Items Vol. 24 No. 4 (1970)

Page 1




TO RETIRE ON DECEMBER 31, 1970: THE COUNCIL PAYS TRIBUTE PAUL WEBBINK joined the Council as assistant director of research for the newly appointed Committee on Social Security on January 9, 1936. As its full-time Director of Research, in Washington, from 1937 to 1943, he organized and supervised execution of a comprehensive program to meet the urgent needs for research created by the adoption of national social security programs. The committee's activities, which resulted in over 100 publications, were brought to conclusion under the impact of war, which led governmental agencies to make heavy new demands upon the committee's staff and associates. In this situation the Council established a personnel office in Washington to deal with requests for assistance in the recruitment of social scientists for wartime service. The professional, administrative, and consultative functions performed by Paul Webbink for the Council during the war years were numerous and varied. In 1943 he became staff of the new Committee on Labor Market Research, appointed upon termination of the Committee on Social Security to continue development of research planning in a broadened field. The committee's substantial record of accomplishment in the application of scientific techniques in the study of employment problems owed much to his constructive contributions to the planning and conduct of its projects, 1943-56. From 1944 to 1954 Paul Webb ink served as Secretary of the Conference Board of Associated Research Councils, set up to facilitate continuing the cooperation on matters of common concern initiated in response to wartime problems. He was a member of the Subcommittee on Demobilization Awards, Committee on Social Science Personnel, which administered an emergency pro-

gram to hasten the return of promlSlng young social scientists to normal professional work after the war. As staff of a Committee on Federal Government and Research, -1945-46, concerned with the relationship of social science to proposals for the expansion of federal support of research, he expedited preparation of a statement of the Council's position with respect to establishment of a national science foundation. Regardless of how the activities of the Council are categorized in the years immediately following World War II, Paul Webbink's knowledge and skill were drawn into every category. As staff of the Committee on Organization for Research in the Social Sciences, 1946-52, he produced the first directory of university social science research organizations in universities and colleges ever published in this country; conducted a welcomed inquiry into university practices relating to the appraisal of research contracts in the social sciences; and prepared a report on the administration of social science research at universities, published in Items, June 1948. He became a member of the Committee on Social Science Personnel in 1946, serving until 1964. From 1949 to 1954 he served on the Commission on Human Resources and Advanced Training, appointed by the Conference Board. In September 1948 Paul Webbink was named VicePresident of the Council and moved to its office in New York. The added administrative and financial responsibilities he thus assumed in no way lessened his interest in or contributions to the research planning activities of the Council. That autumn he arrange.d conferences of economists associated with the Council to see where its effort might best be directed for the advancement of 41

their field. The result was appointment of the ComA member of the board expressed less formally some mittee on Economic Growth in 1949, and the develop- widely held sentiments: "It is a toss-up whether Paul's ment of long-term programs of research conferences and efforts have been most valuable in the number of fruitremarkably productive international research programs. ful projects he has nurtured or in the number of barren At his initiative cooperative relationships developed limbs he has lopped. Although I am sure the cliches of with staff of the Bureau of the Census led to preparation 'cost-benefit' analysis repel him, the economist in him is of two series of census monographs based on data of the always watchful that SSRC give due weight to the oppor1950 and 1960 censuses under the auspices of successive tunity costs of the scarce time and energy of the social Council committees, Census Monographs, of which he scientists it coopts to its activities." was a member, 1951-57, and Population Census MonoELBRIDGE SIBLEY'S name first appears in Council argraphs, 1958-68. During the 1950's and 1960's he also chives in 1938-39 as a successful applicant for a grantparticipated or assisted in planning and carrying out the projects of the Committees on Agricultural Eco- in-aid of a study of "demographic factors underlying the nomics, 1953-66; Business Enterprise Research, 1953- formation of social classes in the United States." He has 58; Western Regional Economic Analysis, 1952-56; claimed, however, that an earlier application for a felAnalysis of Economic Census Data, 1956-64; Family and lowship was rejected, but of that there is no record. Economic Behavior, 1956-60; Historical Statistics, 1956- (His application for the grant and his reports were 59; Urbanization, 1958-64; Economic Stability, 1959- ; exemplary.) When wartime demands on the Council's Economy of China, 1961-70; Preservation and Use Washington office reached their peak and postwar probof Economic Data, 1961-65; Areas for Social and Eco- lems of displaced social scientists were being anticipated, nomic Statistics, 1964-67; Manpower, Population, and he was persuaded to join the Council on August 14, Economic Change, 1965-68; Statistical Training, 1967- . 1944 as Fellowship Secretary and member of the research The list remains incomplete. It does not suggest the planning staff. Located in the Washington office and many other capacities and relationships through which serving as staff of the Committee on Social Science PerPaul Webbink has served the Council and other profes- sonnel, he was engaged immediately in planning, initiasional and governmental bodies concerned with social tion, and operation of the Demobilization Awards Proscience, nor his conscientious painstaking attention to gram. Thus began an unparalleled career of attention to every problem whose resolution was essential to the the recruitment and better training of social scientists progress of the Council, nor the extent to which his for research and to the problems of financial support for counsel aided and sustained his colleagues. It merely independent research by individuals. For the Council provides the background of the adoption of the follow- he has not only administered a variety of programs of ing resolution by the directors of the Council at its an- aid for the training and research of social scientists, but also made major studies of the problems underlying the nual meeting in September: "Resolved that the Board of Directors of the Social development and utilization of social science personnel, Science Research Council hereby records its profound and assisted important research planning committees. In addition to the Demobilization Awards Program, in indebtedness to Paul Webb ink, who has given 34 years which he participated both as staff and member of the of uniquely devoted and unstinting service to the Council as staff member, as Director of Research for the Subcommittee (1945-46), Elbridge Sibley was given Committee on Social Security, member of many other responsibility for administration of the Research Traincommittees, and as Vice-President of the Council since ing Fellowship program, which still continues under the 1948. Without his skillful analysis and direction of the auspices of the Committee on Social Science Personnel Council's financial and administrative affairs, his rare (of which he was also a member in 1946-48), and for the knowledge of the resources and personnel in a great program of the Committee on Grants-in-Aid (1944-64), variety of fields, and his talent for recruiting the coun- and a small program of Southern Grants-in-Aid (termitry's most able social scientists to participate in the work nated in 1947). In 1948 he was made an Executive Asof the Council's committees, many of its most significant sociate of the Council in charge of administration of all accomplishments would not have been possible. In warm its fellowship and grant programs. The organization, appreciation of his innumerable contributions to the operation, and appraisal of various new programs of capacities of the Council to carry out its functions on financial aid for social science research and training for behalf of the social sciences in the United States and which the Council received funds from time to time his unswerving loyalty to this goal, the members of the became an important part of his assignment. In SeptemBoard of Directors express to Paul Webb ink their pro- ber 1957 he moved to New York when administration found gratitude, affection, and esteem." of all Council programs was consolidated there. 42





From 1947 to 1953 a special program of Area Research Training Fellowships and Travel Grants was offered by the Council; Elbridge Sibley served both as staff and member of the administrative committee. As staff of a Committee on Undergraduate Research Training, set up in 1953, he organized an experimental program of undergraduate research stipends and first-year graduate study fellowships, which was offered through 1956. He supervised the programs of International Conference Travel Grants, offered by the Council from 1957 to 1964, and of Auxiliary Research Awards offered in 1958-59 and 1961-62. Elbridge Sibley's first major study for the Council was focused on research training problems and published as Council Bulletin 58 in 1948, The Recruitment, Selection, and Training of Social Scientists. The second, Support for Independent Scholarship and Research, was published as a Council Monograph in 1951. These studies as well as The Education of Sociologists in the United States, which Elbridge Sibley prepared while on partial leave from the Council and which was published by Russell Sage Foundation in 1963, have been widely used throughout the academic world. His analyses, both published and unpublished, have provided the bases for repeated reviews of Council fellowship and grant policies and for the redesign of programs to meet changing needs and opportunities. The programs of the successive Committees on Faculty Research Fellowships (1950-60, 1960-64) and the current Committee on Faculty Research Grants (1964- ), for all of which Elbridge Sibley served as staff, reflect his continuing effort to ensure the most effective use of the resources available to the Council for these purposes. Of notable significance for the advance of social science research were his contributions to the programs of the Committees on Mathematical Training of Social Scientists, 1952-57, and on Mathematics in Social Science Research, 1958-64. An innovation under the former was the experimental offering in 1953 of a summer institute in mathematics for social scientists, providing special training not otherwise available. The development of the summer institute as an intensive training device adaptable to a variety of emerging needs was continued by Mr. Sibley for that committee, which sponsored five such institutes, and subsequently both for the Committee on Mathematics in Social Science Research, which held six institutes on mathematical models in social science research, and for the Committee on Research Training, 1955-59, which sponsored summer training institutes for research in a diversity of fields. For the Committee on Research Training Elbridge Sibley also participated in planning and organizing the Study of Economic Factors Affecting Graduate Student DECEMBER


Careers, which was carried out with the aid of a joint advisory committee of the ACLS, NRC, and SSRC, of which he was a member, 1957-62. As a member of the research planning staff of the Council, Elbridge Sibley served first as Executive Secretary of the Joint Committee of the NRC and SSRC on Measurement of Opinion, Attitudes and Consumer Wants, under which important methodological studies were conducted during 1945-54. He served also as staff of the Committees on Social Stratification, 1952-53; Sociocultural Contexts of Delinquency, 1959-60; and Comparative Sociological Research, 1967-69; and coordinated the efforts of a conference group on social organization of the prison, 1956-57. Since 1963 he has participated as staff of the Committee on Sociolinguistics in planning and implementing the development of this new field. During 1963-69, as a member of the Conference Board's Commission on Human Resources and Advanced Education, he was closely concerned with the planning and execution of its study of the utilization of talent in American society. That constructive performance of the diverse tasks entrusted to Elbridge Sibley in these assignments itself required a unique combination of talents is obvious. The directors of the Council expressed their appreciation by adoption of the following resolution: "Resolved that the Board of Directors of the Social Science Research Council hereby recognizes the devotion, integrity, and competence with which Elbridge Sibley has administered its programs of fellowships and research grants for more than 25 years. We are all well aware that to thousands of the recipients of such awards he represents both the spirit and the reality of the Council's efforts to advance research and training in the social sciences. Few of the Council's Fellows will forget his concern both with perfecting their initial proposals and assisting and supporting their subsequent training and research programs. We note with particular pleasure and pride his achievements in connection with the committees on mathematical training and the use of mathematics in social science research. In acknowledgement of its profound appreciation of his dedicated service to the Council and his devotion to the highest standards of performance in both research and administration, the members of the Board express to Elbridge Sibley their admiration, respect, and deep gratitude." Looking at the rosters of recipients of Council fellowships and a variety of grants over the past quarter century, one director said, "Wise teachers know that they can claim only a limited responsibility for the successes of their students, and Elbridge Sibley's modesty would prevent him from claiming or even admitting more than a minor role for himself or the Council in the productivi-


ty of their 'graduates: The quality of those graduates, however, must be a source of deep satisfaction to him, as it is to those of us who in our capacity as directors saw and took pride in the Council's training and grant programs under his guidance and management."

These two dedicated members of the Council's staff will be immeasurably missed. They have always placed the Council's interests foremost and have upheld the highest standards of performance. They have responded to calls for assistance-whether fTom directors of the

Council, committees, professional colleagues, or members of the office staff-deftly and with good humor. They have never been restricted by traditions-though they have weighed their merits-and they have always given first priority to the advancement of social science. They joined the Council in an era of major progress in the social sciences-their service ends in yet another, to which both have contributed. Their example of steadfast effort to extend the resources of social science and their confidence that its applications can help to resolve the urgent problems of the day continue among the assets of the Council.


ON August 12, 1970, President Nixon announced the establishment of a Commission of distinguished citizens to look into the content, quality, and scope of statistics produced by the federal government, to consider how the Federal Statistical System should be organized, and to propose guidelines for protection of the privacy of individuals. The members of this Commission are:

John W. Tukey, Professor of Statistics, Princeton University James A. Suffridge, International President Emeritus, Retail Clerks International Association

Important progress in identifying both problems and solutions was made when W. Allen Wallis and Daniel B. Rathbun met with the board of directors of the Social W. Allen Wallis, Chancellor, University of Rochester, Science Research Council in September 1970. Needs for Chairman microdata, increased emphasis on dissemination, better Frederick Mosteller, Professor of Mathematical Statis- documentation, time budgets, the case for a constitutics, Harvard University, Vice Chairman tional amendment dealing with invasions of privacy, Ansley J. Coale, Director, Office of Population Re- and the need for a review of the operations of the Office search, Princeton University of Statistical Policy were among the matters discussed. Paul M. Densen, Director, Center for Community It was also pointed out that major groups of users of Health and Medical Care, Harvard University statistics, such as historians, have for too long had almost Solomon Fabricant, Professor of Economics, New no voice in the decisions that shape federal statistical York University programs. Robert D. Fisher, Chairman, Seeley G. Mudd Fund Observations about the Commission were made and W. Braddock Hickman, President, Federal Reserve are reported here with three purposes in mind: (1) to Bank of Cleveland emphasize the fact that social scientists, who, taken toWilliam H. Kruskal, Professor of Statistics, University gether, represent one of the most important bodies of of Chicago users of federal statistics, may advance their cause by Stanley Lebergott, Professor of Economics, Wesleyan participating in the Commission's review of government University statistical programs; (2) to describe in brief terms the Richard Scammon, Director, Elections Research Cen- tentative plans of the Commission so that interested ter, Governmental Affairs Institute agencies and persons will be in a better position to assess William H. Shaw, Assistant to the Treasurer, E. I. du the need for active participation on their part; (3) to Pont de Nemours and Company provide assurance that the charter the President has Frank D. Stella, President, F. D. Stella Products given the Commission is sufficiently broad and sufCompany ficiently flexible to accommodate any and all constructive recommendations. • The author is Executive Director of the President's Commission on Unresolved issues turned up by the Ruggles and KayFederal Statistics, on leave from his position as Director, Naval War- sen studies,l the glaring "gaps" pointed up by planningfare Analysis Group of the Center for Naval Analyses. As reported in this article, the task of the Commission was discussed with the Council's board of directors at its annual meeting in September.


1 Richard Ruggles and others, "Report of the Committee on the Preservation and Use of Economic Data to the Social Science Research





programming-budgeting experience, increased concern over invasions of privacy-a matter being considered in both houses of Congress--and the actions of the American Statistical Association that led to the appointment of the Commission establish a case for the review of federal programs at this time. The as yet unknown effects of the recent reorganization of the Office of Statistical Policy and the new uses for statistics discussed in William H. Kruskal's selections from Mathematical Sciences and Social Sciences, printed in the September 1970 issue of Items, also suggest that those concerned with the output of federal programs would do well to keep their eyes on the statistics-generating machinery. The strength of the consensus on the propriety of a review at this time is matched by the vigor with which informed users disagree about the causes and cures of deficiencies in the federal programs. In the past two months, in conversations with over 50 of the leading users and producers of federal statistics, diametrically opposed positions have been found on all major issues. For example, those who argue that a basically responsive federal system has corrected all "gaps" are matched by those who argue that the most pressing problem today is to correct "gaps" created by a quite unresponsive system; and the conclusions of those whose analysis indicates that "excessive decentralization" creates very serious problems are matched by the claims of those who argue that "excessive centralization" must be corrected. And even in those cases in which there is a measure of agreement about the central thrust of corrective steps -e.g., education-differences are found, with some arguing that the job is one of educating, say, the public about the differences between a dossier and a statistical system and others arguing that producers of statistics must be introduced to new techniques. To summarize, there is a widespread awareness on the part of both users and producers of the need for stocktaking and a plethora of conflicting views. While tentative plans are subject to change as Commission members delve more deeply into issues they are now examining, it appears that attention will be centered on the following broad subjects: I. The complex set of issues involved in providing adequate protection against invasions of privacy Council, April 1965," Appendix I in The Computer and Invasion 0/ Privacy: Hearings before a Subcommittee of the Committee on Government Operation.!, HOUle of Representatives, 89th Congress, 2nd Session, July 26, 27, and 28, 1966, Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1966, pp. 195-253; Carl Kaysen and others, "Report of the Task Force on the Storage of and Access to Government Statistics," Appendix II in The Coordination and Integration of Government Statistical Programs: Hearings before the Subcommittee on Economic Statistics of the Joint Economic Committee, .•• 90th Congress, 1st Session, May 17, 18; June 7, 8, 1967, Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1967, pp. 195-205. DECEMBER


and breaches of confidentiality while permitting the data gathering and analysis deemed to be in the interest of society. 2. The processes by which data-gathering priorities are established, with special attention to the requirements for social indicators, program-evaluation data, and gaps identified by users. 3. Production processes in the different agencies, with special attention to error structure, accuracy-timing tradeoffs, personnel problems, and the responsiveness of the system to new demands. 4. The case for diverting resources from traditional data-collection programs to new approaches to problem solving, e.g., the development and maintenance of an analytical capacity to identify and collect on an ad hoc basis the statistics needed, or conduct the experiments required, in the evaluation of given policy issues. This Commission, the first in 20 years, has an extremely broad charter. It was drawn up so as to encourage exploration of new kinds of information, new means of making both old and new data available, and alternatives to traditional data-collection programs. Thus, in his letter to Chairman Wallis, the President asks, "What are the appropriate dimensions of the total Federal Statistical Program?" and observes, "Your study should do much to achieve a clear understanding of the place of statistics in our society and of the changes that should be made to insure a prudent and fruitful approach to the assembly and presentation of statistical information. " All members of the Commission are drawn from the nongovernmental sector; the majority are users of statistics. The interests of producers and suppliers will not be slighted, but it is the ability of the statistical system to provide the kinds of data needed by users, on schedules and terms laid down by users, that is the central concern of the Commission. Finally, two suggestions and an acknowledgement: 1. For 130 years Commission recommendations for changes in the organization of the federal statistical program have been ignored. This fact suggests that those who want to improve the federal statistical program should center attention on other means of reform. 2. Unlike the average statistical series, which never dies, this broad-gauge, user-oriented evaluation of federal programs expires in 10 months. It follows that users with ideas for improving federal programs should forward their recommendations to the Commission at 1016 16th Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20036 at the earliest possible date. Limits to the Commission's powers are many and 45

varied, of course. Certainly, it cannot interfere with the rights of a free people to grumble about their statistics or induce decision makers to use statistics; nor can it correct the well-established tendency to charge the managers of statistical programs with the crimes they detect in the underlying programs described by the statistics. Moving closer to problems which might in theory yield to corrective efforts, it cannot get at the very serious

problems which flow from the widespread inability or unwillingness of users to understand and describe their data needs. With the assistance of such organizations as the Social Science Research Council and the national associations in the social sciences, it can move what is already the world's finest set of statistical programs in the right direction, thereby setting the stage for important advances in the social sciences.

LINKAGE OF NATIONAL ECONOMETRIC MODELS: SECOND ANNUAL CONFERENCE ON PROJECT LINK by Lawrence R. Klein ,.. Robert J. Ball. London Graduate School of Business Studies LONDON was the site of the 1970 annual conference of Giorgio Basevi. University of Bologna participants in LINK, the international research project R. Dayal, UN Conference on Trade and Development. Geneva of the Council's Committee on Economic Stability. (A Hidekazu Eguchi. Bank of Japan, Tokyo Boris S. Fomin, UN Conference on Trade and Development, report on the 1969 conference in Hakone, Japan, apNew York peared in Items) December 1969.) The host for this John Helliwell. University of British Columbia Jan G. D. Hoogland. Netherlands Central Planning Bureau year's meetings was the London Graduate School of Duncan S. Ironmonger, University of Melbourne Business Studies, which welcomed the participants in its Lars Jacobsson, ' National Institute of Economic Research. Stockholm new, elegant quarters at the Clarence Gate of Regent's Junior, European Economic Community. Brussels Gerold Park. The time of the meetings was scheduled to coWilhelm Krelle. Bonn University ordinate with the World Congress of the Econometric A. Maizels, UN Conference on Trade and Development, Geneva Bernard G. Marin-Curtoud, UN Conference on Trade and Society, held in Cambridge, England, September 9-14, Development, New York 1970. The meetings of the participants in Project LINK Chikashi Moriguchi, Kyoto University William E. Norton, Reserve Bank of Australia. Sydney began on September 2 and continued through SeptemPaolo Onofri, University of Bologna ber 7, with the exception of a half day on Saturday and Gunter Sandermann, Bonn University V. K. Sastry, UN Conference on Trade and Development, New a full day on Sunday, September 5-6. They then moved York on to Cambridge for a full session at the World Congress John A. Sawyer, University of Toronto Harold T. Shapiro, University of Michigan on Project LINK design and research results to date and Ian A. Stewart, Bank of Canada, Ottawa for other individual presentations by various LINK parGrant B. Taplin, International Monetary Fund, Washington ticipants. Masahiro Tatemoto. Kyoto University Petrus 1- Verdoorn, Netherlands Central Planning Bureau The London conference was organized much the Jean Waelbroeck. Free University of Brussels same as that in Hakone, but there were more substantive Akira Yajima, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris results to discuss, more clarification of the framework of analysis to consider, and a greater number of particiThe second annual conference was a follow-up, workpants to accommodate. In addition to R. A. Gordon, ing and discussion seminar on research done since the Bert G. Hickman, Lawrence R. Klein, and Rudolf R. Hakone meeting and discussed in a more preliminary Rhomberg of the committee, the following attended: way at two regional meetings-one of the North Ameriand Japanese participants held at Stanford Univercan Carlo d'Adda, University of Bologna Akihiro Amano, Kobe University sityon March 12-13, and the other of Western European participants held at Stockholm on April 29-30. • The author is Professor of Economics at the University of PennThe program of the London meeting follows: sylvania. He has been a member of the Council's Committee on Economic Stability since its appointment in 1959. The other members of the committee, which sponsors Project LINK, are Bert G. Hickman, Stanford University (chairman); Martin Bronfenbrenner, CarnegieMellon University; James S. Duesenberry, Harvard University; Otto Eckstein, Harvard University; R. A. Gordon. University of California. Berkeley; Franco Modigliani. Massachusetts Institute of TeChnology; Geoffrey H. Moore. U.s. Bureau of Labor Statistics; Arthur Okun. Brookings Institution; Rudolf R. Rhomberg, International Monetary Fund; and Charles L. Schultze. University of Maryland; stag, Paul Webbink.


Wednesday, September 2 Morning


Papers on National Econometric Models Japan: Masahiro Tatemoto Sweden: Lars Jacobsson Canada: John A. Sawyer West Germany: Gunter Sandermann Italy: Giorgio Basevi Belgium: Jean Waelbroeck The Netherlands: Petrus J. Verdoorn VOLUME




United Kingdom: Robert J. Ball Developing nations: V. K. Sastry Thursday, September 3 Preview of Econometric Society (World Congress) Presentation Morning BACKGROUND. ORGANIZATION, AND PREUMINARY

and Development on developing areas. A significant development in the whole basis for LINK research has been the contribution of Boris S. Fomin bearing on the treatment of socialist countries in the LINK system. His reREsULTS search is concentrated on the Soviet Union, Poland, OF PROJECT LINK Czechoslovakia, and Hungary. The major lacuna in Bert G. Hickman, Lawrence R. Klein. Rudolf R. LINK is the lack of a national model of the economy of Rhomberg THE METHODOLOGY OF LINKAGE France. Efforts are now under way, in cooperation with Jean Waelbroeck economists in the Ministry of Finance and Economics, Afternoon AN EXPERIMENT IN INTERNATIONAL LINKAGE: CANADA AND to build a French model for inclusion in the LINK THE UNITED STATES John Helliwell, Harold T. Shapiro, Gordon Sparks, system. Ian A. Stewart It was decided at the London meeting to include an AN ECONOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF A BILATERAL MODEL OF explicit model for Australia in future project planning. INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC ACTIVITY: JAPAN AND THE Prospects for developing models for other countries are U.S.A. Hidekazu Eguchi and Chikashi Moriguchi also being considered at the present time, but no firm Friday, September 4 commitment has been made on the future expansion of Morning REsEARCH ON COMMODITY MARKETS IN WORLD TRADE the system. A. Maizels While research on individual countries and some OUTLINE OF STRUCTURE OF TEA MODEL R. Dayal bilateral linkage studies are going on at the various IMPORT EQUATIONS FOR AN EXPANDED WORLD TRADE national centers, the Coordinating Center at the WharMODEL AND CoNSTRUCTION OF WORLD TRADE MATRICES ton School of the University of Pennsylvania is managGrant B. Taplin Afternoon SPECIAL PROBLEMS IN THE TREATMENT OF THE SOCIALIST ing the central file. The file consists of a data bank for COUNTRIES IN LINK all the series used in national models, model estimates, Boris S. Fomin and programs for the solution of separate national IMPLEMENTATION OF A MORE REFINED LINK MODEL For purposes of current forecasting exercises, models. Rudolf R. Rhomberg data on initial conditions and future exogethe latest Saturday, September 5 Morning LINK REsEARCH ON THE COMMON MARKET nous input are also kept at the Coordinating Center. Gerold Junior and Jean Waelbroeck The research team at Kyoto University has been develBUSINESS MEETING oping a uniform system of notation, and the CoordinatLawrence R. Klein. Chairman ing Center is trying to implement this system by rewritMonday, September 7 Morning LINK RESEARCH AT THE CENTRAL COORDINATING CENTER, ing all separate country models in the new system of WHARTON SCHOOL, UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA: CoMnotation and transcribing them into Fortran statements PLETE SoLUTIONS OF THE WORLD SYSTEM, DEPOSITORY so that all the models can be obtained in machine readOF CENTRAL FILES, SCHEME OF UNIFORM NOTATION able form as they are used in the typical solution proLawrence R. Klein Afternoon DISCUSSION OF LINK PLANS FOR 1970-71 grams. R. A. Gordon, Chairman During 1969-70, Alain Van Peeterssen of the Free The authors of each of the reports on national models University of Brussels worked at the Coordinating Cenconcentrated on work done during the past year in ter on developing complete multinational solutions for estimating foreign trade equations according to the world trade projections. Projections were made for the standardized LINK categories for imports and an overall year 1970, using a short-cut graphical method and using export relationship. The Canadian research opened up a simultaneous interactive solution that puts all country new possibilities for treatment of export price equations. and regional models together in a single computer proThe Japanese contribution dealt with an interesting gram. These solutions were obtained subject to the analysis of possible revaluation of the yen. In all countries restriction that world trade (measured as total world there was simultaneous research on improving the imports) agree with the sum of the separate country and underlying national models. In many cases this involved regional imports; they were also obtained subject to the respecification and re-estimation on the basis of im- restriction that world exports equal world imports proved data. For Sweden it involved the final develop- (measured by the sum of country and regional imports) ment of the whole model, and for Italy the successful and that the world trade price deflator be a well-defined launching of a new national model project. Improved weighted average of individual countries' export price results were also obtained in research under the auspices indexes. A further restriction to obtain consistent moveof the International Monetary Fund on the "rest of the ment over time of import prices and the world trade world" and by the United Nations Conference on Trade price deflator was imposed on the solution. World 47 DECEMBER 1970

trade matrices of bilateral flows of goods prepared by the International Monetary Fund were used to estimate country exports and to insure that the sum of country exports equalled the sum of country imports. In this complete system calculation, trade values had to be adjusted for exchange rates, inflationary factors, and the differences between c.i.f. and f.o.b. valuations in order to express the world restrictions on the equality between imports and exports in 1963 U.S. dollars. Improvements in the full LINK calculations, enlarge-

ment of the system, disaggregation by one-digit commodity classifications (Standard International Trade Classifications), and projections over longer horizons will occupy the research efforts at the Coordinating Center during 1970-71. Regional seminars are now being planned for the North American and Japanese participants and for the Western European participants in the spring of 1971. Tentative plans are being laid for a third annual world meeting in the following September.

PERSONNEL DIRECTORS AND OFFICERS OF THE COUNCIL At the annual meeting of the board of directors of the Council in September, Lee J. Cronbach, Matthew Holden, Jr., and Dell Hymes were re-elected directors-at-large for the two-year term 1971-72. Edward J. Taaffe of Ohio State University was newly elected a director-at-large for the same term. The other directors-at-large are Daniel X. Freedman, William Gorham, Leon Lipson, and Herbert A. Simon. Robert E. Ward was elected chairman of the board of directors; Samuel P. Hays, vice-chairman; Elizabeth Colson, secretary; and Neil J. Smelser, treasurer. The following members of the board were elected as its Executive Committee: David B. Truman (chairman), Philip D. Curtin, Dell Hymes, Gardner Lindzey, and Austin Ranney. Albert Rees was named chairman of the Committee on Problems and Policy, and M. Brewster Smith, Karl E. Taeuber, and Andrew P. Vayda were elected members of the committee. Its other members are William H. Sewell, Herbert A. Simon, and ex officio: Henry W. Riecken, Robert E. Ward, and Samuel P. Hays. COUNCIL STAFF David Jenness became a Staff Associate of the Council on October 5, 1970. His assignments are concerned with Council activities in psychology and related areas of other sciences. He succeeded Norman W. Storer-who in September became Professor and Chairman, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Bernard M. Baruch College, City University of New York-as staff of the Committee on Biological Bases of Social Behavior, and works also with the Committee on Learning and the Educational Process. Mr. Jenness received M.A. and Ph.D. degrees in experimental psychology from Columbia University. Before joining the Council he served as a senior research scientist in the research division of the New York State Department of Mental Hygiene, at the Psychiatric Institute in New York. He conducted research in psychophysiology and experimental psychopathology, and served as administrative assistant to the Chief of Psychiatric Research, Biometrics Unit. For several


years he served as the working editor for the publications of the American Psychopathological Association. Norman W. Storer has continued to serve as a Consultant on the Council staff. John C. Campbell became a Staff Assistant of the Council on November 1. He serves as staff of three Joint Committees of the American Council of Learned Societies and Social Science Research Council on East Asian area studies-the Committees on Contemporary China, Japanese Studies, and Korean Studies-and of the Committee on Exchanges with Asian Institutions. Mr. Campbell received a B.A. degree from Columbia College in 1965 and is a candidate for the Ph.D. degree in the Department of Political Science, Columbia University. During 1968-70 as a Foreign Area Fellow under the Program jointly sponsored by the ACLS and SSRC, he conducted research in Tokyo on the politics of the Japanese budgetary process. Mr. Campbell also studied at the Interuniversity Center for Japanese Studies in Tokyo. and during 1967-68 served as Executive Secretary of the independent U.S. - Japan Committee on Educational and Cultural Cooperation. COUNCIL COMMITTEES ON FELLOWSHIPS AND GRANTS Faculty Research Grants. Jerome L. Stein, Brown University (chairman); Theodore R. Anderson, University of Minnesota; Allan G. Bogue, University of Wisconsin; Bernard S. Cohn, University of Chicago; Everett C. Ladd, Jr., University of Connecticut; and Peter N. Steams, Rutgers University, have been reappointed members of the committee for 1970-71. One additional member is still to be appointed. Social Science Personnel. Murray G. Murphey, University of Pennsylvania, has been appointed chairman of the committee, which has charge of the Council's research training fellowship program. H. M. Blalock, Jr., University of North Carolina; Milton C. Cummings, Johns Hopkins University; John M. Darley, Princeton University; and Laura Nader, University of California, Berkeley, also have been reappointed. Newly appointed to the committee are Jerome VOLUME




Rothenberg, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and Karl E. Taeuber, University of Wisconsin. JOINT COMMITTEES OF THE ACLS AND SSRC OFFERING GRANTS TO INDIVIDUALS

African Studies. Elizabeth Colson, University of California, Berkeley (chairman); L. Gray Cowan, Columbia University; Philip D. Curtin, University of Wisconsin; Walter W. Deshler, University of Maryland; William O. Jones, Stanford University; Igor Kopytoff, University of Pennsylvania; and Robert F. Thompson, Yale University, have been reappointed members of the committee for 1970-71. Contemporary China. Albert Feuerwerker, University of Michigan (chairman); Chalmers Johnson, University of California, Berkeley; John M. H. Lindbeck, Columbia University; Ezra F. Vogel, Harvard University; and Arthur P. Wolf, Stanford University, have been reappointed members of the committee. Thomas P. Bernstein, Yale University; Dwight H. Perkins, Harvard University; and James R. Townsend, University of Washington, have been newly appointed. East Asian Studies. Marius B. Jansen, Princeton University (chairman); James I. Crump, Jr., University of Michigan; Felix Moos, University of Kansas; and Edwin G. Pulleyblank, University of British Columbia, have been reappointed members of the committee. Newly appointed is James William Morley, Columbia University. Foreign Area Fellowship Program. Henry W. Riecken (chairman); Pendleton Herring (director of the program); Frederick Burkhardt, American Council of Learned Societies; and Joseph B. Casagrande, University of Illinois, have been reappointed to the committee. Newly appointed is George M. Beckmann, University of Washington. Latin American Studies. Joseph Grunwald, Brookings Institution (chairman); John T. Dorsey, Jr., Vanderbilt University; Munro S. Edmonson, Tulane University; Richard R. Fagen, Stanford University; Stanley R. Ross, University of Texas; and Joseph Sommers, University of Washington, have been reappointed members of the committee. Newly appointed are Julio Cotler, Pontifical Catholic University of Peru; Carl F. Hereford, University of Texas; and Osvaldo Sunkel, University of Chile. Near and Middle East. Marvin Zonis, University of Chicago (chairman); Paul W. English, University of Texas; and I. William Zartman, New York University, have been reappointed members of the committee. Newly appointed are Robert M. Adams, University of Chicago; Joel L. Kraemer, Yale University; and John Masson Smith, Jr., University of California, Berkeley.



Slavic and East European Studies: Subcommittee on East Central and Southeast European Studies. Irwin T. Sanders, Boston University (chairman); Paul L. Horecky, Library of Congress; Michael B. Petrovich, University of Wisconsin; and Alexander M. Schenker, Yale University, have been reappointed members of this subcommittee, which has charge of the programs of grants for East European studies and for study of East European languages. Newly appointed are Adam Bromke, Carleton University, Ottawa; Huey Louis Kostanick, University of California, Los Angeles; John Mersereau, Jr., University of Michigan; and Egon Neuberger, State University of New York at Stony Brook. Slavic and East European Studies: Subcommittee on Grants for Russian and Soviet Studies. Edward J. Brown, Stanford University (chairman); Clayton L. Dawson, University of Illinois; Warren W. Eason, Ohio State University; Stephen D. Kertesz, University of Notre Dame; and Hans J. Rogger, University of California, Los Angeles, have been reappointed members of the subcommittee. OTHER COMMITTEE APPOINTMENTS Alexander Eckstein, University of Michigan; Frederick W. Mote, University of Washington; and Henry W. Riecken have been appointed members of the Liaison Committee on Study of Contemporary China, which is sponsored jointly by the American Council of Learned Societies, Association of British Orientalists, British Academy, and Social Science Research Council. Donald S. Shoup, Social Science Research Council, and George Winchester Stone, Jr., New York University, have been named members of the Joint Committee on International Congresses in the United States, cosponsored with the ACLS. George M. Beckmann, University of Washington, has been added to the membership of the Joint Committee on Japanese Studies, cosponsored with the ACLS. Chong-Sik Lee, University of Pennsylvania, has been named chairman of the Joint Committee on Korean Studies, cosponsored with the ACLS, and Herbert R. Barringer, University of Hawaii; Vincent S. R. Brandt, Swarthmore College; Han-kyo Kim, University of Cincinnati; and James Palais, University of Washington, have been appointed members. Dell Hymes, University of Pennsylvania, has been appointed chairman of the Committee on Sociolinguistics. Donald T. Campbell, Northwestern University, and Luis I. Ramallo, Latin American School of Sociology, Santiago, have been appointed members of the Committee on Transnational Social Psychology.



"Basic Research in the Sciences of Behavior": Abridgement of a Chapter in the Report by the Behavioral and Social Sciences Survey Committee, 23:49 Carroll, John B. The European Seminar on Learning and the Educational Process, Held at Skepparholmen, Sweden, . July 29-August 23, 1968, 23:6 . Curtin, Philip D. Intellectual HIstory and Co"!paratlve Studies: An Experimental Approach by the JOint Com. .. .. mittee on African Studies, 24:6 Ervin-Tripp, Susan. Summer Wo~k~~ops In SoclOllng~lstl~s: Research on Children's AcquISItIOn of Communicative Competence, 23:22 Galenson, Walter. The Committee on the Economy of China: A Review of Its Work, 1961-70, 24:1 . Grimshaw, Allen D. Language as Obstacle and as Data In Sociological Research, 23:17 Hickman, Bert G. Linkage of National Eco!,ometric Model~: Project "LINK," Sponsored by the CommIttee on EconomIc Stability, 23:54 Janousek, Jaromir, and Henri Tajfel. The International Conference on Social Psychology in Prague, October 7-11, 1968, 23:26 . . Klein Lawrence R. Linkage of NatIOnal Econometrzc Models: Second Annual Conference on Project LINK, 24:46 Kruskal, William H. Mathematical Sciences and Social Sciences: Excerpts from the Report of a Panel of the Behavioral and Social Sciences Survey, 24:25 McClearn, Gerald E. Biology and the Social and Behavioral Sciences, 23:33 Rathbun, Daniel B. President's Commission on Federal Statistics, 24:44 Rees, Albert. Research on Urban Poverty: A Conference Held at Princeton University, May 22-23, 1969, 23:38. Riecken, Henry W. Social Science and Contemporary SOCIal Problems, 23: I Sibley, Elbridge. Notes on the Report of the Commission on Human Resources and Advanced Education, 24:17 Taaffe, Edward J. Geography as a Social Science: Exc~rpts from the Report of the Geography Panel of the BehavIOral and Social Sciences Survey, 24: 13 Tajfel, Henri. See JanouSek, Jaromir, 23:26 Ward, Robert E. The United States - Japan Joint Bibliog'raphical Project on the Allied Occupation of Japan, 23:37 Paul Webbink and Elbridge Sibley to Retire on December 31, 1970: The Council Pays Tribute, 24:41 COMMITTEE BRIEFS AND OTHER REPORTS African Studies, 23: 12; 24:6, 9 Afro-American Societies and Cultures, 24:30 Asian Studies, 23:31 • An index to Volumes 1-20 (1947-66) appears in Items, VoJ. 22. No. 2. Part 2, June 1968; and an index to Volumes 21-22 (1967-68), in VoJ. 22, No.4, December 1968, page 51.


Behavioral and Social Sciences Survey, 23:49; 24: 13, 25 Biological Bases of Social Behavior, 23: 10, 16, 33 Contemporary China, 23:12; 24:10 East Asian Studies, 24:22 Economic Stability, 23:54; 24:46 Economy of China, 24:1 Exchanges with Asian Institutions, 24:19 Faculty Research Grants, 23:30; 24:21 Foreign Area Fellowship Program, 23:39; 24:31 Governmental and Legal Processes, 24:9. Human Resources and Advanced Education. 24: 17 International Exchange of Persons. 23:16; 24:12 Japanese Studies, 23:37 Korean Studies, 24:31 Latin American Studies, 23:13; 24:10, 19, 22 Learning and the Educational Process, 23:6; 24:19 Minority Research Awards, 23:57; 24:20. 31 Near and Middle East. 23: 14; 24: II Slavic and East European Studies Subcommittee on East Central and Southeast European Studies, 23:45, 46; 24:22. 23 Subcommittee on Grants for Russian and Soviet Studies, 23:45; 24:22 Social Science Personnel, 23:11, 31; 24:20 Sociolinguistics, 23: 17, 22, 57 Transnational Social Psychology, 23:11. 26, 58 PERSONNEL APPOINTMENTS Committees, 23:58; 24:48 Directors of the Council, 23:11, 58; 24:9, 48 Faculty Research Grants, 23:30; 24:21 Foreign Area Fellowships, 23:39; 24:31 Grants for African Studies, 23:12; 24:9 Grants for Asian Studies, 23:31 Grants for East Asian Studies, 24:22 Grants for Latin American Studies, 23:13; 24:10, 22 Grants for Research on Contemporary and Republican China, 23:12; 24:10 Grants for Research on Governmental and Legal Processes, 24:9 Grants for Research on the Near and Middle East, 23:14; 24:11 Grants for Slavic and East European Studies, 23:45; 24:22 Grants for Study of East European Languages, 23:46; 24:23 Officers of the Council, 23:58; 24:48 Research Training Fellowships, 23:11, 31; 24:20 Staff of the Council, 23:32; 24:9, 48 ANNOUNCEMENTS Fellowships and Grants, 23:48; 24:40, 52 Fulbright-Hays Program, 23:16; 24:12, 52 Grants for Research on Caribbean and Latin American Countries, 24:52 Summer Training Institute on Genetics and Behavior, 1969, 23:16 PUBLICATIONS Books. 23: 14. 32, 47, 59; 24: 12. 24, 39, 51





NEW PUBLICATIONS The Behavioral and Social Sciences: Outlook and Needs. Report by the Behavioral and Social Sciences Survey Committee under the auspices of the Committee on Science and Public Policy, National Academy of Sciences, and the Committee on Problems and Policy, Social Science Research Council. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: PrenticeHall, Inc., December 1969. 335 pages. $7.95. Anthropology, edited by Allan H. Smith and John L. Fischer. Report of the Anthropology Panel of the Behavioral and Social Sciences Survey Committee. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc., November 1970. 158 pages. Cloth, $5.95; paper, $1.95. Economics, edited by Nancy D. Ruggles. Report of the Eco路 nomics Panel of the Behavioral and Social Sciences Survey Committee. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc., November 1970. 190 pages. Cloth, $5.95; paper, $2.45. Geography, edited by Edward J. Taaffe. Report of the Geography Panel of the Behavioral and Social Sciences Survey Committee. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc., May 1970. 154 pages. Cloth, $5.95; paper, $2.45. Mathematical Sciences and Social Sciences, edited by William H. Kruskal. Report of the Mathematical Sciences Panel of the Behavioral and Social Sciences Survey Committee. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc., November 1970. 92 pages. Cloth only, $4.95. Political Science, edited by Heinz Eulau and James G. March. Report of the Political Science Panel of the Behavioral and Social Sciences Survey Committee. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc., November 1969. 160 pages. Cloth, $5.95; paper, $1.95. Psychiatry as a Behavioral Science, edited by David A. Hamburg. Report of the Psychiatry Panel of the Behavioral and Social Sciences Survey Committee. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc., July 1970. 127 pages. Cloth, $5.95; paper, $1.95. Psychology, edited by Kenneth E. Clark and George A. Miller. Report of the Psychology Panel of the Behavioral and Social Sciences Survey Committee. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc., March 1970. 157 pages. Cloth, $5.95; paper, $1.95. . Sociology, edited by Neil J. Smelser and James A. DaVIs. Report of the Sociology Panel of the Behavioral and Social Sciences Survey Commi ttee. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc., November 1969. 187 pages. Cloth, $5.95; paper, $1.95. Is the Business Cycle Obsolete?, edited by Martin Bronfenbrenner. Product of a conference sponsored by the Committee on Economic Stability in cooperation with the National Institute of Economic and Social Research, April 3-7, 1967. New York: John Wiley &: Sons, December 1969. 580 pages. $12.50. Changing Characteristics of the Negro Population, by Daniel O. Price. Sponsored by the former Committee on Population Census Monographs in cooperation with the Bureau of the Census. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, February 1970. 267 pages. $2.75. . China and Tanzania: A Study in Cooperative Interactzon, by George T. Yu. Expansion of a paper presented at the Conference on the Foreign Policy of Communist China, held by the Subcommittee on Chinese Govern~ent and Politics, Joint Committee on Contemporary China, January 4-8, 1970. University of California, Berkeley, Center for Chinese Studies, China Research Monograph No.5, 1970. 100 pages. $4.00. DECE~IBER


China's Fertilizer Economy, by Jung-Chao Liu. Sponsored by the former Committee on the Economy of China. Chicago: Aldine Publishing Company, November 1970. 188 pages. $6.00. Computer-Assisted Instruction, Testing, and Guidance, edited by Wayne H. Holtzman. Product of a conference cosponsored by the Committee on Learning and the Educational Process and the College Entrance Examination Board Commission on Tests, October 21-22, 1968. New York: Harper &: Row, November 1970.404 pages. $10.00. Contemporary Chinese Law: Research Problems and Perspectives, edited by Jerome Alan Cohen. Harvard Studies in East Asian Law, 4. Product of the Conference on Chinese Communist Law: Tools for Research, held by the Subcommittee on Chinese Law, Joint Committee on Contemporary China, May 27-30, 1967. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, August 1970. 392 pages. $10.00. East Central Eumpe: A Guide to Basic Publications, edited by Paul L. Horecky. Prepared under the auspices of the Subcommittee on East Central and Southeast European Studies, Joint Committee on Slavic and East European Studies. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1969. 981 pages. $27.50. Southeastern Europe: A Guide to Basic Publications, edited by Paul L. Horecky. Prepared under the auspices of the Subcommittee on East Central and Southeast European Studies, Joint Committee on Slavic and East European Studies. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1969. 779 pages. $25.00. Experiments in Primary Education: Aspects of Project Follow-Through, by Eleanor E. Maccoby and Miriam Zellner. Expansion of a paper prepared for a conference held by the Subcommittee on Compensatory Education, Committee on Learning and the Educational Process, May 15-17, 1969. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc., October 1970. 144 pages. $2.95. Family and Kinship in Chinese Society, edited by Maurice Freedman. Product of a conference sponsored by the Subcommittee on Research on Chinese Society, Joint Committee on Contemporary China, September 15-18, 1966. Stanford: Stanford University Press, March 1970. 286 pages. $7.95. Human Resources and Higher Education: Staff Report of the Commission on Human Resources and Advanced Education, by John K. Folger, Helen S. Astin, and Alan E. Bayer. New York: Russell Sage Foundation, March 1970.507 pages. $17.50. Japan and Korea: An Annotated Bibliography of Doctoral Dissertations in Western Languages, 1877-1969, compiled and edited by Frank J. Shulman. Prepared with the assistance of the Joint Committee on Japanese Studies and the Joint Committee on Korean Studies. Chicago: American Library Association, August 1970. 359 pages. $6.95. Studies in the Economic History of the Middle East, edited by M. A. Cook. Product of the conference cosponsored by the Joint Committee on the Near and Middle East and the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, July 4-6, 1967. London and New York: Oxford University Press, May 1970. 535 pages. $11.25. The Study of Japan in the Behavioral Sciences, edited by Edward Norbeck and Susan Parman. Papers prepared for a conference held by the Joint Committee on Japanese Studies, April 11-12, 1969. Rice University Studies, Vol. 56, No.4, Fall 1970. 311 pages. $3.25. 51

ANNOUNCEMENTS list of candidates to be issued in the spring may write to: Miss Grace E. L. Haskins, Program Officer, Committee on International Exchange of Persons, 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20418 (or telephone 202-9611648).

VISITING FOREIGN SCHOLARS SPONSORED UNDER THE PROVISIONS OF THE FULBRIGHT-HAYS ACT The Committee on International Exchange of Persons recently issued a Directory of Visiting Lecturers and Research Scholars in the United States who have been awarded grants under the Fulbright-Hays Act for 1970-71. The committee expects to issue in the spring of 1971 a list of foreign scholars available under the Fulbright-Hays program for appointments in American colleges and universities for the academic year 1971-72. The list will include information about scholars nominated by the binational Educational Commissions and Foundations abroad for Fulbright-Hays travel grants, covering costs of round-trip transportation from the home country to the United States, provided arrangements can be completed for lecturing or research appointments with appropriate stipends at American institutions of higher learning. Persons interested in receiving a copy of the Directory for the academic year 1970-71 or a copy of the forthcoming

GRANTS FOR RESEARCH ON CARIBBEAN AND LATIN AMERICAN COUNTRIES, OFFERED IN 1970-71 The Joint Committee on Latin American Studies has construed the scope of its grants program to embrace research on all Caribbean and Latin American states which are members of the Organization of American States. The announced December 1, 1970 deadline for filing applications for Grants for Latin American Studies will be waived in the case only of applications for research on Jamaica, Barbados, Trinidad, and Guyana, which have been included in the program under this new interpretation. Such applications must be received by the Social Science Research Council by January 11, 1971 if their consideration is to be ensured.








Incorporated in the State of Illinois, December 27, 1924, for the purpose of advancing research in the social sciences Directors, 1970: WILLIAM O. AYDELOTIE, X. FREEDMAN, '\TILLIAM GORHAM,




Officers and Staff: C. ISBELL, ROWLAND






Vice-President; ELBRIDGE SmLEY, BRYCE WOOD, Executive Associates; Staff Associates; JOHN C. CAMPBELL, Staff Assistant; NORMAN RONNAN, Financial Secretary








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