SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH COUNCIL
VOLUME 26 . NUMBER 1 . MARCH 1972 230 PARK AVENUEÂˇ NEW YORK, N.Y. 10017
STUDYING THE IMPACTS OF PUBLIC POLICIES by A ustin Ranney*'
1965 the Council's Committee on Governmental and Legal Processes has encouraged political scientists to consider whether and how to add to their discipline's traditional emphasis on the processes of public policymaking increased attention to policy contents and the differences they make in the lives of people. This initiative was first manifested in the planning and sponsorship of two conferences, held in 1966 and 1967, and in the publication of a volume of papers from the two conferences in 1968.1 The papers and discussions at these conferences led the committee to the conclusion that one of the most significant, yet inadequately studied, areas is what we have come to call "policy impacts," that is, the differences, intended and unintended, that are independently brought about in the life situations of "target" and "bystander" populations by particular public policies or constellations of policies. To help advance scholarly research in this area, the committee held a conference on "The Impacts of Public Policies" in St. Thomas, U.S.V.I., on December 3-5, 1971. As for the previous SINCE
â&#x20AC;˘ The author is Professor of Political Science at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, a member of the board of directors of the Social Science Research Council. and chairman of its Committee on Governmental and Legal Processes. The other members of the committee are Richard F. Fenno, Jr., University of Rochester; Matthew Holden. Jr., University of Wisconsin, Madison; Anthony King, University of Essex; Warren E. Miller, University of Michigan; Walter F. Murphy, Princeton University; Kenneth Prcwitt, University of Chicago; and James W. Prothro, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; staff, Bryce Wood. 1 Austin Ranney, ed., Political Science and Public Policy, Chicago: Markham Publishing Company, 1968. (A condensed version of the introductory chapter of this volume appeared in Items, September 1968.)
conferences the committee invited papers on certain general conceptual and methodological problems, but this time empirical case studies comprised a higher proportion of the invited papers. Some of the principal themes treated by the authors of the papers and the participants' reactions are summarized in this brief report. 2 The full proceedings are expected to be published in a volume edited by the present writer, in the spring of 1973. CONCEPTUAL AND METHODOLOGICAL ANALYSES James S. Coleman of Johns Hopkins University in his paper, "Problems of Conceptualization and Measurement in Studying Policy Impacts," called attention to what he regards as a distinction of basic importance: that between disciplinary research and policy research. The object of the former, Coleman argued, is to advance knowledge in the particular scholarly concerns of a discipline by arriving at empirically valid and theoretically significant conclusions about the state of affairs. Such research begins with an intellectual problem posed by previous research or theory, and proceeds at a pace ~ In addition to the authors of the papers and all members of the committee except Richard F. Fenno, Jr., and Kenneth Prewitt, the participants in thc conference included Thomas R. Dye, Florida State University; Heinz Eulau, Stanford University; John G. Grumm, Wesleyan University; Pendleton Herring, Foreign Area Fellowship Program; Harold D. Lasswell, John Jay College of Criminal Justice: Theodore R. Marmor, University of Minnesota; Jack W. Peltasoll. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign; Ira Sharkansky. University of Wisconsin. Madison; Donald S. Shoup, Social Science Research Council. Jean :\1 . Swanson and Bryce Wood served as rapporteurs.
dictated only by the demands of scholarship. The intended audience is the discipline's teachers and researchers; and the self-corrective method employed is the well-known "adversary proceedings" of replicative studies and scholarly reviews. Policy research is significantly different from disciplinary research in the following respects: 8 Its object is to provide information immediately useful to policy makers in grappling with the problems they face. It begins outside a discipline with a social problem defined by a decision maker. The pace of the research is forced by the policy maker's need to make a decision dictated by nondisciplinary imperatives. The intended audience is the decision maker, to whom it must be made intelligible and convincing if it is to be useful. And as yet there are no intra-agency "competing" research projects or other counterparts of disciplinary research's self-corrective methods. The many differences between policy and disciplinary research, Coleman concluded, do not make the former any the less significant for the nation or for social scientists. The differences do mean, however, that social scientists must "recognize that policy research requires methodological development of its own, beginning at the most fundamental or conceptual level"-a task, he believes, worthy of social scientists' best efforts. Brian Barry of the University of Essex contributed a paper on "Public Policy and Political Theory." The prime task of political theorists, he noted, is "to generalize about the political conditions under which policies having impacts of certain kinds are liable to be put into effect [and] the organization and other pre-requisites for putting into effect policies of a certain kind." To this end, he suggested viewing government as a kind of cybernetic system, which "needs to have information about the state of its environment, criteria for determining when it has to act on the environment, and a means of acting. (Monitoring the results of action can be thought of as the initiation of a further cycle.)" In Barry's view the criteria determine the kind of information sought and thus the means used, the results achieved, and the manner in which they are evaluated. The goal of extracting an economic surplus will elicit one kind of information, military conquest another kind, saving souls yet another kind, and so on. The remainder of his paper was devoted to showing the information-gathering and policy-action consequences of choosing the criteria of left liberalism over those of right liberalism. 8 Coleman's arguments on this point were buttressed with several illustrations from the preparation, contents, and reception of the so路called Coleman Report: James S. Coleman and others, Equality Of Educational Opportunity, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1966.
CASE STUDIES Howard A. Scarrow of the State University of New York at Stony Brook gave a paper on "The Impact of British Air Pollution Legislation," a case study of the consequences of Britain's 1956 Clean Air Act. He pointed out that the results of the Act are especially useful for impact studies because it authorized but did not require the nation's local authorities to demarcate "smokeless areas" where only approved smokeless fuels could be burned. Most but not all of the local authorities in the "black areas" (those with the higher levels of smoke emissions) used the permission to make rules, while most but not all of them in the "white areas" (those with the lower levels of smoke emissions) did not. Scarrow presented a variety of data showing that smoke emission levels dropped significantly more in the areas where local rules were imposed than in areas where they were not. He remarked, however, that several other forces were involved-notably the large number of voluntary switchovers from bituminous coal to natural gas for heating. In an effort to isolate the independent impact of the local authorities' actions from that of other factors, Scarrow reviewed data on the decline, by areas, in domestic coal consumption, consumption of solid smokeless fuels, and sales of gas space heaters. He concluded that between 40 and 60 percent of the total decline in smoke emissions could reasonably be attributed to the impact of the Clean Air Act, and the remainder to voluntary actions by citizens. "Old Age, Inequality, and Political Conjunctures in Britain and Sweden," by H. Hugh Heclo of the University of Essex, was a comparative analysis of the impact of old-age-pension programs on the economic status of the elderly. He found that in Great Britain since the early 1950's increases in pensions have matched or exceeded increases in male workers' earnings, but the inequalities of income among various strata of the elderly have not been significantly narrowed. In Sweden in the period 1951-66, on the other hand, the income of the elderly relative to other segments of the population actually declined. In both countries, he concluded, these divergent trends were unanticipated consequences of changes in the old-age-pension structures. Paul L. Puryear of Florida State University, currently a Visiting Scholar at the Russell Sage Foundation, presented a paper on "The Measurement of Manpower Policy Impacts in the Black Community: Income Mobility, Occupational Status, and Political Support." His data came from a larger study, supported by the Committee on Governmental and Legal Processes, of the implementation and impact of the Concentrated Employment Program in a large southern city. From his VOLUME
26, NUMBER 1
examination of the files of 981 CEP enrollees, Puryear found that most of the 336 who completed their training programs obtained better-paying jobs than they had held prior to their enrollment, although for the most part they took jobs requiring fewer skills and less training than they had acquired, and their incomes continued to lag well behind those of "Metro City's" work force as a whole. His attitudinal data from interviews with both dropouts and graduates showed that the latter approved the CEP program to a substantially greater extent than did the dropouts, believed it did help enrollees get better jobs, and generally had lower levels of alienation and higher levels of political efficacy. Whether or not the program can, on balance, be deemed a success, Puryear argued, depends on whether one looks only at initial job placements, as the CEP administrators did, or at advancement after initial employment. In "The Impact of Advertising Regulation in the United States," Alan Stone of Rutgers University observed that the Federal Trade Commission from its beginnings has had little discernible impact on the methods and content of American advertising. He reviewed several current explanations for this "nonimpact": incompetent personnel, the Commission's use of the cumbersome case-by-case method, and others. Each explanation, he concluded, did not fully explicate the phenomenon, and he offered an alternative. The fundamental reason for the FTC's failure to regulate advertising, he argued, lies in the very limits placed on its mandate and its methods of operation by the statute that created it. It was not intended to regulate advertising'S truthfulness to protect the consumer, and its failure to do so simply carries out the intentions of those who originally framed its charter. Gary Orfield of Princeton University presented a paper on "The Impact of Civil Rights Laws," giving special attention to the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965, and the 1968 fair housing law. For any such legislation to have maximum impact, Orfield contended, four conditions must be met: (1) adequate legislative authority, (2) enforcement machinery keyed to results rather than procedural equity, (3) supporting judicial decisions, and (4) determination in the executive branch to employ the enforcement machinery. He found that all four conditions have been met best in the South in the areas of public accommodations and voting rights, and met least in both South and North in the areas of housing, employment, and education. While there are a number of reasons for these variations in impact, he concluded, the degree of acceptance or resistance by the affected white populations appears to be the most important determinant. MARCH
Finally, the paper by Samuel C. Patterson of the University of Iowa, "Political Representation and Public Policy," was the only one dealing with the impact of what he called a "regime policy," that is, a policy intended to shape the process by which all policies are made. The policy in question was the Supreme Court's effort to require that the U.S. House of Representatives and both houses of all state legislatures be apportioned in strict accordance with the one-manone-vote principle. Patterson found very high degrees of compliance with the rule in reapportionments at both levels. However, the impact of this high compliance on other matters is much less clear. There is evidence that reapportionment has significantly altered the legislative voting power of various regions within many states, and has also affected the party compositions of many state legislatures. But there is no evidence that reapportionment has had any significant impact on substantive policy outputs at either the state or national level. In conclusion Patterson noted that, up to now at least, the Court's arithmetic equality formula has not touched on the permissibility of gerrymandering, and he suggested that political scientists might usefully tum their attention to the difficult but crucial questions: How much gerrymandering exists, and what are the consequences for the quality of American legislatures and the nature of their outputs?
ISSUES AND AGREEMENTS In discussions of the eight papers presented at the conference, the participants debated many issues and even agreed on a few. The two issues most discussed were not resolved: First, for purposes of scholarly research on impacts just what is a "public policy"? Some participants argued that a public policy is most usefully conceptualized as any official statement of goals and methods by a government agency or official, such as a legislative act, an executive order, an administrative regulation, or a judicial decision. Others argued that any such statement may be merely a mask concealing the policy makers' true intentions, and the latter constitute the true policy. Still others contended that what public authorities actually do, not what they say, are (behaviorally speaking) their true policies. But all agreed that whatever concept of policy the student of policy impacts chooses is likely to control his selection and evaluation of data and to shape his findings. At the very least, then, each investigator should be clear in his own mind and candid with his audience about which concept he is using, for what reasons, and with what consequences for his conclusions. 3
The second issue was a new version of the venerable dispute about the political scientist's proper role and concerns. Some participants took the position that members of the discipline should concentrate exclusively on studying political impacts, that is, the consequences of policies for the nature of political systems and processes themselves. That focus, they argued, fits the political scientist's training and the discipline's central concerns; and efforts to enlarge it will only produce inferior work in economics, psychology, sociology, and other disciplines whose members are better equipped for analyzing impacts on other aspects of society. Others found this argument not good enough. It was their view that if one wants and needs to know about the impacts of public policies on people's economic or social or religious lives, and if research in no other discipline is giving the needed information, then it is not only the right but the duty of political scientists to seek it. In the opinion of nearly all the participants, however, the most difficult of the many problems in studying policy impacts is that of isolating any particular policy's independent impacts from those of all the various economic, social, physical, and other forces affecting the course of events. What we seek to discover in every case is just what happens after a policy is promulgated that would not have happened in the absence of that policy--or, conversely, what did not happen that would have happened in the policy's absence. It is always difficult and frequently impossible to isolate cause and effect relationships in any kind of social science research, and policy impact studies pose many particularly difficult, perhaps insoluble, methodological problems.
Nevertheless, most of the partiCIpants believed that striving to solve these problems and to carry out more reliable impact studies should have a high priority in the future of political science and possibly in other social sciences as well. The papers and discussions at the conference left little doubt that the sheer disciplinary challenge and intellectual excitement are reason enough for this priority. But beyond our immediate concerns lies the simple but fundamental consideration that, whether for voters or social activists or public officeholders, the first step in making a meaningful normative evaluation of a public policy is to answer the empirical question: What difference does it make? Whatever scholarly contribution political scientists and their colleagues in other disciplines can make to answering that question in a variety of policy contexts is surely worth any effort that can be made. A conference on the related but broader topic, "The Comparative Analysis of Public Policy Performance," was held by the Committee on Comparative Politics at Princeton on January 25-27, 1972. At this conference Anthony King presented a paper, "On Studying the Impacts of Public Policies," stemming largely from the discussion at the St. Thomas conference. Also, Austin Ranney reviewed the research on policy impacts that has been supported by the Committee on Governmental and Legal Processes and communicated its desire to work with the Committee on Comparative Politics and with European scholars in encouraging the development of research focused on comparing the formation, implementation, and impacts of public policies in contemporary advanced industrial societies. The problems and possibilities of these new initiatives are now being explored.
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY IN CHINA'S DEVELOPMENT: REPORT ON A WORKSHOP HELD WITH THE AID OF THE JOINT COMMITTEE ON CONTEMPORARY CHINA by Susan B. Rifkin"
SCIENCE policy is a relatively new field of research, in which questions that may provide a framework for relating the nature and direction of a nation's science and technology to its policy decisions have only begun
to be identified. Such questions as the following appear to be most relevant: What are the characteristics of the country's science and technology system as a whole? How does it change? How does educational training
â&#x20AC;˘ The author is affiliated with the Science Policy Research Uqit, University of Sussex, cosponsor and host of the workshop. Other participants in the workshop from the Science Policy Research Unit were its Director, Christopher Freeman, C. H. Geoffrey Oldham (chairman of the workshop), Charles M. Cooper, Genevieve C. Dean, and Jon Sigurdson: from the Joint Committee on Contemporary China and its subcommittees, Robert F. Dernberger and Alexander Eckstein, both of the University of Michigan, Dwight H. Perkins and Ezra F.
Vogel, both of Harvard University, and John Creighton Campbell (staff). The other participants were Stevan Dediger, University of Lund: John Gittings, China Quarterly; Shigeru Ishikawa, Hitotsubashi University; Manfredo Macioti, UNESCO, Paris; Bruce J. Mcfarlane, Australian National University; Kurt Mendelssohn, University of Oxford: Joseph Needham, University of Cambridge; A. Parthasarathi, Special Assistant for Science and Technology to the Prime Minister of India; Phillippe Richer, Directorate-General for Scientific
affect such change? How are choices of technology were summarized by the chairman in the final session made, especially between imported and indigenous and which were reflected in the choice of participants technologies? What is the role of organized research of diverse nationalities, professional experience, and and development programs in this process? What is intellectual interests. These implicit objectives were: the role of technological progress in economic progress to inform specialists on science policy about what in general? What different technologies are in use in China is doing and encourage them to take the Chinese the modern and traditional sectors of the economy? experience into account in their own studies; to place What is the role of a nation's ideology in decision before China specialists a broader set of questions, difmaking concerning development? How do decisions on ferent ways of thinking, and different disciplinary approaches relevant to China; and to bring together foreign policy influence decisions on science policy? A workshop to examine these questions with refer- an international group to help develop research on ence to the experiences of the People's Republic of Chinese science and technological policy. Papers on selected topics were prepared by the China was held on January 10-14, 1972 at the Science China specialists who had been invited to attend the Policy Research Unit, University of Sussex, with the cosponsorship of the Joint Committee on Contemporary workshop, and these were circulated to all particiChina of the American Council of Learned Societies pants in advance. Sessions organized for discussion of and the Social Science Research Council and the these papers were chaired by members of the other Canadian International Development Research Center. two groups in attendance. Discussions were focused on The workshop was dedicated to the memory of John two general areas: China's scientific organization and M. H. Lindbeck, chairman of the Joint Committee science policy and its relationship to society, and on Contemporary China from 1964 until his death China's technological policies. Papers in the first catein January 1971. He had been especially interested in gory dealt with science institutions in China and the the development of science and technology in China effects of the Cultural Revolution on these institutions; and had stimulated inquiries into possibilities for science, technology, and social organization in conexpanding research on the subject. One result was a temporary China; Marxist theory and China's science grant from the Ford Foundation to the Science Policy policy; and health strategies and development planning Research Unit for initiation of the collection of rele- in China. In the second category papers were prepared vant research materials and preliminary studies on the on the transfer of technology to China; China's choice role of science and technology in China's development. of techniques; rural industrialization; and the choice This program, under the direction of C. H. G. Oldham, of technology in Chinese agriculture. While it is impossible here to review the discussions led to a proposal for a workshop that would bring together members of three groups--specialists on China, in any detail, major questions raised about the Chinese specialists on science policy, and economists concerned experience by the non-China specialists, whose exwith development-who share interests in China's perience with science policy and economic development science and technology policies. This proposal was was in other less-developed countries, may be identified. developed in collaboration with the Joint Committee The economists were particularly interested in laboron Contemporary China, which in 1969-70 was explor- intensive strategies and their relationship to choice of ing ways of fostering relationships between social and technologies in industrial and agricultural developnatural scientists that would increase knowledge of ment. They were also interested in the influence of China on the part of persons who might be able to technological choice on the growth of research and development programs with technology as a major further communication with Chinese scientists. The explicit objectives of the four-day meeting were variable of developmental planning, the interrelationpresented in the opening remarks by Mr. Oldham, who ship among technology, technique and institutional served as chairman: to review the state of knowledge arrangements, and the role of technical innovation in on Chinese science and technology; to examine the economic development. The science policy specialists, who were drawn from relevance of the Chinese experience for other underdeveloped countries; and to identify priorities for future the natural sciences, sociology, and political science, research. There were also implicit objectives which directed attention to the relations of science to society. They were concerned with the role of Marxist and Maoist ideologies in the choice and organization of and Technological Research. Paris; Jorge A. Sabato, National Commission on Atomic Energy. Argentina; Ignacy Sachs. Ecole Pratique science and technology policy, possible misinterpretades Hautes Etudes; Jean-Jacques Salomon. Organization for Economic tions of Chinese goals because of Western values and Cooperation and Development; and Ruth Zagorin, International Deprejudices, and the role of mass mobilization in attainvelopment Research Center, Ottawa. MARCH
ing given scientific and technological goals. They stressed the importance of understanding science policy as a communication and political system and of examining China's development of this system as a basis for comparisons with other less-developed countries. The China specialists believed that despite the lack of Chinese scientific publications since 1966 materials for research on these questions could be obtained. Recent and prospective visitors to China should be able to indicate sources of data, particularly if before their visits they were given information on areas and questions of interest to those doing research on China's science and technology. In the final session participants were asked to make suggestions for the development of this new field of inquiry. Possible subjects for initial studies were: the science and technology training system as it is crystallizing in the post-Cultural Revolution phase; the scientific research system, including research institutions and
character and methods of research; problems of technological change in relation to the role of foreign technology and how technology is transferred; the role of indigenously generated technology, the choice of techniques in developing these technologies, and the character of decision making about the development of science and technology. It was suggested that such studies might involve collaboration between China specialists and others, and between social scientists and natural scientists and engineers. Suggestions about procedures called for seeking opportunities for researchoriented visits to China, systematically collecting published and unpublished observations of visitors, preparing questionnaires designed to obtain pertinent information from future travelers in China, and interviewing refugees and others in Hong Kong. On the basis of this summary session, the chairman concluded that the workshop had taken important steps toward the purposes he had outlined in earlier sessions.
COMMITTEE BRIEFS CONFERENCE BOARD OF ASSOCIATED RESEARCH COUNCILS (Joint with the American Council on Education, American Council of Learned Societies, and National Research Council) Frederick Burkhardt (chairman), Roger W. Heyns (vicechairman), Lincoln Gordon, Philip Handler, William C. Kelly, Ralph W. Tyler, Paul L. Ward, Robert E. Ward A new National Board on Graduate Education has been established by the Conference Board to examine the nation's system of graduate education and seek solutions of its complex problems. The new board has received support from the National Science Foundation and the National Institute of General Medical Sciences. Additional funding is being sought. The chairman of the new board is David D. Henry, Professor of Higher Education at the University of Illinois and former president of that university. The membership of the board (which is not yet complete) includes representatives of university faculties and administrators, employers of recipients of graduate degrees, and the public sector. Graduate students will be represented on panels and conference groups named by the board to study specific topics. The board expects to direct its attention first to problems of manpower supply and demand and ways in which graduate schools can and should adjust to the changing employment situation. Topics also on the priority list for early consideration are determination of the unit costs 6
of graduate education by field and by type of institution; alternate systems and procedures for graduate education in the United States; aims of graduate education; and access to graduate education for women and minority groups. In exploring these and other problems, the board will conduct studies, commission papers, and hold conferences. The board will determine its own programs but will report semiannually to the Conference Board of Associated Research Councils. The individual Councils will have opportunity to review the board's reports and statements before publication but will not influence their content. The new board will seek to cooperate with present organizations of graduate schools in every way compatible with its autonomous status. The National Research Council's Office of Scientific Personnel will provide administrative services for the board. CONTEMPORARY CHINA (Joint with the American Council of Learned Societies) Albert Feuerwerker (chairman), Morton H. Fried, Chalmers Johnson, Philip Kuhn, Dwight H. Perkins, James R. Townsend, Ezra F. Vogel, Arthur P. Wolf; staff, John Creighton Campbell Chinese studies in the United States have expanded rapidly since 1960, perhaps by a factor of eight to ten as measured by research produced, numbers of students, and other indicators. Quantitative change to this degree necessarily has affected the shape of the field: earlier, courses on China were offered at only a few major institutions, VOLUME
but today scholars trained at these centers are teaching in colleges and universities across the country. Often, these highly trained specialists are "lone scholars"; they have no colleagues nearby with whom to discuss Chinese affairs. In response to this rather recent phenomenon, the committee this year initiated a program of support for "regional seminars," to bring together periodically China specialists within a geographical area. Proposals for such seminars are drawn up by groups of local scholars, who make arrangements with a university in the region to administer the project. Funds are requested from the joint committee to cover such expenses as travel by participants and duplication and distribution of papers or other materials prepared for their use. The first proposal approved for support is the New England China Seminar, which meets monthly at Harvard University. Illustrative of papers presented at recent meetings are those by Jack Chen, a cartoonist and writer who has worked in the People's Republic of China for most of the last 22 years, on life in a people's commune; by Daniel L. Overmyer, Oberlin College, on folk-Buddhist sects as a structure in the history of Chinese religions; and John Service, University of California, Berkeley, on his recent visit to China. The participants include scholars from 22 New England institutions. The other seminars supported are the Midwest Regional Seminar, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign; the California Seminar on Modem China, University of California, Berkeley; and the Northwest Regional Seminar on
China, University of Washington. Although the funds allocated for the seminar program this year have been fully committed, periodic reports on all the seminars will be evaluated by the committee, which hopes to extend the program to provide for greater cooperation-for example, by enabling research centers to make their facilities available to seminar participants for longer periods. Early reports from the organizers of these seminars indicate an enthusiastic response from local scholars. JAPANESE STUDIES (Joint with the American Council of Learned Societies) Robert E. Ward (chairman), Scott Flanagan, John W. Hall, Marius B. Jansen, Solomon B. Levine, William McCullough, Bernard S. Silberman, Robert J. Smith; staff. John Creighton Campbell The field of Japanese studies has expanded in a pattern similar to that of Chinese studies (described above), although not quite to the same extent. This committee has also initiated a program of support for regional seminars of scholars in its field, under which two seminars are currently holding regular meetings-the Southeast Regional Seminar on Japan, University of Maryland, and the Midwest Japan Seminar, University of Illinois' at UrbanaChampaign. Consideration is being given to other possibilities, including seminars focused on selected topics that might involve participants from wider geographical areas.
PERSONNEL DIRECTORS OF THE COUNCIL The following social scientists have been designated by the seven national organizations associated with the Council to serve as directors of the Council for the three-year term 1972-74: Alfonso Ortiz, Princeton University, by the American Anthropological Association James N. Morgan, University of Michigan, by the American Economic Association Murray G. Murphey, University of Pennsylvania, by the American Historical Association Herbert McClosky, University of California, Berkeley, by the American Political Science Association Gardner Lindzey, University of Texas at Austin, by the American Psychological Association Alice S. Rossi, Goucher College, by the American Sociological Association Leo A. Goodman, University of Chicago, by the American Statistical Association. Their credentials as members are scheduled for acceptance by the board of directors of the Council at its spring meetMARCH
ing in New York on March 24-25, 1972. Nominated for election as a director-at-large for the balance of the two-year term ending December 31, 1972 is William H. Sewell, University of Wisconsin. COUNCIL OFFICE MANAGER RETIRES Dorothy Noel Whiteman, better known to many of the Council's directors and personnel as Miss Noel or "DN," will retire on March 15, 1972. She joined the Council's office staff on June 30, 1930 and has effectively managed the details of its operation for many years. Her record of happy and loyal service to the Council is and may well remain unmatched. Founders of the Council appreciated her capabilities and ever willing helpfulness. Succeeding generations of Council members and office colleagues have continued to be grateful for her skillful and efficient attention to the daily needs of an expanding office. Her wish to retire was accepted with true regret and full recognition of her unique contribution to the conduct of the Council's affairs. All who have been associated with Mrs. Whiteman know how sorely she will be missed. They join in extending to her their warmest wishes for the future and in ex-
pressing their appreciation of her friendship and unfailing aid. COUNCIL STAFF John Creighton Campbell, who has been serving as staff of the Joint Committees (of the American Council of Learned Societies and Social Science Research Council) on Contemporary China, Japanese Studies, and Korean Studies, as well as of their various subcommittees and of the SSRC's Committee on Exchanges with Asian Institutions, will take a leave of absence from April 1 through September 30, 1972. During this period he will be engaged in completing preparation of his doctoral dissertation for submission to the Department of Political Science, Columbia University. William R. Bryant, who is also a candidate for the Ph.D. in political science at Columbia, will serve in Mr. Campbell's place as staff of these committees for six months. Mr. Bryant has been employed for the past three years as an international economist, specializing on Japan, at the Stanford Research Institute.
GRANTS FOR RESEARCH ON CONTEMPORARY AND REPUBLICAN CHINA The Joint Committee on Contemporary China, sponsored with the American Council of Learned Societies-Albert Feuerwerker (chairman), Morton H. Fried, Chalmers Johnson, Philip Kuhn, Dwight H. Perkins, James R. Townsend, Ezra F. Vogel, and Arthur P. Wolf-at its meeting on February 4-5 awarded 17 grants for research: Thomas P. Bernstein, Assistant Professor of Political Science, Yale University, for research in Hong Kong on educational and career opportunities, modernization, and the political process in China Parris H. Chang, Assistant Professor of Political Science, Pennsylvania State University, for research in Taiwan and Hong Kong on military intervention in Chinese politics in the 1960's Tao-shing Chang, visiting scholar, Center for Chinese Studies, University of California, Berkeley, for preparation of an "inner history" of personal experience relating to Chinese attitudes toward foreign policy questions Madeleine Chi (Sister), Assistant Professor of Asian Studies, Manhattanville College, for research in Japan and the United States on a political biography of Ts'ao Ju-lin Alexander Eckstein, Professor of Economics, University of Michigan, for research in the United States on the growth and structural transformation of the Manchurian economy, 1920-60 Edward Friedman, Assistant Professor of Political Science, University of Wisconsin, Madison, for research on Chinese foreign policy in the era of Mao Tse-tung Bernie M. Frolic, Associate Professor of Political Science, York University (on leave 1971-72, Research Fellow, Harvard University), for research in Hong Kong and the People's Republic of China on ruralurban relationships in China since 1957
Anne Y. Hashimoto, Visiting Senior Research Sinologist, Chinese Linguistics Project, Princeton University, for field work in Hong Kong on Yue dialects Harold C. Hinton, Professor of Political Science and International Affairs, George Washington University, for research in Tokyo, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Europe on the role of the military in the formulation of Chinese foreign policy since 1965 Suzanne Pepper Kulkarni, New York, N.Y., for research in Hong Kong on education and political development in Communist China, 1949-70 Chong-Sik Lee, Associate Professor of Political Science, University of Pennsylvania, for research in the United States, London, Hong Kong, Taipei, and Tokyo on communism and counterinsurgency in Manchuria, 1925-41 Stephen M. Olsen, Assistant Professor of Sociology, Stanford University, for a historical and ecological study of ethnic and social stratification in Taiwan William L. Parish, Jr., Assistant Professor of Sociology, University of Chicago, for research in Hong Kong on the informal organization of the contemporary Chinese bureaucracy Michael R. Saso, Assistant Professor of Anthropology, Washington State University, for research in Taiwan on patterns of demographic and social change in a city undergoing industrialization in north Taiwan Hung-mao Tien, Assistant Professor of Political Science, University of Wisconsin, Waukesha, for research in the United States, Tokyo, and Paris on local systems in Kwangsi: a case study of sociopolitical changes, 1925-36 Lyman P. Van Slyke, Associate Professor of History, Stanford University, for research in the United States, Japan, and Taiwan on continuity and change in Tsou-p'ing hsien, Shantung, in the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries George T. Yu, Professor of Political Science, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, for research in Tanzania and Sweden on Chinese-Tanzanian cooperation in international development GRANTS FOR JAPANESE STUDIES Under the new program sponsored by the Joint Committee on Japanese Studies (of the ACLS and SSRC), its Subcommittee on Grants for Research-Solomon B. Levine (chairman), James T. Araki, John W. Hall, Robert J. Smith, Ann Waswo, and Martin E. Weinstein-at its meeting on February 25 voted to make 16 awards: Koya Azumi, Research Associate, East Asian Institute, Columbia University, for research on culture and organizations: a comparative study of Japanese factories Karen W. Brazell, Assistant Professor of East Asian Studies, Princeton University, for research in Japan on No drama in its total theatrical context, and its manifestation of religious ideas James F. Cahill, Professor of the History of Art, University of California, Berkeley, for research in the United States, Japan, Taiwan, and Hong Kong on early Nanga painting in Japan and its Chinese sources John W. Dower, Assistant Professor of Japanese History, University of Wisconsin, Madison, for research in Japan on the aftermath of empire: Yoshida Shigeru (1878-1954) and postwar Japan VOLUME
Robert Evans, Jr., Professor of Economics, Brandeis University, for research in Japan on the impact of the use of computer-assisted employment services on the Japanese labor market Calvin L. French, Associate Professor of the History of Art, University of Michigan, for research in Japan and Taiwan on the painting and poetry of Yosano Buson (1716-83) Allen C. Kelley, Professor of Economics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, for research in Tokyo on Meiji Japanese economic history (joint with Jeffrey G. Williamson) Hiroshi Miyaji, Associate Professor of Japanese Studies, University of Pennsylvania, for research in Japan and the United States on Neo-Confucianism and Shintoism in Tokugawa Japan: Yamazaki Ansai (1618-82) Ray A. Moore, Associate Professor of History, Amherst College, for research in Japan on Japanese youth and America, 1945-57: the response of young intellectuals to national defeat and the American Occupation reform program William F. Morton, Assistant Professor of History, York College, City University of New York, for research in Japan on its relations with China, 1870's-1970's Susumu Nagara, Assistant Professor of Japanese, University of Michigan, for research on the history of the Japanese language Kenneth B. Pyle, Associate Professor of History, University of Washington, for research in the United States and Tokyo on Japanese nationalism and the Home Ministry, 1905-31 Henry D. Smith, II, Assistant Professor of History, Princeton University, for research in Tokyo on patterns of urban cultural change in Japan, 1900-1945 Nathaniel B. Thayer, Visiting Associate Professor of Political Science, Hunter College, City University of New York, for research on the political role of the Japanese press Jeffrey G. Williamson, Professor of Economics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, for research in Tokyo on Meiji Japanese economic history (joint with Allen C. Kelley) Kozo Yamamura, Visiting Professor of Economics, University of Hawaii, for research in Japan on its economic history from the mid-seventh century to the establishment of the Tokugawa Shogunate GRANTS FOR KOREAN STUDIES The Joint Committee on Korean Studies, sponsored with the American Council of Learned Societies-Chong-Sik Lee (chairman), Herbert R. Barringer, Han-Kyo Kim, Paul W. Kuznets, Gari K. Ledyard, James Palais, and Edward W. Wagner-at its meeting on February 11-12 awarded 9 grants for research under a new program first offered this year: Wonmo Dong, Assistant Professor of Political Science, Southern Methodist University, for research on the politics of social change in colonial Korea, 1910-45 Mantaro J. Hashimoto, Associate Professor of Chinese and Japanese Linguistics, Princeton University, for a historical comparative study in Japan and Korea of Sino-Korean Gregory Henderson, Associate Professor of Public Diplomacy, Tufts University, for research in Seoul on the MARCH
u'ia1 of 11 arrested members of the Korean National Assembly, 1949-50 Chong Sun Kim, Associate Professor of History, University of Rhode Island, for research in Japan and Korea on unity and disintegration in the Silla Kingdom Roy U. T. Kim, Assistant Professor of Political Science, Drexel University, for research in Seoul on the Panmunjom Negotiations, 1951-71 Sam-Woo Kim, Toronto, Canada, for research in the United States and Canada on the contribution of Chinul (Il58-1210) to Korean Buddhism Yoon Hough Kim, Assistant Professor of Sociology, East Carolina University, for research in Korea on the social life of the blind in that country Young I. Lew, Instructor in History, University of Houston, for research on the structure and function of the Korean government, 1895-1905 Doo Soo Suh, Associate Professor of Korean Languages and Literature, University of Washington, for research on the P'ansori, traditional Korean drama series GRANTS FOR LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES The Joint Committee on Latin American Studies, sponsored with the American Council of Learned Societies and administered from the office of the Foreign Area Fellowship Program-Joseph Grunwald (chairman), Julio Cotler, John T. Dorsey, Jr., Richard R. Fagen, Carl F. Hereford, Franklin W. Knight, June Nash, Joseph L. Sommers, and Osvaldo Sunkel-at its meeting on January 28-30 awarded 22 grants for research and 5 collaborative research grants: Gmnts for research Gerard H. Behague, Associate Professor of Music, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, for researcli. in Brazil on Afro-Brazilian cult musics Victoria R. Bricker, Assistant Professor of Anthropology, Tulane University, for research in Mexico on the Caste War of Yucatan Jesus Chavarria, Assistant Professor of History, University of California, Santa Barbara, for research in Peru on the birth of the Peruvian nation Frank N. Dauster, Professor of Romance Languages, Rutgers University, for research in Mexico on poets after the Contemporaneos David Felix, Professor of Economics, Washington University, for research in Latin America on productinnovating strategies of consumer goods firms David W. Foster, Professor of Spanish, Arizona State University, for research in Argentina on literary criticism Louis W. Goodman, Assistant Professor of Sociology, Yale University, for research in Latin America on decision making in multinational corporations Edward C. Hansen, Assistant Professor of Anthropology, Queens College, City University of New York, for research in Sao Paulo on social mobility Benjamin Keen, Professor of History, Northern Illinois University, for research in the United States on the historiography of the Spanish conquest, sixteenth to twentieth centuries Peter F. Klaren, Adjunct Assistant Professor of History, Dartmouth College, for research in Peru on the agrarian history of the northern provinces, 1880-1940 Herald E. Lewald, Professor of Romance Languages, University of Tennessee, for research in Argentina on Eduardo Mallea's essays and fiction 9
Clara E. Lida, Assistant Professor of History, Wesleyan GRANTS FOR RESEARCH ON THE University, for research in Argentina on immigration NEAR AND MIDDLE EAST and anarchism, 1870-90 The Joint Committee on the Near and Middle East, Carmelo Mesa-Lago, Associate Professor of Economics, University of Pittsburgh, for research on the social sponsored with the American Council of Learned Sociesecurity programs of several Latin American countries ties-Marvin Zonis (chairman), Robert McC. Adams, Sarah K. Myers, Assistant Editor, Encyclopedia Bri- Hamid Algar, Paul Ward English, Muhsin S. Mahdi, and tannica, for research in Peru on the cultural geography I. William Zartman-at its meeting on February 25 awarded of squatter settlements in Lima Eul-Soo Pang, Assistant Professor of History, California 18 grants for research: State College, Hayward, for research in Brazil on the Barbara Aswad, Associate Professor of Anthropology, cacao economy, 1890-1945 Wayne State University, for research in Turkey on Richard Price, Assistant Professor of Anthropology, Yale marriage and visiting patterns among tlle elite families University, for research in Surinam on the Saramaka of a small provincial city Maroons: Afro-Americans of the tropical forest Use D. Cirtautas, Associate Professor of Turkic, UniverJaime E. Rodriguez 0., Assistant Professor of History, sity of Washington, for research in Afghanistan on California State College, Long Beach, for research in linguistic-folkloristic materials on Uzbek dialects of Ecuador on its agricultural history in the nineteenth North Afghanistan century (renewal) Erica Dodd, Assistant Professor of Cultural Studies, Bertram Silverman, Assistant Professor of Economics, American University of Beirut, for research in London Hofstra University, for research on the role of labor on the Kor'anic inscriptions in mosques in Cuban economic strategy Hasan Mohammed EI-Shamy, Assistant Professor of Franklin Tugwell, Assistant Professor of Government, Sociology and Anthropology, American University in Pomona College, for research in Venezuela on private Cairo, for research in the United States on the brothersector interests and the development of policy making sister syndrome in Arabic folk culture John D. Wirth, Associate Professor of History, Stanford John P. Entelis, Assistant Professor of Political Science, University, for research in Brazil on Minas Gerais in Fordham University, for research in Paris and Tunis the Brazilian Federation, 1889-1937 on university students and an emerging "counterJan Peter Wogart, Assistant Professor of Economics, Uniculture" in Tunisian politics versity of Miami, for research in Brazil on labor abHafez F. Farmayan, Associate Professor of History, Unisorption, income, and structure of the service sector versity of Texas at Austin, for research in Tehran on in northern and southern regions the intellectual and social history of nineteenthIris M. Zavala, Professor of Hispanic Languages and Litcentury Iran erature, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Oleg Grabar, Professor of Fine Arts, Harvard University, for research in Puerto Rico on social thought in the for research in the Soviet Union, Afghanistan, India, nineteenth-century Puerto Rican novel Pakistan, and Iran on Islamic art of Central Asia William L. Hanaway, Jr., Assistant Professor of Persian Language and Literature, University of Pennsylvania, Collaborative research grants for research in London and Iran on the pre-Safavid Persian inscriptions in Khorasan David Barkin, Associate Professor of Economics, Herbert R. Stephen Humphreys, Assistant Professor of History Lehman College, City University of New York, and and Arabic, State University of New York at Buffalo, Roberto Jarry R., Director, Department of Planning for research in Beirut and Damascus on the Ayyubids and Research, National Council of Scholastic Aid and of Damascus, from the death of Saladin to the Mongol Scholarships, Catholic University of Chile, for a cominvasion (renewal) parative study in Mexico and Chile of their school Samir Makdisi, Assistant Division Chief, International systems Monetary Fund, for research mainly in Syria and LebaEmilia V. da Costa, Associate Professor of History, Cathonon on the role of financial policy in developing econolic University of Sao Paulo, and Richard Graham, Asmies, with particular reference to Syria and Lebanon sociate Professor of History, University of Texas at Afaf Lutfi al-Sayyid Marsot, Associate Professor of HisAustin, for research in Brazil on oligarchic liberalism: tory, University of California, Los Angeles, for rethe political system of Brazil, 1830-1930 search in England on the nationalist movement in Richard D. Mallon, Development Adviser, Center for Egypt and the Liberal Constitutionalist Party, 1919-36 International Affairs, Harvard University, and Juan Lawrence Rosen, Russell Sage Foundation Resident in V. Sourrouille, Buenos Aires, for research on recent Law and Society, University of Chicago Law School, Argentine economic policy (renewal of grant made in for research in Morocco on its family law 1968-69) Nadav Safran, Professor of Government, Harvard UniWilliam H. Nicholls, Professor of Economics, Vanderversity, for research in Israel on the evolution of Israel bilt University, and Ruy Miller Paiva, Senior Staff and its relations with the United States, 1947-71 Economist, Ministry of Planning, Rio de Janeiro, for Stanford J. Shaw, Professor of Turkish and Near Eastern research in Brazil on the structure and productivity of History, University of California, Los Angeles, for reits agriculture, 1963-73 search in London, Vienna, Istanbul, and Paris on the Carlos M. Pelaez, Assistant Professor of Economics, Vanmodernization of the Ottoman empire under Abd ulderbilt University, and Wilson Suzigan, Director of Mamid II, 1876-1909 Industrial Finance, Ministry of Planning, Brasilia, for John Simmons, Lecturer on Economics, Harvard Uniresearch in Brazil on its monetary history, 1822-1970 versity, for research in Tunisia on the rate of return (renewal) to education for white collar workers in Tunis 10 VOLUME 26. NUMBER 1
J01m Masson Smith, Jr., Associate Professor of History, University of California, Berkeley, for research in Istanbul on the numismatic and monetary history of the Mongols in Iran, 1240-1335 Mark A. Tessler, Assistant Professor of Political Science, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, for research in
Tunisia, Morocco, and Israel on the political culture of nonassimilating minorities: a comparative study of Jews in Tunisia and Morocco and Arabs in Israel Gernot L. Windfuhr, Associate Professor of Iranian Languages and Literatures, University of Michigan, for research in Iran on the modern Persian short story
PUBLICATIONS The Behavioral and Social Sciences: Outlook and Needs. Report by the Behavioral and Social Sciences Survey Committee under the auspices of the Committee on Science and Public Policy, National Academy of Sciences, and the Committee on Problems and Policy, Social Science Research Council. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: PrenticeHall, Inc., December 1969. 335 pages. $7.95. Anthropology, edited by Allan H. Smith and John L. Fischer. Report of the Anthropology Panel of the Behavioral and Social Sciences Survey Committee. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc., Novemmer 1970. 158 pages. Cloth, $5.95; paper, $1.95. Economics, edited by Nancy D. Ruggles. Report of the Economics Panel of the Behavioral and Social Sciences Survey Committee. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc., November 1970. 190 pages. Cloth, $5.95; paper, $2.45. Geography, edited by Edward J. Taaffe. Report of the Geography Panel of the Behavioral and Social Sciences Survey Committee. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc., May 1970. 154 pages. Cloth, $5.95; paper, $2.45. Htstory as Social Science, edited by David S. Landes and Charles Tilly. Report of the History Panel of the Behavioral and Social Sciences Survey Committee. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc., March 1971. 160 pages. Cloth, $5.95; paper, $1.95. Mathematical Sciences and Social Sciences, edited by William H. Kruskal. Report of the Mathematical Sciences Panel of the Behavioral and Social Sciences Survey Committee. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: PrenticeHall, Inc., November 1970. 92 pages. Cloth only, $4.95. Political Science, edited by Heinz Eulau and James G. March. Report of the Political Science Panel of the Behavioral and Social Sciences Survey Committee. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc., November 1969. 160 pages. Cloth, $5.95; paper, $1.95. Psychiatry as a Behavioral Science, edited by David A. Hamburg. Report of the Psychiatry Panel of the Behavioral and Social Sciences Survey Committee. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc., July 1970. 127 pages. Cloth, $5.95; paper, $1.95. Psychology, edited by Kenneth E. Clark and George A. Miller. Report of the Psychology Panel of the Behavioral and Social Sciences Survey Committee. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc., March 1970. 157 pages. Cloth, $5.95; paper, $1.95. Sociology, edited by Neil J. Smelser and James A. Davis. Report of the Sociology Panel of the Behavioral and Social Sciences Survey Committee. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc., November 1969. 187 pages. Cloth, $5.95; paper, $1.95. China: Management of a Revolutionary Society, edited by John M. H_ Lindbeck. Product of a conference sponsored by the Subcommittee on Chinese Government and MARCH
Politics, Joint Committee on Contemporary China, August 18-22, 1969. Seattle: University of Washington Press, July 1971. 406 pages. Cloth, $12.50; paper, $4.95. China's Fertilizer Economy, by Jung-Chao Liu. Sponsored by the former Committee on the Economy of China. Chicago: Aldine Publishing Company, November 1970. 188 pages. $6.00. Tne City in Communist China, edited by John Wilson Lewis. Product of a conference cosponsored by the Subcommittees on Research on Chinese Society and on Chinese Government and Politics, Joint Committee on Contemporary China, December 28, 1968 - January 4, 1969. Stanford: Stanford University Press, April 1971. 462 pages. $12.95. Computer-Assisted Instruction, Testing, and Guidance, edited by Wayne H. Holtzman. Product of a conference cosponsored by the Committee on Learning and the EducatIonal Process and the College Entrance Examination Board Commission on Tests, October 21-22, 1968. New York: Harper & Row, December 1970. 415 pages. $10.00. Crises and Sequences in Political Development, by Leonard Binder, James S. Coleman, Joseph LaPalombara, Lucian W. Pye, Sidney Verba, and Myron Weiner. Studies in Political Development 7, sponsored by the Committee on Comparative Politics. Princeton: Princeton University Press, November 1971. 337 pages. $8.00. Experiments in Primary Education, by Eleanor E. Maccoby and Miriam Zellner. Expansion of a paper prepared for a conference held by the Subcommittee on Compensatory Education, Committee on Learning and the Educational Process, May 15-17, 1969. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc., October 1970. 144 pages. $2.95. The Foreign Trade of Mainland China, by Feng-hwa Mah. Sponsored by the former Committee on the Economy of China. Chicago and New York: Aldine . Atherton, October 1971. 287 pages. $9.75. The Machine-Building Industry in Communist China, by Chu-Yuan Cheng. Sponsored by the former Committee on the Economy of China. Chicago and New York: Aldine路 Atherton, September 1971. 356 pages. $9.75. People of the United States in the Twentieth Century, by Irene B. Taeuber and Conrad Taeuber. Sponsored by the former Committee on Population Census Monographs in cooperation with the Bureau of the Census. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, May 1972. c. llOO pages. $5.75. Pidginization and Creolization of Languages, edited by Dell Hymes. Product of a conference cosponsored by the Committee on Sociolinguistics and the University of the West Indies, April 9-12, 1968. Cambridge: Cambridge Uni路 versity Press, September 1971. 538 pages. $23.50. The Study of Japan in the Behavioral Sciences, edited by Edward Norbeck and Susan Parman. Papers prepared for a conference held by the Joint Committee on Japanese Studies, April 11-12, 1969. Rice University Studies, Vol. 56, No.4, Fall 1970. 314 pages. $3.25.
ANNOUNCEMENT SUMMER TRAINING INSTITUTE ON PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY FOR SOCIAL SCIENTISTS, !vfASSACHUSETTS MENTAL HEALTH CENTER, BOSTON, JUNE 19-AUGUST 11, 1972
staff will be drawn from the faculties of Harvard University and of other universities. There will be guest lecturers for special topics. The prograIJl. of the institute will consist of seminars, laboratory training, lectures, and demonstrations. The cardiovascular and electrodermal systems will be considered in special detail, in addition to other autonomic and central nervous system processes. Relationships between peripheral physiological measures and basic neural control systems will be stressed. Instruction will be given in basic physiology, electricity, and electronics, recording technique!. and instrumentation, design and analysis of experiments, and all aspects of experimental procedure. Applications of psychophysiology in the social sciences will be reviewed and discussed, and the advantages and limitations of physiological indices will be examined in detail. Special emphasis will be given throughout the program, in laboratories and seminars on topics of particular interest to students, to individual discussion and interaction among staff and students. The participants will work in small groups in the laboratory, and will be encouraged to carry out independent research projects. Application forms and further information may be ohtained from:
This eight-week summer institute will be conducted under the auspices of the Council's Committee on Biological Bases of Social Behavior, with support granted to the Council by the National Institute of Mental Health. The purpose of the institute is to provide about 20 selected social scientists with intensive training in the concepts and techniques of psychophysiological research, starting from basic information about physiology, electronics, and laboratory techniques, and relating these fundamentals to theoretical concepts in biology and the social and behavioral sciences. Applications are encouraged from advanced predoctoral and recent postdoctoral students in psychology, social psychology, sociology, anthropology, and other social and behavioral sciences. An elementary background in biology, physics, and mathematics would be desirable but is not required. All participants will be expected to attend the entire eight-week program. Stipends will be available in the amount of $720 for predoctoral trainees and $880 for postdoctoral. Travel expenses will be reimbursed up to an equivalent of roundtrip economy airline fare. Allowances for dependents will not be provided. Arrangements for university housing can be made, or information on private housing supplied if desired. The director of the institute will be David Shapiro, Senior Associate in Psychiatry (Psychology), Massachusetts Mental Health Center, and the codirector will be Bernard Tursky, Professor of Political Science, State University of New York at Stony Brook. Other members of the teaching
Dr. David Shapiro Psychophysiology Laboratories Massachusetts Mental Health Center 74 Fenwood Road Boston, Massachusetts 02115 Completed applications and supporting documents must be in his hands by April 10, 1972. Notification of awards will be made about May 1.
SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH COUNCIL 230
Incorporated ill the State of Illinois, December 27, 1924, for the purpose of advancing research in the social sciences Directors, 1972:
DORWIN CAllTWRIGHT, PHILIP D. CURTIN, RENEE C.
JR., DELL HYMES, LAWRENCE R. KLEIN, GARDNER LINDZEY, LEON LIPSO~,
H . SEWELL, NEIL
\V. PRATT, AUSTIN
HOLDEN, MURI'HEY. \VILLIAM
RALPH W. TYLER,
JR., DONALD S. SHOUP, DAVID JENNESS. RONNAN.
SMELSER, M . BREWSTER SMITH, EDWARD J. TAAFFE. KARL E. TAEUIlER, JOHN M. THO~IPSON, RALPH
P . VAYDA, ROBERT E. WARD, CHARLES
Officers and Staff:
RANNEY, ALBERT REES,
Acting President; BRYCE WOOD. Executive Associate; Staff Associates; JOHN CREIGH 10... CA~lpBELL. ROBERT
ELEANOR C. ISBELL, ROWLAND F.
Fillancial Secretary 3~