SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH COUNCIL
VOLUME 28 . NUMBER 3 . SEPTEMBER 1974 605 THIRD AVENUEÂˇ NEW YORK, N .Y. 10016
THE COMMITTEE ON POLITICAL BEHAVIOR, 1949-64, AND THE COMMITTEE ON GOVERNMENTAL AND LEGAL PROCESSES, 1964-Tl by A ustin Ranney'" ROBERT A. DAHL has written that "the Social Science Research Council ... has had an unostentatious but cumulatively enormous impact on American social science." 1 As a member of the Committee on Political Behavior (1956-62, 1963-64) and as an adviser to its successor, the Committee on Governmental and Legal Processes, Dahl knows that the Council's impact has nowhere been clearer or more powerful than in the study of political behavior and institutions, especially but not solely as practiced within his own discipline of political science. The earlier committee played a seminal role in the discipline's "behavioral revolution" in research philosophy and methods, and the later committee did much to turn the attention of political scientists to problems of immediate social concern. The two committees' stories are related in many ways, â&#x20AC;˘ The author is Professor of Political Science at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. He has been actively associated with the Social Science Research Council for many years. The recipient of a Senior Award for Research in Governmental Affairs under the Council's program in 1961-62, he made a study of factors affecting selection of parliamentary candidates in Great Britain. He served as chairman of the Committee on Governmental and Legal Processes throughout its existence, 1964-72, and as editor of its major publication, Political Science and Public Policy, Markham Publishing Company, 1968. He was a member of the Council's board of directors for 6 years, 1967-72, and a member of its Executive Committee, 1968-71. During the past two years he has been chairman of the Committee on the Fiftieth Anniversary of the Council. The present article was written at the invitation of the President of the Council as part of the commemoration of that ann iversary. 1 "The Behavioral Approach in Political Science: Epitaph for a Monument to a Successful Protest," American Political Science Review, December 1961, page 764.
but they are sufficiently different chronological order.2
be told separately, in
POLITICAL BEHAVIOR Charles E. Merriam, professor of political science at the University of Chicago from 1900 to 1940, was one of the principal founders of the Social Science Research Council in 1923. He is also generally considered the founder of "behaviorialism" in political science. 3 His pleas, from the 1920's on, for a more scientific as well as more socially useful study of politics had little immediate impact on the discipline's research and teaching, but his students and associates-notably Gabriel A. Almond, V. O. Key, Jr., Harold D. Lasswell, Herbert A. Simon, and David B. Truman-became, with the collaboration of Pendleton Herring, the leaders of the post-1945 movement which sought all and achieved many of Merriam's objectives. A first Committee on Political Behavior had been appointed by the Council in 1945, with Herring as its chairman and Herbert Emmerich, Charles Hyneman, and Key as the other members. However, exploration at that time of the feasibility of developing a new approach to the study of political behavior proved not to be pos2 A comprehensive and detailed summary of the personnel, activities, and products of both committees is presented in "Committee on Political Behavior, 1949-1964, Committee on Governmental and Legal Processes, 1964-1972," Social Science Research Council, August 1973. a Albert Somit and Joseph Tanenhaus, The Development of Amerimn Political Science: From Burgess /0 Belu/Tiioralism, Allyn and Bacon, 1967, pages 110-113.
sible because of the pressing demands of the chairman's of Michigan. 6 The committee also sponsored and supwork as head of the Secretariat of the United Nation's ported the first steps in assembling what has become a Atomic Energy Commission, and the committee was soon massive collection of election returns and other aggregate terminated. In 1948 Herring became the Council's Presi- data on presidential and other elections going back to dent, and in 1949 the "behavioral revolution" began in 1824. This collection is now maintained at the Interearnest. On August 27 - September 2 the Council co- University Consortium for Political Research in Ann sponsored a conference at Ann Arbor, with the Uni- Arbor and is widely used by historians and political versity of Michigan Institute for Social Research, to dis- scientists in the United States and elsewhere. 7 2. Improving Analytical Methods. Whether justificuss what was wrong with the current study of politics and what needed to be done to improve it. The confer- ably or not, the committee is perhaps best known for its ence, like the committees and conferences it generated, efforts to encourage political scientists to make full use was attended mainly but not exclusively by political of appropriate statistical and experimental analytical scientists; in addition to 18 of the latter there were 3 techniques used in other disciplines, and to develop new anthropologists, 3 sociologists, and 2 social psychologists. methods to meet the special needs of political science reThe Michigan conference led to appointment of the search. The committee saw the necessary first step as that interdisciplinary Committee on Political Behavior in of making students of politics more aware of methodDecember 1949 and a series of new initiatives in the ological problems. To that end it chose research design study of politics. Under the leadership of its two chair- as a point of entry, and in 1951 it sponsored an 8-week men, V. O. Key, Jr. (1949-53) and David B. Truman Interuniversity Summer Research Seminar on Political (1953-64), the committee was active during 15 years. A Behavior at the University of Chicago. A number of detotal of 14 scholars served as members: 10 political scien- signs were prepared, criticized, and revised, and a selectists, 2 social psychologists, I anthropologist, and I legal tion of them was published. s They are still widely cited scholar.4 Throughout the committee's career Pendleton in the literature and curricula for research training deHerring participated fully in its deliberations and ac- veloped in the discipline in the succeeding two decades. tivities, to an extent well beyond his concern as Council A variety of training programs offered from the midPresident. 1950's on by other Council committees, the National Science Foundation, and the Inter-University ConsorThe committee sponsored research planning and evaluation conferences, interuniversity summer research tium for Political Research have provided most of the seminars and training institutes, and the preparation technical training and retraining called for by the Comand publication of papers and books; it also supported mittee on Political Behavior. 3. Using the Comparative Approach. The committee the research of individuals through several programs of competitive awards. What did it try to accomplish by early in its deliberations concluded that one of the main weaknesses in pre-1945 political science was the ad hoc these activities? In 1950 the committee defined its central concern as concentration on the uniquenesses of whatever national "the development of theory and improvement in meth- or subnational behavior or institution was being studied. ods which are needed if social science research on the It saw no possibility of anything approximating a valid political process is to be more effective." 5 Judging from scientific theory of political behavior until hypotheses the conferences the committee sponsored and the kind of that are widely applicable are developed and tested by research it stimulated and supported, this general objec- data drawn from many polities. The first initiative taken in response to this idea was the planning and sponsortive evolved into three main thrusts. 1. Getting Better Data. The committee believed that ship of a Conference on Comparative Politics, held at one of the main impediments to the more scientific study Princeton in December 1953. This conference led to the of politics was the paucity of the kind of data needed for appointment in January 1954 of the Committee on Comanalysis beyond the legalism and anecdotal ism character- parative Politics, chaired initially by Gabriel A. Almond istic of pre-1945 political science. Accordingly, it en- of the parent committee. From then until discharged in couraged, advised, and helped to fund the collection of 1972 the new committee produced, among other things, national sample survey data on the 1952 presidential 6 Angus Campbell, the study's senior investigator, was a member of election by the Survey Research Center of the University the committee, 1949-58 and 1962--64. _ 7
â&#x20AC;˘ In addition to the chairmen, these were respectively Gabriel A. Almond, William M. Beaney, Robert A. Dahl. Alfred de Grazia, Oliver Garceau, Alexander Heard, Avery Leiserson, Dayton D. McKean; Angus Campbell and M. Brewster Smith; Conrad Arensberg; Edward H. Levi. 5 Committee Brief, Items, June 1950, page 20.
See Jerome M. Clubb, "Historical Politics: .-\merican Elections,
1824-1970," Itellls, December 1971, pages 46--50. 8 Samuel J. Eldersveld, Alexander Heard, Samuel P. Huntington, Morris Janowitz, Avery Leiserson, Dayton D. McKean, and David B. Truman, "Research -in Political Behavior," American Political Science Review, December 1952, pages 10011--1045.
a 7-volume series of studies of the factors and problems of political development which profoundly altered the nature of the cross-national study of politics.9 The Committee on Political Behavior also believed that use of the comparative approach could greatly improve the study of politics in the United States. Wide discussion of a memorandum, "Research in State Politics" prepared for the committee by Oliver Garceau in December 1954, and a conference held by the committee in New York City in June 1955 led to a grant to the Council from the Carnegie Corporation for a program of aid to individuals for research on state politics. This program directly stimulated most of the significant research in that area over the next decade. One result of certain studies promoted by the committee and its successor has been to make all political scientists, including the writer, aware of the difficulty of isolating the impact of a particular governmental or other agency's action on the course of events from that of all the other factors influencing those events. Nevertheless, while we cannot say that the activities of the Committee on Political Behavor were the sole cause of any of the developments mentioned below, they surely were among the most important factors affecting them. The Rise of Behavioralism in Political Science. Since the early 1950's political scientists have engaged in far more explicit discussions of what is being done and what should be done in their discipline than in all its previous history. The authors of the vast relevant literature disagree sharply on the utility and even the morality of the behavioral approach and on whether it now dominates or did dominate or will dominate the discipline's research, publications, and graduate and undergraduate curricula. But I think most would agree on at least the following factual propositions: prior to 1945 the behavioral approach had very little impact on what political scientists did despite the advocacy and prestige of the "Chicago school"; the post-1945 "behavioral revolution" has succeeded at least to the extent that behavioralism is now one of the discipline's most important outlooks, though certainly not its only outlook; it has not driven out all other approaches, nor is it likely to do so; it is equally unlikely that some counterrevolution will roll political science methodology back to where it was before 1945; and the activities of the Committee on Political Behavior constituted one of the prime forces leading to the present state of affairs. I base these propositions partly on my reading of what now appears in political science journals, books, conven9 "Studies in Political Development," 1-7, Princeton University Press, 1963-71. The programs and products of the committee are detailed in "Committee on Comparative Politics: A Report on the Activities of the Committee, 1954-70," Social Science Research Council, March 1971.
tion programs, and curricula. There are other bits of evidence pointing the same way. For example, prior to 1960 political science was excluded from the list of disciplines eligible for support from the National Science Foundation. Since then, however, it has joined anthropology, economics, geography, psychology, and sociology as disciplines eligible for participation in all NSF social science programs. And if we may take the selection of the President of the American Political Science Association as one indication of what the profession honors, it may be noted that no fewer than 6 of the political scientists who served on the Committee on Political Behavior have been chosen President of the Association. Moreover, of its 23 Presidents chosen from 1950 to 1973, at least 13 are generally identified as behavioralists. Some of these events would no doubt have happened had there been no Committee on Political Behavior-or, for that matter, no Social Science Research Council-but it is hard to escape the conclusion that much of it would have happened a good deal later and some of it would not have happened at all. . Contributions to Knowledge. The considerable role of the committee in stimulating the improvement of political science methodology entitles it to some of the ' credit for the discipline's post-1945 explosion in knowledge. Its contribution has been most direct and discernible in at least three areas: (a) Electoral behavior: This is widely regarded as one area in which knowledge has advanced most rapidly since 1945, and much of the advance is directly traceable to the committee's initiatives. The part played by the committee in the Suryey Research Center's first major survey of voting behavior (in the 1952 presidential election) has been noted. This pioneering study has been followed by comparable studies in every presidential and congressional election held since, and has resulted in the world's best-known and most influential longitudinal analysis of stable and changing factors in voting behavior. The committee also helped to launch the systematic collection of aggregate data on voting behavior in presurvey elections, and this initiative has contributed greatly to historical analyses that not only have revised our understanding of the past but also have added a necessary long-range historical dimension to general theories of voting behavior. (b) State politics: Before the mid-1950's, American state politics was widely, and correctly, viewed as one of the most formalistic, impressionistic, and backward areas in political science. The committee not only helped to introduce new ways of looking at the field but financed much of the leading research: for example, the comparative analysis of state legislators' behavior by John C. Wahlke, William Buchanan, Heinz Eulau, and LeRoy 39
C. Ferguson; Joseph A. Schlesinger's tracing of gubernatorial career patterns; Leon D. Epstein's testing of Key's general hypotheses with Wisconsin data; studies of political recruitment by Lester C. Seligman, Frank J. Sorauf, Jr., Charles B. Judah, and Kenneth N. Vines; Gordon E. Baker's studies of urban-rural conflict and legislative apportionment; and studies of legislative roll call behavior by Charles Hyneman, David R. Derge, Jr., William J. Keefe, and Gilbert Y. Steiner. (c) Legal processes: Since 1945 the study of legal processes has ceased to be monopolized by the traditional exegeses of judicial opinions and historical studies of common law and civil law. A growing number of law schools and legal scholars have turned to social science methods to understand and improve the formation, interpretation, and administration of law. The committee played a major role in encouraging this change by sponsoring conferences and summer research training institutes in the fields of administration of criminal justice (1960) and administration of the law of torts (1961). It also directly supported research on judicial decisionmaking by Jack W. Peltason, Walter F. Murphy, and Joseph Tanenhaus; studies of the prosecutor's role by Yale Kamisar and Jerome H. Skolnick; and analyses of elective and appointive judicial selection systems by Rondal G. Downing, Richard A. Watson, and Frederick C. Spiegel. The results of these studies have found their way not only into scholarly journals but also into law school curricula and even judicial opinions. In sum, while the main impact of the Committee on Political Behavior was on the discipline of political science, the work it stimulated has also been useful to historians, social psychologists, sociologists, and legal scholars-and to law schools, courts, the Congress, and state legislatures. Altogether it was a difficult act to follow, but its successor committee nevertheless tried to carry on in the same spirit. GOVERNMENTAL AND LEGAL PROCESSES When the Committee on Governmental and Legal Processes was appointed in 1964, it was given responsibility for the administration of the program of grants for research on American governmental, political, and legal processes previously awarded by the Committee on Political Behavior and for continuing its other functions. In addition to this formal relationship, it may be noted that 4 of the new committee's 6 original members and 9 of the total of 13 who served on it at some time had received financial support from its predecessor. And all 13 members, as graduate students and young scholars in the late 1940's and 1950's, were products of the "behavioral revolution" in political science that the Committee on Political Behavior had done so much to bring 40
about. It is therefore not surprising that throughout the new committee's 8-year life its objectives and activities were shaped in good measure by its members' interest in building on the older committee's contributions. In their first meeting the members agreed that the movement for more rigorous and quantitative research methods had become so widely accepted that it no longer needed the special encouragement that had been given it by the Committee on Political Behavior. They decided to move in new directions, and they chose to emphasize two kinds of research. First, studies of the substance of public policies would be stimulated. Behavioral political science research of the sort encouraged by the Committee on Political Behavior had focused almost entirely on policy processesthat is, on the interplay of social and political forces and institutions resulting in the adoption of particular policies and the rejection of their alternatives. Typically, studies of these processes ended with the adoption or rejection of a legislative act, an executive decree or a judicial decision, and little or no attention was paid to the consequences of those decisions. The Committee on Governmental and Legal Processes had no intention of denigrating or discouraging the continuation and improvement of such studies, but it did propose to encourage studies of policy contents as well. The second emphasis was an outgrowth of the first. The committee decided that one of the most important and neglected kinds of policy research was what came to be called "impact studies"-that is, efforts to trace the independent consequences, intended and unintended, of particular policies for the life situations of the people affected by them. The committee used all of its conference funds and some of its funds for support of research to advance these two kinds of studies. In addition, since it saw itself as the only national nongovernmental agency supporting basic research on American political and legal processes, it reserved the greater part of its research funds for a competitive program of grants to individuals for projects with emphases different from the committee's own. Bearing in mind the caveats already expressed about the attribution of particular scholarly activities to committee initiatives, I believe it can be said that the Committee on Governmental and Legal Processes played a significant, though not exclusive, role in the following post-1964 developments. The Growth of Policy Studies. In 1968 the committee sponsored publication of a volume of essays on the study of policy contents-the product of conferences held in 1966 and 1967. 10 This work was one of the first byestab10
Austin Ranney, ed., Political Science and Public Policy, op. cit. VOLUME
lished behaviorally oriented political scientists to urge that policy contents as well as processes be studied without sacrificing the gains in methodological rigor hardwon in the preceding decade. judging from the number of citations of the volume, it perhaps stimulated and certainly supported the sharp increase in such studies from the late 1960's on. This movement has produced a rapidly growing number of studies of such policy areas as air pollution control, urban redevelopment, income maintenance, military manpower procurement, energy development and control, legislative reapportionment, and medical care. It has also contributed to the forming of the Policy Studies Association, in which many of the committee's members, grantees, and conference participants are playing major roles. Studies of Impacts in Black Communities. The committee recognized that the strife over civil rights legislation since the early 1950's constituted the nation's greatest domestic political struggle in the post-1945 era. Although many scholarly studies had been made of this struggle, none focused on what differences, if any, the civil rights laws and judicial decisions had made in the life situations of black Americans. This question seemed therefore to be especially promising both for advancing the art and methods of impact studies and for discovering facts useful for the evaluation of present policies and the consideration of future policies. Hence the committee provided funds for a collaborative study of the impact of civil rights programs in the black communities of selected Southern cities. It decided, further, that the research could be designed and conducted best by black scholars in institutions located in such communities, and in 1969 the commission was given to a group of such scholars headed by Paul L. Puryear, then of Fisk University and now of Florida State University. The project is expected to result in publication of a book on the im-
pact of manpower trammg programs, presenting new insights and evidence about how such policies are evaluated and extended or terminated. The committee also provided substantial assistance for a study by joel D. Aberbach and jack L. Walker of citizen-administrator interaction and policy development in Detroit following a major racial disturbance.H Comparative Policy Studies. In considering the various projects ju~t described, the Committee on Governmental and Legal Processes came increasingly to the view that current public problems, policies, and their impacts in the United States are essentially similar to those in other postindustrial societies and that its heretofore exclusively American focus could no longer be justified. At the same time, the Committee on Comparative Politics was becoming concerned with expanding its emphasis on process and developmental studies to include research on policy. Accordingly, as both committees neared the end of their missions they each sponsored conferences on the cross-national study of policy impacts and policy performance. These conferences led to their joint proposal for a new Council committee combining these two concerns, and the Committee on the Comparative Study of Public Policy was appointed in 1972, when both of the older committees were discharged. I am sure the members of the latter two committees and of the parent Committee on Political Behavior hope that the new committee will sustain and enrich the tradition of the scientific study of politics they helped to stimulate and broaden. Certainly they are entitled to feel that they have left their impress on the study of politics, on which future committees can build, and that political science and perhaps also the international community are the better for it. 11 Race in the City : Political Trust and Public Policy in the New Urban System, Little, Brown and Company, 1973.
AN AMERICAN GLIMPSE O'F THE CHILDREN OF CHINA: REPORT OF A VISIT by William Kessen ,. This holds good for students, too. While their main task is to study, they should in addition to their studies learn other things, that is, industrial work, farming, and military affairs. They should also criticize the bourgeoisie. The period of schooling should be shortened, education should be revolutionized, and the domination of our schools by bourgeois intellectuals should
by no means be allowed to continue.-Mao Tse-tung: Directive of May 7, 1966.
• The author is Professor of Psychology at Yale University. He served as chairman of the Delegation on Early Childhood Development that visited China under the program of the Committee on Scholarly Com· munication with the People's Republic of China, which is cosponsored by the National Academy of Sciences, the American Council of Learned
Societies, and the Social Science Research Council. A report on this program and the agreements between the committee and the Scientific and Technical Association of the People's Republic of China, under which the program is carried out, by Anne Keatley and Albert Feuerwerker, appears in Items, September 1973, pages 27-29.
The staff is responsible for training the next generation••.. We moved here from Yenan. In Yenan we were deeply impressed by the tradition of the Revolution. We lead the chil-
dren in the labor that they are able to do. Morally, intellectually, and physically, we teach the children along the directions set by Chairman Mao.-Director of Sian Kindergarten # 1. November 28, 1973.
THE 13 members of the American Delegation on Early C)1ildhood Development1 went to China late in 1973 under the auspices of the Committee on Scholarly Communication with the People's Republic of China. We were the second American gToup to go to China as a consequence of the committee's negotiations in Peking in the spring of 1973. (We met, both in Peking and Shanghai, the delegation on art and archaeology that had preceded us by a few days.) We entered China from Hong Kong on November 15, 1973 and departed through Hong Kong on December 5; during our 20-day study of child rearing and early education, we traveled from Canton to Peking, to Sian, to Shanghai, and back to Canton. Our official hosts in China were the Educational Circles of Peking, working through the offices of the Group on Sciences and Education of the State Council. We visited 7 nurseries, 13 kindergartens, 5 primary schools, and 3 middle schools, as well as hospitals, health clinics, and the Shanghai Youth Palace. We were obviously "on tour," and the hospitality of the Chinese matched the legend-fine hotels, uniquely excellent fare (shark's lips, aged eggs, mao-tai) and the rest), and a look at the archaeological and artistic splendors of China's past (the Forbidden City no longer forbidden, the Ming Tombs, the Great Wall, the treasures in Sian). Two of our delegation knew Chinese (too few, too few). The interpreters were unfailingly assiduous and often fluent, our hosts were obliging and most gTacious, the hundreds of teachers and thousands of children we saw were uniformly polite, receptive, and hospitable. It was, in brief, a fable-making occasion, shaking all of us to our heels and leaving us, when we got back home, torn between our recognition of the Chinese achievement, so sure in education, and the question whether or not to some American academic intellectuals the cost of the achievement might seem high. We were, of course, interested in all aspects of child rearing and child care from the prenatal period through adolescence and it was unfortunate that the Chinese 1 I speak, diffidently, for the members: Urie Bronfenbrenner, Cornell University; Bettye Caldwell, University of Arkansas; John A. Clausen, University of California, Berkeley; Alexander P. DeAngelis, Committee on Scholarly Communication with the People's Republic of China; Jerome Kagan, Harvard University; Eleanor Maccoby, Stanford University; George A. Miller, Rockefeller University; Harold W. Stevenson, University of Michigan; Jeannette G. Stone, Vassar College; Martin K. Whyte, Universities Service Center, Hong Kong; Joe Wray, Rockefeller Foundation, Bangkok; and Marian Radke-Yarrow, National Institute of Mental Health.
named our gToup the "Kindergartener Education Group," a translation that accounts for our seeing as many kindergartens as all other levels of school combined. We quickly and somewhat forcefully told our hosts about-the much broader scope of our interests and they, with remarkable efficiency, made it possible for us to observe children at all ages short of the university though obviously with a heavy emphasis on children between three and six. Some Chinese children enter gToup care at eight weeks, usually in a "feeding station" attached to a factory or commune. Many more apparently attend kindergarten between three and six; all the primary-age cohort is reported to be in school between seven and about twelve; and a smaller but increasing number of children attend middle school between twelve and seventeen. At the end of middle school, urban youth are now sent to the countryside to work in rural communes. Only a small fraction of the cohort attends a university (in 1973, perhaps only 250,000). A typical visit to a school involved a brief introduction by the principal or responsible person, a tour of the classrooms and playgTounds, a look-in at workshops where students are trained in productive labor, a song and dance performance by the children, and a discussion or question and answer period at the end. In addition to these local discussions held at each school, we also had discussions with educationalists and officials in Peking, and with Little Red Soldiers and Little Red Soldier leaders, kindergarten and normal school teachers, psychologists, and family planning doctors in Shanghai. It is noteworthy that we did not meet any research psychologists or university teachers of psychology. We were the first gToup of American child psychologists to visit China in a generation. In 20 days, even 20 days as filled with schools, children, and words as ours were, we could see only a corner of the continent of human beings and of ideas that is contemporary China. Our understanding of China is limited indeed, our warrant for interpretation slight. Moreover, each of us brought back a different theory of Chinese children, and the account I give here is from my own view, broadened somewhat by what I know of my colleagues' opinions. Let me condense hundreds of pages of notes and several thousand photogTaphs into a few all-too-summary paragTaphs. THE CONSTANT PRESENCE OF AN IDEOLOGICAL MESSAGE On the train from Hong Kong to Canton, the loudspeaker mixed music with injunctions to serve the Revolution; as we left three weeks later, a band and a gToup VOLUME
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of neighbors were seeing a group of educated youth off to the countryside; on every day in between, we heard and saw political imperatives in every school, every entertainment, every park that we visited. Chinese education and Chinese children can be understood only when it is recognized that they exist in an ideological ocean. A little boy sang of his happy brother; when he asked why his brother was happy, the brother replied, "Last night I dreamed of Chairman Mao." In one kindergarten, the first ideograph the children learned was the one for Mao; the first words in English eleven-year-oIds learn are "Quotations from Chairman Mao"; and, when we taught some college-level students an English song ("Deep Blue Sea"), they taught us a Chinese one: On Peking's golden h.ill Shines light forth far and wide Chairman Mao is the bright golden sun Oh how warm, oh how kind Lighting up our peasants' hearts We are marching on the broad and happy socialist road.
The same clarity and repetitiousness was heard in our many briefings at schools. The phrases became predictable-children are to be educated "morally, intellectually, and physically"; they must be taught "by the workers, peasants, and soldiers"; they must "be organized to take part in the class struggle and the struggle for scientific research"; they must "combine theory with practice. " Communist ideology and the needs of the state seem to come together in a theory of the child as docile and perfectible. When we spoke to one of our hosts about the absence of research on children, in comparison to the apparently sizable investment in agricultural research, he replied, "But we carry out research on plants because they are different; it is important for us to believe that all children are the same." There is, we were so often told, a commitment by educators to train successors to the Revolution, young men and women who will fully combine work with study. ORDERLINESS AND EFFICIENCY -OF THE CLASSROOM We saw children from eight months to eighteen years old in educational or care-taking settings of an enormous variety-in a rural commune in Shensi Province, in a suburban factory complex, in several urban kindergartens--but, with the usual eye of the stranger, we were perhaps more impressed by the uniformities we observed. Most striking was the calmness and orderliness of Chinese children in school. When we saw some 50 children in a primary classroom, quiet until addressed and chanting their lessons in enthusiastic unison when SEPntMBEll
called to, we were impressed; we were even more impressed by the apparent absence of disruptive, hyperactive, and noisy children. But there was more to the story. The small quiet orderliness, the same concentration on tasks, the same absence of disruptive behavior was to be seen in all the classrooms we visited, down to children barely able to walk. The docility did not seem to us to be the docility of surrender and apathy; the Chinese children we saw were socially gracious and adept. On our arrival at a school, we would be greeted by a child and guided hand in hand to our briefing. They were emotionally expressive and full of fun in their games, and they typically showed rapt attention to their work. A vignette may measure our sense of contrast with children of other cultures. One of Peking's kindergartens admits the children of foreign diplomats as well as the children of Chinese officials. We watched as the teacher showed to all a fine new mechanical Ping Pong game that moved and made noises fascinating to the children. The Chinese children, most of them about four years old, gathered around the toy in a tight circle and watched the Ping Pong game, with no shoving and no reaching out. As soon as one of the non-Chinese children appeared, he lurched in a wild grab for the toy. We talked a great deal to teachers about the control and restraint of Chinese children; we inquired about hyperactive and aggressive behavior; we tried, not very successfully, to describe some of the behavior problems of an American school. By and large, Chinese teachers did not understand what we were talking about; they testified that they had never seen a hyperactive or disruptive child-of course, some children were sometimes "naughty" but apparently not for long-and, truth to tell, neither did we among the thousands of Chinese children we saw. The docility or educability of the children showed in other ways--in the remarkably skillful singing and dancing of children between three and six and in the art work, especially clay sculpture, of children in the early primary years. The complexity and finished quality of the performances was outside our experience of children of these ages. One of the most fascinating unanswered questions we returned home with was: How are children in Chinese kindergartens brought along to these unusually apt skills in the arts? We did observe the uniformity of the artistic work; every child makes the same claY ,sculptures of horse and cart, everyone draws the same oil well or tanker. In art classes in primary school, the teacher draws the day's picture, a few chalk lines at a time, on the board, and the children are expected to copy his production, also line by line and in the order and dimensions indicated by the teacher. A corresponding absence of variation was seen in classrooms in all 48
subjects and our observations raised, for American educators tuned to student self-definition and creativity, questions about originality and opportunity for individual invention among Chinese children. The tradeoff between skillful uniformity and creativity is high on our list of problems for study by future visitors to Chinese schools. PRACTICALITY AND SERVICE Although the curriculum of Chinese schools is not strikingly different from that of Western schools (save only in the far greater emphasis on politics), there are differences in tone and emphasis that caught our attention. As the ideological message might suggest, with its emphasis on productive labor and practical knowledge"from the masses to the masses"-Chinese classrooms are down to earth and closely relevant to problems of farms and factories. Young children learning their numbers count tractors; a chanted English lesson in primary school told us "the workers work in the factories, the peasants work in the fields," and even the youngest children work in the school gardens or make labels for the products of the neighborhood factory. At the upper level science is called "common knowledge of agriculture and industry" and our visits to a few sparsely equipped laboratories gave us the impression that biology is organized around plant husbandry, physics around electronics, and chemistry around drugs and fertilizers. Our observations are sketchier than we would like, but styles of learning as well as curricular content seem uniformly practical. Neither teachers nor students appear to make much of abstract theory, speculative thought, or analysis. Again,
this impression is largely a call for further study and observation. I can speak from a stronger data base about the attention given in Chinese schools to selflessness and service. The heroes of stories, posters, and textbooks put the group ahead of their own interest; the only approved individualism is apparently the individualism of selfsacrifice. Even in the everyday world, evidence of personal success is muted. The slogan "Friendship first, competition second" is heard from Chinese of all ages. We had no means of assessing the effectiveness of the constant call to "serve the people" in changing the attitudes of children, but we were able to see the steady force of peer pressure, particularly in its organized form in primary school, the Little Red Soldiers. More concretely, we heard a kindergarten teacher ask her class to tell about something that would have pleased Lei Feng (a heroic young soldier-teacher killed in the mid-1960's). To the distress of our host, a four-year-old girl told of a good deed she had done the day before. As he said, "The teacher should have corrected the girl; to speak of one's own good deed is a selfish act." From a mountain of images, memories, and observations, the American delegation drew out two home truths-first, that the relation between teacher and student, parent and child, can only be defined in the context of an entire culture (a fact that makes systematic comparison almost impossible) and, second, that China and Chinese attitudes toward children in 1973 force an examination of American values and American attitudes toward children. Since our return, we have been thinking anew and in new ways about the cultural and ideological forces that have shaped American education.
THE GEOGRAPHY OF CHINA: A REPORT ON A SEMINAR by Baruch Boxer ""
research has made a significant contribution toward the development of new ways of thinking about man's impact on the natural world. The fact that these insights have not been more effectively brought to bear in explaining the longevity of Chinese civilization has been a matter of growing concern. No other disciGEOGRAPHICAL
• The seminar was chaired by the author, Professor of Geography and Director of the Graduate Program in Geography. Rutgers University. and was organized by him with the help of Marwyn Samuels. University of British Columbia. who was unable to attend. and Joseph R. Whitney. University of Toronto. Others who attended included Kuei·sheng Chang. University of Washington; Norton Ginsburg. Uni· versity of Chicago; Rhoads Murphey. University of Michigan; Ramon H. Myers. University of Miami; James Thorp. Richmond. Indiana; Paul Wheatley. University of Chicago; and Christopher Salter. Uni· versity of California. Los Angeles.
pline is in a better position to explore the many facets of environmental management in China and to assess Chinese achievements in devising strategies for resource use that are sensitive to environmental limitations. In recognition of this and in support of its aim of enhancing scholarly communication among China specialists, the Joint Committee on Contemporary China of the Social Science Research Council and the American Council of Learned Societies sponsored a seminar on the geography of China, held at the Continuing Education Center of Rutgers University on June 6-8, 1973. The seminar was attended by a small group of geographers, an economist, and a soils scientist. They discussed some of the special problems associated with geographic research on China and attempted to layout new research VOLUME
directions, particularly in the broad area of environmental studies. In this respect, the seminar was especially timely, since a number of developing countries now recognize the relevance of the Chinese experience in planning and carrying out development programs that incorporate safeguards necessary for the preservation of the physical environment. An immediate question facing geographers working on China concerns their willingness to continue to support the traditional dominance of physical geography in research. Particularly since 1950, much of the geographical work on China (chiefly by Soviet and Chinese scholars) has focused on such highly specialized research areas as 'b iogeography (the study of plant and animal distributions over the earth), limnology (the study of physical phenomena associated with lakes), studies of glaciers and other features of mountain areas, and the distributional characteristics of physical and biological associations peculiar to China. Descriptive, localized studies of land use, soils, vegetation, and landforms were also carried out in support of individual water conservancy, flood control, or land reclamation projects. The seminar participants noted that geographers might lose the advantage of their catholic perspective, and not realize their potential contribution to China studies if they continued to concentrate almost exclusively on physical geographic problems. Many questions relating to the technical and policyrelated aspects of environmental management and resource use lend themselves especially well to geographical analysis. Recent studies by geographers of regional variations throughout China in the efficiency of energy and water use for agriculture suggest exciting new research possibilities. The seminar participants saw three research areas as having notable promise: the nature of the Chinese agricultural experience; urbanization, urban-rural relations, and settlement patterns; and ideas, ideology, and attitudes in Chinese environmental management. Geographical studies of Chinese agriculture should have a well-developed historical dimension, particularly because of current Chinese interest in plant diffusion, in taxonomic problems, in biogeography, and in the history of agricultural technology. Historical perspectives, in turn, are crucial to an understanding of the relations between variation in physical landscape type and in the locational determinants used in planning agricultural land use. Similarly, a better grasp of the criteria employed in planning ideal agricultural and economic regions should be helpful in clarifying the source of conflicts that have arisen between local-level agricultural managers and those higher-level administrators who advocate the large-scale reorganization of agricultural ecoSEPTEMBER
systems to conform to centrally directed developmental schemes. In light of recent work on energy budgeting in Chinese agriculture, it was agreed that traditional measures of agricultural efficiency based on crop output levels may no longer be adequate. Much work along these newer lines remains to be done, by studying the yield characteristics of individual crops; by interpreting the effects of climatic- variability on acreage allotments, cropping patterns, and fertilizer use; and by studying how middlelevel technologies are employed to ensure sustained high productivity in agricultural ecosystems. Other related topics would include the Chinese experience in pursuing multiscalar strategies for the management of the water economy, especially in light of the outstanding Chinese successes in domestic water supply and sanitation; and problems associated with the application of Western measures of technological achievement to China. Several issues dealing with Chinese perceptions of ideal urban and rural settlement patterns were also discussed. Many geographical studies of the internal spatial structure of cities, of urban-rural relations, and of the forms and hierarchical arrangement of settlements tend to emphasize distinctions between urban and rural settlement phenomena. Now that new kinds of spatial relations between city and country are evolving in the People's Republic, earlier assumptions as to the significance of regularities in the size distributions of urban places as indicative of economic growth have to be reassessed in thinking about Chinese urbanization processes. The new transportation and administrative links which appear to be tying city to country are perhaps more indicative of conscious attempts to create new settlement forms than of adaptations of existing urban and rural patterns to current needs. The residential, industrial, agricultural complexes that have grown up around China's cities, for example, are the result of new land use planning policies, yet little is known about the criteria employed in weighing the desirability of urban-industrial as opposed to agricultural land use. Similarly, while it can be assumed that the growth of such settlements has affected the rate of technology diffusion and has influenced housing policy and administrative organization, the mechanisms employed in inducing such changes are only vaguely understood. Finally, it was recognized that the problems of understanding the meaning of continuity and change in China may be related to the more basic question of how Chinese ideas about the natural environment came about and whether these ideas are representative of uniquely Chinese ways of thinking. China's unusual ability in premodern times to maintain clusters of communities
capable of supporting large populations at minimum but adequate living standards for long time periods may represent distinctive Chinese environmental choices that are not yet fully understood. The main features of the traditional Chinese model-size. organization. governance. and longevity-are a reflection of cumulative decisions as to the most appropriate use of human and natural resources. Yet the striking contrast between stylized notions of harmony with nature and the reality of environmental degradation. such as that brought about by the destructive deforestation of most of South China during an early period. indicates how little we know about the attitudinal grounds for particular management decisions. Another set of questions relates to the functions of ideology in the fostering of attitudes toward nature in the People's Republic. Is China's current environmental policy a reflection of orthodox Marxist-Leninist notions
of the correct relations between nature and society or of specifically Maoist interpretations of these ideas? Do day-ta-day responses to problems of pollution control. waste recycling requirements. or energy use truly reflect ideological or pragmatic concerns? While the three research areas outlined above are of special interest to geographers working on China. they are significant only to the extent that they point to larger issues in man-environment relations in China. The seminar participants agreed that long-term consideration of this intriguing topic might appropriately fall into four major categories: Chinese environmental attitudes and values; the management of the natural environment in the interest of achieving particular social or political goals; the physical nature of environmental transformation in China. with attention to the uses of technology; and the study of regional variations in the character and form of accommodations to the natural environment.
PERSONNEL COUNCIL STAFF Ronald P. Abeles joined the Council on a part-time basis during the summer of 1974 and became a full-time Staff Associate on September 3. 1974. He is currently staffing the Committee on Television and Social Behavior. the Committee on Work and Personality in the Middle Years, and the Committee on Mass Communications and Political Behavior. Mr. Abeles received the B.A. in psychology from the University of California, Los Angeles in 1966 and the M.A. and Ph.D. in social psychology from Harvard University in 1968 and 1972. He spent one year as a postgraduate fellow in the Psychology and Political Science Program at Yale University. From 1972 to 1974. Mr. Abeles was an Assistant Professor at Boston University. He has published papers in the areas of aHitude change and political behavior, coauthored a text on aggression and conflict. and is preparing a text on psychology and political behavior. Robert A. Gates joined the Council as a Staff Associate on July I. 1974. An economic historian interested in twentiethcentury Western Europe. his primary assignment is to the Western European program jointly sponsored by the Council and the American Council of Learned Societies. Mr. Gates received the A.B. degree from Stanford University in 1963. the M.A. in history from the University of Oregon in 1965, and the Ph.D. in history from -that University in 1970. He taught European social and economic history at Ohio State University from 1968 to 1974. Mr. Gates has conducted research on nineteenth-century rural economic development in France and twentieth-century labor and economic policy in Germany. Now preparing a book on German economic 46
thought in the period between the World Wars. he presented a paper on one aspect of this topic. entitled "Von der Sozialpolitik zur Wirtschaftspolitik? Das Dilemma der deutschen Sozialdemokratie in der Krise 1929-1933," to an international symposium in Bochum, West Germany. in June 1973, which has been published in Industrielles System und politische Entwicklung in der Weimarer Republik, edited by Hans Mommsen and Dietmar Petzina (Droste Verlag. 1974). An expanded version of the article. entitled "German Socialism in the Crisis of 1929-1933," will appear in Central European History. . Alice L. Morton joined the Council as a Staff Associate on August 12. 1974 following a year as Assistant Professor. Department of Human Ecology and Social Sciences, Cook College, Rutgers University. Her primary assignment is as staff of the Joint Committee on African Studies. Miss Morton received the B.A. degree in sociology from the University of California, Los Angeles in 1967. and the Ph.D. in anthropology from ,the London School of Economics and Political Science in 1973. Field work for her doctoral dissertation was carried out in Ethiopia on the changing position of Ethiopian women and on spirit possession cults. She is currently preparing a monograph based on ,the dissertation. Miss Morton has contributed articles 路to Peoples of the Earth encyclopedia and to the P"oceedings of the First Ethiopian Studies Conference, East Lansing, 1973. She is also the translator of Roger Bastide. Applied Anthropology (Harper and Row. 1973) and Dan Sperber. Rethinking Symbolism (Cambridge University Press, forthcoming). She is Assistant Editor of Human Ecology: An Interdisciplinary Journal. VOLUME
28, NUMBER. S
GRANTS FOR LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES The Joint Committee on Latin American Studies, sponsored with the American Council of Learned SocietiesAlbert O. Hirschman (chairman), Fernando Henrique Cardoso, Douglas A. Chalmers, Julio Cotler, Franklin W. Knight, June Nash, Osvaldo Sunkel, and Hernan Vidalat its meeting on March 29-31, 1974 awarded 34 grants to individuals and 4 collaborative research grants: Almino Affonso, School of Political Science, Latin American School of Social Sciences, Santiago, Chile, for research in South America on the Brazilian institutional crisis of 1964 Carlos Sempat Assadourian, Director, Department of Economic and Social History, Catholic University of Chile, for research in Argentina on the economic system of the interior: frontier markets in the Argentine national state in the nineteenth century Susan C. Bourque, Assistant Professor of Government, Smith College, for research in Peru on social change in the Andean districts of Checras and Santa Leonor Thomas C. Bruneau, Associate Professor of Political Science, McGill University, for research in Brazil on religion, the Church, and political behavior David Collier, Assistant Professor of Political Science, Indiana University, for research in Mexico, Peru, and Argentina on corporatism in Latin America Margaret E. Crahan, Assistant Professor of History, Lehman College, City University of New York, for research in Cuba and the United States on religious penetration, nationalism, and cultural dependency in Cuba, 1898-1958 Jorge DandIer, Social Science Program, Anthropology, Catholic University of Peru, for research in Bolivia and Peru on entrepreneurial elites and agrarian policy in Bolivia Julio B. Faundez, Visiting Scholar, Harvard Law School, for research in the United States on the rule of law and social change in Chile under President Allende William W. Goldsmith, Assistant Professor of Regional Planning, Cornell University, for research in Colombia on the rates of growth of its cities and urban institutions Michael T. Hamerly, Assis,tant Professor of History, University of Northern Colorado, for research in Ecuador, Peru, and Colombia on eighteenth- ahd nineteenth-century Ecuador and a population history of its central and southern coast, 1765-1962 Octavio Ianni, Brazilian Center of Analysis and Planning, Sao Paulo, for research in Mexico and Brazil on the state and capitalist development in those countries Billie Jean Isbell, Assistant Professor of Anthropology, State University of New York at Albany, for research in Peru on the acquisition of symbols: Quechua children's enactment of rituals Guillermo Labarca-Goetz, Latin American School of Social Sciences, Buenos Aires, for research in Argentina, Peru, Mexico, and Chile on economic factors in the transformation processes of educative systems Julio L6pez, Santiago, Chile, for research in Chile, Argentina, Brazil, and Mexico on income distribution in the Chilean capitalist development James M. Malloy, Associate Professor of Political Science, Universi,ty of Pittsburgh, for research in Brazil on its social security policy since 1930 Carlos Estevam Martins, Assistant Professor of Social Sciences, Universi,ty of Sao Paulo, for research in Brazil on its state system during the last 20 years SEPTEMBER
Peter J. McDonough, Study Director, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, for research in the United States on popular sources of authoritarianism in Brazil Carmelo Mesa-Lago, Associate Professor of Economics, University of Pittsburgh, for research in the United States on social securi,ty, stratification, and inequality in Latin America Sidney W. Mintz, Professor of Anthropology, Yale University, for research in Puerto Rico on 25 years of social change in a rural proletarian village Hans G. Mueller, Professor of Economics, Middle Tennessee State University, for research in Brazil on an international comparison of technology transfer and industry performance Klaus Muller-Bergh, Associate Professor of Latin American Literature, University of Illinois at Chicago Circle, for research in Spain, Mexico, and Cuba on Spain in the conscience of five Latin American vanguard poets Lynn Krieger Mytelka, Assistant Professor, School of International Affairs, Carleton University, for research in Peru and the United States on transnational relations and regulation at the regional level Juan A. Oddone, Director, Department of American History, University of Montevideo, for research in Uruguay, Argentina, Europe, and the United States on the economic and political aspects of the 1929 crisis in Rio de la Pla'ta Oscar Oszlak, Research Associate in Political Science, Torcuato Di Tella Institute, for research in Argentina and Chile on the political role of Chilean landowners during agrarian reform, 1958-72 (renewal) Enrique Pupo-Walker, Associate Professor of Spanish and Portuguese, Vanderbilt University, for research in Mexico and the United States on the interrelation of the mural art and fiction of the Mexican Revolution Yolanda A. Raffo de Dewar, Head, Translation Section, National Institute for Advanced Professorial Studies, Provincial University of Mar del Plata, for research in Argen: tina on its idigenous languages (renewal) 路Frank R. Safford, Associate Professor of History, Northwestern University, for research in Colombia and the Uni路ted States on the structure of politics in New Grenada, 1831-40 Roberta L. Sal per, Associate Professor of Humanities, State University of New York at Old Westbury, for research in Haiti on li路terature and society, 1900-1973 Ivan A. Schulman, Graduate Research Professor of Latin American Literature, University of Florida, Gainesville, for research on the Cuban anti-slavery novel Alfred C. Stepan, Associate Professor of Political Science, Yale University, for research in Peru, Argentina, Mexico, and the United States on the role of the state in Latin American politics Luis Unikel, Coordinator of Urban Studies, Center of Economic and Demographic Studies, College of Mexico, for research in England on urbanization policies in Mexico John Womack, Jr., Professor of History, Harvard University, for research in Mexico on a social history of industrial workers, 1880-1940 Francisco Zapata, Visiting Professor, Center of Sociological Studies, College of Mexico, for research in Mexico on company towns and industrial relations systems Dieter K. Zschock, Associate Professor of Economics, Sta'te University of New York at Stony Brook, for research in the United States, Colombia, and Venezuela on urban labor market behavior in Colombia
Collaborative research grants
Richard R. Allsopp, Senior Lecturer on English, University of the West Indies, Barbados, and Jack. Berry, Professor of Linguistics, Northwestern University, for research in Barbados on African etyma and substratal influences surviving in the idiom of English in the Caribbean area Ximena Bunster, Professor of Anthropology, University of Chile, Santiago, and Elsa M. Chaney, Assistant Professor of Political Science, Fordham University, for research in Peru on women's nonfamilial roles and population policy Cesar Fonseca, Professor of Historic Social Sciences, National University of San Marcos, Lima, and Enrique Mayer, Academic Social Science Program, Catholic University of Peru, for research in Peru on Andean agriculture Nicolas Reig, Head, Economic Research, University of Montevideo, and Raul Vigorito, Director, Economics Institute, University of the Republic, Montevideo, for research in Uruguay on the cat-tle-export sector of its economy, 1930-70, compared with that of Argentina GRANTS FOR EAST EUROPEAN STUDIES The Joint Committee on Eastern Europe, sponsored with the American Council of Learned Societies (which administers its program)-John Mersereau, Jr. (chairman), Istvan Deak, Bogdan D. Denitch, E. A. Hammel, Paul L. Horecky, Andrzej Korbonski, Thomas F. Magner, and Paul Marerat its meeting on March 22-23, 1974 awarded grants for reo search to the following 13 scholars: Richard E. Allen, Senior Research Fellow, Institute on East Central Europe, Columbia University, for research on the nationalities of old Hungary: the road to independence, 190Q-:.1919 Leslie Dienes, Associate Professor of Geography, University of Kansas, for research on the mechanisms of environmental disruption in Hungary Scott McN. Eddie, Associate Professor of Political Economy, University of Toronto, for research on agrarian reforms in Eastern Europe, 1919-39 Zbigniew M. Fallenbuchl, Professor of Economics, University of Windsor, for research on the role of East European integration and of economic relations with the West in Poland's development strategy for the 1970's Bennett Kovrig, Associate Professor of Political Economy, University of Toronto, for research on Hungarian Communist Party history Joseph A. Licari, Assistant Professor of Economics, Occidental College, for research on postwar Hungarian economic development (renewal) Charles A. Moser, Associate Professor of Slavic Languages and Literatures, George Washington University, for preparation of a political biography of George M. Dimitrov (1903-72) Kenneth E. Naylor, Associate Professor of Slavic Languages and Literatures, Ohio State University, for research on the nineteenth-century Croatian literary languages Egon Neuberger, Professor of Economics, State University of New York: at Stony Brook, for research on systemic change and economic development in Yugoslavia Colleen T. Sen, Visiting Professor of Modern Languages, 48
Roosevelt University, for research -on the novelist as philosopher: the metaphysical novels of Witkiewicz and Gombrowicz Frances E. Svensson, Assistant Professor of Political Science, University of Michigan, for research on technological alienation and the Marxist response Jozo Tomasevich, Professor of Economics (Emeritus), San Francisco State University, for research on war and revolution in Yugoslavia, 1941-45: occupation systems and Quisling regimes Alexej Wynnyczuk, Professor of Economics, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, for research on structural change in national income FELLOWSHIPS FOR DISSERTATION RESEARCH ON FOREIGN AREAS This has been the first year of administration of the programs that formerly comprised the Foreign Area Fellowship Program under the auspices of the respective Joint Area Commit,tees of the Social Science Research Council and American Council of Learned Societies. Fellowships were awarded for research on five major world areas and, in the Latin American and Caribbean area, for research training and graduate study as well. Af,-ica and the Near and Middle East
The awards were made by the Dissertation Fellowship Selection Committee for Africa and the Near and Middle East Program-Thomas Naff (chairman), Sara S. Berry, Steven Feierman, Karen Petersen, and Inez S. Reid-which met on January 25 and February 23. It had been assisted by the Screening Committee-Lucy Behrman, Harvey Feinberg, Deena Schorr Sad at, and Norman Stillman. Sylvia Boone, Ph.D. candidate in history of art, Yale University, for research in the United Kingdom, Dakar, Conakry, Sierra Leone, and Liberia on Sande masking traditions Jon Breslar, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of PiHsburgh, for language training and research in Tananarive and M.adagascar on the content of ethnic identi,ties and relationships Clyde Daniels-Halisi, Ph.D. candidate in political science, University of California, Los Angeles, for research in New York, London, and Africa on revolutionary parties of South Africa, 1960-74 Evelyn Early, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Chicago, for research in Egypt pn a social network analysis of an urban quarter: changing patterns of organization and belief Robert Harms, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Wisconsin, for language training in Lingala and Bobangi and research in London, Brussels, Aix-en-Provence, and Zaire on the Bobangi and the Congo River trade: economic development and cross-cultural mediation in nineteenth-century Africa Frederick Hunter, Ph.D. candidate in history, Harvard University, for research in England on 路the passing of Khedivial absolutism: Egypt in transition from medieval government to nation-state, 1805-79 Brinkley Messick, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology and Near Eastern languages and history, Princeton University, for research in Yemen on urban religious specialists VOLUME
Gary Okihiro, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of California, Los Angeles, for research in the United Kingdom and Botswana on hunters, herders, cultivators, and traders: interaction and change in the Kalahari economic zone in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries James Quirin, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Minnesota, for language training in Ge'ez and research in Ethiopia, London, and Paris on Ahmarization: social and cultural change in Ethiopia Christopher Roberts, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Chicago, for research in Zaire on ethnomedicine and rites of passage among the Batumbwe Philip Schuyler, Ph.D. candidate in music, University of Washington, for language training and research in Paris and Morocco on innovation and acculturation in Shluh professional music Tom Shick, Ph.D. candidate in African studies, University of Wisconsin, for research in the United States, England, Sierra Leone, and Liberia on Liberian emigration and colonization in the nineteenth century Sylvia White, Ph.D. candidate in urban and regional planning, University of California, Los Angeles, for research in Ghana on emerging growth centers in rural areas John Yoder, Ph.D. candidate in history, Northwestern Universi路ty, for language training and research in Brussels and Zaire on a kingdom on the edge of empires: the Kaniok Sherilvnn Young, Ph.D. candidate in history, Universi.ty of California, Los Angeles, for language training in Tsonga and research in Mozambique, Switzerland, and England on rural development in southern Mozambique, 18701970
East, South, and Southeast Asia The awards were made by the Dissertation Fellowship Selection Committee for the Asia Program-Gerald S. Maryanov (chairman), Edward Anthony, George A. DeVos, Leonard H. D. Gordon, F. Tomasson Jannuzi, and Susanne H. Rudolph-which met on February 8 and March 9. It had been assisted by the Screening Committee-Robert F. Dernberger, Delmos J. Jones, Robert N. Kearney, Marleigh Ryan, Josef Silverstein, and A. R. Stevenson.
East Asia Ronald Aqua, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Cornell University, for research in Japan on policy and politics in Japanese local government Peter Arnesen, Ph.D. candidate in history, Yale University, for language training and research in Japan on local lordship in medieval Japan: 路the Ouchi Domain John Burns, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Columbia University, for research in Taiwan and Hong Kong on Chinese peasant interest articulation since 1949 Samuel Coleman, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Columbia University, for language training and research in Japan on social determinants of birth control practices Alison Conner, Ph.D. candidate in history, Cornell Universi-ty, for language training and research in Taiwan and Japan on the law of evidence during the Ch'ing Dynasty Lucy Lim, Ph.D. candidate in fine arts, New York University, for research in Hong Kong, the People's Republic of China, Taiwan, Japan, and Europe on early figural style in Chinese art Michael Moser, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Columbia University, for language training and research in Taiwan on religion and community in North Taiwan SEPTEMBER.
Karl Moskowitz, Ph.D. candidate in history, Harvard University, for language training and research in Korea and Japan on the emergence of a Korean white collar class during the period of Japanese colonial rule Sharon Nolte, Ph.D. candidate in history, Yale University, for language training and research in Japan on Japanese political thought and the beginnings of empire, 1904-17 Wing Ning Pang, Ph.D. candidate in urban planning, University of California, Los Angeles, for research in Hong Kong on the impact of the resettlement program on small industries Elizabeth Perry, Ph.D. candidate in political science, University of Michigan, for language training and research in Taiwan, Japan, and Hong Kong on peasant protest in North China, 1851-1949 Howard R06"ers, Ph.D. candidate in art, University of California, Berkeley, for research in Taiwan and Japan on Hua Yen and currents of eighteenth-century Chinese painting George Tanabe, Ph.D. candidate in philosophy and religion, Columbia University, for language training and research in Japan on Myoe Shonin: tradition and reform in early Kamakura Buddhism
South Asia David Curley, Ph.D. candidate in history, Universi.ty of Chicago, for research in London, India, and Bangladesh on markets and merchants in nineteenth-century Bengal Ma!garet Egnor, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, UniversIty of Chicago, for research in India on the meaning of the individual in South Indian culture James Fitzgerald, Ph.D. candidate in South Asian languages and civilization, University of Chicago, for research in India on the Moksadharma David Ludden, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Pennsylvania, for case studies in London and India on the effects of British land revenue administration Jeffrey Lunstead, Ph.D. candidate in Oriental studies, University of Pennsylvania, for research in India and Vienna on the Madhya school of logic Rober~ Mabe, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Yale University, for language training and research in the United States and Nepal on economic and social change in a Gurung village in Kaski District Bryan Pfaffenberger, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of California, Berkeley, for language training and research in Sri Lanka on Skanda worshi p Judy.Pugh, Ph.D. candi~ate in .anthropology, University of ChIcago, for research m IndIa on Hindu astrology: the structure and role of traditional knowledge John Scholz, Ph.D. candidate in political science, University of California, Berkeley, for research in Nepal on the influence of expertise and sociopolitical environment on agricultural policy outcomes Southeast Asia David Engel, University of Michigan Law School, for research in the United States and Thailand on the legal process in provincial Thailand Gerald Fry, Ph.D. candidate in education, Stanford University, for research in Thailand on educational correlates of occupational attainment Jac~son Ga~dou~, Ph.D. candidate in linguistics, UniversIty of Call forma, Los Angeles, for .anguage training and research in Thailand on tonal phenomena John L~nsi.ng, Ph.D. candidat~ in anthro,?ology, University of MIchIgan, for research m IndoneSIa on social supportive mechanisms for the arts in Bali 49
Alfred McCoy, Ph.D. candidate in history, Yale U~iversity, for research in the Philippines and J Cl;pan on Il~)llo Pr.ovince, 1896-1952: Ilongo society, Amencan colomal pohcy, and Japanese military administration Eric Morris, Ph.D. candidate in poHtical science, Corn~ll University for research in the Netherlands and IndonesIa on developmental consequences of center-region relations in Indonesia John Murdoch, Ph.D. c~~didate in history,. Cornell Unive~ sity, for language trammg and re~earch. m France, ~hal land, and Laos on Southeast ASian tnbutary relatlOns: the Luang Prabang kingdom in the nineteenth century Richard O'Connor, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Cornell University, for research in Thailand on the Buddhist temple and its urban context Susan Rodgers, Ph.D. candidate. i~ anthropology, U!liversity of Chicago, for language trammg and research m Indonesia on the etiqueHe of ethnic relations in Medan, North Sumatra Stephen Wallace, Ph.D. candidate in linguistics, Cornell University, for research in Indonesia on language and society in .Jakarta Geoffrey White, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of California, San Diego, for research in New Gu.inea on changing images of prestige in a Melanesian SOCIety: the cultural organization of person perception
Latin America and the Caribbean Area The awards were made by ·the Dissertation Fellowship Selection Committee for the Latin American and Caribbean Program-Robert A. Potash (chairman), James M. Malloy, Alejandro Portes, Daniel Schydlowsky, and Rodolfo Stavenhagen-at a meeting on April 15-16. It had been assisted by the Screening Committee-Thomas C. Greaves, Jane Jaquette, Gilbert W. Merkx, Marta Morello-Frosch, Ronald D. Sousa, and John D. Wirth.
Research Fellowships: United States Stephen Anderson, Ph.D. candidate in anthropological linguistics, University of Texas at Austin, for research on respect in Quechua, in Bolivia and Peru . Silvia Arrom, Ph.D. candidate in history, Stanford Umversity, for research on Mexican women: a social history, 1800-1857 Patricia Aufderheide, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Minnesota, for research on crime and punishment in Brazil, 1780-1830 Frank Cajka, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology and ecology, University of Michigan, for research on peasant commercialization and ecological simplification in the Serrani as of Cochabamba, Bolivia Ida Daum, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Washington, for research on the social-ecological background of malnutrition in Jamaica Janet Esser, Ph.D. candidate in art history, University of California, Los Angeles, for research on masks and masquerades in the Tarascan-speaking regions of Michoacan, Mexico Gary Gereffi, Ph.D. candida·te in sociology, Yale University, for research on the multinational corporation and national development: Mexico, 1940-70 Merilee Grindle, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, for research on clientele politics in Mexican public bureaucracy Susan Horton, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Wis50
consin, for research on land tenure and the economics of power in colonial Peru . . . Gilbert Joseph, Ph.D. candidate in history, Yale UmveTSlty, for research on the Mexican revolution: a regional study of Yucatan, 1920-40 Regina Macdonald, Ph.D. candidate in literature, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, for research on ~nde~n indigenous expression: a diachronic study of HlspamcAmerican and Quechua poetry in Ecuador and Peru . Jeffrey Miller, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Yale Umversity, for epigraphic research on Piedras Negras, Guatemala Richard Moore, Ph.D. candidate in comparative polit!cs, University of Texas at Austin, for research. on urbamz.ation and politicization of urban squatters m GuayaqUil, Ecuador Richard Newfarmer, Ph.D. candidate in economic development, University of Wisconsin, for resea~ch on socioeconomic change and development in BraZlI William Renforth, Ph.D. candidate in international business, Indiana University, for research on the eff~cts of association with United States business on the Canbbean family firm . Andrew Richter, Ph.D. candidate in sociology, Yale Umversity, for research on multinational corporations and development in Trinidad and Tobago Philip Shepherd, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Vanderbilt University, for research on dependency and multinational enterprises in the tobacco industries of Argentina, Colombia, and Peru Allyn Stearman, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Florida, for research on the highland migrant in lowland Bolivia Arthur Stickell, Ph.D. candidate in history, Indiana University, for research on the recruitment and administration of Chile's northern labor force, 1879-1929 Kathy Waldron, Ph.D. candidate in history, Indiana Universi ty, for research on the social structure of a primate city in Venezuela
Research Fellowships: United Kingdom Peter Pyne, D. Phil. candidate in political science, New University of Ulster, for research on the functions of the elected assembly in Ecuador, 1946-70 Bernardo Sorj, D. Phil. candidate in sociology, University of Manchester, for research on the state as an instrument of social and economic reorganization in contemporary Brazil and Peru Lewis Taylor, D. Phil. candidate in political science, University of Liverpool, for research on agrarian reform and political conflict in rural Cajamarca, Peru Christopher Wallis, D. Phil. candidate in anthropology, University of Durham, for research on syncretism in the religion of a Quechua pastoral community in Peru Fiona Wilson, D. Phil. candidate in geography, University of Liverpool, for research on the changing metropolitan and regional relationships in Peru Canadian Tmining and Research Fellowships Francois Belisle, M.A. candidate in geography, University of Ottawa, for graduate study at the Universi·ty of Montreal, including Latin American studies James Darroch, M.A. candidate in history, University of Toronto, for Spanish language training at the Francisco Marroquin Linguistic Project, Antigua, Guatemala, and graduate study at the University of Toronto, including Latin American studies Mark Farren, M.A. candidate in demography, University of VOLUME
Montreal, for preliminary thesis research in Peru, and graduate study at the Universi,ty of Montreal, including Latin American studies Richard Gervais, M.A. candidate in anthropology, University of Montreal, for Spanish language training at the Francisco Marroquin Linguistic Project, Antigua, Guatemala, graduate study at the University of Montreal, including Latin American studies, and preliminary thesis research in Peru Michele Gervais-Meunier, M.A. candidate in demography, University of Montreal, for Portuguese language training in Brazil, and graduate study at the University of Montreal, including Latin American studies Christian Giguere, M.A. candidate in anthropology, University of Laval, for ' graduate study at that university, including Latin American studies Renate Kahle, M.A. candidate in geography. University of British Colombia. for preliminary thesis research in Belize Mary Mooney, M.A. candidate in political science, University of Windsor. for Spanish language training at t he Francisco Marroquin Linguistic Project. Antigua, Guatemala. and graduate study at the University of Windsor. including Latin American studies
Western Europe The awards were made by the Western Europe Dissertation Fellowship Selection Committee-Joseph LaPalombara (chairman). Jean Blondel, Niles Hansen. Suzanne Keller. and Val Lorwin-at meetings on February 16-17 and March 8-9. 1-t had been assisted by the Screening Commi tteeJerald Hage. John M. Quigley, Jane Schneider, and Joan ScoH. Marc D. Alexander, Ph.D. candidate in history. Johns Hopkins University, for research in France on insanity and urbanization in nineteenth-century Paris Ronald R. Aminzade, Ph.D. candidate in sociology, University of Michigan, for research in France on social change in nineteenth-century Toulouse . William F. Averyt, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Yale University, for research in Belgium on interest group politics in the European community, 1958-72 William H. Berentsen, Ph.D. candidate in geography. Ohio State University, for research in Austria on its regional development policy . Stephen E. Bornstein, Ph.D. candidate in government, Harvard University, for research in France on the evolution of the Confederation Fran~aise Democratique du Travail. 1946-73 Zoe C. Brettell. Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Brown University, for research in Portugal and France on the changing roles of Portuguese peasant women Judith A. Chun, Ph.D. candidate in education. Stanford University. for research in France on second language acquisition in a natural context Linda E. Cool. Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Duke University, for research in France on ethnicity and the dilemma of aged Corsicans David Crav. Ph.D. candidate in sociology. University of Wisconsin. for research in France and England on power distribution in multinational companies Nancy E. Fitch. Ph.D. candidate in history. University of California. Los Angeles, for research in France on the interaction between modernization and politics in three Bourbonnais agricultural regions. 1789-1914 Thomas S. Flory. Ph.D. candidate in geography. University of Wisconsin. for research in England on cities as centers SEPTEMBER
of economic organization and cultural change: the industrial transi tion in Lancashire, 1750-1850 Harriet B. Friedmann, Ph.D. candidate in sociology, Harvard University, for research in England on the creation of a world wheat market in the nineteenth century Cornelis W. Gispen, Ph.D. candidate in history. University of California. Berkeley. for research in West Germany on the growth of the engineering profession in the German Empire and Weimar Republic James R. Lelming. Ph.D. candidate in history, Northwestern University, for research in France on the family and modernization: the ribbon-weavers of Saint-Etienne Steven M. Lieberman, Ph.D. candidate in political science. Yale University. for research in West Germany on the administration of social security and environmental protection in Germany and the United States Mary Jo Maynes. Ph.D. candidate in history. University of Michigan. for a comparative study in France and Germany of the social roots of educational change Sandra G. McCloy. Ph.D. candidate in anthropology. New School for Social Research. for research in Scotland on a Hebridean. community Robin Os tow. Ph.D. candidate in sociology. Brandeis University. for research in Belgium. West Germany. and northern Italy on foreign workers from Sardinia Jeremy D. Popkin. Ph.D. candidate in history, University of California. Berkeley. for research in France on the role of conservative intellectuals in the counterrevolutionary movement. 1794-1803 Matthew Ramsey. Ph.D. candidate in history. Harvard University. for research in France on popular medicine and medical enlightenment in the eighteenth century Robel't C. Rickards. Ph.D. candidate in political science. University of Michigan. for research in West Germany on municipal budgetary behavior Fredric M. Roberts. Ph.D. candidate in anthropology. City University of New York. for research in Finland on an ethnography of speaking in a rural commune Susan C. Rogers. Ph.D. candidate in anthropology. Northwestern University. for research in France on the peasantry in transition: sex-role differentiation and power distribution Helga R . Seibel, Ph.D. candidate in sociology. Rutgers University. for research in Sweden on changes in female students' educational and occupational aspirations after the educational reform of 1962 Catherine A. Shoupe. Ph.D. candidate in folklore. Indiana University. for research in Scotland on a multiple-genre analysis of a folk cultural region Henry M. Slater. Ph.D. candidate in political science. Massachusetts Institute of Technologv. for research in Italy and France on migrant workers and trade unions John Andrew Smetanka. Ph.D. candidate in social psychology. Harvard University. for research in France on structure and dialectics in social identity John D. Stephens. Ph.D. candidate in sociology. Yale University. for research in Sweden on changes in the structure and political support of the Social Democrats Charles P. Webel. Ph.D. candidate in social thought. University of California. Berkeley. for research in West Germany on reason and rationalization in some modern European theories and social movements Andrew R. Wechsler. Ph.D. candidate in economics. Stanford University. for research in Sweden on the effect of pension funds on capital flows Sanford L. Weiner. Ph.D. candidate in political science. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. for research in England on the organization of health care 51
COUNCIL FELLOWSHIPS AND GRANTS OFFERED IN 1974-75: DATES FOR FILING APPLICATIONS AND ANNOUNCEMENTS OF AWARDS Applications for fellowships and gTants offered by the Council during the coming year will be due, and awards will be announced, on or before the respective dates listed below. Because applications received after the closing dates specified cannot be considered. and because preliminary correspondence is frequently necessary to determine under which progTam a given proposal should be submitted. prospective applicants should communicate with the Council if possible at least three weeks in advance of the pertinent closing date. Inquiries should indicate the nature of the proposed training or research; the approximate amount and duration of support needed; age. occupation or current activity and vocational aim. country of citizenship and country of permanent residence; academic degrees held (specifying the fields of study); and if currently working for a degree. the present stage of advancement toward it. A brochure describing the several progTams is available on request addressed to Social Science Research Council. Fellowships and Grants. 605 Third Avenue. New York. N.Y. 10016. Research Training Fellowships. applications. December 2. 1974; awards. April I. 1975 Grants to Minority Scholars for Research on Racism and Other Social Factors in Mental Health. applications, October 31. 197 4 (changed from October I) ; awards. December 1974 Postdoctoral Research Grants offered under joint programs of the American Council of Leamed Societies and the Social Science Research Council. Unless otherwise indicated. inquiries should be addressed to Social Science Research Council. Fellowships and Grants. 605 Third Avenue. New York, N.Y. 10016. Grants for African Studies. applications, December 2, 1974; awards. March 1975 Grants for Research on Contemporary and Republican China. and for Research on the Economy of Chi!la, applications. December 2. 1974; awards. March 1975 NOTE: Grants for research on Chinese Civilization (pre-1911 China) are offered by the American Council of Learned Societies. 345 East 46 Street, New York. N.Y. 10017. to which inquiries should be addressed.
Grants for Japanese Studies. applications, December 2, 1974; awards. March 1975 Grants for Korean Studies. applications. December 2, 1974; awards. March 1975 Postdoctoral Grants for Latin American and Caribbean Studies. including Collaborative Research Grants, December 2. 1974; awards, March 1975 Grants for Research on the Near and Middle East, applications, December 2. 1974; awards. March 1915 Grants for Collaborative Research on the Near and Middle East. applications. December 2. 1974; awards, March 1975 Grants for East European Studies. applications to be submitted to American Council of Learned Societies. 345 East 46 Street. New York. N.Y. 10017. December 31. 1974; awards. within 3 months Grants for Study of East European Languages. applications to be submitted to American Council of Learned Societies. 345 East 46 Street. New York, N.Y. 10017, February 3, 1975; awards, within 2 months Travel gTants for international conferences abroad on East European studies, applications to be submitted to American Council of Learned Societies, 345 East 46 Street. New York. N.Y. 10017, February 15, 1975 Grants for Research on South Asia, applications to be submitted to American Council of Learned Societies, 345 East 46 Street, New York, N.Y. 10017, December 2, 1974; awards. within 3 months Grants for Soviet Studies. applications to be submitted to American Council of Learned Societies, 345 East 46 Street, New York. N.Y. 10017. December 31, 1974; awards. within 3 months Predoctoral Research Fellowships under programs of joint committees of the American Council of Leamed Societies and the Social Science Research Council (formerly administered by the Foreign Area Fellowship ProgTam):
Africa and the Middle East, November I, 1974 East, South, and Southeast Asia, November I, 1974 Latin America and the Caribbean area Research Fellowships, November I. 1974 Inter-American Research Training Seminars, January 15, 1975 Western Europe, November I, 1974
SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH COUNCIL 605
Incorporated in the State of Illinois, December 27, 1924, for the purpose of advancing research in the social sciences Directors, 1974:
BAUMOL, ALLAN G. BOr-l!E, LAWRENCE A. CREMIN, LEON EISENBERG, LEON D. EpSTEIN, SUSAN M. ERVIN-TRIPP, RICHARD
F. FENNO, JR., LEO A. GOODMAN, EDWARD E . J01o1ES, LAWRENCE R. KLEIN, GARDNER LINDZEY, LEON LIPSON, CORA BAGLEY MARRETT, HERBERT MCCLOSKY, SALLY FALK MOORE, JAMES N. MORGAN, MURRAY G. MURPHEY, ALFONSO OKTIZ, JOHN W. PRATT, ALICE S. ROSSI, 'VILLIAM H. SEWELL, ELEANOR BERNERT SHELDON, ELLIOTT P. SKINNER, M. BREWSTER SMITH, JANET T. SPENCE, EDWARD J. TAAFFE, KARL E. TAEUBER, JOHN M. THOMPSON, ROBERT E. WARD, CHARLES V. WIlLIE
Officers and StaD:
ELEANOR BERNERT SHELDON,
DAVID JENNESS, DAVID L. SILI.s,
RONALD P. ABELES, MICHAEL W.
DONNELLY, ROBERT A. GATES, LOUIS WOLF GOODMAN, ELEANOR C. ISBElL, PATRICK G. MADDOX, ROWLAND L. MITCHElL, JR., AUCE L. MORTON. ROBERT PARKE, MICHAEL POTASHNIK, ROXANN A. VAN DUSEN, NICHOLAS ZILL; NORMAN MANN,
CATHERINE V. RONNAN,