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SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH COUNCIL

VOLUME 25 . NUMBER 3 . SEPTEMBER 1971 230 PARK AVENUE· NEW YORK, N.Y. 10017

URBANIZATION IN AFRICA: SOME SPATIAL AND FUNCTIONAL ASPECTS by Walter W. Deshler •

THE Joint Committee on African Studies held a second research conference on urbanization in Africa on November 12-14. 1970. at the Greyston Conference Center. Riverdale. New York. This subject has been a major concern of the committee for nearly a decade. Its first conference, held in April 1965. dealt with methods and objectives of research on African cities from a social and political view. (The conference papers were edited by Horace Miner and published as The City in Modern Africa. I )

The purpose of the November conference was to examine the spatial and functional aspects of African market centers and settlements, both large and small. Relatively few scholars are using this approach in study of African urbanization; of these, most are geographers and a few are historians. This paucity of attention is surprising in view of the importance of these aspects of urbanization for national development in Africa. For appraisal of methods and results of comparable research on other parts of the world. the committee invited participation by persons with experience in Latin America, China, and the United States-John • The author, Professor of Geography at the University of Maryland. is a member of the Joint Committee on African Studies, which is cosponsored by the Social Science Research Council and the American Council of Learned Societies. He was chairman of the group invited by the committee to plan the conference reported on here; the other members of the group were T. J. Denis Fair of Witwatersrand University, and Edward Soja of Northwestern University. The members of the joint committee, in addition to the author, are Elizabeth Colson, University of California. Berkeley (chairman); L. Gray Cowan. State University of New York at Albany; Philip D. Curtin, University of Wisconsin; William O. Jones. Stanford University; Igor Kopytoff, University of Pennsylvania; Roy Sieber. Indiana University; and Robert F. Thompson, Yale University; staff, Rowland L. Mitchell. Jr. 1 New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1967.

Friedmann of the University of California. Los Angeles. G. William Skinner of Stanford University. and Brian J. L. Berry of the University of Chicago. respectively. The remaining participants. who prepared papers and served as discussants. had field experience in Africa in research relating to central places but not with spatial aspects as a focus. 2 The conference papers dealt with the central place aspects of periodic markets. past centralities (Sierra Leone). small central places (Coast Province of Kenya). urban hierarchies (southern Africa). migration and diffusion in urban systems. and the overall structure of a space economy (South Africa). Theoretical and practical implications of research on these topics were examined in a final session. The papers treated both methods and substantive results of research. The results were preliminary and tentative in studies of tropical Africa and more conclusive in studies of southern Africa. This reflects the relative state of development of the countries under study and the availability of appropriate data. It also indicates that tropical Africa is the area of highest priority for continued research. PERIODIC MARKETS

In recent years there has been controversy concerning the relationship of periodic marketing to the proposi2 Included, in addition to members of the committee and staff. were Gerald Breese, Princeton University; R . J. Davies. University of Natal; Allen M. Howard, Livingston College. Rutgers University; Peter F. M. McLoughlin, and Richard Stren, University of Toronto; Marvin Miracle, University of Wisconsin; J . Barry Riddell. and Robert H. T. Smith, Queen's University; D. R. F. Taylor. Carleton University; and Thomas Boswell, Columbia University. and Martha Vill, University of Maryland (rapporteurs).

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tions of central place theory, which is essentially addressed to an understanding of the location, size; and rank of market and service centers. 8 At the conference Robert H. T. Smith discussed these problems. Periodic markets are a basic institution for exchange of goods in Africa. Their distribution and functions can be explained within the framework of central place theory. Periodic marketi~g is identified as the situation in which sellers ar-e faced with demand so low that they cannot achieve viable full-time operation at one site. Part-time marketing is one way to reduce the time cost to the trader; another is mobile marketing, in which the trader can expose his goods to a number of customers sufficient to keep him in business. Smith examined three hypotheses of periodic markets: the trader hypothesis, that market periodicity and location are arranged to minimize the trader's costs; the welfare hypothesis, that the customer's access to market is maximized through space and time; the local hypothesis, according to which the time interval for the market is worked out in relation to local social and economic conditions. The testing of these hypotheses he has found difficult. Evidence favors the welfare hypothesis but there is much unexplained variation. There is differentiation among markets in the variety of trading activities involved. Hierarchies of markets and range of goods are clearly shown only in the context of unit of sale. For example, cloth, which is offered in most markets, is handled wholesale in an Ibadan market every 16 days and in a Lagos market every 32 days. These cases indicate hierarchical tendencies. G. William Skinner, who has done extensive research on the development of marketing and market towns in China, in discussion of Smith's paper questioned the suitability of the African scene for the study of periodic marketing because central place systems there are recent developments and in flux; the examples presented were from diverse cultures and introduced variables so complex as to make comparison difficult if not impossible. He asked about the relationship between market periodicity and population density. During the general discussion it was noted that this relationship is not linear. There may be a tendency for an increase in population density to be accompanied by an increase in market frequency within the same society. The societies of West Africa are undergoing increasing commercialization but at different rates. Skinner noted that a The basics of central place theory were laid out by Walter Chriltaller in 1933 and August Losch in 1941. Their works are available in translation: Christaller, The Central Places of Southern GeTmany, ttanslated by C. Baskin, Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1966; Losch, The Economics of Location, translated by W. H. Woglom and W. F. Stolper, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1954.

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long periods of time, often centuries, are needed for development of central place systems, and suggested that increased efficiency of transportation might be associated with increased frequency of markets. PAST CENTRALITY: SIERRA LEONE Centralization has many bases in addition to marketing, although this is commonly dominant. Allen Howard examined centralities in nineteenth-century Sierra Leone, where towns seldom included more than 1,000 people and the volume of trade was slight. The basis of centrality at its simplest was a compound headed by a "big man," who exacted produce as tax or tribute in this largely premoney economy. Collected produce was redistributed among clients, and traded or used in external political negotiation. The volume of trade among these small, multiethnic and multilinguistic communities increased during the nineteenth century. The role of trader was of mutual interest to diverse groups. Traders working away from home were "strangers." "Big men" and chiefs, regarded in this context as "landlords," provided facilities for trading by these strangers. The facilities provided became complex when landlords collected goods for the traders, or in some cases provided credit. In the late nineteenth century long-distance trade routes were maintained in safety by means of cooperation among powerful political groups that shared interests in trade along the routes. Political systems involved hierarchical relationships among compounds and groups of compounds, in towns. In some places town-based chiefs or war leaders made important decisions for people of the surrounding villages, heard disputes, and dispensed justice. In many cases the towns were not unified politically but had competing factions; the system worked because the competition was largely peaceful. As trade increased there was a common dislike of anything that interfered with it. Howard presented a map showing the distribution of major towns and their areas of influence during the 1860-90 period. He had tentatively ranked the towns by functional importance. Those of highest rank were found to have (1) many "big men" with wide connections, (2) military authority that provided control of the region, (3) domination of regional trade in one commodity or considerable importance in a few, (4) linguistic and ethnic diversity, and (5) location on a major transportation route. As colonial administration penetrated the interior, some previously important places lost functions; others, selected as bases for the new administrative hierarchy, gained. Penetration of the interior by rail and road caused further changes. VOLUME

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SMALL CENTRAL PLACES: COAST PROVINCE OF KENYA A report by D. R. F. Taylor dealt with methods used to study central places in the Coast Province of Kenya, current problems of development there, and the Kenya government's 1970-74 development plan for the area. To establish a data base from which to assess the relative prospects for growth of the central places in the Coast Province, Taylor and his associates during 1969 gathered information on the number and types of commercial, administrative, educational, medical, and other services available; data on volume of business or other transactions, where obtainable; measures of trade or service areas; traffic flow data; and information on past growth. Analysis of these data was not complete but Taylor presented tentative conclusions: The Coast Province is predominantly rural with little centrality away from the few towns and the one city, Mombasa. The few places offering services were established in the colonial era. Demand for commercial services among the predominantly subsistence cultivators is not sufficiently high (the threshold notion) to sustain additional service centers. There is, however, demand for educational and medical services provided by the government. Service areas of existing central places are small, usually having a radius of 5-10 miles. The economic base for generation of local income to support additional development and more central places could come from agriculture and tourism. At present the coast is not a significant source of surplus agricultural production, but tourism is booming. The Kenya government, troubled by overconcentration of people and resources in the cities of Nairobi and Mombasa has preached, "Back to the land," but with little success. Under the 1970-74 development plan the government is attempting to correct this imbalance by arranging infrastructural investment in a hierarchy of places that it is hoped have potential for growth. At present, Nairobi and Mombasa have 70 percent of the urban population of Kenya. Nakuru, the third largest town, is less than one seventh the size of Nairobi. Some ten more towns have populations of over 6,000. Taylor suggested that the proposal under the development plan to set up a four-tiered hierarchy of places is not feasible in this area and that, instead, a set of very small centers should be developed. In discussion by the conference participants, the government plan was described as an action plan with an inadequate data base. The essential difficulty was that it used a model for structure of settlements (including the four-tiered hierarchy) that probably is not suitable for the Coast area. This question of suitability of model was raised repeatedly. SEPTEMBER

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MIGRATION AND DIFFUSION Barry Riddell discussed the spatial aspects of migration and diffusion in emerging African societies. The new cities and towns are a frontier but one spatially quite different from the word's usual connotation, based as that is on nineteenth-century American experience. The African frontier is punctiform, hierarchical, and discontinuous. The city is the point of contact between modernizing influences and African traditions. The cities are islands of modernization within large areas of traditional culture. Geographic space is structured in any society by webs of social and economic interaction. Tribal, peasant, andmodern societies each have characteristic spatial structures of transactions among people. Present geographic space in Africa is defined by growing lines of transportation and communication. Migration within African societies is complex, reflecting many forces that motivate movement by individuals and families. Towns have become a major focus of migration while inducing still further movement. There is an element of feedback in the case of early migrants to towns who visit their home villages and tell of the attractions of town life. One pattern of migration to cities is that by steps: rural residents may move first to small towns, then to larger ones, and finally to the primate city. Small towns in such cases serve as stations for training in the ways of townsmen. A characteristic of societies undergoing modernization is a rapid diffusion of innovations from the centers of innovation to distant recipients. The spatial routes of diffusion appear at first view sporadic and disordered. If, however, they are mapped on a base in which linear distance is transformed so that proximity is determined by social and economic similarities, then the routes of diffusion are seen to be systematic and direct from cities to smaller towns and eventually to isolated rural areas. This mapping of the functioning urban system shows diffusion moving down the steps of the urban hierarchy. Today's functioning hierarchies are to a considerable extent superimposed on those of administrative centers that date from the colonial era. In discussion William O. Jones questioned whether urban places are always the main centers of innovation and diffusion; it was his view that the European farm in Africa has been a more important center of diffusion of agricultural techniques than the town. URBAN HIERARCHIES: SOUTHERN AFRICA R. J. Davies of Natal examined the functional base of urban hierarchies in the Republic of South Africa, 27


traffic. Together these depict the spatial structure that is both formal and functional in character. One of the objectives of the study was to provide background for possible rational formulation of national development policy in the context of building on or altering existing regional structures. Data on economic surfaces were gathered in terms of gross domestic product per square mile for administrative districts, and in terms of "welfare" of inhabitants, encompassing gross domestic product per capita, and "quality" of population in terms of education, age, and employment characteristics. A measure of welfare was obtained from a principal components analysis of 15 variables. Economic and welfare surfaces were mapped for the country. The "high" surfaces occur preponderantly in the northeast and coincide with the major metropolitan, industrial, and mining areas. They account for almost 72 percent of the country's gross domestic product. Differentiation between surfaces is greater in the eastern half of the country than in the western. The nodal structure which underpins the spatial economy is that of a principal metropolitan center-the Witwatersrand city complex-supported by a graded system of subnational centers resting on tiers of cities and towns of lower order. The subnational centers are sufficiently widely spaced that 60 percent of the country lies within 150 miles of these centers. Beyond this distance, nodes of a smaller order service the rural areas. As evidence of national linkage, movement of passengers on the national domestic airline, rail freight movement, and intermetropolitan telephone traffic were shown on maps. Subnational flows were shown on maps of telephone traffic between major cities and their hinterlands, newspaper circulations, and road traffic. These subnational flows indicate the nodal nature of the dispersed metropolitan centers. The basic pattern of the space economy which STRUCTURE OF A NATIONAL SPACE ECONOMY: SOUTH AFRICA emerged from the authors' analysis is that of a principal region representing the most highly organized segment T. 1. Denis Fair, who had participated in planning of the South African economy with levels of economic the conference but was unable to attend, had prepared activity and spatial integration falling away from the a paper with his collaborators, Christopher Board and main nodes. Other less complex regions also emerged, R. J. Davies, which was presented by the latter. Disviz., the Western Cape with a Capetown node, and the cussion of the structure of the spatial economy was Eastern Province with nodes centered on Port Elizabeth based in part on the foregoing analysis by Davies of the and East London. hierarchies. The Fair paper treated the contemporary national and subnational structure of South Africa in terms of economic surfaces of differing character and THE NATURE OF URBANIZATION strength representative of the underlying formal At the final session of the conference 10hn Friedmann regional landscape, the economic level of differing nodes discussed theoretical aspects of the research on African within the surfaces, and the network and flows of tele- urban systems that had been reported and some broad phone calls, labor migration, and road, rail and air problems in the study of urbanization. He defined the

Lesotho and Swaziland, and the Transkeian Territorial Authority, which are areas at different stages of social and economic development. For each urban place he had compiled a list of central functions. This list was reduced by grouping similar types of commercial establishment; the functions were given relative weights according to their contribution to development; for each central place a centrality index score was computed. The population of each South African urban place, excluding metropolitan centers, was then plotted against its number of functions. Davies found that breaks in the slope of the resulting curve gave five classes. Further plots of population against the centrality index scores again gave five classes of central places-"major country towns," "country towns," "minor country towns," "local service centers," "low-order service centers." He then considered the ratio of the number of places in each class to the number in the class above and that below, and found the ratio of the number in each rank of the hierarchy to the number in the rank above to be closest to three. That is, there are three country towns for each major country town, three minor country towns for each country town. This according to Christaller's marketing principle is the appropriate ratio for market towns developed on a rural landscape. Davies suggests that while today the city system underpins an industrial economy, the ratios may represent a structure inherited from preindustrial phases of development. In the cases of Transkei and Lesotho, largely rural areas with little market development, he finds a ratio of seven: for each minor country town there are seven local service centers. This is in accord with Christaller's administrative principle. Davies suggests drat forces associated with imposed administrative and social services have played a greater role in development of the system than economic forces.

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basic characteristic of "urban" as the innovations that theories in a non-Western context, and observed that develop from nonagricultural ways of making a living. social scientists have struggled to fit their data to WestInnovations in writing, science, banking, mathematics, ern theories. and industrial or commercial technology are all urban phenomena. In a setting of subsistence agriculture or SOME SUMMARY REFLECTIONS nomadic herding, this type of innovation is or has been of minor importance. The influence on human settleControversy about the applicability of central place ment of diffusion of "urban" innovations from one theory to Africa and considerable clarification of the urban area to another and from urban areas to rural problem continued in the general discussion and in areas has been widespread. Among the more visible correspondence following tbe conference. Taylor obeffects has been a sort of urbanization of the countryside served that there is agreement that central places exist to the extent that urban phenomena such as busses are but not that they constitute a spatial system that can be found in non urban areas. The probability of innova- ordered. Hierarchies exist but are troublesome to deal tion, however, is greater in urban areas. Friedmann's with, in part because of lack of data concerning the questions were: "Is development possible without functional economic relationships. cities? Does dev~lopment imply urbanism?" The view of existing spatial systems is confused beA primary problem in research on urbanism through- cause in most cases several coexisting systems have out the world has been the unit of observation for the developed from differing bases, and are often not funccollection of data. Traditionally this unit has been the tionally integrated. Traditional systems were supplecentral place. Friedmann asserted that focus on cen- mented during the colonial era by a hierarchy of new tral place does not facilitate exploration of power rela- administrative centers. In many cases these were the tionships between core area and periphery, which have first towns on previously rural subsistence landscapes. been important in the underdeveloped parts of the These new towns had little commercial function; the world. Neither does it allow examination of political local population continued to use periodic markets. implications of economic dependency of one area on The systems did not readily integrate. In other cases another. (Brian J. L. Berry earlier had stated also that where the transition from subsistence to cash economy central place theory is largely a theory of marketing and has been rapid, sets of central places in which to carry does not explain many aspects of centrality in under- out market and service functions have emerged. These developed areas.) Friedmann suggested that labor mar- functions may be grafted on to towns which were ket area and potential urban field are probably useful previously administrative centers. Were we to compile a thematic atlas of ignorance of units of observation. He noted that when such units are used small places lacking these attributes are eliminated, the spatial aspects of urban systems in Africa the result and the focus of study shifts to large places. This may be would be salutary and disturbing. Some useful inforappropriate if development is a major concern of the mation on southern Africa exists, but information on East and West Africa is much more fragmentary. study. In addition to the need for research on ongoing Further research on urbanization in Africa and elsewhere should be focused on process rather than struc- processes in the urban system already mentioned, the ture. Among the processes requiring study are migra- conference demonstrated that further study of function, flow of decisions, capital and information, and the tional integration within systems and its lack in coexistdiffusion of innovations. As better understanding of ing systems is essential. Study of systems of centrality these processes evolves, the study of structure can be car- based on religion, administration, and communication ried further. The effects of political and economic would be rewarding. Within African urban systems the power on an urban system are immense. To a large function and role of the primate cities, the major centers extent the urban system is shaped by their influence on of innovation, are not adequately understood. Underbehavior. The developmental potential of areas within standing of these functional-spatial parameters of the urban system is constrained or facilitated through African urban systems by scholars and administrators might well contribute to lessening the chaotic nature such influence. Friedmann urged caution in the use of Western of African urban development.

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SOCIOLINGUISTIC ASPECTS OF COMMUNICATION

BETWEEN STUDENTS AND TEACHERS: REPORT ON A WORKSHOP A WORKSHOP on some sociolinguistic aspects of communication between students and teachers was held at Harvard University on April 29-30, 1971, under the joint sponsorship of the Council's Committee on Sociolinguistics and the Language Research Foundation, Cambridge, which has been working to facilitate communication between students and teachers in the lower grades of inner-city public schools. The workshop was planned by J. Bruce Fraser, director of the Foundation and Lecturer in Education, Harvard University, and John J. Gumperz of the committee. They were assisted by Elsa Roberts, a Ph.D. candidate in linguistics at Northwestern University and Research Associate at the Language Research Foundation, who also served as rapporteur for the workshop.l This brief article is based on selections from her detailed report. The workshop was planned to obtain the participants' reactions to the Foundation's proposed curriculum in teacher training in cross-cultural communication-indirectly through discussion of their own research and classroom experience, or directly through criticism of the proposed curriculum. Four topical sessions, each devoted to a specific aspect of teacher training, were preceded by an introductory session in which each participant described how his work related to communication between students and teachers. The first session was focused on goals of teacher education in cross-cultural communication; the second, on sociolinguistic and cultural differences relevant to classroom interaction; the third, on the relation of aspects of the "teacher subculture" to classroom behavior and curriculum development. A concluding session was devoted to discussion of the form and content of the proposed curriculum. During the first topical session, themes that were to persist throughout the conference began to emerge: the teacher as part of an institution, the teacher as philosopher of education and as representative of goals, and 1 The other participants in the workshop, in addition to Dell Hymes, Charles A. Ferguson, Allen D. Grimshaw, and David Jenness (staff) of the committee, were Courtney Cazden, Harvard University; Heidi Dulay, and Jeffrey Schultz, LRF and Harvard University; Lily Flood, Stanford University; Mary Galvan, University of Texas at Austin: Grace Holt, and Thomas Kochman, University of Illinois at Chicago Circle: Dennis Kratz, LRF and Boston Public Schools; John Matlin, and James McGinnis, University of California, Berkeley: Hugh Mehan, Indiana University; Paul Melmed, Emeryville, California, Public School District; Susan Philips, University of Pennsylvania and Warm Springs Indian Reservation, Oregon; Carmelo Rodriguez, and Juan Ruiz, LRF; Richard Tucker, McGill University; and George Williams, LRF and Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

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parent-teacher relations. Allen Grimshaw opened the discussion by pointing out that since the teacher is part of a larger institution that imposes structural constraints, these constraints must not be overlooked in the training process. Thomas Kochman emphasized the necessity of taking into account, in this process, the goals of the school system, the hierarchical structure of the classroom, and the influence of goals and structure on children from various ethnic backgrounds. It was his view that the hierarchical and authoritarian features built into the structure of the classroom have a particular impact on "nonstandard" children, possibly taking the form of racism and ethnocentrism. Grace Holt said the first essential in teacher training is to get teachers to understand their own role in the classroom before considering questions about the culture of the children. Since, as Mary Galvan noted, it is unproductive to try to tell teachers what to do, they must arrive at solutions of classroom problems through understanding their own roles. According to Roberts, role emphasis must shift from teacher as disciplinarian to teacher as discoverer. In discussion of relations between the school and the community, Paul Melmed saw re-education of parents as crucial in effecting change in the classroom. Susan Philips countered that parent re-education is another form of cultural imposition by the schools and that the role of parents should be to help in re-educating the teachers. She described several sessions at the Warm Springs reservation where adult members of the community were involved in teaching teachers about Indian culture and perceptions of education. At the second topical session discussion was focused on the teacher as participant observer, or classroom ethnographer. Gumperz presented tapes of two teaching situations: one where reading is being taught to third graders by a teacher; another where children are teaching each other. Examination of the use of these tapes in teacher training led to discussion of the relationship between research and training. The question posed was: Should teachers be presented with the results of research on cultural differences or with a methodology for discovering such differences themselves? The danger of stereotyping that may result from the transmission of relevant research findings was emphasized; in Kochman's view the danger arises not because of the limited validity of the findings but because the context for understanding them has not been properly prepared. The consensus was that it is more important to provide VOLUME

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teachers with tools to discover cultural differences than t'O give them information about these differences, and in this connecti'On analysis of tapes like those presented by Gumperz can be useful. In the third session three main questions were raised about a teacher subculture: (1) Can generalizations be made about all teachers, or are there so many differences that the attempt is nonproductive? (2) What strategies should be used in influencing teachers to bec'Ome aware of the implications of their 'Own values and behavior? (3) What is the relationship between training of teachers and teaching? In response t'O the first question, Holt argued that as subjects of research teachers must be looked at in the same way that they are expected t'O look at children. The ethn'Ography of teachers must become an accepted analytic framework. Differences among teachers must be examined, and attention given to "where teachers are at" during the early stages of a program of teacher training and curriculum development. The discussion then turned to methods of influencing teachers: Should one attempt to force awareness or proceed gradually toward self-discovery on the part of teachers? Lily Flood maintained that any embarrassment of teachers would create a destructive atmosphere, while others held that direct criticism, if handled with care, could be effective.

At the fourth session detailed critiques of proposed units in the Language Research Foundation's curriculum 'Outline were first presented; these were foll'Owed by discusSi'On 'Of the value 'Orientation 'Of the curriculum with reference t'O political implications 'Of the teaching 'Of Standard English. In considering whether it is p0ssible t'O remain neutral regarding this issue, 'Or whether the F'Oundation's program should take an explicit positi'On, Philips suggested that the curriculum design would lead to the teaching of Standard English unless there was explicit rejection of it. The Language Research Foundation's staff assumed that the curriculum's purpose is to influence teachers t'O accept non-Standaro English and t'O understand that teaching Standard English to all children is not only extremely difficult but unnecessary. The consensus was that the question must be raised with teachers in the context 'Of relevant soci'OP'Olitical issues that cannot be av'Oided. In the final discussi'On it was pointed out that the conference process itself was perhaps the most important impetus to curriculum devel'Opment that had emerged. A wide range 'Of philosophical questions had been ralised. A clear understanding of political and social issues is prerequisite to making decisi'Ons about the f'Orm or c'Ontent of any curriculum. The workshop served as a forum for such clarification.

EXPERIMENTATION AS A METHOD FOR PLANNING

AND EVALUATING SOCIAL INTERVENTION UNDER the Council's sponsorship a workshop on the use of experimental designs in planning and evaluation of social intervention programs was held at the Minary Conference Center of Dartmouth College from August 2 t'O 13, 1971. The core group of participants consisted of Edgar F. Borgatta, University of Wisconsin; Robert F. Boruch, and Henry W. Riecken, Social Science Research Council; Donald T. Campbell, Northwestern University; Nathan Caplan, University of Michigan; Thomas K. Glennan, Jr., Office of Economic Opportunity; John W. Pratt, Graduate School of Business Administration, Harvard University; Albert Rees, Princeton University; and Walter Williams, University of Washington. The workshop marked the first stage in a pr'Oject, undertaken with financial support from the National Science Foundation, which is expected to result in a monograph or handbook assessing possibilities and problems of experimentation. The workshop was organized around the following major themes: problems of design and data analysis; management and administration 'Of experiments; and institutional and SEPTEMBER

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political problems of initiating experiments as well as utilizing results. The discussions of the core group were augmented by specialized contributions from visitors with expert knowledge of some aspect of social experimentation: Samuel Ball, Educational Testing Service; Peter Bloch, Urban Institute; James D. Cowhig, National Science Foundation; Howard Freeman, Brandeis University; Bernard G. Greenberg, University of North Carolina; David Kershaw, Mathematica; Frank Lewis, U.S. Department of Labor; William A. Niskanen, Office of Management and Budget; Francis H. Palmer, State University 'Of New York at Stony Brook; David Parmasel, Dunlap and Associates; Peter Rossi, Johns Hopkins University; William R. Tash, National Institute 'Of Mental Health; R'Obert Voas, U.S. Department 'Of Transportation; Harold W. Watts, Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconsin; and Hans Zeisel, University of Chicag'O Law School. Mr. Boruch will be responsible for collation and editing of sections of the proposed monograph during the coming months. &1


PERSONNEL RESIGNATION OF HENRY W. RIECKEN AS PRESIDENT OF THE COUNCIL Henry W. Riecken, President of the Council since January 1, 1969, has resigned as of September 15, 1971. He will spend the coming academic year as a Visiting Scholar at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences, Stanford, California. COUNCIL STAFF Robert F. Boruch joined the Council on May 15, 1971 to serve as staff for its new project on "Experimentation as a Method for Planning and Evaluation of Social Intervention." Mr. Boruch has been associated most recently with the American Council on Education's Office of Research as research associate, and with the National Academy of Sciences' Project on Computer Data Banks as director of the project's questionnaire survey. He received his Ph.D. degree in psychology from Iowa State University and his B.E. from Stevens Institute of Technology. A report on his recent methodological research on maintaining confidentiality of social science data appeared in the May 1971 issue of the American Psychologist; his substantive research on science graduates of liberal arts colleges will be published this fall by Columbia University Press. In addition to the Council appointment, Mr. Boruch is a faculty member of the Department of Psychology at Northwestern University. He will continue his research on methodology and on privacy in social research as staff for the Council's Experimentation project; his primary responsibility is managing the project and developing and editing reports and documents stemming from the project FOREIGN AREA FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM In the ninth year of administration of the Foreign Area Fellowship Program by the Social Science Research Council and American Council of Learned Societies, fellowships have been awarded for study of five major world areas, and in Latin America and the Caribbean area for research training and internships as well. As of August I, the 142 appointments listed below had been accepted for 1971-72 (a few additional appointments are expected):

Africa and the Near East The awards were recommended by the National Screening Committee-L. Carl Brown, Princeton University; Carl K. Eicher, Michigan State University; William A. Shack, University of California, Berkeley; and Richard L. Sklar, University of California, Los Angeles-which met on January 15 and February 13. It had been assisted by a Preliminary Screening Committee-William J. Foltz, Yale University, and Nicholas S. Hopkins, New York University. Edna Bay, Ph.D. candidate in history, Boston University, for research in England, France, Senegal, and Dahomey

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on the role of Abomey royal women in nineteenthcentury Dahomean society Dallas Browne, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Illinois, for research in Kenya on family and class in Nairobi Kathleen Dillon, Ph.D. candidate in economics, Yale University, for research in East Africa on the diversification of the East African financial system W. Perkins Foss, Ph.D. candidate in history of art, Yale University, for research in Europe and Nigeria on the arts of the Urhobo peoples Robert Hill, Ph.D. candidate in sociology and demography, Princeton University, for research in England and Iran on the effects of migration on urbanization (renewal) Janice Irvine, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Rochester, for research in Kenya on the irrigation systems used by the Polomo along the Tana River Bennetta Jules-Rosette, Ph.D. candidate in sociology, Harvard University, for research in the Republic of the Congo on the effects of religion on changmg social re1ationshi ps Barbara Kalkas, Ph.D. candidate in sociology, Northwestern University, for research in Egypt on the social origins and career patterns of the New Man of Egypt, 1922-41 John Lamphear, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of London, for preparation of a dissertation at the School of Oriental and African Studies on the oral history of the Jie Deirdre La Pin, Ph.D. candidate in African languages and literature, University of Wisconsin, for research in Nigeria, Dahomey, and Togo on the structure and themes of Yoruba oral narratives Robert McChesney, Ph.D. candidate in history, Princeton University, for research in the United Kingdom on the institution of the waqf and its effect on the economic, social, and political institutions of the Balkh M. Catharine Newbury, Ph.D. candidate in political science, University of Wisconsin, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in Rwanda, Europe, and the United States on the political integration of Kinyaga, 1916-60 (renewal) Adell Patton, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Wisconsin, for research in England and Nigeria on Sokoto rule and the Ningi of the plateau region of Nigeria George Preston, Ph.D. candidate in art history, Columbia University, for preparation of a dissertation on the origin and spread of art and leadership among the Akan of Ghana (renewal) Hiromi Sakata, Ph.D. candidate in ethnomusicology, University of Washington, for research in Afghanistan on the music of its Persian-speaking peoples Gary Schiff, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Columbia University, for research in Israel on its four religious political parties Earl Scott, Ph.D. candidate in geography, University of Michigan, for preparation of a dissertation on the Hausa onion industry of Northern Nigeria (renewal) Philip Shea, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Wlsconsin, for completion of research in Nigeria on the socioeconomic hlstory of a ward in Kano (renewal) VOLUME

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Neal Sherman, Ph.D. candidate in political science, University of Wisconsin, for Luganda language training and research in Uganda on dairy policies Douglas Werner, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of California, Los Angeles, for historical research in England and Zambia on the Mamba-Lungo region Asia Program

The awards were recommended by the National Screening Committee-Bernard S. Cohn, University of Chicago; Frank J. Moore, Stanford University; Barry M. Richman, University of California, Los Angeles; and H. Paul Varley, Columbia University-which met on February 12 and March 19. It had been assisted by a Preliminary Screening Committee-William Morton, York College, City University of New York; Michel C. Oksenberg, Columbia University; James T. Siegel, Cornell University; and John Singleton, University of Pittsburgh. East Asia Studies Program

William Atwell, Ph.D. candidate in East Asian studies, Princeton University, for research in Japan and Taiwan on Late Ming Dynasty politics Charles Cell, Ph.D. candidate in sociology, University of Michigan, for research in Hon~ Kong on campaigns in the People's Republic of Chma: intensity of action and reaction James Cole, Ph.D. candidate in history, Stanford University, for research in Japan, Taiwan, and Hong Kong on sociointellectual . history of the Shaohsing Region, Chekiang, 1870-1928 Bruce Cumings, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Columbia University, for research in Korea on the government of the People's Republic, August 1945 to 1946 John Dolfin, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Columbia University, for research in Hong Kong on the role of administrative organization in facilitating the development of a national community Michael Donnelly, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Columbia University, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in Japan and the United States on rice politics in Japan (renewal) Richard Gaulton, Ph.D. candidate in government, Cornell University, for research in Japan, Hong Kong, and Taiwan on political control and population mobilization in Shanghai, 1949-53 Carol Gluck, Ph.D. candidate in modern Japanese history, Columbia University, for research in Japan on the conflict between religion and education in Meiji Japan Yong-ju Hwang, Ph.D. candidate in city and regional planning, University of California, Berkeley, for research in the United States and Korea on urbanization in a rapidly changing society Kuang-sheng Liao, Ph.D. candidate in political science, University of Michigan, for research in Hong Kong on internal politics and external conflict in Communist China Thomas Mitrano, professional degree candidate in institutional history, Harvard Law School, for research in Taiwan, Japan, and Korea on the role of the legal SEPTEMBER

1971

profession ill the development of the Republic of China Ronald Morse, Ph.D. candidate in history, Princeton University, for research in Japan on cultural creativity and Yanagida Kunio James Polachek, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of California, Berkeley, for research in Japan on landholding patterns and the gentry class in Kiangsu Province from the Ming Dynasty to the Communist period Paul Ropp, Ph.D. candidate in intellectual history, University of Michigan, for research in Japan, Taiwan, and Hong Kong on the early Ch'ing society and its critics: the life and times of Wu Ching-tzu (1701-54) Martin Singer, Ph.D. candidate in modern Chinese history, University of Michigan, for research in Hong Kong and Japan on students in China, 1949-70: historical perspectives on the cultural revolution James Watson, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of California, Berkeley, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in England and the United States on the dynamics of interpersonal relations among Chinese peasants (renewal) Li-Nien Wong, Ph.D. candidate in modern Chinese history, Washington University, for completion of research on social history debate in China, 1928-36 (renewal) South Asia Studit':s Program

Marshall Bouton, Ph.D. candidate in political science, University of Chicago, for research in India on the economic and political consequences of technological change in agriculture Thomas Eisemon, Ph.D. candidate in education, University of Wisconsin, for research in India on the professional and scholarly productivity of Indian university engineering teachers F. James Levinson, Ph.D. candidate in international nutrition and food economics, Cornell University, for research in India on determinants of preschool children's diets and optimum means of influencing these determinants Susan Lewandowski, Ph.D. candidate in history, U niversity of Chicago, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in India and the United States on Malayalee migrants (renewal) Lina Ostor-Fl'uzzetti, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Minnesota, for research in India on ritual activities of caste Hindu and Muslim women in Orissa Brian Q. Silver, Ph.D. candidate in South Asian languages and civilizations, University of Chicago, for completion of research in India on Ghalib's Urdu poetry and its importance in Indo-Muslim history and culture (renewal) Thomas Timberg, Ph.D. candidate in political economics and government, Harvard University, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in India and the United States on the rise of Marwari entrepreneurs in Indian industry (renewal) Southeast Asia Studies Program Benjamin Batson, Ph.D. candidate in history, Cornell University, for research in Thailand on modernization in early twentieth-century Thailand

33


closed social estate (dukhovnos soslovie) in eighteenthcentury Russia Karen Freeze, Ph.D. candidate in history, Columbia University, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in Czechoslovakia and Helsinki on the young progressives: the Czech student movement of the 1890's (renewal) Robert Johnson, Ph.D. candidate in history, Cornell University, for preparation of a dissertation in Finland on the condition of the Russian working class, 18851900 (renewal) Natasha Lisman, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, for research in Europe, Israel, and the United States on clandestine literature in the Soviet Union as a political instrument of dissidents Peter Machotka, Ph.D. candidate in history, Northern Illinois University, for a training program relating to Eastern Europe and preliminary research on Czechoslovakian representation in the Australian Parliament, 1890-1914 James Mandel, Ph.D. candidate in history and law, Columbia University, for training in statistics and computer programming in preparation for research on the judicial reforms of Catherine the Great Thomas Meininger, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Wisconsin, for preparation of a dissertation on the social and ideological cleavage of the Bulgarian bourgeoisie at the height of the national liberation movement, 1860-80 (renewal) Bruce Menning, Ph.D. candidate in history, Duke University, for preparation of a dissertation on the Don Cossacks in the reign of Nicholas II (renewal) Lubisa Radulovic, Ph.D. candidate in social psychology, University of California, Berkeley, for comparative research in Yugoslavia on urban, social class, and ethnic differences in language development in different types of societies

C. Stuart Callison, Ph.D. candidate in economic development, Cornell University, for a socioeconomic and political analysis in South Vietnam of land reform Sathi Chaiyapechara, Ph.D. candidate in forestry and conservation, University of California, Berkeley, for research in Thailand on the effects of government forest management and policy on the development of forest industries Brian Fegan, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Yale University, for an ethnographic study in the Philippines of a Tagalog rice-growing village in central Luzon Peter Metcalf, Ph.D. candidate in social anthropology, Harvard University, for research in Sarawak on inequalities of rank and wealth among the Kayan Sylvia Opper, Ph.D. candidate in child development, Cornell University, for preparation of a dissertation on the intellectual development of Thai children and its relation to certain family variables (renewal) Norman Owen, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Michigan, for research in Spain and the Philippines on the commercialization of Philippine agriculture James Riley, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of North Carolina, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in Thailand and the United States on population dynamics and social structure in Thailand (renewal) Barton Sensenig, Ph.D. candidate in social psychology, Cornell University, for a comparative social psychological study in Thailand of Thai Buddhist and Christian high school students R. David Zorc, Ph.D. candidate in linguistics, Cornell University, for research in the Philippines on the Aklanan dialect

Soviet Union and Eastern Europe The awards were made by the National Screening Committee-Carl Beck, University of Pittsburgh; Herbert L. Pick, Jr., University of Minnesota; and Peter F. Sugar, University of Washington-which met on January 29 and March 5. It had been assisted by a Preliminary Screening Committee-Walter D. Connor, University of Michigan, and Rudolf L. Tokes, University of Connecticut.

Western European Program The awards were recommended by the National Screening Committee-Jean Blondel, University of Essex; Lawrence B. Krause, Brookings Institution; Joseph LaPalombara, Yale University; Arno J. Mayer, Princeton University; and Eric R. Wolf, University of Michigan-which met on January 30 and March 6. It had been assisted by a Preliminary Screening Committee-Paul M. Hohenberg, Cornell University, and Eric Nordlinger, Brandeis University.

John Ackerman, Ph.D. candidate in history, Stanford University, for research in London on the Asiatic Department of the Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs during the reign of Alexander II James Armstrong, Ph.D. candidate in Slavic linguistics, Indiana University, for preparation of a dissertation on Russian semantics (renewal) -..k W. Harriet Critchley, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Columbia University, for completion of research and preparation of a dIssertation in Yugoslavia and the "-Umted States on the 1921-29 political system in Yugoslavia (renewal) Herbert Eagle, Ph.D. candidate in Slavic languages and literatures, University of Michigan, for a comparative study in the United States, Helsinki, Leningrad, and Moscow of Russian and Czech twentieth-century free verse (renewal) Gregory Freeze, Ph.D. candidate in history, Columbia University, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in Helsinki on the parish clergy as a

Ewa K. Bacon, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Chicago, for research in Austria and Poland on Austrian administration of Galicia, 1772-1809 Renato A. Barahona, Ph.D. candidate in history, Princeton University, for research in Spain and France on Basque traditionalism and the origins of modern Spain Lyndelle D. Fairlie, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Indiana University, for research in England on the roles of the British Labor Party regional organizers and Conservative Party area agents since 1945 Dietrich K. Fausten, Ph.D. candidate in economics, University of Utah, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in England and the United States on the impact of political systems on England's devaluation of the pound (renewal) VOLUME

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Lucy M. Grace, Ph.D. candidate in history of art, Yale University, for research in Europe on Matisse's color practice and its sources David Y. Jacobson, Ph.D. candidate in history, Brown University, for training at the Inter-University Consortium for Political Research, and research in France on the politics of criminal law reform, 1771-89 Maura M. Kealey, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of California, Berkeley, for a comparative study in Germany of the role of the judiciary in capital-labor disputes in the United States and Germany, 1873-1914 Denis Lacorne, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Yale University, for a comparative study in France of French Communist and Socialist federations Peter M. Lange, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, for research in Italy on the internal operations of the Italian Communist and Socialist Parties (renewal) Paul G. Lauren, Ph.D. candidate in history, Stanford University, for a comparative study in England, Germany, and France of reorganization in the French and German Foreign Ministries during the interwar years David F. Lindenfeld, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Chicago, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in Europe and the United States on thought psychology, 1894-1915 (renewal) Mary L. McDougall, Ph.D. candidate in history, Columbia University, for research in France on the workers' movement in Lyon, 1832-52 Michael L. Meiselman, Ph.D. candidate in history, Washington University, for research in France on a socioeconomic interpretation of the causes and character of the French Revolution John M. Quigley, Ph.D. candidate in economics, Harvard University, for research in Sweden on the economics of Swedish urban planning Harriet G. Rosenberg, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Michigan, for research in France on integration of the Brianconnais into the French State, 17501850 Jerry L. Ulrich, Ph.D. candidate in political science, University of Chicago, for research in England on political culture and the expansion of political participation in England, 1850-1900 Howard Zehr, Ph.D. candidate in history, Rutgers University, for preparation of a dissertation on crime patterns in nineteenth-century France and Germany: a comparative study of the relations between crime and social change (renewal)

Latin America and Caribbean Program Research F(dlowships: United States The awards were recommended by the National Screening Committee-Albert O. Hirschman, Harvard University; Hugh L. Popenoe, University of Florida; Philippe C. Schmitter, University of Chicago; Irwin W. Sizer, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; and Thomas E. Skidmore, University of Wisconsin-at a meeting on March 12-13. Preliminary screening was done by committees consisting of Harold Bierman, Jr., Cornell University; Calvin Patrick Blair, University of Texas at Austin; Russell H. Brannon, University of Kentucky; Mark W. Cannon, Institute of Public Administration, New York; William E. Carter, UniSEPTEMBER

1971

versity of Florida; Douglas A. Chalmers, Columbia University; Rene de Costa, University of Chicago; Richard A. Fehnel, Institute of Public Administration, Washington; Victor W. Goldschmidt, Purdue University; Louis W. Goodman, Yale University; George G. Graham, Johns Hopkins University; Vera Green, University of Houston; Philip Hershkovitz, Field Museum of Natural History; Robert P. Morgan, Washington University; Robert G. Myers, University of Chicago; Robert Potash, University of Massachusetts; D. Woods Thomas, Purdue University; Joseph J. Vitale, Tufts University; and Karl M. Wilbur, Duke University. Marigene Arnold, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Florida, for research on the status and role of mestizo women in Jalisco, Mexico, in affiliation with the National Institute of Anthropology and History, Mexico, D.F. William L. Ascher, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Yale University, for research on the role of national planners in Argentina and Chile, in affiliation with the National Development Council, Buenos Aires, and the Latin American Faculty of Social Sciences, Santiago Robert D. Bond, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Vanderbilt University, for research on Venezuelan bureaucracy and the bureaucratic elites, in affiliation with the Center for Research on Social Communication, Andres Bello Catholic University Mark M. Brinson, Ph.D. candidate in botany, University of Florida, for research on primary energy flows of the Lake Izabal ecosystem, in affiliation with the Division of Fauna, Ministry of Agriculture, Guatemala, and the Institute of Nutrition for Central America and Panama, Guatemala City John K. Chance, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Illinois, for research on ethnic relations and social structure in the city of Oaxaca, 1521-1700, in affiliation with the Institute for Oaxacan Studies, Oaxaca William F. Collins III, Ph.D. candidate in urban geography, University of Cincinnati, for research on the evolving spatial patterns of metropolitan residential growth in Mexico City, 1930-70, in affiliation with the College of Mexico Charles M. Croner, Ph.D. candidate in geography, Michigan State University, for research on spatial characteristics of internal migration to San Pedro Sula, Honduras, in affiliation with the National Geographic Institute, Comayguela, D.C., Honduras Evelyn Hu DeHart, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Texas at Austin, for research on the Yaqui Indians during the Mexican Revolution, in affiliation with the Center of Oriental Studies, College of Mexico Michel Del Buono, Ph.D. candidate in economics, Cornell University, for research on the difficulties and benefits of payments unions among less developed countries, in affiliation with the Department of Economics, Catholic University of Peru Patricia N. Deustua, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Cornell University, for research on local-level political and economic organization of the Late Chimu Kingdom in northern Peru, in affiliation with the Center for Research in Sociology, Economics, Politics, and Anthropology, Catholic University of Peru

35


Judith L. Evans, Ph.D. candidate in education, University of Massachusetts, for research on the role of color and function classification in conce{>t discovery by Colombian children, in affiliation with the Human Ecology Research Station, Barrio Caldas, Cali Dan C. Hazen, Ph.D. candidate in history, Yale University, for research on mass education and social change in modern Peru, in affiliation with the Institute for Peruvian Studies and the Department of Social Sciences, National University of San Marcos, Lima Thomas H. Holloway, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Wisconsin, for research on the social history of rural Sao Paulo, 1870-1920, in affiliation with the Postgraduate Course of the Department of History and the Documentation Center for the Social History of Contemporary Brazil, University of Campinas K. David Jackson, Ph.D. candidate in Portuguese literature, University of Wisconsin, for research on the modernist movement in literature in relation to other arts in Brazil, in affiliation with the Institute of Brazilian Studies, University of Sao Paulo Christopher Kauffman, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Indiana University, for research on the effects of rural-urban migration on musical style in Peru, in affiliation with the Casa de la Cultura, Lima, the National University of San Marcos, and the Department of Anthropology, University of Cuzco John C. Kelley, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Teachers College, Columbia University, for research on the process of social and economic change in two ejidos in the Soconusco area of Chiapas, Mexico, in affiliation with the National Institute of Anthropology and History, Mexico, D.F. Janet Lever, Ph.D. candidate in sociology, Yale University, for research on the integrative power of soccer clubs in three urban centers of Brazil, in affiliation with Candido Mendes Faculty, Rio de Janeiro Darrell E. Levi, Ph.D. candidate in history, Yale University, for research on the role of the Prado family in the development of Sao Paulo in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, in affiliation with the Postgraduate Program of the Department of History and the Historical Documentation Service, University of Sao Paulo Elizabeth MacLaughlin, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Indiana University, for research on traditional oral disparagement humor among Quechua-Spanish bilingual children in Arequipa, in affiliation with the Center for Research in Sociology, Economics, Politics, and Anthropology, Catholic University of Peru Peter E. Marchetti, Ph.D. candidate in sociology, Yale University, for research on rural organizations among minifundistas in Chile, in affiliation with the Institute for Training and Research on Agrarian Reform, Catholic University of Chile William H. Mark, Ph.D. candidate in animal science, Texas A&M University, for research on beef cattle nutrition on Argentine range lands, in affiliation with the Department of Agronomy, National University of the South Michael Mitchell, . Ph.D. candidate in political science, Indiana University, for research on political participation of ethnic groups in Sao Paulo, in affiliation with the Brazilian Center for Analysis and Planning, Sao Paulo Jeffrey Puryear, Ph.D. candidate in education, University of Chicago, for research on comparative systems of 36

vocational education in Colombia, in affiliation with the National Apprenticeship Service, Bogota Ransford C. Pyle, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Florida, for research on ethnosemantics as related to property and law in San Jose, Costa Rica, in affiliation with the Central Faculty of Science and Letters, University of Costa Rica John H. Sanders, Ph.D. candidate in economics, University of Minnesota, for research on the economic factors in farm mechanization decisions in Latin America, in affiliation with the Institute of Agricultural Economics, Ministry of Agriculture, Sao Paulo Gary Shute, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Florida, for research in Surinam on rural-urban migration of economically marginal New World black males (affiliation to be determined) John C. Spence, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, for research on decentralization of the administration of justice in Chile, in affiliation with the School of Law, University of Chile, Santiago Barbara B. Stallings, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Stanford University, for research on leadership and strategies of development in Venezuela and Chile, in affiliation with the Institute of Political Science, Catholic University of Chile Walter Toop, Ph.D. candidate in Portuguese literature, University of Wisconsin, for research on the postmodernist literary movement in Fortaleza, Brazil, in affiliation with the Faculty of Philosophy, University of Ceara M. Ann Twinam, Ph.D. candidate in history, Yale University, for research on economic change and social structure in Medellin, Colombia, 1780-1880, in affiliation with the Department of Social Sciences, University of Antioquia, and the University of the Andes Raymond William, Ph.D. candidate in agriculture, Purdue University, for research on purple nutsedge (Cyperus Rotundus L.) and basic studies related to the control of nutsedge, in affiliation with the Agricultural High School, Federal University of Vi~osa

Research Fellowships: United Kingdom Andrew G. Barnard, D.Phil. candidate in history, University College, London, for research on the Chilean Communist Party, 1927-47, in affiliation with the Latin American Faculty of Social Sciences, Santiago Roger J. Brew, D.Phil. candidate in history, University of Oxford, for research on the production of coffee and its effect on capital formation and industrialization in Colombia, 1870-1900, in affiliation with the University of Antioquia and the University of the Andes Joseph W. Foweraker, D.Phil. candidate in politics and economics, University of Oxford, for research on the development of frontier economies within Brazil, in affiliation with the Brazilian Center for Analysis and Planning, Sao Paulo Christopher J. Hatten, D.Phil. candidate in soil science, Reading University, for research on limitations on agricultural productivity of the lands of soliflucted loess parent material in southwest Uruguay, in affiliation with the Program of Study and Improvement of Soils, Montevideo Kenneth A. King, D.Phil. candidate in economics, University of Oxford, for research on postwar monetary VOLUME

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policy in Brazil, in affiliation with the Postgraduate School of Economics, Getulio Vargas Foundation, Rio de Janeiro Anthony McFarlane, D.Phil. candidate in economic history, London School of Economics, for research on the economic and social background of the Independence movement in Colombia with special reference to Cartegena, in affiliation with the University of the Andes Elizabeth M. Thomas-Hope, D.Phil. candidate in human geography, University of Oxford, for research on the impact of migrations on social and economic problems in the West Indies, in affiliation with the Institute of Economic and Social Research and Department of Geography, University of the West Indies, Mona, Jamaica

Canadian Training and Research Fellowships Marie-France Blouin, B.A. University of Ottawa, political science, for Spanish language training at the Intercultural Center of Documentation, Cuernavaca, and graduate study at the University of Ottawa, including Latin American studies Brian N. Migie, M.A. candidate in cultural anthropology, University of Manitoba, for Spanish language training at the Intercultural Center of Documentation, Cuernavaca, and graduate study at the University of Manitoba, including Latin American studies Gerald S. Moores, B.A. University of British Columbia, geography, for Spanish language training at the Intercultural Center of Documentation, Cuernavaca, and graduate study at the University of British Columbia, including Latin American studies Catherine J. Willetts, B.A. University of Alberta, political science, for Spanish language training at the Intercultural Center of Documentation, Cuernavaca, and graduate study at the University of Alberta, including Latin American studies

Professional Internships The awards were recommended by the National Screening Committee for Professional Internships-Harold Bierman, Jr., Cornell University; Calvin Patrick Blair, University of Texas at Austin; Mark W. Cannon, Institute of Public Administration, New York; and Richard A. Fehnel, Institute of Public Administration, Washington-which met on March 12-13. Preliminary screening was done by the same committees that performed this task for applicants for research fellowships. Marion T. Bentley, Ph.D. candidate in public administration, New York University, for an internship in public administration, National Institute of Planning, Lima Brian R. Cooper, Ph.D. in plant physiology, University of California, Berkeley, for an internship in agricultural science, Department of Crop Science, University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad Rene Costales, Teclmical Staff, Communication Satellite Corporation, Washington, D.C., for an internship' in electrical engineering and communications, BraZIlian Telecommunications Management, Rio de Janeiro Michael D. Davies, Ph.D. in plant physiology, University of Illinois, for an internship in agricultural science, Agricultural High School, Federal University of Vi~osa SEPTEMBER

1971

Stuart G. Davis, Research Associate, Sea Grant, Research Institute for Business and Economics, University of Southern California, for an internship in business administration and marine biology, Bank of the Northeast of Brazil, Ceara William H. Dent, Jr., M.B.A. University of Chicago, for an internship in business administration, National Bank of Economic Development, Rio de Janeiro Joseph C. Fischer, Ph.D. in comparative education, University of Chicago, for an internship in education, National Institute of Pedagogical Studies, Ministry of Education and Culture, Rio de Janeiro Ronald L. Gonzalez, M.Ar. Yale University, for an internship in architecture and urban planning, National Institute for the Development of the Rural Community and Popular Living, Ibero-American University David J. Gould, Assistant Professor of Political Science, Chico State College, California, and Ph.D. candidate in public administration, New York University, for an internship in public administration, Public Administration Commission, Caracas Elias Amos Padilla, M.P.A. University of California, Los Angeles, for an internship in public administration, National Indian Institute, Mexico, D.F. Kenneth I. Prysor-Jones, M.B.A. Harvard University, for an internship in business administration, ADELA Investment Company, Lima Jane R. Rubin, M.P.H. University of California, Los Angeles, for an internship in public health and population planning, Latin American Center for Demography, Santiago Lee C. Schaeffer, Marketing Specialist, Rohm & Haas, Philadelphia, for an internshIp in business administration, ALFA-LAVAL, S.A., Lima Thomas Trebat, M.A. in economics, Johns Hopkins University School of Advanced International Studies, for an internship in economics, Brazilian Institute of Economics, Getulio Vargas Foundation, Rio de Janeiro Vincent T. Turitto, Ph.D. in chemical engineering, Columbia University, for an internship in engineering and biomedical science, Program in Biomedical Engineering, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro Roger L. Wotila, J.D. University of Michigan, for an internship in law, Faculty of Law, University of the Andes, Bogata

GRANTS FOR STUDY OF EAST EUROPEAN LANGUAGES Under the program sponsored by the Joint Committee (of the American Council of Learned Societies and SSRC) on Slavic and East European Studies, the Subcommittee on East Central and Southeast European Studies-Irwin T. Sanders (chairman), Adam Bromke, Paul L. Horecky, Huey Louis Kostanick, John Mersereau, Jr., Egon Neuberger, Michael B. Petrovich, and Alexander M. Schenker-at a meeting on March 5-6 made 21 grants for study of the following languages:

Albanian Gary L. Bevington, Assistant Professor of Linguistics, University of Massachusetts 37


Bulgarian Robert ]. Karriker, graduate student, Slavic linguistics, Stanford University

Romanian David B. Funderburk, graduate student, history, University of South Carolina

Czech Harvey Goldblatt, graduate student, Slavic languages and literatures, Yale University Andrew P. Kubricht, graduate student, history, Ohio State University Charles B. Mikell, Jr., graduate student, history, Uni路 versity of North Carolina David W. Paul, graduate student, politics, Princeton University Max E. Riedlsperger, Assistant Professor of History, California State Polytechnic College, San Luis Obispo Robert H. Streit, graduate student, Russian studies, University of Chicago

Serbo-Croatian Margaret F. Drucker, graduate student, Slavic languages and literatures, University of Colorado Patrick F. Flannery, graduate student, history, Stanford University Janet L. Hoffman, graduate student, Slavic linguistics, New York University Alice C. LeMaistre, graduate student, Slavic languages and literatures, Stanford University Carl Parker, graduate student, geography, University of California, Los Angeles Peter ]. Stein, Assistant Professor of Sociology, Rutgers University Shirley H. Tabata, graduate student, Slavic languages, University of California, Los Angeles

Modem Greek Martha D. Desch, graduate student, geography, University of California, Los Angeles Hungarian Philip Eidelberg, Assistant Professor of History, Montchur State College Joseph F. Zacek, Associate Professor of History, State University of New York at Albany

Slovak Robert A. Rothstein, Assistant Professor of Slavic Languages and Literatures, Harvard University Sloven ian Anny Newman, Instructor in Russian, University of Massachusetts, Boston

NEW PUBLICATIONS The Behavioral and Social Sciences: Outlook and Needs. Report by the Behavioral and Social Sciences Survey Committee under the auspices of the Committee on Science and Public Policy, National Academy of Sciences, and the Committee on Problems and Policy, Social Science Research Council. Englewood Cliffs, N.].: PrenticeHall, Inc., December 1969. 335 pages. $7.95. Anthropology, edited by Allan H. Smith and John L. Fischer. Report of the Anthropology Panel of the Behavioral and Social Sciences Survey Committee. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc., November 1970. 158 pages. Cloth, $5.95; paper, $1.95. Economics, edited by Nancy D. Ruggles. Report of the Economics Panel of the Behavioral and Social Sciences Survey Committee. Englewood Cliffs, N.].: Prentice-Hall, Inc., November 1970. 190 pages. Cloth, $5.95; paper, $2.45. Geography, edited by Edward J. Taaffe. Report of the Geography Panel of the Behavioral and Social Sciences Survey Committee. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc., May 1970. 154 pages. Cloth, $5.95; paper, $2.45. History as Social Science, edited by David S. Landes and Charles Tilly. Report of the History Panel of the Behavioral and Social Sciences Survey Committee. Englewood Cliffs, N.].: Prentice-Hall, Inc., March 1971. 160 pages. Cloth, $5.95; paper, $1.95. Mathematical Sciences and Social Sciences, edited by William H. Kruskal. Report of the Mathematical Sciences Panel of the Behavioral and Social Sciences Sur38

vey Committee. Englewood Cliffs, N.].: PrenticeHall, Inc., November 1970. 92 pages. Cloth only, $4.95. Political Science, edited by Heinz Eulau and James G. March. Report of the Political Science Panel of the Behavioral and Social Sciences Survey Committee. Englewood Cliffs, N.].: Prentice-Hall, Inc., November 1969. 160 pages. Cloth, $5.95; paper, $1.95. Psychiatry as a Behavioral Science, edited by David A. Hamburg. Report of the Psychiatry Panel of the Behavioral and Social Sciences Survey Committee. Englewood Cliffs, N.].: Prentice-Hall, Inc., July 1970. 127 pages. Cloth, $5.95; paper, $1.95. Psychology, edited by Kenneth E. Clark and George A. Miller. Report of the Psychology Panel of the Behavioral and Social Sciences Survey Committee. Englewood Cliffs, N.].: Prentice-Hall, Inc., March 1970. 157 pages. Cloth, $5.95; paper, $1.95. Sociology, edited by Neil]. Smelser and James A. Davis. Report of the Sociology Panel of the Behavioral and Social Sciences Survey Committee. Englewood Cliffs, N.].: Prentice-Hall, Inc., November 1969. 187 pages. Cloth, $5.95; paper, $1.95.

Is the Business Cycle Obsolete?, edited by Martin Bronfenbrenner. Product of a conference sponsored by the Committee on Economic Stability in cooperation with the National Institute of Economic and Social Research, April 3-7, 1967. New York: John Wiley & Sons, December 1969.580 pages. $12.50. VOLUME

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Changing Characte1路istics of the Negro Population, by Daniel O. Price. Sponsored by the former Committee on Population Census Monographs in cooperation with the Bureau of the Census. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, February 1970. 267 pages. $2.75. China: Management of a Revolutionary Society, edited by John M. H. Lindbeck. Product of a conference sponsored oy the Subcommittee on Chinese Government and Politics, Joint Committee on Contemporary China, August 18-22, 1969. Seattle: University of Washington Press, July 1971. 406 pages. Cloth, $12.50; paper, $4.95. China's Fertilizer Economy, by Jung-Chao Liu. Sponsored by the former Committee on the Economy of China. Chicago: Aldine Publishing Company, November 1970. 188 pages. $6.00. The City in Communist China, edited by John Wilson Lewis. Product of a conference cosponsored by the Subcommittees on Research on Chinese Society and on Chinese Government and Politics, Joint Committee on Contemporary China, December 28, 1968 - January 4, 1969. Stanford: Stanford University Press, April 1971. 462 pages. $12.95. Computer-Assisted Instruction, Testing, and Guidance, edited by Wayne H. Holtzman. Product of a conference cosponsored by the Committee on Learning and the EducatIOnal Process and the College Entrance Examination Board Commission on Tests, October 21-22, 1968. New York: Harper & Row, December 1970. 415 pages. $10.00. Contemporary Chinese Law: Research Problems and Perspectives, edited by Jerome Alan Cohen. Harvard Studies in East Asian Law, 4. Product of the Conference on Chinese Communist Law: Tools for Research, held by the Subcommittee on Chinese Law, Joint Committee on Contemporary China, May 27-30, 1967. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, August 1970. 392 pages. $10.00. Crises and Sequences in Political Development, by Leonard Binder, James S. Coleman, Joseph LaPalombara, Lucian W. Pye, Sidney Verba, an Myron Weiner. Studies in Political Development 7, sponsored by the Committee on Comparative Politics. Princeton: Princeton University Press, Fall 1971. c. 340 pages. $8.00. Experiments in Primary Education, by Eleanor E. Maccoby and Miriam Zellner. Expansion of a paper prepared for a conference held by the Subcommittee on Compensatory Education, Committee on Learning and the Educational Process, May 15-17, 1969. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc., October 1970. 144 pages. $2.95.

Family and Kinship in Chinese Society, edited by Maurice Freedman. Product of a conference sponsored by tlle Subcommittee on Research on Chinese Society, Joint Committee on Contemporary China, September 15-18, 1966. Stanford: Stanford University Press, March 1970. 286 pages. $7.95. The Foreign Trade of Mainland China, by Feng-hwa Mah. Sponsored by the former Committee on the Economy of China. Chicago: Aldine Publishing Company, October 1971. c. 272 pages. $9.75. Human Resources and Higher Education: Staff Report of the Commission on Human Resources and Advanced Education, by John K. Folger, Helen S. Astin, and Alan E. Bayer. New York: Russell Sage Foundation, March 1970.507 pages. $17.50. Japan and Korea: An Annotated Bibliography of Doctoral Dissertations in Western Languages, 1877-1969, compiled and edited by Frank J. Shulman. Prepared with the assistance of the Joint Committee on Japanese Studies and the Joint Committee on Korean Studies. Chicago: American Library Association, August 1970. 359 pages. $6.95. The Machine-Building Industry in Communist China, by Chu-yuan Cheng. Sponsored by the former Committee on the Economy of China. Chicago: Aldine Publishing Company, September 1971. 304 pages. $9.75. People of the United States in the Twentieth Century, by Irene B. Taeuber and Conrad Taeuber. Sponsored by the former Committee on Population Census Monographs in cooperation with the Bureau of the Census. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, September 1971. c. 11 00 pages. c. $6.50. Pidginization and Creolization of Languages, edited by Dell Hymes. Product of a conference cosponsored by the CommIttee on Sociolinguistics and the University of the West Indies, April 9-12, 1968. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, September 1971. 524 pages. $23.50. Studies in the Economic History of the Middle East, edited by M. A. Cook. Product of the conference cosponsored by the Joint Committee on the Near and Middle East and the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, July 4-6, 1967. London and New York: Oxford University Press, May 1970.535 pages. $11.25. The Study of Japan in the Behavioral Sciences, edited by Edward Norbeck and Susan Parman. Papers prepared for a conference held by the Joint Committee on Japanese Studies, April 11-12, 1969. Rice University Studies, Vol. 56, No.4, Fall 1970. 314 pages. $3.25.

SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH COUNCIL 230

PARK

AVENUE,

NEW

YORK,

N.Y.

10017

Incorporated in the State of Illinois, December 27, 1924, for the purpose of advancing research in the social sciences Directors, 1971:

DORWIN

CARTWRIGHT,

ELIZABETH

COLSON, LEE J.

WILLIAM GORHAM, SAMUEL P. HAYS, MATTHEW HOlJ)EN, JR., DELL

H

MOORE, JAMES N. MORGAN, JOHN

\V.

CRONBACH, PHILIP D. CURTIN, RENtE C.

Fox,

DANIEL

X.

FREEDMAN,

HYMES, LAWRENCE R. KLEIN, GARDNER LINDZEY, LEON LIPSON, GEOFFREY

PRATT, AUSTIN RANNEY, ALBERT REES, HENRY W. RIECKEN, DAVID M. SCHNEIDER, HERBERT A. SIMON, NEIL

J. SMELSER, M . BREWSTER SMITH, EDWARD

J.

TAAFFE, KARL E. TAEUBER, JOHN

M.

THOMI'SON, DAVID B. TRUMAN , ANDREW

P.

VAYDA, ROBERT E.

WARD, CHARLES V. WILLIE

Officers and Staff:

HENRY W. RIECKEN,

S. SHOUP, DAVID JENNESS,

Staff Associates;

President;

BRYCE WOOD,

Executive Associate; ELEANOR C. ISBELL, ROWLAND L. F. BORUCH, Staff Assistants; CATHERI:-<E

JOHN CREIGHTON CAMPBELL, ROBERT

MITCHELL, JR., DONAlJ) V. RON NAN,

Financial

Secretary SEPTEMBER

1971

89


COUNCIL FELLOWSHIPS AND GRANTS OFFERED IN 1971-72: DATES FOR FILING APPLICATIONS AND ANNOUNCEMENTS OF AWARDS Applications for fellowships and grants offered by the Council during the coming year will be due, and awards will be announced, on or before the respective dates listed below. Because applications received after the closing dates specified cannot be considered, and because preliminary correspondence is frequently necessary to determine under which program a given proposal should be submitted, prospective applicants should communicate with the Council if possible at least three weeks in advance of the pertinent closing date. Inquiries should indicate the nature of the proposed training or research; the approximate amount and duration of support needed; one's age, occupation or current activity and vocational aim, country of citizenship and country of permanent residence; academic degrees held (specifying the fields of study); and if currently working for a degree, one's present stage of advancement toward it. A brochure describing the several programs is available on request addressed to Social Science Research Council Fellowships and Grants, 230 Park Avenue, New York, N.Y. 10017. Research Training Fellowships, applications, January 3, 1972; awards, April 1, 1972 Grants for Research in Method and Theory, applications, January 3, 1972; awards, April I, 1972 • Grants for African Studies, applications, December I, 1971; awards, March 1972 • Grants for Research on Contemporary and Republican China, applications, December I, 1971; awards, March 1972 • Grants for Japanese Studies, applications, December ], 1971; awards, March 1972 • Grants for Korean Studies, applications, December 1, 1971; awards, March 1972 NOTE: Programs of grants for research on Chinese Civilization (pre-I911 China) and on South Asia (India, Pakistan, Nepal, Ceylon) are offered by the

• •

American Council of Learned Societies, 345 East 46 Street, New York, N.Y., 10017, to which inquiries should be addressed. Grants for Near and Middle Eastern Studies, applications, December I, 197]; awards, March 1972 Postdoctoral Grants for Latin American and Caribbean Studies, including Collaborative Research Grants, applications to be submitted to Foreign Area Fellowship Program, 110 East 59 Street, New York, N.Y. 10022, December 15, 1971; awards, March 1972 Grants for East European Studies, applications to be submitted to American Council of Learned Societies, 345 East 46 Street, New York, N.Y. ]0017, December 31, 1971; awards, within 3 months Grants for Study of East European Languages, applications to be submitted to American Council of Learned Societies, 345 East 46 Street, New York, N.Y. 10017, February I, 1972; awards, within 2 months Travel grants for international conferences abroad on East European studies, applications to be submitted to American Council of Learned Societies, 345 East 46 Street, New York, N.Y. 10017, February 15, 1972 Grants for Soviet Studies, applications to be submitted to American Council of Learned Societies, 345 East 46 Street, New York, N.Y. 10017, December 31, 1971; awards, within 3 months Foreign Area Fellowships, applications to be submitted to Foreign Area Fellowship Program, 110 East 59 Street, New York, N.Y. 10022, for: Africa and the Middle East, November 15, 197] East, South, and Southeast Asia, November 8, 1971 Latin America and the Caribbean Research Fellowships, November 30, 1971 Internships, November 30, 1971 Collaborative Research Training Fellowships, February I, 1972 Research Training Seminars, January 15, 1972 Western Europe, November 22, 1971

• Offered under a joint program of the American Council of Learned Societies and the Social Science Research Council.

Items Vol. 25 No. 3 (1971)  
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