 1975 605 THIRD AVENUE¡ NEW YORK, N.Y. 10016

ELEANOR ISBELL TO RETIRE APRIL I: THE END OF AN ERA AT THE COUNCIL

by Elbridge Sibley

to

ELEANOR C. ISBELL

ELEANOR COLLINS ISBELL, editor of I terns since its first issue in 1947 and a member of the Council's staff since 1940, will retire on April 1. Her departure marks the end of the longest term of service in the Council's history, during which she has played a unique role in the functioning of the organization. It is those of us who • The author is an Executive Associate Emeritus of the Council; he was a colleague of Eleanor Isbell's for 26 years. A distinguished sociologist and the author of a number of monographs (most recently of a history, Social Science Research Council: The First Fifty Years). Mr. Sibley is most proud in the present context of being the author of "A Note on the Pronunciation of Shibboleth," the only satirical article ever knowingly accepted by Eleanor Isbell for publication in Items (;\Iarch 1965, p. 16).

have worked long and closely with her who can bt:st appreciate the Council's loss, for her contributions have been made quietly and largely anonymously. One of the people to point this out is Joseph Willits who, when he was an executive of the Rockefeller Foundation, mediated much of the Council's financial support in its earlier years. The scholars who form most of the Council's constituency, he observes, can easily underestimate the central importance of the tasks that Eleanor has performed so unostentatiously and efficiently. These tasks call for a broad and deep understanding of the social scientific enterprise and a firm commitment to its ideals; they require a wide acquaint-


ance with social scientists and their publications; and they demand enormous tact in dealing with often impatient and sometimes vainglorious academicians. Over the years, Eleanor has prepared well-documented agenda for the board of directors' biannual meetings and the frequent meetings of the Committee on Problems and Policy, has recorded their proceedings, and has maintained the Council's archives. In the words of Conrad Taeuber, "her careful preparatory work has provided a basis for much of the effective discussion that has taken 'place, and her skill in reporting the outcomes has frequently made them more coherent than any participant would have assumed." Charlotte Bowman, vice president of the American Council of Learned Societies, said with reference to Eleanor's work at the Council that "I don't recall that Eleanor Isbell's name ever appeared as 'staff' of any of the joint area committees, but I think that she did more than anyone other person to keep them in order and functioning welL" . Guidance in matters of policy and procedures has been involved in these functions, sometimes explicitly and sometimes implicitly. Time and again, Eleanor's intimate familiarity with precedent has helped Council staff and committee members to profit by the experience of predecessors and to avoid the repetition of previous errors. Not only has she responded to requests for information and advice, she has volunteered them when the situation called for it. As Brewster' Smith puts it, Eleanor has always been "fiercely protective" of the Council's interest. Another of Eleanor's responsibilities has been the Council's publications--annual reports, Items, books, monographs, bulletins, and articles. While these bear the names of many different authors, most of them also bear the imprint of what Philip Hauser has called Eleanor Isbell's superb and educational ~diting. Otto Klineberg writes that "she is really responsible for two of my publications." He adds: "She showed the greatest skill in locating weak spots in presentation and in indicating how improvement was possible; and she made her editorial comments with such tact and friendliness that I actually enjoyed having my text modified:; A full list of authors who are similarly indebted~including the writer of the present note (which, by the way, she has not editedl)-would be very long. Items is Eleanor Isbell's brain child. She brought out the first issue in 1947 and served as its anonymous editor through 1974. With a circulation now over 10,000, the publication has played a major part in furthering the Council's objectives by bringing both completed work and plans for the future to the attention of social 2

scientists here and abroad. Eleanor has always been too proud of Items to refer to it as the Council's "house organ"; she has been too modest to refer to it as a "journal." Rather, it was always simply "Items," and she made each issue as informative and as error-free as she possibly could. Some sixty social scientists, and many more clerical and administrative workers, have been members of the Council's staff for longer or shorter periods of time since 1940. They have found Eleanor a helpful and discreet confidante, ready to make them feel at home in the organization and to acquaint them with its written and unwritten policies, precedents, and folkways. Many of them have come to look on her as a true friend and have turned to her for support and guidance in their. personal and professional lives. As a letter from Renee Fox attests, Eleanor's supportive influence on the careers of young social scientists has extended beyond the confines of the Council. Professor Fox writes: She was one of the first persons in the social sciences to take an interest in my early post-Ph.D. work. At that critical time, she conveyed to me her belief that I had talent ... It was conveyed through an occasional warm and e!lcouraging personal letter and in the special warmth that she accorded me on the few occasions when we met ... In Eleanor, I recognize a person who has ... consistently taken delight in the budding of new young talent in the field, and who in her quiet, subtle way has expressed a particular pride in the activities and accomplishments of women in the social sciences. An especially remarkable feature of her interest in my work is that it antedates any contact that I had with the Social Science Research Council.

Eleanor is a trained social scientist who had done substantial research in sociology and demography before joining the Council. With the late Paul Webbink, she shares the distinction of having achieved senior professional status at the Council without being adorned with the Ph_D. degree; she deals with those so anointed, however, on a basis of complete equality. W. I. Thomas said it pithily: "I don't care whether she has a degree; she's a darned good sociologist, and if I can't tell a sociologist, I don't know who can." After graduating from Smith College in 1924, Eleanor worked for some years as an engineer in the traffic departments of the New York and the New Jersey telephone companies. She then embarked on graduate work at Yale, where she did research on population migration in Sweden under the guidance of Dorothy Swaine Thomas, which was later published. "sybse'lY@Rtly, she was Dr. Thomas' assistant for several y'drs in studies of children's behavior at Yale's Institute of Human RelaVOLUME

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tions. In 1939 Eleanor was commissioned to make demographic studies of the Negro population under the auspices of the famous A merican Dilemma study which was sponsored by the Carnegie Corporation and directed by Gunnar Myrdal. In 1940 Donald Young, then the junior member of the Council's two-man professional staff, recommended that she be hired. He recalls that Robert Crane, the executive director, had been skeptical. "What would she do?" Mr. Crane asked him. "I don't know what she would do," Mr. Young replied, "but I know that she would find something that needs doing, and would do it well." His response was soon justified.

Prematurely widowed, Eleanor has, in her own words, made the Council her life. Her working hours have almost habitually extended into evenings and weekends; vacations have been short and often postponed or foregone. In such times as she has rationed for recreation, she has enjoyed the opera, theater, golf, and gardening-the last at her childhood home in the village of Columbia, Connecticut, where she plans to live in the future. She will take with her to Connecticut the deep affection and admiration both of her colleagues and of numerous other members of the social science community.

PROJECT LINK: FORECASTING ECONOMIC EVENTS by Lawrence R. Klein ..

PROJECT LINK embarked on a new yearly sequence of world trade forecasts and inaugurated a new meeting format to implement it in 1974, its sixth year of working on the international linkage of econometric models. For the purpose of reviewing the first round of forecasts, a worldwide spring meeting was convened, where projections (three-year horizon) were critically examined and revisions introduced for a new round of forecast calculations, extending through the summer. These were then presented to the full-scale annual meeting which followed in September. Formerly, the spring meeting had taken place as a dual regional event, one in the western and one in the eastern hemisphere. This

year the first meeting was held in Vienna on April 25-26 and was hosted by the Institute for Advanced Studies. The annual meeting, on September 9-11, was hosted by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System in Washington, D.C., where it was held. l In addition to discussion centered around world trade forecasts or activity forecasts for 1974, both spring and fall meetings heard a number of research papers on topics of interest to LINK. A paper -by Bert Hickman on the international trans~ission of economic fluctuations and inflation was presented at the Vienna meeting in an early version and reviewed again in revised form in Washington. This research examined the impact of

• The author is Benjamin Franklin professor of economics at the University of Pennsylvania and a director of the Social Science Research Council. He has been a member of its Committee on Economic Stability and Growth, which sponsors Project LINK, since its appointment ill 1959. The other members of the committee al"e Bert G. Hickman, Stanford Uriiversity (chairman); Irma Adelman, University of Mary· land; Barry Bosworth, Brookings Institution; Martin Bronfenbrenner, Duke University; Otto Eckstein. Harvard University; Stephen M. Gold· feld, Princeton University; R. A. Gordon, University of California, Berkeley; Franco Modigliani, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Geoffrey H. Moore, National Bureau of Economic Research; Arthur M. Okun. Brookings Institution; Rudolf R. Rhomberg, International Monetary Fund. Reports on five a'n nual -conferences Oil Project LINK were published in the December issues of items, 1969, 1970. 1971, 1972. and 1973. 1 Present at the September meeting. in addition to Messrs. Gordon. Hickman, Klein, and Rhomberg of the committee. were: F. Gerard Adams, University of Pennsylvania; Akihiro Amano, Kobe University; Paul Armington, International Monetary Fund; Esko Aurikko, Bank of Finland; Giorgio Basevi, University of Bologna; Richard Berner, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System; Terence Burns, London Graduate School of Business Studies; Hidekazu Eguchi. Bank of Japan; Franz Ettlin. Stockholm School of Economics; Jorge Gana. University of Pennsylvania; Victor Ginsburgh. Free University of

Brussels; J. Glowacki and Julian Gomez of the UN Conference on Trade and Development, New York; Gerald Grisse, Bonn University; Yvan Guillaume, Free University of Brussels; Richard Herring, Univer· sity of Pennsylvania; Lars Jacobsson, Svenska Handelsbanken; Keith Johnson, University of Pennsylvania; Gregory Jump, University of Toronto; Wilhelm Krelle, Bonn University; Pertti Kukkonen, Bank of Finland; Masaru Kurose, University of Pennsylvania; Sung Kwack, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System; Lawrence Lau, Stanford University; Johan Lybeck, Stockholm School of Economics; Alek Markowski, Economic Research Imtitute. Stockholm; Richard Marston, University of Pennsylvania; Stanislav Menshikov. UN Center for Development Projections. Policy. and Planning. New York; Chikashi Moriguchi, Kyoto University; J. J. Post. Central Planning Bureau. The Hague; G. Anthony Renton. London Graduate School of Business Studies; Erik Ruist. Stockholm School of Economics; Stefan Schleicher, Institute for Advanced Studies. Vienna; Charles Schotta, U.S. Department of the Treasury; Anna Stagni, University of Bologna; Grant B. Taplin, International Monetary Fund; Alain Van Peeterssen. University of Quebec. Montreal; P. J. Verdoorn, Central Planning Bureau, The Hague; Jean Waelbroeck. International Bank for Reconstruction and Development; Carl Weinberg, University of Penn.sylvania; Claus Wittich. UN Center for Development Projections. Policy. and Planning, New York; Akira Yajima, Economic Research Institute, Elec· tric Power Industry, TOkyo.

MARCH

1975


government expenditure changes in individual countries, one at a time, on the country where the change originated and on other linked countries as well. The paper was also presented at an international symposium on stabilization policies held at Mt. Hope Farm, Williamstown, Massachusetts on June 10-12, together with other LINK or LINK-related papers. Other research papers presented at the Washington meetings dealt with the new Swedish model, now being constructed by Franz Ettlin and John Lybeck; a new version of the German model, with a monetary sector by Wilhelm Krelle and Gerald Grisse; an international study of export price behavior by Akihiro Amano; an investigation of the international transmission of wage and price movements by Sung Kwack; a consideration of the possible use of prior information in LINK forecasts by Stefan Schleicher; some estimates of statistical interdependence of countries in the European Economic Community (EEC), by Victor Ginsburgh; and a summary of research progress on an extensive EEC model by Richard Berner. As part of Project LINK'S continuing interest in the analysis of capital flows, we invited a special presentation by Richard Herring and Richard Marston, who summarized their ongoing work in explaining international interest rates and net capital movements. Their research covered some LINK countries and potentially opened the way for our project to build a compact, manageable system of capital flows. The Washington meeting also heard a report by Jorge Gana on the new computer program designed to deal with problems of data handling and system simulation posed by LINK operations. The LINK system now consists of more than 3,000 equations, simultaneously solved in a complicated way for projection of both economic performance in the individual countries or areas and the trading patterns among these countries or areas. In order to cope with the present problems, as well as with those of the future as the LINK system grows, the project commissioned Morris Norman to design an overall computer program to deal with all computer aspects at LINK Central (Wharton School) from the iqitial receipt of component data to calculation of the final complete system results. The design of the system was completed in 1974 and tested on an experimental grouping of four countries. Jorge Gana reported that the target date for implementation of the new program is early 1975. The new forecast round, in 1975, should be using Norman's system, adapted by Mr. Gana. At present, the LINK model is being solved outside Philadelphia at Stanford University, at the Economic Research Institute of the Electric 4

Power Industry in Tokyo, and at the Federal Reserve System. It is hoped that after implementation of the new program is completed, it will become easier to install the LINK system at many more computer centers. SIMULATIONS IN 1974 LINK simulation studies during 1974 were necessarily concerned with questions of the oil embargo, oil prices, commodity prices路 generally, world recession, and world inflation. Aspects of these questions ran through many of the alternative simulations considered in the Vienna and Washington meetings. They also formed the basis of -a paper on international economic stability viewed from the LINK system, presented by Keith Johnson and Lawrence Klein at the Mt. Hope Farm meetings. These results were reported in the various alternative simulations placed before the participants in Washington. At the September meetings, it was suggested that we estimate the impact of oil prices on world inflation by simulating the LINK system, on the assumption that oil prices were fixed at their 1973 average values. We found substantial reductions (200 basis points) in the estimated rate of world inflation as a result of imposing this restriction on assumed oil prices. The final results of the year's LINK simulations were released to the public in November 1974. The form of this first public release followed from discussions that were initiated at the Vienna meetings and continued in Washington. At Vienna, Terence Bums proposed that LINK prepare estimated projections of major aggregates such as real (GDP) growth rates, inflation rates, global trade flows, trade balances, and trade prices by various regional groupings or market groupings-ultimately as world totals. This involved some technical problems in estimating missing data for some cases, in constructing weights for averaging totals across countries, and in defining concepts. Rough estimates were reported to the Washington meetings and a release was made to worldwide press services in November, incorporating the changes in model input values discussed in Washington and reporting LINK system results for main international groupings according to Mr. Bums' suggestion. Requests for reports on individual country performances have been referred back to the model proprietors involved. In order to improve communications among LINK participants, experimentation has been under way since summer, 1974 with TELEX units at different centers. LINK Central, located at the Wharton School, has installed a TELEX unit and is in communication with other participants who already have access to such units. VOLUME

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Additional installations are being planned for those centers lacking such facilities now. This will make for speedy transmission of input data and feedback of system results. Planning for this international communication system started as a result of proposals made by Giorgio Basevi at the Vienna meeting. Many domestic government agencies or central banks throughout the world participate in LINK at this time. During the past year, there has been increasing interest in LINK shown by agencies and departments of the U.S. government (Federal Energy Administration, Departments of Commerce, State, and Treasury). Simultaneously, interchange has been increasing with international organizations. Representatives of the European Economic Community and the Organization for Eco-

nomic Cooperation and Development (OECD) attended the Vienna meetings. The OECD has been supplying helpful data from its vast files for LINK research and estimation of projections. As in previous years, we continue to enjoy excellent cooperation from the United Nations and the International Monetary Fund. The 1975 summer meeting of LINK will be held in conjunction with the Third World Congress of the Econometric Society, in Toronto, Canada, August 2026. The LINK project will be responsible for organizing two sessions at the World Congress to report on research activity during the five years that have elapsed since a similar presentation was made to the Second World Congress, held in Cambridge, England.

LINGUISTICS SERVES THE PEOPLE: LESSONS OF A TRIP TO CHINA by Charles A. Ferguson'*'

THE AMERICAN LINGUISTICS DELEGATION 1 visited the People's Republic of China from October 16, 1974 to November 13, 1974 with the principal aim of learning about language and linguistics in contemporary China. Specifically, this meant linguistic and sociolinguistic research; language planning; lexicography; phonetic research; and the teaching of Chinese, English, and other languages. The delegation wa$ also returning the visit of its counterpart Chinese delegation to the United States "the previous year. 2 The backgrounds and ex.pertise of its members gave the linguistics delegation some decided advantages. Most of the members are specialists on China, so the group's itinerary had been decided largely on the basis of its OW.1 requests to the Chinese. Seven of the twelve delegation members could speak Chinese and three had lived in China just prior to the establishment of the present regime in 1949. The delegation chairman was Winfred P. Lehmann, University of Texas, who is past presi-

dent of the Linguistic Society of America and an internationally known !icholar in Indo-European and historical linguistics. The delegation included specialists in Chinese studies (phonology, dialectology, historical linguistics, lexicography, and language teaching) as well as experts in linguistic theory, sociolinguistics, bilingual education, and language planning. The visit made a profound impression on the whole delegation. Each of us found his or her values and expectations questioned; each came back with new thoughts about the place of linguistics and the language sciences in contemporary society. For several of us who were new to China, the encounter with the un imagined differences of this unfamiliar culture was quite striking. "Fantastic" and "marvelous" seemed to us to be appropriate adjectives as we viewed ancient palaces and gardens, modern factories, irrigation systems, and trade fairs; as we ate remarkably varied and delicious foods, experienced unexpected music, art forms, and acro-

â&#x20AC;˘ The author is professor of linguistics at Stanford University and a member and former chairman of the <;:ouncil"s Committee on So¡ ciolinguistics. He was a member of the American linguistics delegation which visited China under the program of the Committee on Scholarly Communication with the People's Republic of China. which is cosponsored by the National Academy of Sciences. the American Council of Learned Societies. and the Social Science Research Council. A detailed account of the visit of the linguistics delegation. jointly written by the whole delegation and edited by W. P. Lehmann. is in press. to appear under the title Language and Linguistics in China (University of Texas Press). Brief accounts of the visit by Messrs. Lehmann and Ferguson appear in the March (Lehmann) and April (Ferguson) issues of the Linguistic Reporter, published by the Center for Applied Linguistics. Arlington. Virginia.

1 Members of the delegation were Chin-chuan Cheng. University of Illinois; Charles A. Ferguson. Stanford University; Anne FitzGerald. Committee on Scholarly Communication with the People's Republic of China; Victoria Fromkin. University of California. Los Angeles; William Labov. University of Pennsylvania; Anatole Lyovin. University of Hawaii; Winfred P. Lehmann. University of Texas; John B. Lum. National Institute of Education; Frederick W. Mote. Princeton University; Jerry Norman. University of Washington; Howard E. Sollenberger. Foreign Service Institute; James J . Wrenn. Brown University. 2 See Linguistic Reporter, December 1973; April. May. 1974. For a description of this program of visits between the United States and China. see Items, September 1973. pages 27-29.

MARCH

1975

5


Additional installations are being planned for those centers lacking such facilities now. This will make for speedy transmission of input data and feedback of system results. Planning for this international communication system started as a result of proposals made by Giorgio Basevi at the Vienna meeting. Many domestic government agencies or central banks throughout the world participate in LINK at this time. During the past year, there has been increasing interest in LINK shown by agencies and departments of the U .S. government (Federal Energy Administration, Departments of Commerce, State, and Treasury). Simultaneously, interchange has been increasing with international organizations. Representatives of the European Economic Community and the Organization for Eco-

nomic Cooperation and Development (OECD) attended the Vienna meetings. The OECD has been supplying helpful data from its vast files for LINK research and estimation of projections. As in previous years, we continue to enjoy excellent cooperation from the United Nations and the International Monetary Fund. The 1975 summer meeting of LINK will be held in conjunction with the Third World Congress of the Econometric Society, in Toronto, Canada, August 2026. The LINK project will be responsible for organizing two sessions at the World Congress to report on research activity during the five years that have elapsed since a similar presentation was made to the Second World Congress, held in Cambridge, England.

LINGUISTICS SERVES THE PEOPLE: LESSONS OF A TRI P TO CHINA by Charles A_ Ferguson • THE AMERICAN LINGUISTICS DELEGATION 1 visited the People's Republic of China from October 16, 1974 to November 13, 1974 with the principal aim of learning about language and linguistics in contemporary China. Specifically, this meant linguistic and sociolinguistic research; language planning; lexicography; phonetic research; and the teaching of Chinese, English, and other languages. The delegation wa~ also returning the visit of its counterpart Chinese delegation to the United States -the previous year. 2 • The backgrounds and ex.pertise of its members gave the linguistics delegation some decided advantages. Most of the members are specialists on China, so the group's itinerary had been decided largely on the basis of its own requests to the Chinese. Seven of the twelve delegation members could speak Chinese and three had lived in China just prior to the establishment of the present regime in 1949. The delegation chairman was Winfred P. Lehmann, University of Texas, who is past pres i-

dent of the Linguistic Society of America and an internationally known !lcholar in Indo-European and historical linguistics. The delegation included specialists in Chinese studies (phonology, dialectology, historical linguistics, lexicography, and language teaching) as well as experts in linguistic theory, sociolinguistics, bilingual education, and language planning. The visit made a profound impression on the whole delegation. Each of us found his or her values and expectations questioned; each came back with new thoughts about the place of linguistics and the language sciences in contemporary society. For several of us who were new to China, the encounter with the un imagined differences of this unfamiliar culture was quite striking. "Fantastic" and "marvelous" seemed to us to be appropriate adjectives as we viewed ancient palaces and gardens, modern factories, irrigation systems, and trade fairs; as we ate remarkably varied and delicious foods, experienced unexpected music, art forms, and acro-

• The author is professor of linguistics at Stanford University and a member and former chairman of the C;:0uncil's Committee on So· ciolinguistics. He was a member of the American linguistics delegation which visited China under the program of the Committee on Scholarly Communication with the People's Republic of China, which is cosponsored by the National Academy of Sciences, the American Council of Learned Societies, and the Social Science Research Council. A detailed account of the visit of the linguistics delegation, jointly written by the whole delegation and edited by W. P. Lehmann, is in press, to appear under the title Language and Linguistics in China (University of Texas Press). Brief accounts of the visit by Messrs. Lehmann and Ferguson appear in the March (Lehmann) and April (Ferguson) issues of the Linguistic Reporter, published by the Center for Applied Linguistics, Arlington, Virginia.

1 Members of the delegation were Chin-chuan Cheng, University of Illinois; Charles A. Ferguson, Stanford University; Anne FitzGerald, Committee on Scholarly Communication with the People's Republic of China; Victoria Fromkin, University of California, Los Angeles; William Labov, University of Pennsylvania; Anatole Lyovin, University of Hawaii; Winfred P. Lehmann, University of Texas; John B. Lum. National Institute of Education; Frederick W. Mote, Princeton University; Jerry Norman, University of Washington; Howard E. Sollenberger, Foreign Service Institute; James J. Wrenn, Brown University. 2 See Linguistic Reporter, December 1973; April, May, 1974. For a description of this program of visits between the United States and China, see Items, September 1973, pages 27-29.

MARCH

1975

5


batics; and as we tried to bridge the cultural gap with our Chinese counterparts in universities, schools, and special institutions. Others were impressed by changes in the China they had known: food, clothing, and medical services for all; an improved status for women; universal primary education; and uniformity in culture and ideology combined-with a high degree of social mobilization and sense of national purpose. What is more, all of us found the realities of linguistics and language study so far removed from our own that we were often at a loss for the right questions to ask in order to elicit information from our hosts. Linguistics as a social science or independent scholarly discipline does not exist as . such in the People's Republic; there are no courses in it, no professional organizat'ions, no discussion of linguistic theory as an intellectual enterprise, no obvious points of contact with the field in other countries. Yet there are Chinese linguists whose earlier published works in Chinese dialectology, research on minority languages, and sophisticated historical study are all known outside China. The explanation is that linguistics, like many other disciplines, now exists in the People's Republic of China only to "serve the people" and to "help in socialist construction." Lacking the high priority of such fields as nuclear physics which are allotted resources for basic research, linguistic work is always tied to the solution of the nation's language problems. The linguists we met were all working in this context, engaged in the processes of language reform or language teaching or in the interpretation of ancient texts important for an understanding of Chinese history. The delegation spent about a third of its time in Peking, but also visited Lin Xian, Zhengzhou, Xian, Yanan, Shanghai, Hangzhou, Suzhou, and Guangzhou (Canton). In most of these cities, we visited educational institutions. Altogether, we saw the work of three general universities, three teachers' universities, three language institutes (including the Institute of Nationalities concerned with minority languages), three secondary schools, three primary schools, two deaf-mute schools, one children's palace, and seven museums. We talked with teachers, students, "leading members" of revolutionary committees, and museum guides; we observed classrooms, laboratories, museums, and playgrounds. Most of the visits were highly programmed, but often our hosts proved flexible in making new arrangements. Sometimes we had opportunities for unplanned encounters with students, workers, and others outside the educational system. The pattern of the visits was much like that of earlier delegations. While we visited many of the same tourist 6

points and the same educational institutions as had other delegations, we also had several long and profitable sessions with Chinese scholars in universities and elsewhere during which we were able to speak directly about some of our research concerns. In addition, we had frequent opportunities to compare official language policies with actual language behavior both in and out of the classroom. Our fields of interest were so varied that it was natural that one person could find the Shanghai Children's Palace a "curriculum specialist's dream," while another would be more fascinated by the use of acupuncture therapy in deaf-mute schools. Some of us were excited to see recent publications in Uighur or Mongolian, while others wanted to pursue the methodology of sociolinguistic dialect study. Regardless of specialty, however, I think that at least three areas of activity impressed all of us and left their mark on our thinking: the scope and success of language planning, the nature of research on minority nationalities, and the position of English and other foreign languages. NATIONAL LANGUAGE PLANNING Language reform receives little attention in the national planning of most countries, hardly, if ever appearing in five-year plans or as a line item in government'al budgets. In China, on the other hand, the development of a viable, standardized national language for the communication needs of the country is given considerable visibil!ty, and the efforts of the Language Reform Committee have the ultimate backing of Chairman Mao, the Communist Party, and the State Council. We were fortunate enough to have several hours of presentations and discussion with Ye Lai-shi and the research staff of the Language Reform Committee in Peking. We asked questions about language reform wherever we went and we observed language use around us. Hundreds of officially promulgated simplified characters (each having fewer strokes than the older form) are now in regular use. Putonghua (common speech) is spreading rapidly among the more than 30 per cent of the population who speak language varieties that are not mutually intelligible with putonghua. Romanized spelling is slowly being extendeq to additional uses, and progress is being made toward the final, long-term goal of replacing the traditional as well as the simplified characters. There is no near parallel to this massive planned language change taking place anywhere else in the world. If Chinese linguists wished to study the behavioral changes as they occur and were free to do so, their vast natural laboratory of language use could VOLUME

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make profound contributions to an understanding of the processes of standardization, language shift, dialect and register variation, and language planning. In any case, we may hope that the Chinese linguists' useoriented studies of dialect convergence will provide interesting data for sociolinguists outside China to ponder and speculate about. Language planners from other countries could learn much from China's experience. MINORITY NATIONALITIES In accordance with Marxism-Leninism-Mao Tsetung Thought and Stalin's 1950 article on language, the People's Republic of China allocates certain public functions to minority languages. Thus, for example, Chinese currency has four languages in addition to Chinese printed on it, and publications such as newspapers and school books appear in an even larger number of languages. In line with this policy, highly competent linguistic research in minority languages was in evidence, carried out in relation to language teaching and the creation and reform of orthographies. Of broader social science interest was research on the determination of nationality status. Fei Xiao-tong, known internationally as a distinguished anthropologist, explained in some detail the problems of investigating the degree of linguistic and cultural distinctiveness, ethnic awareness, and size of population which entitle a group to be designated a nationality. Fifty-four such nationalities have been officially recognized in the People's Republic. Comparison of this nationality research with current American research on ethnicity could be highly instructive if a scholarly exchange were possible. Unfortunately, we were unable to view the nationality policies on language in action since we had no chance to visit the minority areas where they are carried out.

THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN CHINA English is by far the foreign language most in evidence in China. It is taught in many primary schools, most urban secondary schools, in universities, and in language institutes. In addition, English lessons are broadcast on the radio and printed in magazines, and English is the foreign language most often used in translations on signs and in documents shown to or used by foreigners. English teachers, especially at the higher levels, speak excellent English and, in some places, have considerable sophistication in pedagogical practice (e.g., using the .International Phonetic Alphabet for teaching pronunciation). Other foreign languages, European and Asian, are taught to a lesser extent. We noted that RusMARCH

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sian instruction seems on the decline, while Japanese shows signs of being on the increase. In spite of all this, we found it difficult to talk about the methods of teaching English or about applied linguistics in foreign language instruction. In the United States, foreign languages are studied in part to give access to a different culture and way of life. Teaching materials, therefore, are expected to be as genuinely foreign as possible, based on actual language use in the countries where the language is spoken. In China, on the other hand, foreign languages are studied as weapons in the revolutionary struggle and the teaching materials for at least the first three years are based on life and thought in China, not in the foreign country. The student of English learns to talk about the Chinese countryside and factories, to sing songs in honor of Chairman Mao and the Party. The content of beginning English courses may even be checked for appropriateness by monolingual Chinese workers and peasants. The Chinese student of English learns how to talk to foreign visitors about his own country; only the advanced student is exposed to texts from foreign countries-and then with political interpretation and commentary. When these fundamental differences in approach finally became very clear in a long discussion with English teachers and students one evening in Shanghai, we had something to think about. Is it possible that in the long run the advantages of higher motivation, greater community support, and familiarity of content in the early stages of foreign language study payoff in learning to use the language-in spite of inevitable linguistic, cultural, and political distortions?

RESULTS OF THE VISIT Chinese and Americans seem to get along easily and well in personal interactions. To all members of the delegation, the value of increased contacts was clear. The difficulties of genuine professional exchange of people and publications, however, are great, given the enormous differences between the two societies and the slow pace of normalization in political relations between them. Nevertheless, om visit was not without some promising outcomes. Most concrete was the agreement to publish in the Journal of Chinese Linguistics a speeches to our delegation on the teaching of Chinese and on recent changes in the Chinese language made by Lii Bi-song and Mao Cheng-dong, of the Peking Language Institute. In addition, the delegation left 8

Edited by William SoY. Wang. University of California. Berkeley.

7


with our Chinese hosts some specific recommendations for cooperation in producing bilingual dictionaries. The total impact of the China visit on the linguists and language specialists of the delegation is difficult to assess. In the area of research and teaching in linguistics and related fields, it was the confrontation of two opposed models of the social sciences which probably made the deepest impression. American linguistics is

primarily theory-oriented. The application of linguistic expertise to the language problems of our society tends to be incidental and non prestigious. Chinese scholarly concern with language, in contrast, is so completely problem-oriented and politicized that linguistic theory as such is incidental and nonprestigious. My own reaction is to ask whether there could not be a third model somewhere between the two.

AN AMERICAN-JAPANESE PARTNERSHIP IN RESEARCH IN THE SOCIAL SCIENCES AND THE HUMANITIES by Gerald L. Curtis and Susan ]. Pharr¡

FOR THE PAST SEVEN YEARS the Joint Committee on . its long and distinguished history, was a natural choice Japanese Studies (JCJS), appointed in 1967, has been for an implementing agency. From 1932 until the 1960s, engaged in binational research plimnirig 'activities the JSPS was a private organization concerned mainly with a Japanese counterpart organization, the Japan with funding research in the natural sciences. Until the Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS). This is a end of World War II, the organization benefited from the patronage of an imperial family which had long progress report on this experience. International cooperation in the design and ,funding been interested in the natural sciences. The imperial of research is often hailed but seldom achieved. Bar- prince, in fact, served as president until the end of the riers are numerous. Funding priorities may vary and war. In the postwar period, however, the organization's funding capacities may be unequal. Projects conceptu- status in the private sector gradually altered as the ally interesting to scholars in one country may have Ministry of Education began active support of a numlittle appeal to researchers in the other. A pool of top ber of JSPS programs. In 1967, the same year that the research talent for the investigation of a particular SSRC-ACLS Joint Committee on Japanese Studies problem may be _available in one nation and wholly came into being, the JSPS was reorganized as a public lacking in another. Issues that are politically neutral corporation under the Ministry of Education. In cerin one country may be ideologically charged elsewhere. tain respects, especially in the nature of its relation For all these intellectual, economic, practical, and ideo- to the national government and in its historical emphasis logical reasons, collaborative research efforts involving on research support for the natural sciences, the JSPS resembles the National Science Foundation (NSF) in two or more countries often founder. This experiment in American-Japanese cooperation this country. Like the NSF, the organization in recent in scholarly research grew out of an agreement signed years has pro:vided substantial funding for social sciby President Kennedy and Prime Minister Ikeda in ence research. The reorganization and revitalization of the JSPS 1961, which led to the establishment of a binational by the Japanese government in 1967 and the increase organization, the United States-Japan Conference on in the organization's role in international collaborative Cultural and Educational Cooperation (CULCON). In 1968, backed by CULCON officials in both coun- research ventures reflect other changes in Japanese tries, a program of collaborative research in the social government and society during recent years. With sciences and humanities was initiated, with the JCJS rising prosperity and Japan's mounting interest in enhancing its international role, the past decade -has s.e en becoming the responsible American organization and a remarkable boom in the support of educational and the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science becultural programs in Japan and abroad. Numerous busicoming responsible for Japan. nesses have established foundations, a number of them The Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, with supporting both social science and humanities research and international scholarly ex.changes. Mitsubishi, Miâ&#x20AC;˘ Gerald L. Curtis is chairman of the Joint Committee on Japanese tsui, Sumitomo, Nissan Motors, Toyota Motors, and Studies, cosponsored by the Social Science Research Council and. the American Counci~ of Learned Societies. He is director of the East Asian other large corporations have offered support for JapInstitute of Columbia University, where he is an associate professor of anese studies programs in the United States and funding political science. Susan J. Pharr is a political sci en tist who serve~ as for individual or collaborative research projects of staff for the Joint Committee. 8

VOLUME

29,

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American scholars engaged in the study of Japan. Recently, Japanese corporations have begun to give substantial funds to American universities for Japanese studies programs. In the public sector, the Japan Foundation was established in October 1972, with offices in a number of countries; these offer support to foreign scholars in the Japanese studies field. Although recent economic setbacks have somewhat slowed the pace of Japan's entry into the philanthropic field, the size and basic strength of the economy provide a sound basis for Japan's continued activity in international cultural and educational ventures. The establishment of a collaborative relationship between the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science and the Joint Committee on Japanese Studies has been an important step in these developments. Scholars of both countries and the staff of both agencies work together in all stages of research planning and implementation. To coordinate research, representatives of the JCJS and the JSPS meet in alternate years for an extended planning session., The most recent meeting was held June 27-28, 1974, in Nikko, Japan.} Between meetings, staff of both organizations are in regular complUnication as new projects take shape. The relationship between the Joint Committee on Japanese Studies and the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science in many respects provides a model, not only for future collaborative research ventures involving American and Japanese scholars, but for other area committees now attempting to increase cooperation between American scholars and scholars in the countries they study. Not only has JCJS-JSPS collaboration meant that the burden of funding is shared; it has also improved the quality of research in both countries, generated theory in the social sciences, and greatl y expanded the data base for future comparative research involving Japan. In addition, the collaboration of American and Japanese scholars has made possible the study of certain topics that by their very nature require close cooperation between scholars of the two countries through all stages of research definition and planning. Projects in this category are of special interest, since it can be argued that effective collaboration is the key to their success. One such undertaking involved Ameri1 Attending were Gerald L. Curtis, chairman, Joint Committee on Japanese Studies, Columbia University; Michael Donnelly, Social Sci路 ence Research Council; John W . Hall, Yale University; Yoichi Maeda, International House of Japan; Chie Nakane, Tokyo University; Kiyoshi Okano, Executive Director, Japan Society for the Promotion of Sci路 ence; Nagahide Onozawa, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science; Makoto Saito, Tokyo University; David L. Sills, Social Science Research Council ; Michiko Watanabe, Japan Society for the Promotion of Sci路 ence; and Hiromoto Yamaguchi, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science. The meeting was chaired by Dr. Maeda.

MARCH

1975

can and Japanese scholars in the preparation of a bibliography of materials relating to the Occupation of Japan, with companion volumes of Japanese language sources and sources iIi Western languages published in 1972 and 1974, respectively.~ More recently, a number of distinguished American and Japanese scholars have joined in an effort to explore and analyze attitudes, assumptions, and images operating behind American and Japanese perceptions of each other. Directed by Akira Iriye of the University of Chicago, this enterprise resulted in a volume to be published in 1975 by Harvard University Press. Other projects recently completed or in various stages of planning similarly point up the dire<;t intellectual gain from collaboration. Recent ones have dealt with the political process through which sovereignty over Okinawa reverted to Japan during the postwar years; with United States-Japan relations from World War I to the Manchurian Incident; and with the social, political, and cultural long-term impact of the postwar Occupation upon Japanese society. Each of these projects has brought American and Japanese scholars together to investigate sensitive historical or contemporary problems involving both nations. As suggested earlier, other efforts have been dictated primarily by the theoretical concerns of scholars in the two countries. A recently completed study of spoken Japanese had as its primary aim the generation of theory in the field of sociolinguistics. Participants in a longterm project concerned with the influence of socializing agents on cognitive functioning, communication styles, and the 'educability of children are testing, refining, and developing theory in areas of research where interest among psychologists is high in both America and Japan. The nature of these undertakings, along with others completed or currently under way, suggests the variety in the research agenda that has been developed through collaborative research. Furthermore, the process of functional planning has been instructive and will undoubtedly have impacts upon other research by Japanese and American scholars. The increase in the number of joint projects proposed by Japanese scholars over this seven-year period attests to the success of the experiment and demonstrates the degree to which Japan is assuming leadership in international scholarly activities. 2 See Robert E. Ward, "The United States-Japan Joint Bibliographical Project on the Allied Occupation of Japan," items, September 1969, pp. 37-38; Robert E. Ward, Frank Joseph Shulman, and others, The Allied Occupation 01 Japan, 19-15-1952: An Annotated Bibliography 01 Western Language Materials. Chicago: American Library Association, 1974; and Yoshikazu Sakamoto et aI., Nihon senryo bunken mokuroku (A Bibliography on the Allied Occupation of Japan). Tokyo: Nihon Gakujutsu Shinkokai (Japan Society for the Promotion of Science), 1972.

9


COMMITTEE BRIEF LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES (Joint with the American Council of Learned Societies) Albert O. Hirsdlman (chairman), Guillermo Bonfil Battalla, Francesca Cancian, Fernando Henrique Cardoso, Douglas A. Chalmers, Peter H. Smith, Osvaldo Sunkel, Hernan Vidal; staff, Louis Wolf Goodman, Michael Potashnik. The Joint Committee on Latin American Studies sponsored a conference on "Feminine Perspectives in Social Science Research in Latin America" at the Torcua-to Di Tella Institute in Buenos Aires, Argentina, on March 19-24, 1974. The conference was organized by June Nash (City College), then a member of the Joint Committee, and Helen Safa (Rutgers University), in collaboration with Esther Hermitte, an anthropologist at the Institute's Center for Social Research. The conference was unique in that it brought together Latin and North American social scientists, primarily women, to review and discuss social science research relating to women in Latin America. The conference grew out of discussions by the Joint Committee during the previous year to set priorities for the support of future research. At that time the status of women in Latin America was identified as an impor,tant, but neglected, area of research. Although scholars have studied women in Latin America, there has been little attention given to the study of women in a broader social scientific context. A principal focus of the conference was an examination of the perspectives on women offered by theories of modernization and social change in Latin America and the analysis of empirical findings on women as they relate to these theories. It was felt that existing models and studies were in-

adequate insofar as they failed either to include a "feminine perspective" or ,to account adequately for women as social actors. For example, studies of the modernization process have generally concentrated on spheres of action controlled by men and have relied heavily on exclusively male samples or male informants. The consequences of such research were misleading conclusions which served to reinforce role stereotypes. Conferees hoped that the study of women by scholars with different _perspectives would counterbalance such biases and would lead to more adequate models of social change. Participants in the conference came from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, the Dominican Republic, Mexico, Panama, Puerto Rico, and the continental United States. The twenty-six papers presented at the c,onference treated topics such as theories of development, with particular reference to the effects of industrialization on women's roles; ideology and sex role perspectives; and the political participation of women. Besides calling attention to the inadequacies and biases of social science research on women in Latin America, conferees suggested topics for future research by both Latin 'and North American scholars. These included the differential impact of social change and development on women's roles and behavior, a reevaluation of social change models as a result of the consideration of women as social actors, the role of women in the labor force, and power relationships and role differentiation within the family and household. Arrangements for the English-language publication of a selection of the papers are nearly complete. The conference organizers are also exploring possibilities for the public~tion of the papers in Spanish and Portuguese.

PERSONNEL COUNCIL STAFF Judith Field joined the staff of 路the Council on January 2. 1975; her primary assignment is to assist in the preparation of Council publications and Council minutes. Mrs. Field is a doctoral candidate in sociology at the City University of New York, where she has specialized in the family, in childhood socialization, and in the analysis of social policy. Her doctoral thesis examines the effects of childhood I experiences as observed among a nationwide sample of college students. Prior to her employment at the Council, Mrs. Field worked as an editor for the National Association of Social Workers, the New York Women's Exchange, and the Dell Publishing Company. She has taught sociology at Hunter and Lehman colleges in New York City and is the coauthor of The Therapeutic Classroom (Aronson, 1974), an 10

analysis of the impac.t of an experimental junior high school program. David Seidman joined the Council on January 2, 1975, following two and one half years at the depar.tment of politics, Princeton University. Mr. Seidman's primary assignment will be as a Staff Associate at the Council's Center for Coordination of Research on Social Indicators, in Washington. Mr. Seidman received the A.B. degree in government from Harvard College in 1964 and the M.Phil. degree in political science in 1969 from Yale University. He expects to receive the Ph.D. in political science from Yale in 1975. His dissertation is on -the private ownership of firearms in the United States. Mr. Seidman served as a Peace Corps volunteer in the Ivory Coast from 1964-66. He was路a research fellow at the Brookings Institution in 1970-71. From September 1971 to August 1972 he was a Congressio~al fellow VOLUME

29,

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I


of the American Political Science Association, serving both childhood socialization. Mr. Read received a B.A. in Enas a staff member of the Senate Subcommittee to Inves-tigate glish literature from Grinnell College in 1965, an M.A. in Juvenile Delinquency and as a staff assistant in the office education from Cornell University in 1967, and a Ph.D. of Representative Donald M. Fraser. At Princeton, Mr. in sociology from Cornell in 1971. He was a graduate fellow Seidman taught courses in political science and served as at the Russell Sage Foundll'tion, 1970-71, and has been an a Faculty Associate at the Research Program in Criminal assistant professor in the graduate department of sociology Justice of the Woodrow Wilson School and as an associate at the City University of New York since 1971. He has pubeditor of World Politics. He has published ar.ticles both in lished a number of papers in the fields of education and the Administrative Science Quarterly and the Law and social psychology. Society Review. David L. Szanton joined the Council as a Staff Associate VISITING SCHOLAR on February 3, 1975; his primary assignment is the development of research planning activities concerning South and Raymond L. Hall, an assistant professor of sociology at Southeast Asia. Mr. Szanton received the A.B. degree in Dartmouth College, has been a visiting scholar at the anthropology from Harvard College in 1960, the M.A. in Council during February and March. After graduating from Wiley College in 1962, Mr. Hall social sciences from the University of Chicago in 1964, and the Ph.D. in anthropology from Chicago in 1970. In 1960- taught at the U.S. Armed Forces Institute in Illesheim, Ger61 he studied sculpture at the Academy of Fine Ar.ts in many; at ,the Emekuku Community Technical Secondary Rome; he then served as a Peace Corps volunteer in the School in Owerri, Nigeria; at Bishop College, Dallas, Texas; Philippines in 1962-63. For the past four and a half years . and at Syracuse University. He received his Ph.D. in sociolhe has been with the Manila and Bangkok offices of the ogy from Syracuse in 1972; his dissertation was on "SepFord Foundation, working on programs for the develop- aratist Movements Among Black People in the United ment of the social sciences and the humanities in Southeast States." Asia. Mr. Szanton has carried out research on entrepreneurAt the Council, Mr. Hall is pursuing his own scholarly ship and other aspects of social and economic change in interests as well as participating in the daily life of the the rural Philippines, on the folk art of the Sulu Archi- staff. He has completed the manuscript of his book Black pelago, and on the role of spirit mediums in the central Separatism (University Press of New England, forthcoming, Philippines. He has published a monograph and several 1975) and of a collection of edi路ted essays on the same topic, journal articles on these subjects and is currently preparing Black Separatism and Social Reality (Pergamon Press, forthan article on martial law in the P.hilippines from the per- coming, 1975). His interests at the Council are in the funcspective of a small town and a ~onographic transcription tioning of both the committee system and the fellowship of a spirit medium ceremony from the same community. program and in the substantive aspects of social indicator research. He hopes to incorporate social indicators into the undergraduate curriculum at Dartmouth next winter. CONSULTANT Toward that end, and in order to work directly with CounPeter B. Read joined the Council in February as a short- cil staff on these problems, he spent several weeks in term consultant; his primary assignment during his six- March at the Council's Center for Coordination of Research month appointment is program development in the field of on Social Indicators in Washington, D.C.

NEW PUBLICATIONS Social Science Research Council: The First Fifty Years, by Elbridge Sibley. Organizational history; bibliographies; lists of members, officers, staff, and committees. New York: Social Science Research Council, September 1974. 150 pages. $3.00 prepaid. Orders should be addressed to Social Science Research Council, Publications, 605 Third Avenue, New York, N.Y. 10016. Social Indicators, 1973: A Review Symposium, edited by Roxann A. Van Dusen. Product of the symposium held by 'the Center for Coordination of Research on Social Indicll'tors, February 21-23, 1974. 95 pages. $3.00 prepaid. Orders should be addressed to SI '73 Review Symposium, Social Science Research Council, 605 Third Avenue, New York, N.Y. 10016. China's Modern Economy in Historical Perspective, edited by Dwight H. Perkins. Papers of a conference held by the Subcommittee on Research on the Chinese Economy, Joint Committee on Contemporary China, June 18-21, MARCH

1975

1973. Stanford: Stanford University Press, April 1975. c. 368 pages, $13.85. Explorations in the Ethnography of Sp.eaking, edited by Richard Bauman and Joel Sherzer. Product of a conference cosponsored by the Committee on Sociolinguistics, and the Departments of Anthropology and Linguistics and the Center for Intercultural Studies in Folklore and Oral History, University of Texas at Austin, April 2023, 1972. New York: Cambridge University Press, January 1975. 508 pages. Cloth, $27.50; paper, $8.95. The Formation of National States in Western Europe, edited by Charles Tilly. Studies in Political Development 8, sponsored by the former Committee on Comparative Politics. Princeton: Princeton University Press, March 1975. c, 750 pages. Cloth $22.50; paper, $4.95. Pidgins and Creoles: Current Trends and Prospects, edited by David DeCamp and Ian F. Hancock. Product of workshops at the Conference on Sociolinguistics: Trends and

11


Prospects, jointly sponsored by the Committee on Sociolinguistics and Georgtown University, March 16-18, 1972. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press, June 1974. 143 pages. $3.25. The Politics of Modernization in Eastern Europe: Testing the Soviet Model, edited by Charles Gati. Product of a conference on the impact of moderniza路tion and political development in Eastern Europe, sponsored by ,the Joint CommIttee on Eastern Europe, March 23-24, 1973. New York: Praeger Publishers, 1974. 389 pages. $22.50. Race Differences and Intelligence, by John C. Loehlin, Gardner Lindzey, and James N. Spuhler. Prepared under the auspices of the Committee on Biological Bases of Social Behavior. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman Company, March 1975. c. 400 pages. Cloth, c. $12.00; paper, c. $5.95. Science and Techno[ogy in the Development of Modern China: An Annotated Bibliography, compiled and edited by Genevieve C. Dean. Product of a workshop cosponsored by the Joint Committee on Contemporary China, the University of Sussex Science Policy Research Unit, and the Canadian International Research Center, January 10-14, 1972. London: Mansell, September 1974. 279 pages. $18.00.

Social Experimentation, edited by Henry W. Riecken and Robert F. Boruch, with chapters written by Donald T. Campbell, Nathan Caplan, Thomas K. Glennan, Jr., John W. Pratt, Albert Rees, and Walter Williams. Product of the Committee on Experimentation as a Method for Planning and Evaluating Social Intervention. New York: Academic Press, November 1974. 357 pages. $15.95. Survey Data tor Trend Analysis: An Index to Repeated Questions in U.S. National Surveys Held by the Roper Public Opinion Research Center, edited by Jessie C. Southwick, under the editorial direction of Philip K. Hastings, with an essay by Norval D. Glenn. Sponsored by the Center for Coordination of Research on Social IndIcators. February 1975. 566 pages. $8.50 ($6.50 each for 2 or more copies to one address). Orders should be addressed to Roper Public Opinion Research Center, P.O. Box 624, Williams College, Williamstown, Mass. 01267 Women in Chinese Society, edited by Margery Wolf and Roxane Witke. Papers of a conference sponsored by the Joint Committee on Contemporary China, June 11-15, 1973. Stanford: Stanford University Press, June 1975. c. 352 pages. c. $12.50.

FULBRIGHT-HAYS AWARDS FOR SENIOR SCHOLARS, 1976-77 Applications are available for 1976-77 Fulbright-Hays awards which will again be granted to more than 550 senior scholars, the Council for International Exchange of Scholars (CIES) has announced. Awards are offered for both university lecturing and advanced research in over 75 countries to citizens of the United States wi,th a doctorate or with college teaching experience. Eligible scholars are invited to indicate their interest in an award by completing a simple registration form, available on request from the Senior Fulbright-Hays Program, 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20418. A detailed announcement of the 1976-77 announcement will be sent to registrants in April. July I, 1975 is the application deadline for research awards and the suggested date for filing for lectureships. The Fulbright-Hays program also sponsors visits by foreign senior scholars to the United Sta,tes. During 1974-75, approximately 500 senior lecturers and research scholars from 69 foreign countries visited here under this program which is administered by the Council for International Ex-

change of Scholars. Each year Fulbright-Hays agencies abroad forward to the CIES the applications of foreign scholars who are interested in remunerative appointments for lecturing or postdoctoral research at American colleges or universities for temporary periods. The scholars are eligible to receive Fulbright-Hays travel grants if arrangements for remunerative appointments are confirmed. The CIES is interested in receiving at any time information regarding temporary appointments of three months to one year available for foreign scholars at American educational institutions. . A directory of visiting lecturers and research scholars who are in the United States during the academic year 1974-75 under Fulbright-Hays sponsorship is available on request from the Senior Fulbright-Hays Program, 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20418. Among them are specialists in a wide range of disciplines, many of whom will be available to give lectures or to participate in special conferences.

SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH COUNCIL 605

THIRD

AVENUE.

NEW

YORK.

N.Y.

10016

Incorporated in the State of Illinois, December 27, 1924, for the purpose of advancing research in the social sciences Directors, 1975:

WILUAM J. BAUMOL, BRIAN J.

L.

BERRY, ALLAN G. BOGUE, LAWRENCE A. CREMIN, LEON EISENBERG, LEON D. EpSTEIN, RICHARD

F. FENNO, JR., EDWARD E. JONES, HAROLD H. KELLEY, LAWRENCE R. KLEIN, WILLIAM H. KRUSKAL, CHARLES E. LINDBLOM, GARDNER LINDZEY, LEON LIPSON, CORA BAGLEY MARRETT, HERBERT MCCLOSKY, SALLY FALK MOORE. MURRAY G. MURPHEY, GUY H. ORCUTT, JOHN W. PRATT, ALICE S. ROSSI, PEGGY R. SANDAY, ELEANOR BERNERT SHELDON, ELLIOTT P. SKINNER, JANET T. SPENCE, KARL E. TAEUBER, JOHN M. THOMPSON, ROBERT E. WARD, CHARLES V. WILLIE, HARRIET ZUCKERMAN

Officers and Staff:

ELEANOR BERNERT SHELDON,

President;

DAVID JENNESS, DAVID

L.

SILLS,

Executive Associates;

ROBERT A. GATES, LoUIS WOLF GOODMAN, ELEANOR C. ISBELL, PATRICK G. MADDOX, ROWLAND

L.

RONALD P. ABELES, JUDITH FIELD,

MITCHELL, JR., ALICE

L.

MORTON, ROBERT PARKE,

SUSAN J. PHARR, MICHAEL POTASHNIK, DAVID SEIDMAN, DAVID L . SZANTON, ROXANN A. VAN DuSEN; MARTHA W . FORMAN,

surer;

12

CATHERINE V. RONNAN.

Financial Secretary;

NANCY CARMICHAEL,

Librarian

Acting Assistant Trea-

Items Vol. 29 No. 1 (1975)  
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