Items Vol. 27 No.1 (1973)

Page 1



MAO'S CH INA IN 1972 by Herbert A. Simon ... on the basis of careful research, I announced a theorem which, slightly simplified, reads:


Anything that can be learned by travel, can be learned faster, cheaper, and better in a good library.l

The accumulation of evidence supporting the travel theorem is now overwhelming. What, then, can one report about China on the basis of a 19-day visit? Very little from the travel itself, but a great deal from the library trips that the travel stimulated. I should like, therefore, to testify here as a China Expert Twice Removed-once removed because my expertness derives from reading the works of China Experts; removed once again because most of those experts are themselves Ex• The author is Professor of Computer Science and Psychology at Carnegie' Mellon University, and a former member of the Social Science Research Council's board of directors, of which he was chairman, 196165. He was among the computer scientists who received the first travel grants made to individual scholars under the program of the Com· mittee on Scholarly Communication with the People's Republic of China. The National Science Foundation provided the funds for this program, which included grants to American scholars for visits to China and grants for travel within the United States by Chinese scientists. The committee is jointly sponsored by the American Council of Learned Societies, the National Academy of Sciences, and the SSRC. The memo bers of the committee are Emil L. Smith (chairman), A. Doak Barnett, James Bonner, James P. Carter, Shiing·shen Chern. E. Grey Dimond. Alexander Eckstein, John W. Fairbank, Albert Feuerwerker, Seymour S. Kety, Max Loehr. William H. Pickering, Max Tishler. Ezra F. Vogel, Myron E. Wegman, Victor F. Weisskopf, and Jerome B. Wiesner; ex officio, Harrison Brown. Frederick Burkhardt, John R. Hogness, and Eleanor Bernert Sheldon; staff, Anne Keatley. 1 For a more exact version of the theorem, in place of "travel" read "a journey of less than six months' duration." The theorem has been attacked by persons who wantonly and persistently misunderstand it. For example. it is often confused with the patently false proposition: "Travel is not enjoyable." To suggest that opposition to the travel theorem stems from guilt produced by conflict between enjoyment of travel and the Protestant ethic would be to argue ad hominem-some· thing I should not like to do.

perts Once Removed, veterans of painstaking Chinawatching from Hong Kong, Taiwan, Tokyo, or Ann Arbor. On second thought, I am exaggerating my remoteness from the facts. The Little Red Book is as much a fact of China as is a stone of the Great WalL It is available at your local bookstore, as are other relevant documents, as well as eyewitness accounts of recent China by perceptive observers---e.g., Klaus Mehnert's China Returns. I am much better off than an archaeologist, who has only bones and physical artifacts to go by in reconstructing a civilization. I am as well off as a historian, with whom I share those most important artifacts of all-the words that members of a civilization use to communicate with each other. On third thought, I have even further qualifications as a China Expert. Observations, to produce facts, must be skilled observations, by qualified observers. The description of a moon rock by a layman produces very little, if anything, in the way of fact. Only a geologist can extract a fact from a rock. Only a social scientist can extract a fact from a social artifact or a social communication. Hence, I will claim the status of Qualified Observer of facts about China. What I see and, more important, what I read will be sifted through the mesh of theory that I hold in my mind, will be winnowed. Perhaps that is enough to qualify the witness (and to comfort those who would otherwise see in this essay a betrayal of the travel theorem). What about China, Mao's China in 1972? Perhaps, even if I am going to talk mainly about what I have read and not what I have seen, I should first mention the circumstances of our journey. Nearly two years ago, some computer scientists. of my acquaintance agreed-perhaps over cocktails, and stirred 1

by the table tennis match in Peking-that it would be a It is not clear that any agreements had been reached fine thing to arrange for a scientific interchange between before our arrival between CATT and the Academy as American computer scientists and their counterparts in to how we would spent our time. This was the subject the People's Republic of China. Two of them volun- of much negotiation with the CATT representatives teered to visit the Chinese Embassy in Ottawa to see if who (we thought) wished to take us to the usually visited a trip could be arranged. The proposal was received po- monuments of the revolution (e.g., Yennan and Mao's litely but coolly, and nothing more was heard through birthplace), with only token and ceremonial meetings the subsequent period of the Kissinger and Nixon trips. with scientists, while we opted for a heavy work schedIn the middle of April, 1972, a cordial invitation was ule. Since the scientists were not party to these initial received for six of us (of our own selection) and our discussions, we do not know how they felt about it. The wives to visit China as guests of the People's Republic. CATT official doctrine was: "In China, we believe we A larger party would not be feasible, we were told, be- must meet several times before we become friends," cause of limits on accommodations and interpreters. The which we countered with "We Americans are queer, lucky six were Severo Ornstein of Bolt, Beranek and hasty folk. We say that people become friends by workNewman, Inc. (who had made the initial contacts and ing together." In the end the work ethic triumphed, but served as head of the delegation), Thomas Cheatham of probably at the sacrifice of the visits to Yennan and Harvard University, Wesley Clark of Washington Uni- Shaoshan. We believe our stance was appreciated by the versity, Anatol Holt of Massachusetts Computer Associ- Chinese scientists and came to be respected by the CATT ates, Alan Perlis of Yale University, and myself. All six, administrators. Though it caused some tense early moand two of the five wives who completed the party, were ments, it is our guess that it made a net positive contriexperts in one aspect or another of computer science; bution to the goodwill objectives of our trip. only my wife and I also had social science training. The interchanges with our colleagues in computer The trip, taken in July, as previously remarked, gave science were extensive and meaningful. We found an us some 19 days in China. The time was spent mainly in impressive computer technology in China, lagging, perCanton, Shanghai, and Peking, with plane transit be- haps, some four to six years behind ours, but roughly tween those cities. We saw rural China from the ground comparable in quality to the Russian technology. We only on the train from the border to Canton, and in saw both the computers and the factories in which they brief excursions by automobile, e.g., to a commune, to were made. Everything, from components to systems, the Great Wall, and to a temple in a city near Canton. appears to be produced in China without direct foreign We were free to wander un escorted in the cities, and assistance. The computer scientists are well read in the two of us who had enough rudiments of spoken and Western literature, but no foreign technicians or imwritten Chinese to read and ask directions and to shop ported hardware are in evidence. Although the factories made extensive use of that opportunity. About half of are small, China appears to be producing several hunthe time was spent in working sessions with Chinese dred medium-large, modem solid-state computers per computer scientists, in lectures (by both sides, but mainly year. The computers appear to be used mainly for sciby us), and in smaller discussion groups. Only two of entific and engineering calculations; we learned nothing the scientists we encountered (and I think none of our of applications to economic planning or management. other hosts) spoke usable amounts of English, so our There appears to be very close cooperation among commmunication (except in our urban wanderings) was the Computer Technology Institute of the Chinese entirely mediated by the half-dozen interpreters who Academy, the universities (e.g., Tsinghua University in traveled with our group. Peking), and the factories. There is evidently considerThe hospitality was overwhelming. In spite of, or be- able interchange of personnel among them, and the scicause of, our unofficial and apolitical status, our accom- entists, professors, and engineers appear to be well modations and travel arrangements were excellent, red known to each other. tape was absent, and the food was unbelievably good. The discussions, arranged with the Institutes in Shang(Some of our compatriots soon backslid to eating West- hai and Peking, were lively and attended by some dozens ern breakfasts, but I enjoyed my morning soup and of researchers, teachers, and students. (The formal lecdumplings through the final day.) We were dually hosted tures were attended by 100 or more in each city.) Our by the Chinese Agency for Travel and Tourism (CATT) Chinese colleagues showed strong interest in learning and the Chinese Academy of Science, the former han- about recent developments in time-sharing (which they dling the travel arrangements, the cars and drivers in do not yet use) and so-called extensible programming each city, the interpreters, and (we surmise) the budget languages; and they were eager to tell us, in turn, about that paid for our trip. the design of their computers, and the ALGOL compiler 2





they had produced for one of them. They responded warmly-and the warmth seemed more then mere politeness--to all of our comments on the desirability of continuing two-way exchange of information and visits. They were very open in answering our technical questions (obviously, we did not ask them about military applications of computers). The fact that Kuo Mo-Ro, President of the Chinese Academy, entertained us at a dinner before we left Peking suggests that our hosts were not displeased with the interchange. A toast I offered to closer relations between the Academies of Science of the two countries received a cordial but thoroughly noncommittal response from our host. But enough of this travel gossip. What are the facts about Mao's China in 1972? The first fact, supported by all of the eyewitness evidence we have from travelers, is that the China watchers have been essentially accurate in their analyses of what is going on. Certainly, I made no concrete observations that contradicted anything the experts had led me to expect. Now I want to qualify that. The experts not only report facts; they also theorize about them. Richard Solomon's conclusions about the psychological and sociological roots of Mao and Maoism appear to me generally sound, not because of anything I observed, or could possibly have observed, in China, but because there appears to be a generally good fit between the facts he adduces (and those available through translation of source documents) and our general knowledge about human behavior. Franz Schurmann's theories about organization, on the other hand, seem to me unsound, not because of anything I observed, nor because of any facts he adduces, but because of his general disregard of modem organization theory and of organizational practice in the West. When I say that the China watchers are accurate, I refer especially to their observations about the economic situation and the political situation. Of course, they do not know just how much grain, for instance, China is producing. No traveler could find that out either. It is not obvious that the Chinese government knows. In all likelihood, one lesson the Chinese experience may teach us is that it is possible to run an economy, even a planned economy of sorts, with very rudimentary statistics. It is possible, on the other hand, that the Chinese government does know, but succeeds in keeping that knowledge from everyone-Chinese or foreign-who does not demonstrate a need to know. However, the China watchers have been right when they have told us that the Chinese are not impoverished and that they are not affluent-that they have been making steady, but not spectacular, economic progress. Nothing that eyewitnesses report challenges that conclusion; and it has the further virtue that it fits very well the MARCH


predictions that economic theory would make. The China watchers have been equally right in telling us that the doctrine of Mao is not only prescriptive but also descriptive of large aspects of Chinese behavior. There is a total absence of public evidence (e.g., in the theatre, in bookstores, in conversation) of even the most elementary freedoms of political, intellectual, and artistic expression -exactly as we would expect from official doctrine that makes a point of placing all manipulation of symbols in the service of society. Social control of personal dress seems slightly less complete than at the end of the Cultural Revolution; some colored blouses and shirts could be seen on the streets of Peking, but not to an extent that would allow you to mistake where you were. With respect to economic equality, the picture is less simple-as the China watchers have also observed. I have nothing new to report on wage inequalities, but the contrast between urban commuters on bicyles (one in every two with a wrist watch), and peasants on a showpiece commune near Peking (austerely neat) was quite visible -as visible, perhaps, as the corresponding contrast would be in this country. Thus the picture fits together. There are no major pieces of discrepant evidence to explain away. What the casual traveler, the eyewitness, sees is what others have been seeing before him, and what the China watchers have told him he would see. But why should we expect it to be otherwise? A society is fundamentally a simple system, not a complex one. In organization, it is more akin to a mass of colonial algae than to a highly synchronized machine. Its main regularities are statistical regularities, and its parameters statistical aggregates. These aggregates--their rough magnitudes at least--cannot be long hidden either from the members of the society or from distant observers. The general level of life is revealed by the artifacts that dot the landscape-buildings, tools, means of transportand by the visible physical condition of people. The most sophisticated component of social structure is its system of symbol flows, its communications. But these too are extremely difficult to disguise. The Renmin Ribao is not published to give foreigners false notions about China; it is published as a major medium for official communication of public policy to the masses of the population. For certain purposes, and within severe limits, it can lie to the Chinese people, but it cannot tell a different story at home and abroad. The channels of communication used to organize and manage the Cultural Revolution, until the army was called in in its latter phases, were primarily newspapers, television, and the big-character wall posters-the mass media. Hence, while interpretation of what is happening at any time in China may be difficult (substitute "the United States" for "China" and the statement is still

true), and prediction may be impossible, the difficulty has little to do with the inaccessibility of data. The populace of China, of any society, finds many things about its own society difficult to understand and predict. The Chinese citizen, too, is a China watcher. What is mainly lacking is accurate social theory, rather than information. What about the power struggles in the Inner Circle: the fall of Liu Shao Chi, and subsequently of Lin Piao? Here, the relevant communicaions are largely private and restricted, not public. But a China watcher, citizen or foreigner, stationed in Tien An Men Square is in no better position to intercept these communications than one reading translations of the Chinese press in his local public library. I can only conclude that China watching, as it has been practiced over the past two decades, is as good a way of doing social science on a societal scale as any I know; and by and large, the China watchers have done it well. Except for some specifics about computer technology, they had already described for me almost everything I saw on that 19-day trip to China, and more. (Which didn't spoil my enjoyment of the trip one bit.) And so let me turn to the summing up; for tourism to a part of the world where important events are occurring always calls for a summing up. The Chinese people, except for a very few of them, are better off than they have ever been in modern times--and by no small margin. (I guess this is what Galbraith, a IO-day expert, meant when he wrote in the New York Times that the system "works.") The Chinese people are almost totally deprived of every kind of freedom we hold importantfreedom of political and artistic expression, of choice of occupation or residence-and have no visible prospect of attaining any of these freedoms under a government that does not regard them as social goods. Do these two sentences, so juxtaposed, make a contradiction-a Hegelian, Marxist, Maoist, or just plain garden-variety contradiction? They cannot make a contradiction, because they

are facts about the world; and the world is as it is, and cannot contradict itself. If we feel the confrontation of economic well-being with absence of freedom to be a contradiction, the contradiction must stem not from the facts, but from our values applied to them. History and politics would be simpler if there really were good guys to love and reward and bad guys to hate and punish. The real world presents us with very mixed bundles of goods and bads-lovable villains and hateful heroes. Nothing I have learned about China has simplified for me the decisions with which we shall be confronted in the years ahead. My admiration for genuine economic progress does not blind me to the fact that achievement of the messianic Maoist mission-not our version of it, but Mao's version-would destroy the human values I place highest in my scale. My genuine concern for that prospect-or rather for the damage that can be done by attempts to realize it-does not blind me to both the undesirability and the unrealizability of changes in Chinese society that would destroy its economic and social gains. I do not wish for counterrevolution, although I might be gratified at signs of that middle-left deviationism which the far-left Maoists brand counterrevolution. What then? The sl im, or not so slim, hope that in a longer run human beings in China will find the same things valuable that are valued by human beings in the United States. The hope that we can avert apocalyptic confrontations between two messianic visions-for ours is that too-until those visions are moderated by a third vision, the vision of tolerance for human diversity. Vietnam has reminded us, as if we needed that reminder, of the human costs of confrontation. On the more hopeful side, coexistence between the West and Russia has been managed, short of disaster, for a half century. Perhaps with that experience behind us, the next half century will be easier.

JAPANESE ORGANIZATION AND DECISION MAKING: REPORT ON A CONFERENCE by Ezra F. 'Vogel. SCHOLARLY PROGRESS in a field may be defined as the achievement of successively closer approximations to the truth. Bold new concepts are introduced, applied to new and different phenomena, then progressively modified, and in the end perhaps succeeded by other new concepts.

Many examples may be found in the advance of research on Japan by Western scholars. In the years immediately following World War II, for instance, it was often asserted that concepts such as the conflict between giri (duty) and ninjo (human feelings), and the pervasiveness

• The author is Professor of Sociology and incoming Director of the East Asian Research Center. Harvard University. At the invitation of the Joint Committee on Japanese Studies. he organized and served as chairman of the conference on which he reports here. It was held at

Maui. Hawaii on January 6-10. 1973. The following members of the joint comm~ttee attended the conference: Robert E. Ward (chairman). Gerald L. Curtis. Bernard S. Silberman. and staff. John Creighton Campbell. The other participants were Albert M. Craig. Harvard Uni.






of oyabun-kobun (parentlike and childlike) relationships, could explain a wide range of characteristically "Japanese" behavior. Such conceptions contained important, but partial, truths; they were later substantially modified and de-emphasized. Still, in contemporary discussions of Japan, different but similarly broad first approximations are heard just as often. The conference on Japanese organization and decision making, held by the Joint Committee on Japanese Studies in cooperation with the Japan Research Institute, was not designed to treat specific concepts-its objective was to provide a broad overview of organizational patterns in various sectors of Japanese society, including government, politics, the economy, education, and journalism. To a considerable extent, however, the papers and discussion as a whole tended to criticize and sharpen a number of current conceptions about Japanese organizational behavior. Some of the popular conceptions most strongly attacked at the conference were: Ringi sei. Many analyses of Japanese organizational behavior have focused on the process by which a document is prepared at lower levels and then circulated among all the offices in a bureaucratic chain of command; this procedure somehow produces a decision without anyone's taking clear responsibility. Such practices exist, but the attention given them by social scientists is probably excessive, underestimating the role of creative leadership in Japanese institutions, and disregarding the extent to which ringi sei may be limited to the most ordinary sorts of issues. Qualitatively, ringi sei may not differ much from clearance procedures in America; only weaker leaders may rely for important decisions on documents prepared by subordinates. "Japan, Incorporated." Relations between government and business tend to be closer in Japan than in the United States. However, to say that Japanese government and business together behave like a single corversity: George DeVos. University of California. Berkeley; Peter Drucker. Claremont Graduate School; Richard Dyck. Japan Research Institute. Tokyo: Ivan Hall. Harvard-Yenching Institute. Tokyo; Morton Halperin. Brookings Institution ; Yoshinori Ide. University of Tokyo; Ch6sei Ito. Sophia University; Nobuo Kanayama. Japan Research Institute; Solomon B_ Levine. University of Wisconsin; Hideichiro Nakamura. Senshii University; KalUo Noda. Japan Research Institute and Rikkyo University; Yoshihisa Ojimi. former Vice-Minister. Ministry of Interna路 tional Trade and Industry; Herbert Passin. Columbia University: Hugh T . Patrick. Yale University: Edwin O. Reischauer. Harvard University; Thomas Rohlen. University of California. Santa Cruz; Taishiro Shirai, Hosei University; Yukio Suzuki. Nihon Keizai Shin bun (Japan Economic Journal): Nathaniel B. Thayer. Hunter College. City University of New York; Kenichi Tominaga. University of Toyko; Joji Watanuki, Sophia University; M. Y. Yoshino. Harvard University. The conference was supported mainly with funds made available to the Joint Committee by the Ford Foundation. In addition. the Japan Research Institute provided for the costs of simultaneous interpreters. The papers prepared for the conference are being edited for publication in a volume by the University of California Press. MARCH


poration-a notion which has taken on pernicious overtones amid American businessmen's displeasure over Japanese competition-vastly distorts the structure and overstates the strength of this relationship. It is true that government in general does take a more active role in supporting programs in the interests of Japanese business as a whole. But empirical evidence concerning the frequency of cabinet-level contacts with businessmen, the extent to which Diet members represent business interests, the willingness of firms to follow governmental guidance, and the extent to which government involves itself in business decisions simply does not begin to sustain the "Japan, Incorporated" proposition. Indeed, there is considerable doubt whether the zaikai ("business circles," influential big businessmen) makes up a coherent enough entity to represent adequately Japanese business interests before government. Seniority system. For some Western analysts the seniority system-the advance of salary and position with age-has been almost synonymous with the Japanese system of employment. A closer look, however, reveals that the system covers only a minority of workersmainly "regular," long-term male workers in large companies; women, workers in agriculture and sma)) enterprises, and many others are excluded. Even within the system, regular advancement in titles and pay does not necessarily bring parallel increases in responsibility. Although superiors are rarely younger than their subordinates, the actual distribution of power and responsibility will often depend more on individual capability than on seniority. School cliques. It is true that a high proportion of officials at the upper levels of bureaucracy are graduates of the University of Tokyo, and more generally that in the selection of new personnel for a company or other organization, the university attended by the candidate is important. However, among those admitted to an organization, clique formation is more likely to depend on immediate work relationships than on old school ties. A more senior employee often assembles a group of younger men and supports them over a period of time, but he chooses them on the basis of ability and reputation within the organization, not their earlier associations. Toward growth, not profit. Some management specialists have argued that Japanese business is concerned solely with expansion and is not basically oriented toward profits. Several qualifications have to be added. First, reinvestment in new equipment to permit a high rate of growth had been a particular characteristic of the earlier postwar era in Japan, when considerable modernization was required in order to bring the physical plant up to world levels and to gain economies of scale. Now 5

that these have been achieved, the pressure of investment for growth has passed its peak. Second, unlike the American corporation where an executive tends to be interested in profits gained during his period in office, the Japanese executive is more concerned with the longrange development of his organization, and is under less pressure to show profits in the short run. Third, the lack of a popular ideology supporting profit seeking as a value means that Japanese business leaders rarely proclaim an orientation toward profit in public. Nevertheless, profits are an important part of their business calculations. In the opinion of the various conference participants, such concepts and others have been used to explain too much. These aspects of Japanese organizational behavior would not seem to vary as much from the Western model as has often been assumed. On the other hand, an assumption that Japan is congruent with the United States would be even more misleading. Among the concepts found by participants to be applicable and more helpful in explaining other phenomena not previously analyzed by Western social scientists were the following: Group identification. Although new challenges to the solidarity of the work group are emerging in Japanfor example, increased affluence has led to more individual or family recreation-the degree to which an employee identifies with his firm or ministry remains striking. Many see their organization not simply as a place to work, but as a primary means to a richer and fuller life and satisfying personal relationships. This is especially true of managerial elites in large firms and governmental ministries; less so of young workers and those in lower positions. Other important group identifications may also develop. It was noted at the conference, for example, that the solidarity of a press club, the group of reporters from various newspapers assigned to a given ministry or other institution, is often sufficient

to ensure identical interpretations of events being published in all newspapers. Nemawashi. In all Japanese organizations, at all levels, decisions tend to be made after extensive consultation procedures. As well as building a consensus, this process serves to create a sense of inclusion and involvement, so that a broad range of members come to identify with the solutions reached. The process necessarily lengthens the time taken to reach a decision, but results not only in easy acceptance of specific policies, but also increased identification by individuals with the organization itself. "Fair share." Organizational decision-making in Japan, as elsewhere, is primarily directed toward achieving the best policy for the organization (or larger collectivity) as a whole. Still, when it comes to resolving disputes or devising procedures for dealing with a number of different organizations, or component units of organization, much attention is paid to ensuring that each receives a "fair share." When the Ministry of International Trade and Industry, for example, works out plans for the development of various companies in a given field, there is a notion of "market share"-other things being equal, each company is entitled to a certain proportion of the market. Similarly, in governmental budgeting, there is an unexpressed consensus that each organization is entitled to yearly budget increments to maintain its "fair share." When such considerations are influential. higherlevel authorities find it difficult to impose their own independent criteria of judgment in deciding allocations. Social scientists in Japan and the West are far from anything like a comprehensive theory of Japanese organization, but together are making progress in understanding how it functions. Analysis of Japanese approaches to organization is useful not only for understanding Japan, but in suggesting new questions about the functioning of organizations in postindustrial society everywhere. ).

COMMITTEE BRIEFS FOREIGN AREA FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM (Joint with American Council of Learned Societies)

Eleanor Bernert Sheldon (chairman). George M. Beckmann, Charles S. Bird, Frederick Burkhardt, Joseph B. Casagrande, Pendleton Herring, Malcolm H. Kerr; staff, Gordon Adams, Robert Gurevich, Michael Potashnik, Dorothy Soderlund, Bryce Wood The Third Edition of the Directory of Foreign Area Fellows will be published this spring. It will contain updated biographical and bibliographical information on more than 2,000 scholars who have received fellowship support during the period 1952-72. The Directory comprises sections on 6

Africa. East Asia, the Middle East. South Asia. Southeast Asia, the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. Western Europe. and Latin America and the Caribbean; individuals are listed alphabetically under major academic disciplines. The inclusion of titles of books or chapters in books published by the Fellows makes the Directory useful to libraries, as well as to persons in universities, colleges. government, and other research organizations who have found the preceding editions a source of information on scholars who have combined training in the social sciences or humanities with specialized geographic area competence. Orders for the Directory, with a check or money order for $3.00 to defray costs of mailing and handling, should be sent to: Foreign VOr..VME




Area Fellowship Program, 110 East 59 Street, New York, N.Y. 10022. SOCIAL SCIENCE IN ITALY (Joint with Adriano Olivetti Foundation) Manlio Rossi-Doria (chairman), Joseph LaPalombara (liaison), Francesco Alberoni, Norberto Bobbio, Massimo Fichera, Pendleton Herring, Franco Modigliani, Wilbert E. Moore; Secretary, Franco Cazzola Two volumes of papers prepared by members of the work groups on the status of basic social and economic statistics in Italy, whose efforts have been supported by the committee for several years, were published in 1972 (by Edizioni di Comunita, Milan). Each volume represents a survey of the situation of statistics in the late 1960's, the gaps in data, the problems in their use, defects in the methods that govern statistical data-gathering, and the needs for reform in the broad field of social and economic indicators in Italy. The members of the respective groups were distinguished social scientists who met in conferences to plan their projects and discuss their progress. Lezioni sulla politica economica in ltalia, edited by Valeriano Balloni, is a 417-page volume including contributions by Giuseppe Campa, Giorgio Fua, Augusto Graziani, Giancarlo Mazzochi, Antonio Pedone, Franco Reviglio, Luigi Spaventa, Paolo Sylos-Labini, and others. Analisi metodologica delle statistiche economiche in ltalia: Agricoltura, industria, valore aggiunto, salari, occupazione is the product of a work group directed by the senior author, Francesco Forte, Professor of Economics at the University of Turin and Vice-President of Ente Nazionale Idrocarburi. J. LAP. JAPANESE STUDIES (Joint with American Council of Learned Societies) Robert E. Ward (chairman), Gerald L. Curtis, Scott Flanagan, John W. Hall, Joseph M. Kitagawa, Willia~ H. McCullough, Bernard S. Silberman, Robert Smlth, Kozo Yamamura; staff, John Creighton Campbel


The committee and the U.S.-Japan Parliamentary Exchange Program, Columbia University, cosponsored a meeting on November 17-20, 1972, to discuss the Japanese Diet in the light of ~esearch on the American Congress and comparative legislative behavior. The participants included scholars who are not specialists on Japan, but who have worked extensively on other legislatures, as well as Japan specialists whose research has pertained at least indirectly to the Diet. Present in addition to Messrs. Curtis, Ward, and Campbell of the committee were Hans Baerwald, University of California, Los Angeles; Richard F. Fenno, Jr., University of Rochester; Haruhiko Fukui, Brookings Institution; Juan Linz, Yale University; Gerhard Loewenberg, University of Iowa; Herbert Passin, Columbia University; and John Wah Ike, University of Iowa. With the exception of a current study by Mr. Baerwald, political scientists have done little research on the contemporary Japanese Diet. In part, this seeming lack of interest stems from a prevailing notion that the Diet has been powerMARCH


less to influence policy making. However, the partici pants agreed that while the Diet does not meet the abstract nineteenth-century ideal of a ruling legislature, it is comparable in structure and function with the legislatures of other advanced nations. Because the effective delaying tactics employed by the opposition parties have sometimes succeeded in modifying or even stopping proposals considered important by the ruling Liberal Democratic Party, it was thought that the Diet may be one of the more influential legislatures in the world. The participants urged that research be initiated on such subjects as the roles of individual Diet members, the functions of committees, and the place of the Diet in policy making. This general topic had been approved by representatives of the joint committee and the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science for inclusion in the program of collaborative research by Japanese and American scholars. Mr. Curtis will organize a research project that will bring together Japanese political scientists well informed about the institutional setting and American specialists on legislatures. SOCIOLINGUISTICS Dell Hymes (chairman), Charles A. Ferguson, Allen D. Grimshaw, John J. Gumperz, Rolf Kjolseth, Gillian Sankoff, Joel Sherzer, Roger W. Shuy; staff, David Jenness The committee will meet in Austin, Texas, March 24-25, to discuss current and future projects. In keeping with its desire to seek and sustain fruitful communication with the field of linguistics proper, the March meeting was scheduled to bridge in time two conferences being held on the University of Texas campus. The subject of the first, on March 22-24, is Performances: Conversational Implicature and Presuppositions; the sponsors are the College of Humanities, the College of Social and Behavioral Sciences, and the Comparative Studies Program of the University of Texas, Austin, and the Center for Applied Linguistics. The second conference, on the Expanding Domain of Linguistics, will be held on March 26-27 under the sponsorship of the College of Social and Behavioral Sciences. Several committee members are taking part in the two conferences as chairmen, speakers, or discussants. Three volumes of papers in sociolinguistics resulting from the March 1972 conference on Sociolinguistics: Current Trends and Prospects (jointly sponsored by the committee and Georgetown University as the 23rd Annual Round Table on Languages and Linguistics) have recently been published. The papers from the conference are contained in Roger W. Shuy (ed.), Sociolinguistics: Current Trends and Prospects (Georgetown University Monograph Series on Languages and Linguistics, Monograph No. 25). Two other volumes contain material presented in workshops at the conference: Roger W. Shuy and Ralph W. Fasold (eds.), Language Attitudes: Current Trends and Prospects; and Joan Rubin and Roger W. Shuy (eds.), Language Planning: Current Issues and Research. All three volumes are available from the Publications Department, School of Languages and Linguistics, Georgetown University.


PERSONNEL GRANTS TO MINORITY SCHOLARS FOR RESEARCH ON RACISM AND OTHER SOCIAL FACTORS IN MENTAL HEALTH This program, initiated this year with funds provided by the Maurice Falk Medical Fund, is intended especially for but not limited to Blacks, Chicanos, Puerto Ricans, and American Indians. One objective of the program is to aid promising young scholars in launching their research careers; another is to recommend racism and mental health as a significant area of study and to encourage research on questions that have been ignored, avoided, or simply not asked in the past. The committee responsible for administration of the program-Charles V. Willie (chairman), Rodolfo Alvarez, James P. Comer, Alfonso Ortiz, Marian Radke-Yarrow, Lloyd H. RogIer, and M. Brewster Smithrepresents the disciplines of sociology, psychiatry, anthropology, developmental psychology, and social psychology. At a meeting on January 7 the committee reviewed some 70 applications and awarded 10 grants, as listed below. The chairman of the committee has pointed out that "Grantees have a wide range of interests varying from concern about self路concept among Blacks to utilization of community mental health services among Mexican-Americans to transracial adoptions. They represent many different disciplines, including anthropology, psychiatry, political science, psychology, and sociology, and are associated with predominantly black and predominantly white colleges and universities located in the Northeast, Southeast, Midwest, and West. The committee had planned to meet with successful applicants during the course of the research year to render any assistance needed. Alter a review of the qualifications of the grantees, the committee determined that their intellectual maturity would not require this kind of supervision and that individual committee members would be available for consultation with individual grantees upon request." The recipients of grants are: W. Curtis Banks, Assistant Professor of Psychology, California State University, Hayward, for research on the social and cognitive processes in the development, structure, and manifestations of Black self-concept Manuel Luis Carlos, Assistant Professor of Anthropology, University of California, Santa Barbara, for research in the United States and Mexico on ethnic discrimination, socioeconomic opportunities and mobility, and involvement in politics among the Mayo Indians of Northwest Mexico Leobardo F. Estrada, Assistant Professor of Sociology, North Texas State University, for research on factors related to nonutilization or underutilization of community services among the Mexican-American aged John L. Gwaltney, Associate Professor of Anthropology, Syracuse University, for research on aspects of AfroAmerican urban communal character that inRuence the attitudes and responses of the chronically ill to programs of amelioration Joyce A. Ladner, Associate Professor of Sociology, Howard


University, for research on policies and practices in transracial adoptions Maxie C. Maultsby, Jr., As~istant Professor of Psychiatry, University of Kentucky Medical Center, for research on the efficacy of semi-automated self-directed psychotherapy in treatment of economically deprived members of minority groups Isabelle Navar, Associate Professor of Psychology, California State College, Dominguez Hills, for experimental research on racism: new methods of eliciting expression of subjective attitudes and experiences in a Chicano group Angel M. Pacheco, Postdoctoral Research Fellow, National Institute of Mental Health, Harvard University, for research in the United States and Puerto Rico on processes of cognitive self-construing in Puerto Ricans Sydney A. Reid, Professor of Political Science, Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University. for research on political involvement as an adaptive response to racism Diana T. Slaughter, Assistant Professor of Human Development and of Education, University of Chicago, for research on the perceived effects of schooling on the selfimages of Afro-American children GRANTS FOR RESEARCH ON CONTEMPORARY AND REPUBLICAN CHINA The Joint Committee on Contemporary China. sponsored with the American Council of Learned Societies-Albert Feuerwerker (chairman). Morton H. Fried, Chalmers Johnson, Philip A. Kuhn, Dwight H. Perkins, James R. Townsend. Tang Tsou, and Ezra Vogel-at its meeting on February 16-17 awarded 16 grants for research: John DeFrancis, Professor of Chinese, University of Hawaii, for research in China, Hong Kong, Korea, Japan, and the United States on language policies in China, Korea, Japan, and Vietnam John Israel, Associate Profes~or of History. University of Virginia, for research in Taipei and Hong Kong on the elite in exile: student life and politics, 1938-46 Susan Mann Jones, Lecturer in HIstory, Northwestern University, for research on the Ningpo community at Shanghai, 1900-1925: the role of native-place (t'ung-hsiang) ties in urban modernization Ying-mao Kau, Associate Professor of Political Science, Brown University, for research in China, Japan, and Hong Kong on leadership organization in China, 1966-72 Chong-Sik Lee, Associate Professor of Political Science, University of Penn~ylvania, for further research on communism and counterinsurgency in Manchuria, 1925-41 (renewal) Kenneth Lieberthal, Assistant Professor of Political Science, Swarthmore College, for research in Europe and the United States on the contours of revolution in Tientsin, 1949-53 Maurice Meisner, Professor of History, University of Wisconsin, for research in Hong Kong, London, and the United States on the social and intellectual sources of Maoist utopianism Andrew T. Nathan, Assistant Professor of Political Science, Columbia University, for research in Tokyo and the United States on the political role of new elite groups in Chi na, 1900-1949 Stephen M. Olsen, Assistant Professor of Sociology. Stanford University, for a survey in Taiwan of source materials VOLUME




on its demographic and institutional structure and development David C. Schak, Lecturer in Anthropology, University of Michigan, Dearborn, for research in Taiwan on poverty: the economic life of squatters in Taipei Laurence A. Schneider, Associate Professor of History, State University of New York at Buffalo, for research in Japan, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and the United States on intellectuals and tradition in twentieth-century China Peter Van Ness, Associate Professor of International Relations, University of Denver, for research on the foreign relations of the People's Republic of China, 1949-71 Martin K. Whyte, Assistant Professor of Sociology, University of Michigan, for research in Hong Kong on family customs and family change in rural China: contemporary patterns in Kwangtung province Roxane Witke, Associate Professor of History, State University of New York at Binghamton (on leave to Stanford University), for research on_revolutionary women leaders in China: three generations Odoric Y. K. Wou, Assistant Professor of History, Rutgers University, Newark, for research in London and Paris on militarism in modern China as exemplified in the career of Wu P'ei-fu Silas H. L. Wu, Professor of History, Boston College, for research in a village in northern China: aspects of change in conditions observed before 1949 GRANTS FOR RESEARCH ON THE ECONOMY OF CHINA At a meeting on February 18 the Subcommittee on Research on the Chinese Economy-Dwight H. Perkins (chairman), Robert F. Dernberger, Albert Feuerwerker, John Gurley, and K. C. Yeh-made its recommendations to the Joint Committee on Contemporary China concerning grants to be made in the second year of this program. The Joint Committee approved awards to the following 7 scholars: Kang Chao, Professor of Economics, University of Wisconsin, for research in London on modern production of cotton textiles in China (renewal) Yen-p'ing Hao, Professor of History, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, for research on commercial capitalism in modern China: Cantonese merchants in the treaty ports, 1860-1927 Chi-ming Hou, Professor of Economics, Colgate University, for research in Taiwan on the fiscal system and economic development in China, 1840-1937 Teh-wei Hu, Professor of Economics, Pennsylvania State University, for an economic analysis in the United States of the health care delivery system in the People's Republic of China Ramon H. Myers, Professor of Economics and History, University of Miami, for research in the United States on comparison of crop yields and cooperative farming organization in the early 1950's and 1970's with farming conditions in the early 1930's in dry and irrigated areas of China Thomas G. Rawski, Assistant Professor of Economics, University of Toronto, for research in Tokyo on China's capital goods industries Thomas B. Wiens, Assistant Professor of Economics, University of Oregon, for research in the United States and Tokyo on the economic behavior of Chinese peasant farm households during the Republican period MARCH


GRANTS FOR JAPANESE STUDIES Under the program sponsored by the Joint Committee on Japanese Studies (of the ACLS and SSRC), its Subcommittee on Grants for Research-Robert J. Smith (chairman), James T. Araki, John W. Hall, Ann Waswo, Martin E. Weinstein, and Kozo Yamamura-at its meeting on February 12 voted to make 16 awards: Lewis G. Austin, Assistant Professor of Political Science, Yale University, for research in Japan on cross-cultural measurement of political values and changes in Japanese poli tical culture, 1968-74 Richard K. Beardsley, Professor of Anthropology, University of Michigan, for a restudy in Japan of a farm hamlet that has been transformed by industrialization Michael H. Bond, Visiting Lecturer and Research Associate (social psychology), Kwansei Gakuin University, for experimental studies of Japanese nonverbal behavior and communication William K. Cummings, Assistant Professor of Sociology, University of Chicago, for research in the United States and Japan on the politics of higher educational reform in Japan Harry D. Harootunian, Professor of History, University of Rochester, for research in Japan on nativism as ideology and socioreligious movement in the Tokugawa period G. Cameron Hurst III, Assistant Professor of History, University of Kansas, for research in Kyoto on the politics of the Fujiwara regency in Heian Japan, with particular em phasis on the period 995-1068 Chalmers Johnson, Professor of Political Science, University of California, Berkeley, for research in the United States and Tokyo on Japanese political economy: the Ministry of International Trade and Industry, 1949-69 Kenkichiro Koizumi, Lecturer in Oriental Studies and in History and Sociology of Science, University of Pennsylvania, for research in Japan and Europe on science and nationalism in early twentieth-century Japan Chae-Jin Lee, Associate Professor of Political Science and East Asian Studies, University of Kansas, for research in Japan and Hong Kong on the relations between the Japan Socialist Party and the People's Republic of China, 1960-72 James William Morley, Professor of Government, Columbia University, for research in Tokyo and Europe on the search for peace in Asia James A. O'Brien, Assistant Professor of Japanese and Comparative Literature, University of Wisconsin, for research in Tokyo on the poetry of Murano Shiro Jay Rubin, Assistant Professor of Japanese, Harvard University, for research~路 Tokyo on Kunikida Doppo (18711908) as a young Me i intellectual Kazuo Sato, Professor 0 Economics, State University of New York at Buffalo, for research in Japan and the United States on economic change in Japan between the two World Wars Irwin Scheiner, Associate Professor of History, University of California, Berkeley, for research in Japan on religion and peasant rebellion in the late Tokugawa period Reiko Tsukimura, Associate Professor of Japanese, University of Minnesota, for research in Japan on the poetry, criticism, and aphorisms of Hagiwara Sakutaro; their reflection of Japanese lyric tradition and Western influence Glenn T. Webb, Associate Professor of East Asian Art History, University of Washington, for documentary research in Kyoto on Emperor Gomizu-no-o (1611-29) 9

GRANTS FOR KOREAN STUDIES The Joint Committee on Korean Studies, sponsored with the American Council of Learned Societies-Chong-Sik Lee (chairman), Yunshik Chang, Chong Lim Kim, Paul W. Kuznets, Gari K. Ledyard, James B. Palais, and Edward W. Wagner-at its meeting on February 2 awarded 10 grants for research: Sung-il Choi, Assistant Professor of Political Science, Hobart and William Smith Colleges, for research in Korea on social environment, public policy, and political cleavages in urban and rural areas Chai-sik Chung, Professor of Sociology, Heidelberg College, for research on the traditional value system and problems of modernization in Korea George Ginsburgs, Associate Professor of Political Science, New School for Social Research, for research in Moscow on Korean volunteers in the civil war and intervention in the Soviet Far East, 1917-22 John C. Jamieson, Associate Professor of Oriental Languages, University of California, Berkeley, for research in Seoul, Kyoto, and Peking on the Ch'ang-an model in Silla: Tang influence on the city of Kyongju in the seventh-ninth centuries Willard D. Keim, Assistant Professor of Political Science, University of Pennsylvania (on leave to Yonsei University), for research in Seoul on attitudes toward farming and initiative in the agricultural population of the Republic of Korea . Young Whan Kihl, Associate Professor of Political Science, Juniata College, for research in the Republic of Korea on party cadres and local leaders (X ujee) C. I. Eugene Kim, Professor of Political Science, Western Michigan University, for research on the changing social backgrounds of governmental elites in the Republic of Korea, 1948-67 John Kie-chiang Oh, Professor of Political Science, Marquette University, for research in Korea on political socialization of Ch'6ndogyu (120c trine of the Heavenly Way) and Ch'6njugyo (Cathol~fu) believers Susan S. Shin, Ph.D. candidate th history and Far Eastern languages, Harvard University, for research on slaves in the early Yi Dynasty economy Ellen S. Unruh, graduate student in East Asian languages and cultures, Columbia University, for research on court life in the last years of the Yi Dynasty GRANTS FOR RESEARCH ON THE NEAR AND MIDDLE EAST The Joint Committee on the Near and Middle East, sponsored with the American Council of Learned Societies -Marvin Zonis (chairman), Robert McC. Adams, S. N. Eisenstadt, Paul Ward English, M. Abdullah Laroui, Muhsin S. Mahdi, Serif Mardin, John Alden Williams, and I. William Zartman-at its meeting on February 24 awarded 15 grants for research by individual scholars and 1 collaborative research grant: Hamid Algar, Associate Professor of Near Eastern Studies, University of California, Berkeley, for research in Turkey


and Syria on Baha ad-Din N aqshband and the foundation of the Naqshbandi order M. B. Alwan, Assistant Professor of Near Eastern Languages and Literatures, Indiana University, for research in Beirut and Cairo on Tahtawi and the emergence of modern Arab thought Ilhan Basgoz, Associate Professor of Uralic and Altaic Studies, Indiana University, for a comparative study in Turkey, U .5.S.R., and Iran of the Turkish romantic epics in those countries Christopher J. Brunner, Assistant Professor of Middle East Languages and Cultures, Columbia University, for research in Afghanistan and Iran on the Pashto and Afghan Persian languages, their overlap and mutual influences Edmund Burke, III, Assistant Professor of History, University of California, Santa Cruz, for research in France, Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia on French scientific imperialism in North Africa, 1830-1930 Constance Cronin, Associate Professor of Anthropology, University of Arizona, for research in Teheran on the private life styles of Iranian elites Dale F. Eickelman, Assistant Professor of Anthropology, New York University, for research in Morocco on an aspect of the impact of economic and social modernization on Islam: myths and social categories in Morocco Leonard J. Fein, Professor of Politics and Social Policy, Brandeis University, for research in Israel on leadership and myth making since its founding Robert A. Fernea, Professor of Anthropology, University of Texas at Austin, for research on effects of natural catastrophe on relations between the sedentary and nomadic populations in a western Afghanistan community William L. Hanaway, Jr., Assistant Professor of Persian Language and Literature, University of Pennsylvania, for research in London and Iran on the pre-Safavid Persian inscri ptions in Khorasan Enid Hill, Associate Professor of Political Science, American University in Cairo, for research in Egypt and the United States on civil litigation in Egypt Gerald J. Obermeyer, Assistant Professor of Anthropology, American University of Beirut, for research in England and the Yemen Arab Republic on political culture and nation building in the latter country Norman A. Stillman, Assistant Professor of Near Eastern Languages and Literatures, New York University, for collection of materials on European contacts with Morocco in the late eighteenth century Peter von Sivers, Visitin~ Assistant Professor of History, University of Califorma, Los Angeles, for research in France and Algeria on indigenous leadershi p in Algeria from the French Conquest to World War I (1840-1919) Marvin G. Weinbaum, Associate Professor of Political Science, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, for research in Kabul on the associational life of Afghanistan'S modernizing elite

Collaborative research grant Ergun ozbudun, Associate Professor of Government, University of Ankara (on leave as Research Fellow, Harvard University), and Frank Tachau, Associate Professor of Political Science, University of Illinois at Chicago Circle, for research in Turkey on effects of socioeconomic change on the Turkish political system





PUBLICATIONS Africa and the West: Intellectual Responses to European Culture, edited by Philip D. Curtin. Product of a conference sponsored by the Joint Committee on African Studies. October 9-11. 1969. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, June 1972. 269 pages. $12.50. African Studies Review, Vol. 16, No.3, December 1972. Revised versions of 6 papers prepared for the Conference on Subnational Politics in Africa held by the Joint Committee on African Studies, May 20-22, 1971. with an Introduction by L. Gray Cowan: "CentraVLocal Tensions and the Involvement of Education within Developing Countries," by C. Arnold Anderson; "Transitional Loc~l Politics," by Barbara J. Callaway; "The Farmer, the PC?htician and the Bureaucrat," by Peter F. M. McLoughlin; "Cell Leaders in Tanzania," by Jean F. O'Barr; "Urban Policy in Africa," by Richard Stren; ~nd "Microp~litic~l Dimensions of Development and NatIonal Integrauon 1!1 Rural Africa," by Rodger Yeager. Waltham, Mass.: African Studies Association, Brandeis University. $7.50. The Anatomy of Influence: Decision Making in International Organization, by Robert W. Cox, Harold K. Jacobson, and others. Prepared with the aid of the former Committee on International Organization. New Haven: Yale University Press, February 1973. 510 pages. $15.00. China: Management of a Revolutionary Society. edited by John M. H. Lindbeck. Product of a conference sponsored by the Subcommittee on Chinese Government and Politics, Joint Committee on Contemporary China, August 18-22, 1969. Seattle: University of Washington Press, July 1971. 406 pages. Cloth, $12.50; paper. $4.95. The City in Communist China, edited by John Wilson Lewis. Product of a conference cosponsored by the Subcommittees on Research on Chinese Society and on Chinese Government and Politics, Joint Committee on Contemporary China, December 28, 1968 -lanuary 4, 1969. Stanford: Stanford University Press, Apri 1971. 462 pages. $12.95. Crises and Sequences in Political Development, by Leonard Binder. James S. Coleman, Joseph LaPalombara, Lucian W. Pye. Sidney Verba, anel Myron Weiner. Studies in Political Development 7, sponsored by the Committee on Comparative Politics. Princeton: Princeton University Press, November 1971. 337 pages. $8.00. __J Directory of Foreign Area Fellows 1952-1972. Spring 19'Vl c. 400 pages. $3.00. Orders should be addressed to Foreign Area Fellowship Program, 110 East 59 Street, New York, N. Y. 10022. Econometric Models of Cyclical Behavior, edited by Bert G. Hickman. Papers of a conference jointly sponsored by the Committee on Economic Stability and the National Bureau of Economic Research, Conference on Research in Income and Wealth, November 14-15, 1969. Studies in Income Be: Wealth, of the Conference on Research in Income and Wealth, No. 36, Vols. 1 and 2, May 1972 (distributed by Columbia University Press). 1270 pages. Cloth, $17.50 each; paper, $7.50 each. Economic Organization in Chinese Society, edited by W. E. Willmott. Product of a conference held by the Subcommittee on Research on Chinese Society, Joint Committee on Contemporary China, with the aid of the former Committee on the Economy of China, August 16-22, 1969. Stanford: Stanford University Press, April 1972. 472 pages. $16.50. Elites in the People'S Republic of China, edited by Robert A. Scalapino. Product of a conference sponsored by the MAllCH


Subcommittee on Chinese Government and Politics, Joint Committee on Contemporary China, August 18-24, 1970. Seattle: University of Washington Press, September 1972. 695 pages. Cloth. $15.00; paper, $4.95. The Foreign Trade of Mainland China, by Feng-hwa Mah. Sponsored by the former Committee on the Economy of China. Chicago and New York: Aldine • Atherton. October 1971. 287 pages. $9.75. A Histo,? of Yugoslav Literature, by Antun Barac. Joint CommIttee on Eastern Europe Publication Series, No. 1. Reprinted in cooperation with Michigan Slavic Publications. 266 pages. Cloth, $3.50; parer, $2.00. Orders should be addressed to Department 0 Slavic Languages and Literatures. University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich. 48104. Ideology and Politics in Contemporary China, edited by Chalmers Johnson. Product of a conference sponsored by the former Subcommittee on Chinese Government and Politics, Joint Committee on Contemporary China, August 2-6, 1971. Seattle: University of Washington Press, March 1973. c. 400 pages. Cloth, $15.00; paper, $4.95. Language Attitudes: Current Trends and Prospects, edited by Roger W. Shuy and Ralph W. Fasold. Product of workshops at the Conference on Sociolinguistics: Current Trends and Prospects, jointly sponsored by the Committee on Sociolinguistics and Georgetown University. March 16-18, 1972. Washington, D. C.: Georgetown University Department of Publications, March 1973. Language Planning: Current Issues and Research, edited by Joan Rubin and Roger W. Shuy. Product of workshops at the Conference on Sociolinguistics: Current Trends and Prospects, jointly sponsored by the Committee on Sociolinguistics and Georgetown University, March 16-18, 1972. Washin~ton, D. C.: Georgetown University Department of Pubhcations, March 1973. The Machine-Building Industry in Communist China, by Chu-Yuan Cheng. Sponsored by the former Committee on the Economy of China. Chicago and New York: AIdine . Atherton, September 1971. 356 pages. $9.75. Mental Tests and Cultural Adaptation, edited by Lee J. Cronbach and P. J . D. Drenth. Papers of a conference held with the aid of the Joint Committee on Latin American Studies, July 19-23, 1971. The Hague: Mouton, November 1972. 506 pages. People of the United States in the Twentieth Century, by Irene B. Taeuber and Conrad Taeuber. Sponsored by the former Committee on Population Census Monographs in cooperation with the Bureau of the Census. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, May 1972. 1084 pages. $5.75. Pidginization and Creolization of Languages, edited by Dell Hymes. Product of a conference cosponsored by the Committee on Sociolinguistics and the University of the West Indies, April 9-12, 1968. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, September 1971. 538 pages. $23.50. Race in the Cit)': Political Trust and Public Policy in the New Urban Sj1stem, by Joel D. Aberbach and Jack L. Walker. Report on research assisted by the former Committee on Governmental and Legal Processes. Boston: Little. Brown and Company, January 1973. 310 pages. $4.95. Social Indicators and Social Policy, edited by Andrew Shonfield and Stella Shaw. Product of a conference jointly sponsored by the U.K. and U.S. Social Science Research Councils, April 2-4, 1971. London: Heinemann 11

Educational Books, July 1972. 163 pages. 拢2.50. Orders should be addressed to Mr. F. L. Southgate, 1145 Bellamy Road, Scarborough, Ontario, Canada. Sociolinguistics: Current Trends and Prospects, edited by Roger W. Shuy. Georgetown University Monograph Series in Languages and Linguistics, Monograph No. 25. Papers of the conference jointly sponsored by the Committee on Sociolinguistics and Georgetown University, March 16-

18, 1972. Washington, D. C.: Georgetown University Department of Pu.blications, ~arch 1973 .. c. 350 pages. $4.50. Structural Equation Models zn the Soczal Sciences edited by Arthur S. Goldberger and Otis Dudley Dunc~. Product of a conference cosponsored by the Social Science Research Council and the Social Systems Research Institute University of Wisconsin-Madison, November 12-16, 1970: New York: Seminar Press, May 1973. 374 pages. c. $12.00.

PAUL WEBBINK, 1903-1973 The death of Paul Webbink, Vice-President of the Social Science Research Council from 1948 until his retirement in 1970, on January 7 is recorded here with deep regret. An account of his outstanding careeer with the Council, which began in January 1936 with his appointment as Assistant Director of Research for the new Committee on

Social Security, appears in the December 1970 issue of Items. After his retirement he continued to serve the Council as a Consultant and gave unstinting assistance to its officers and staff. His place in the annals of the Council is unique, and he is sorely missed by his colleagues and associates in its work.

SENIOR FULBRIGHT-HAYS PROGRAM: VISITING FOREIGN SCHOLARS AVAILABLE FOR 1973-74 APPOINTMENTS The Committee on International Exchange of Persons has announced that 69 senior scholars from 13 foreign countries will be available for temporary teaching or research appointments in the United States during the academic year 1973-74 under the Fulbright-Hays program. The scholars will be considered for Fulbright-Hays travel awards if definite arrangements are made for their appointments at American colleges and universities, with stipends to be provided by the host institutions.

The scholars' specializations are animal science, anthropology, chemistry, economics, education, engineering, geography, history, mathematics and physics, medicine, music, philosophy, political science, psychology, sociology, language and literature. For detailed information, interested colleges and universities should call Miss Alice Lovely, 202-961-1647, or write the Committee on International Exchange of Persons, 2101 Constitution Avenue, Washington, D. C. 20418.




Incorporated in eM Stilte of IllinoU, Decembtlf' 27, 1924, for the purpose Of advancing research in the IOci41 sciences Directors, 1973: WILUAM J. BAUMOL, ALLAN G. BOGUE, DORWIN CARTWRIGHT, X. FIlEEDMAN, LEO A. GOODMAN, EDWARD E. JONES, LAWRENCE R. KLEIN,







Officers and StaD:






Executive Associate;




ZIu.i NORMAN MANN, Business Managtlf'; CATHERINE V. RONNAN, Financial Secretary

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