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SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH COUNCIL

VOLUME 24 . NUMBER 3 • SEPTEMBER 1970 230 PARK AVENUE· NEW YORK, N.Y. 10017

MATHEMATICAL SCIENCES AND SOCIAL SCIENCES: EXCERPTS FROM THE REPORT OF A PANEL OF THE BEHAVIORAL AND SOCIAL SCIENCES SURVEY· selected by William H. Kruskel MANY problems in the behavioral and social sciences require mathematics, statistics, or computation for their solution. More and more frequently, social scientists are using methods and techniques from the mathematical sciences. Further, there is true interaction between the mathematical and the social sciences, for problems arising in the social sciences have motivated new theories and approaches in the mathematical sciences. This interaction has a long record. Without trying to go back to its earliest history, a few examples are worth citing here. In the nineteenth century the psychologist G. T. Fechner was led to a variety of statistical problems through his early psychophysical investigations. Since at least the tum of the century, physical anthropology has both required results of, and made contributions to, the study of multivariate statistical methods as applied to body and skeleton measurements. Mathematics, more narrowly interpreted, has been an essential tool of economics at least since its use by Cournot and Leon Walras about one hundred years ago. Computation has become increasingly important to the social sciences with the • These selections are reprinted (with minor changes) by permission of the publisher from Mathematical Sciences and Social Sciences, edited by William H. Kruskal (copyright by Prentice-Hall, Inc., to be published in November 1970). The Behavioral and Social Sciences Survey was jointly sponsored by the National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council and the Social Science Research Council and conducted by a central planning committee whose members were chairmen and cochairmen of panels in various social science fields. Mr. Kruskal was chairman of the Mathematical Sciences Panel; its other members were John P. Gilbert, Leo Katz, R. Duncan Luce, Alex Orden, and I. Richard Savage. Frederick Mosteller was an active participant in its work and a contributor to its report.

advent of modem high-speed computing equipment, and computations are now routinely made that would have been impractical fantasies a few years ago. Two examples are input-output analysis in economics and the computations of quantitative linguistics. Geography has always had close connection with the making of maps, and cartography, in tum, has required mathematics, statistics, and computation in substantial ways. The Mathematical Sciences Panel was established because of the close connections between the mathematical sciences and the social sciences. This panel report deals with germane problems of statistics, mathematics, and computation. We do not discuss relatively technical issues, important as they are, such as difficulties in carrying out true experiments for many social science problems. The introductory material of the panel report next presents an outline of its contents, suggests other sources of information, and thanks the many mathematical and social scientists who helped in the report's preparation. Chapter I then illustrates how the mathematical acienE:es interact with the social sciences in one interesting context. An extract from Chapter 1 follows. THE MATHEMATICAL SCIENCES AT WORK WITH THE SOCIAL SCIENCES: LEARNING WITH IRREGULAR REWARDS Conventional wisdom suggests that learning anything is best done if the learner is regularly and consistently rewarded for success, but not rewarded for failure. Indeed, much attention, both experimental and theoretical, has been given to learning situations with regular

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rewards. On the other hand, our lives have many aspects in which rewards are irregular, and in this chapter we discuss some ways in which the mathematical sciences help the social sciences to study learning with irregular rewards. Two-Choice Experiments. Paychecks come at regular intervals for most of us, but other kinds of encouragement-being told that a job is well done, the joy of successfully finishing a long task, or seeing a child we have helped perform well--come at irregular intervals. Although some find these intervals too long, the irregularity of rewards is a feature of many real learning experiences. Both animal trainers and psychologists know that pigeons and some animals will persist in behavior for hundreds of trials even though the rewards come at very irregular intervals. Irregularity of rewards stands out in many learning experiences, and students of behavior would like to understand how patterns of irregular reward affect learning. Psychologists have used a special pattern of irregular reward to study the rate of learning in a two-choice situation. They study the performance of rats in a T-maze to find out their learning rates. After some preliminary training to accustom him to the apparatus, the rat, once placed in the start box, walks down the alley to the choice point and turns right or left. (In many experiments, one-way doors prevent the rat from seeing the goal boxes until after he has made his choice.) When he gets to a goal box, the rat either finds or does not find a food pellet. Then after an interval he is returned to the start box to try again. The experimenter chooses fixed percentages of rewards-for example, he may reward the lefthand side 80 percent of the time the rat goes there and the righthand side 10 percent of the time. Then the experimenter studies whether and how the rat gradually learns to go more often to one side; often the process is described graphically by learning curves. In the kind of experiment we discuss first, the rewards are arranged in a way that is patternless, or fully random. If the rat is to be rewarded 80 percent of the time when he chooses the left goal box, the rewards are not arranged in a pattern like eight rewards followed by two nonrewards; rather, a procedure is followed that amounts to throwing a five-sided die each time the left box is chosen and rewarding the rat only if one of the sides 1,2,3, or 4 shows. (There are other procedures intermediate between full randomness and a fixed pattern. They will be discussed later.) The same sort of experiment can be performed with fish swimming in a tank, or with people choosing which of two buttons to press. In the latter case the rewards might be monetary, although candy has been used, and even a flashing light. 26

So far so good. Here is a piece of apparatus in which an animal will behave and by his behavior generate some data. Where do statistics, mathematics, and computation come in? They come in when we try to understand the animal's behavior by formulating psychological explanations in exact terms. To explain how and why and at what rate the rat learns to go to one or the other side of the T-maze, we must have in mind some general abstract notion of what is going on. This general abstract notion, when reduced to specific and explicit statements, is called a mathematical model for the behavior of the subjects in these experiments. Since animals behave differently when introduced to the T-maze situation, and since the same animal will not follow a consistent pattern on different sets of trials, the models are probabilistic ones; that is, they describe chances of various patterns of choice. Starting a Model. How might such a model be established? To begin with, there are probabilities for left and right turns on the first trial. It might seem natural to set each of these probabilities at one-half, but that could be misleading, since there may be some tendency to go to the right more often than the left, or vice versa. So we might well leave the probabilities unspecified, but give them handy names, say P R (1) and PL(I) for the probabilities of right and left turns respectively on the first trial. Direction is indicated, of course, by the subscripts Rand L J and the 1 in parentheses refers to the trial number. The two probabilities are often called parameters of the model. They are unspecified so far, except that P R (1) +PL(I) = 1, since the probability is one that the rat turns either right or left. So far, the model doesn't amount to much, but we begin to get structure when we decide on the probabilities for the second trial. These depend on two things: which choice the rat made on the first trial and whether or not the rat was rewarded. If he chose left to begin with and received a reward, the resulting probability of choosing left on the second trial is presumably greater than PL(I), the left probability on the first trial. Let us suppose, for temporary simplicity, that the left side always has a reward and that the right side never has. Then the model might say that the probability of left choice on the second trial given a left choice on the first (call this PL(2;LÂť is PL(I) + CJ where c is some positive number. Then automatically PB (2;L), the probability of choosing the righthand side on trial two given a left choice on trial one, would be PR(l) - CJ smaller than PB(I). The second-trial probabilities P L (2;R) and P B (2;R) if the first choice was the righthand side might be the same as they were before, PL(I) and PB(l). Or conceivably PL(2;R) might be taken as greater than PL(I) on the VOLUME

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ground that a nonrewarded choice might augment the chance of the other choice next time. The actual situation has further complexities. It is not satisfactory to use PL(I) + c for the second-trial probability, because it does not lead naturally to a continuation to further trials, and because it might give a probability greater than unity or less than zero, either of which is meaningless. We have pushed this simplest approach only to the second trial, and already the reader can see that we are in deep water. Part of the depth comes from mathematical difficulties and part from lack of information about the behavior of the experimental subject. For example, when people know that the side they have chosen has not been rewarded but that the other side would have been, they are more likely to choose the other side next time. But when fish are observed in a T-maze so arranged that a fish can see the other goal box than the one it chose, it turns out that a fish who goes into the side without food, but sees food in the other box, has an increased probability to repeat the choice. Such differences in behavior are measurable with models, but not ordinarily predicted by them. We cannot here discuss further the mathematical details of the models that have been studied. They do, however, use solid mathematics. What is important about these particular models is not that they say that a rewarded choice is more likely to be repeated than a nonrewarded one-anyone might say that-but that they go much further and specify the structure of how the probabilities shift during the sequence of trials. The models are testable; that is, each model can be confirmed or rejected (as applicable to a given situation) by seeing what happens in actual trials. Further, mathematical analysis in the framework of a model can often predict qualitative aspects of the animal's behavior. For example, under some models, and in some situations, the animal will sooner or later settle down and choose one side nearly all the time. Under other models, or other situations, there will be no such settling down, but rather an oscillation (whose characteristics may themselves be studied). Predictions of this kind may be used to compare models and to aid in their confirmation or disconfirmation. The chapter goes on to discuss mode! assessment~ parameter estimation, simulation, more complIcated learmng prob. lems, and so on. Then Chapter 2 provides bri~f cha~acterizations ?f .m~the. matics statistics, and computatIon as mtellectual disciphnes, with further discussion of their relations to the social sciences. . Chapter 3, fr0!D whi~h .a~ extract follows, deals wah the profession of SOCIal statIStiCIan. SEPTEMBER

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THE PROFESSION OF SOCIAL STATISTICIAN When the Constitution established the Census, the nation began systematically gathering social statistics. Dr. Lemuel Shattuck and his coworkers in Boston established the American Statistical Association to aid the Bureau of the Census in developing the statistics needed to appraise the national welfare over the spectrum of health, education, and economics. Thus in this country in the early 1800's the statistician was automatically a social statistician. Today statisticians come in many specialties-mathematical, industrial, agricultural, medical, physical science-but the social statistician continues to playa key role. In 1791 John Sinclair set up statistical accounts in Scotland by systematic inquiries to each of the nation's approximately 850 parish ministers. George Washington, in a letter dated March 15, 1793 to Sinclair, wrote about these accounts, I cannot but express myself highly pleased with the undertaking in which you are engaged, and give my best wishes for its success. I am full persuaded, that when enlightened men will take the trouble to examine so minutely into the state of society, as your inquiries seem to go, it must result in greatly ameliorating the condition of the people, promoting the interests of civil society, and the happiness of mankind at large. These are objects truly worthy the attention of a great mind and every friend to the human race must readily lend his aid towards their accomplishment.1

Wilbur Cohen, former Secretary of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, pointed out that Franklin Delano Roosevelt's famous statement that in the nation "one third are ill-fed, ill-clad, and ill-housed" summarized and rounded off the numbers from a survey carefully prepared by social statisticians. Secretary Cohen is himself a social statistician. He thinks of social statistics as statistics for public policy. The social statistician does not set policy, but frequently social data detect or display public problems quickly and clearly. For example, with our good samples of the labor force, Congress and the Administration receive monthly information on the number of unemployed. At first, reducing the total level of unemployment was the goal. But when further reduction seemed hard, the question became "Who are the unemployed?" To answer such a question requires more refined methods than "How many are unemployed?" because one has to make evaluations for small groups. Once some groups are identified as chronically unemployed, a social problem has been pinpointed. Very recently society has begun to call for better social indicators so that we can consider its progress on many social fronts in a manner similar to that already in1 The Correspondence of tile Right Honorable Sir John Sinclair, Bart., Vol. I, London: Henry Colburn and Richard Bentley, 18111, p. 290. See also James Gray Kyd, "Doomsday Book for Scotland," American Statistician, October 1948, p. 9.

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dicated for economic progress by such indexes as the of air pollution; partiCipation in elections; public atgross national product or the level of retail prices. Social titudes toward current issues and other matters; the indicators are comprehensive measures of health, family provision of educational services and their accomplishstability, education, the prevention and arrest of crime, ments; changes in the quantity and quality of housing; environmental pollution, and so on. For example, one the utilization of medical care; the adequacy of programs comprehensive measure of health is the expectation of for the care of the aged; the prevalence and consequences active life for citizens who are healthy and active at age of morbidity; death and the prolongation of life; and twenty. Senator Walter Mondale introduced in S.834 a the achievement of national goals. Problems of concern Full Opportunity and Social Accounting Act that would are the definition and measurement of the phenomena create a Council of Social Advisers, among whose duties under consideration; assessment of needs or requirewould be the preparation of statements on the social ments; identification and measurement of trends and state of the nation. President Johnson directed the Sec- deviations from trends; evaluation of programs of retary of Health, Education, and Welfare to seek im- change; and projection of future trends. With the growproved measurements of social progress, with the aid of ing concern for cost-conscious planning and program a Panel on Social Indicators. In January 1969 the Panel's analysis, there has been a sharp upturn in the demand statement, Toward a Social Report, was submitted to the for national and local information systems to provide sound bases for decision and for review of actions that President. President Nixon has assigned to the Office of Statistical have been taken. There is also a growing demand for Policy (formerly the Office of Statistical Standards) re- the use of simulation and theoretical models to test costs sponsibility for developing a coherent system of social and assess effects of proposed courses of action. statistics and social indicators. These developments are The term "social statistician" is not sharply defined; enough to show that the profession of social statistician for example, in some contexts a distinction is made bestands on the threshold of a lively expansion. tween social statisticians and economic statisticians. In The Council of Economic Advisers has of course this report, however, a broad sense is intended: for our existed and been effective for years. It has been sug- purposes, social statistics includes economic statistics, for gested that the role of the Council be widened to include example, and many aspects of public health statistics. the social sciences generally, rather than economics Where Social Statisticians Work. Many social statistialone. cians find employment in local, state, and federal governThe discussion above properly stresses the role of the ments. The fifty states, through their Governors' social statistician in governmental activities. But his role Council, recently voted to develop Offices of Statistical {or fundamental research in the behavioral sciences is at Standards so as to create statistical series whose values least as important. For one thing, the findings of that could be directly compared from one state to another.s research will be relevant-sometimes very quickly-to Such a plan requires many more well-trained social government and private decision-making. A recent re- statisticians than the nation has available. In 1968, the port of the National Academy of Sciences says that Social Science Research Council set up a Committee on The information needs of government agencies for facts about Statistical Training to see what steps could be taken to people and institutions are continually growing. Information has increase the number of trained personnel in government little significance, however, unless it can be related meaningfully statistics of all kinds.' As an example of this kind of to existing information and experience through a process of activity, we cite the Applied Statistics Training Instievaluation and analysis. For government policy-makers . . . information and analysis are part of an administrative and policy- tute, which deals directly with cooperating agencies in making process. For behavioral scientists, however, the collection state and local governments concerned with public and analysis of information are part of a scientific enterprise de- health problems. 5 voted to the development of general propositions-tested theories We referred above to governmental needs. But many -about individual and group behavior.2 private organizations also employ social statisticians: What Social Statisticians Do. Social statisticians deal industry, large foundations, professional groups, uniwith measurement in such fields as population trends versities, and others. and their effects; the incidence of poverty and the char8 See Roye L. Lowry, "Recent Developments in State Statistical Coacteristics of the poor; the equality of opportunity; segStatistical Reporter, September 1968, pp. 41-44. regation in housing and access to public facilities ; the ordination," 4 Conrad Taeuber, Frederick Mosteller, and Paul Webbink, "Social prevalence and causes of crime and the treatment 01 Science Research Council Committee on Statistical Training," American criminals; the use of means of transportation; the spread Statistician, December 1967, pp. 10-1l. National Academy of Sciences, The Behavioral Sciences and the Fede,.al Government (publication 1680), 1968, p. 23. 2

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5 Anders S. Lunde, "The Applied Statistics Training Institute (AST!)," American Statistician, October 1968, p. 17. Other articles in the same issue discuss related activities.

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Chapter 3 goes on to compare social statisticians with other kinds of statisticians and to discuss the demand for social statisticians, their training, and future needs. Chapter 4 deals with statistics and public policy. An extract from it follows.

STATISTICS, PUBLIC POLICY, AND DATA FALLIBILITY Most questions of public concern are interwoven with statistical inferences, that is, with transitions from a set of empirical counts or observations to conclusions about an ensemble that cannot be fully observed, or that is impractical fully to observe, or for which observations are subject to errors of measurement. For example, we cannot fully observe the reliability of the components of a space vehicle by testing them to destruction; instead, we may test some to destruction and then come to an inference about the untested ones. Again, we cannot teach the same child to read by two different methods in order to compare their efficiencies, for after the child has learned to read by one method, he is a different child. Instead, separate groups of children must be compared, and no matter how well they are matched, the comparisons are probably not as effective as those we could make if each child could be taught twice. (There are, however, cases in which individuals can be tested twice in two settings, for example, in comparing two pain-relief medications.) An example in which it is impractical to observe all cases is that of crime rate measurements. Official police statistics cover only a fraction of crimes (one estimate is 25 percent), and to count and classify all crimes would clearly take hopelessly large resources. A very different example is given by some proposals for disarmament inspection procedures that recognize the impracticality of inspecting all of a nation's territory at all times for possible violations of a disarmament treaty. Hence methods of inspecting some areas at some times have been studied; the crux of the problem is how to choose the areas and times sensibly. Important measurement error appears in many contexts. For example, census or survey questions about age, income, savings, educational level, and the like are often answered in honest error or with dissimulation. Again, such a measurement as the altitude of an airplane is subject to error, and this has consequences for problems as diverse as safety in flight and assessing the military effectiveness of bombing aircraft. Thus statistical issues appear in most areas of public importance. The above examples touch on space exploration, education, crime, disarmament, economic and social surveys or censuses, safety, and defense. The list can easily be extended: health, public opinion, evaluaSEPTEMBER

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tion of social programs, population increase, auditing, advertising, poverty, and so on. The current movement toward an expansion of social indicators or indexes of many kinds carries with it the need for careful discussion of consequent statistical problems. (See Chapter 6 of the overall report, The Behavioral and Social Sciences: Outlook and Needs.) One relatively small example will give some flavor of this kind of problem: some published figures show that almost 50 percent of the patients in tuberculosis hospitals leave before they are cured and against medical advice. This is most alarming, but investigation found that the rate is greatly exaggerated; the published figures counted as separate cases multiple discharges of the same person, and there is a group of about 15 percent of the patients who repeatedly enter the hospitals and then leave against medical advice. In terms of people, rather than hospital admissions, the rate of premature leaving is much less than 50 percent. 6 There are two extreme attitudes that can be taken toward statistical assertions or analyses about matters of public importance. Sometimes these attitudes appear to be held almost simultaneously. The first is the naive attitude of credulity, of accepting asserted numerical facts without serious question. There is a mystique about numbers that lends itself to the rhetoric of propaganda: 99 percent pure, the parade was viewed by 9,672 people, 487 motorists will be killed next July 4. These are familiar cases in which everyone recognizes difficulties of meaning, of accuracy, or of tendentiousness, yet they are assertions that apparently carry much more uncritical interest and persuasiveness than they deserve. A Vietnamese general is quoted as saying: Ab, les statistiquesl Your Secretary of Defense loves statistics. We Vietnamese can give him all he wants. If you want them to go up, they will go up. If you want them to go down, they will go down. 7

At the other extreme we find the cynical attitude that damns all statistical arguments, on the ground that a given set of observational data can be twisted toward almost any conclusion by a sufficiently clever and malicious analyst. This is the attitude that gave rise to the famous canard, "Lies, damn lies, and statistics." Such criticism of statistics is also naive; it is like criticizing 6 For a general discussion of social indicators, one good introductory source is Toward a Social Report, U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, 1969. For an interesting cautionary discussion, see Amitai Etzioni and Edward W. Lehman, "Some Dangers in 'Valid' Social Measurement," Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, September 1967, pp. 1-15. See also Raymond A. Bauer, ed., Social Indicators, Cambridge, Mass.: M.I.T. Press, 1966; and Eleanor B. Sheldon and Wilbert E. Moore, eds., Indicators of Social Change, New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1968. '1 Quoted in review of To Move a Nation by Roger Hilsman, New York Times, June 9, 1967.

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language itself because it can be used to tell untruths, to persuade hypocritically, and to lead men astray. Further, the criticism is fatuous, for many arguments have to be statistical, in the sense that the only way many important questions can be answered is to gather numerical data and to analyze them. Both of the above naive attitudes lead to troubles that can be mitigated by concentrating on the uncertainties of quantitative data, that is, on the idea of data fallibility or data errors. By carefully studying the error structure of the numbers in a statistical analysis, we are at once largely protected from credulity and from the mischief of distorted analysis. We may also be able to use the study of data fallibility to make at least partial corrections; for example, there has been much attention paid to errors in stated ages of people for censuses, and methods for mitigating the effects of those errors are known. Unfortunately, there is not nearly enough emphasis on data fallibility in statistical arguments related to public matters, and we are therefore often led to premature or wrong decisions, and to fruitless argument. Neither, to be sure, is there adequate consideration of error in many investigations of basic science. But these are likely to be self-correcting, without the haste and pressure of public policy issues, and without the dire consequences that accompany wrong conclusions in the public arena. Some readers may think that this stress on data fallibility is quibbling, unconstructive captiousness, but that is

not the case. Errors will always be present and must be evaluated; we cannot simply pull the blanket of ignorance over our heads and try to neglect the sound of things going wrong in the dark. To omit an investigation of error is to assume-often tacitly-that error is negligible. Walter Lippmann said in 1922 that the study of error is not only in the highest degree prophylactic, but it serves as a stimulating introduction to the study of truth. As our minds become more deeply aware of their own subjectivism, we find a zest in objective method that is not otherwise there. 8 The systematic study of data fallibility is one function of the professional statistician, who should of course be knowledgeable about specific subject matter areas in order properly to examine errors in those areas. The absence of a careful study of error structure is good evidence that a statistical analysis is inadequate; unfortunately, some statistical analyses for public policy issues lack careful study of errors. It is that lack which we deplore and hope to remedy. Chapter 4 continues with a classification and description of kinds of data fallibility. Chapter 5 considers data collection and data collectors, with special reference to government data-collecting agencies. Chapter 6 describes the field of operations research. Chapter 7 discusses advances and prob1ems of computation. Chapter 8 analyzes modes of cooperative research by social and mathematical scientists, and Chapter 9 deals with teaching the mathematical sciences to social science students. 8

Public Opinion, New York: Macmillan Company, paperback edi1961, pp. 409-410.

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COMMITTEE BRIEFS AFRO-AMERICAN SOCIETIES AND CULTURES Sidney W. Mintz (chairman), Roger D. Abrahams, Mervyn C. Alleyne, Stephen S. Baratz, Roy Simon Bryce-Laporte, Eugene D. Genovese, Donald M. Henderson, Robert Farris Thompson; staff, Rowland L. Mitchell, Jr. The committee held its first research conference, on continuities and discontinuities in Afro-American societies and cultures, on April 2-4, 1970 at the University of the West Indies, Jamaica, with the aid of the Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research. Papers prepared for the conference were circulated in advance and summarized orally before they were discussed. The first session, on AfroAmerican societies and cultures in hemispheric perspective, considered "Continuite et Discontinuite des Societes et des Cultures Afro-Americaines," by Roger Bastide, Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes. At the second session, on social organization, two papers were discussed: "Caribbean Kinship and Family Structure," by Raymond T. Smith, University of Chicago; and "Notes on the Study of Afro-American Cultural Dynamics," by Ulf Hannerz, University of Stockholm. The third session, on religious behavior, discussed

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"Afro-American Religion and Religious Behavior," by George E. Simpson, Oberlin College; "Black Experience of Religion," Fela Sowande, Howard University; "Attitudes toward Candomble in Bahia," Russell G. Hamilton, University of Minnesota; "Survival of African Religion in the Metropolitan Area of New York," Clarence Robins, New York City. The fourth session dealt with languages and sociolinguistics. The papers discussed were by members of the committee: "Black Uses of Black English," by Roger D. Abrahams; and "Linguistic Continuity of Africa in the Caribbean," by Mervyn C. Alleyne. The final session, on nonverbal behavior, considered "Some Preliminary Observations on Communicational Patterns among Black Americans," by Albert Schefien, Bronx State Hospital and Albert Einstein College of Medicine; and "Black Intellectuals and Fads and Fashions in Race Relations since Emancipation," by James A. Tillman, Jr., and Mary Norman Tillman, Tillman Associates. In addition to members and staff of the committee and the authors of papers, the conference was attended by Lloyd Best, University of the West Indies, Trinidad; Horace M. VOLUME

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Bond, Atlanta University; Arna W. Bontemps, Yale University; Edward Braithwaite, Elsa V. Goveia, H. MacKenzie, and Trevor Monroe, University of the West Indies, Kingston; David Dalby, University of London; Frances S. Herskovits, Northwestern University; Donald W. Hogg, University of Puerto Rico; Orlando Patterson, Harvard University; Carol Reed, Brooklyn College; Harvey B. Sarles, University of Minnesota; William Stewart, Education Study Center; John F. Szwed, University of Pennsylvania; O. E. Uya, University of Wisconsin; Norman E. Whitten, Jr., University of California, Los Angeles; and Carl Worthman, University of California, Berkeley. KOREAN STUDIES (Joint with the American Council of Learned Societies) Gari K. Ledyard (chairman), George M. Beckmann, Fred Lukoff, Felix Moos, Glenn D. Paige, Michael C. Rogers, Edward W. Wagner; staff, Bryce Wood With a view to engaging the interest of younger scholars in the activity of the joint committee, a conference of graduate students was held at Harvard-Yenching Institute on April 17-18. Participants included Jonathan W. Best, and George Yuan, Harvard University; Newell Bacon, Bruce Cumings, Ellen Unruh, and Alan Wolfe, Columbia University; Jules Horvath, Indiana University; Gerard F. Kennedy, University of Hawaii; John P. McClurken, University of Washington; Elaine H. Kim Newman, University of California, Berkeley; Ronald Nielson, Brigham Young University; Gail Weber, University of Kansas, and the staff of the joint committee. The status of the relatively new field of Korean studies was reviewed. It was noted that most current students in the field hold fellowships supported by the U. S. Office of Education and that the considerable growth of the field over the past three years is attributable largely to fellowship aid. The importance of Ford Foundation grants to Columbia University, Harvard University, and the Universities of Hawaii and Washington in making possible new courses in Korean history, preparation of lan-

guage teaching materials, and enlarging library collections was noted. In addition to increased fellowship aid, the principal needs of the field were identified: more basic material in English on Korea, such as a comprehensive history of the country; better up-to-date materials for language teaching; broadening of course offerings, especially in fields other than history and literature; further efforts at interuniversity cooperation through such means as exchange of professors, agreements by two or more universities to specialize on different aspects of Korean studies, and summer institutes that would offer both language training and courses on various aspects of Korean society. The committee has provided financial assistance for a number of bibliographical projects, one of which was completed in August with publication by the American Library Association of Japan and Korea: An Annotated Bibliography of Doctoral Dissertations in Western Languages, 18771969, compiled and edited by Frank J. Shulman for the Center for Japanese Studies, University of Michigan (d. page 39 infra). This project was aided also by the Joint Committee on Japanese Studies. MINORITY RESEARCH AWARDS Austin Ranney (chairman), Edgar G. Epps, James L. Gibbs, Jr., Walter L. Wallace; staff, Elbridge Sibley Since publication of the June issue of Items, one new award has been made under the special program of grants to assist the work of social scientists who are members of ethnic minority groups or research on problems of those groups in American society: to Delmos J. Jones, formerly Assistant Professor of Anthropology, University of Colorado, and now a visiting lecturer at Chingmai University, Thailand, for research on agricultural production and urbanization. Also, the earlier award to Morris J. McDonald, M.S.W., Our Lady of the Lake College, for graduate study of sociology at the University of California, Davis, has been renewed.

PERSONNEL FOREIGN AREA FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM In the eighth year of administration of the Foreign Area Fellowship Program by the Social Science Research Council and American Council of Learned Societies, fellowships have been awarded for study of four major world areas, and awards have also been made for research training and internships in Latin America and the Caribbean. As of August 1, the 190 appointments listed below had been accepted for 1970-71 (a few additional appointments are expected): Africa and the Near East The awards were made by the National Screening Committee-Charles J. Adams, McGill University; Elliot J. Berg, SEPTEMBER

1970

University of Michigan; L. Carl Brown, Princeton University; Anthony R. Oberschall, Yale University; and M. Crawford Young, University of Wisconsin-which met on January 23 and March 6, 1970. It had been assisted by a Preliminary Screening Committee-William J. Foltz, Yale University, and Donald C. Mead, Amherst College. Walter Barrows, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Yale University, for preparation of a dissertation on micropolitics in Sierra Leone (renewal) Andrew Beveridge, Ph.D. candidate in sociology, Yale University, for intensive Chinyanja language training and research in Zambia on the development of African entrepreneurs in that country Robert Charlick, Ph.D. candidate in political science, 31


University of California, Los Angeles, for research in Niger and the United States on agricultural change as • strategy of modernization-political and social facton in rural Hausa development (renewal) John Clark, Ph.D. candidate in geography, University of Michigan, for research in Turkey on the relation of agricultural systems and migration patterns in the region of Finike Michael Cohen, Ph.D. candidate in political science, University of Chicago, for preparation of a dissertation on the politics of urban development in Ivory Coast (renewal) John Collins, Ph.D. candidate in comparative politics, Johns Hopkins University, School of Advanced International Studies, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in Niger, France, and the United States on animation rurale (renewal) Lucie Colvin, Ph.D. candidate in history, Columbia University, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in Ghana, Europe, and the United States on diplomacy between African kingdoms and Europeans in the nineteenth century: a comparative study of Kajor and Ashanti (renewal) Alison Des Forges, Ph.D. candidate in history, Yale University, for preparation of a dissertation on political and social change in Rwanda in the reign of Musiinga, 1896-1931 (renewal) Fredric Dubow, Ph.D. candidate in sociology, University of California, Berkeley, for preparation of a dissertation on the primary courts of Tanzania (renewal) Stephen Ettinger, Ph.D. candidate in economics, University of Michigan, for research in the United States, England, and Southern Africa on economic integration in Southern Africa James Freedman, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Princeton University, for research in Europe and Rwanda on the cult of Nyabingi David Gil trow, Ph.D. candidate in education, Syracuse University, for completion of research, preparation of research results for use by local institutions, and preparation of a dissertation in Tanzania and the United States on the comprehension of basic motion picture elements by Tanzanian school children (renewal) Anita Glaze, Ph.D. candidate in African art history, Indiana University, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in Ivory Coast and the United States on Senufo art (renewal) Andrew Gould, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of California, Los Angeles, for research in England, France, and Turkey on pashas and brigands: Ottoman provincial reform and its impact on the nomads of Southern Anatolia, 1861)-75 Margaret Hay, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Wisconsin, for preparation of a dissertation on economic change at the village level among the Luo of Kenya (renewal) Robert Hill, Ph.D. candidate in sociology and demography, Princeton University, for course work in Persian language and other fields relating to the Near East and in sociology and statistics Olga Holod-Tretiak, Ph.D. candidate in art history, Harvard University, for research in Iran on Yazd architecture

52

Katherine Johnson, Ph.D. candidate in history, Princeton University, for research in the United States, Nigeria, and England on major institutional changes in Lagos, 1950-70

Paul Lubeck, Ph.D. candidate in sociology, Northwestern University, for research in Nigeria on modern factory workers and employees in traditional cottage industries Richard Macken, Ph.D. candidate in history, Princeton University, for research in France and Tunisia on indigenous reaction to the French protectorate in Tunisia, 1881-1900

Joseph Miller, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Wisconsin, for consultation with scholars and preparation of a dissertation in Portugal and the United States on the history of Kasanje (renewal) August Nimtz, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Indiana University, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in Tanzania and the United States on the role of Muslim tarikas in political institutionalization in Tanzania since the beginning of the British period (renewal) Riall Nolan, D.Phil. candidate in anthropology, University of Sussex, for research in Senegal on aspects of acceptance of innovation and change among the Bassari of Eastern Senegal Donald Quataert, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of California, Los Angeles, for research in England, Turkey, Austria, and Germany on agrarian reform and the peasantry: Ottoman agriculture, 1876-1909 Lucy Quimby, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Wisconsin, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in -Upper Volta and the United States on dynamics of religlOus change among the Dyula of Kongbougou, Bobo-Dioulasso, since 1895 (renewal) Charles Rosen, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Chicago, for research in Ethiopia on the administrative hierarchy in Tigre Province Linda Schatkowski, D.Phil. candidate in history, University of Oxford, for research in France and Lebanon or Syria on the role of Muslim notables in social and p0litical change in late nineteenth-century Syria Elinor Sigwalt, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Wisconsin, for research in Tanzania on social and economic networks in a fishing community Francis Snyder, LL.B. candidate, University of Paris, for completion of research in London and Senegal on the land law of the Diola people of the Lower Casamance region (renewal) Thomas Spear, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Wisconsin, for research in England, France, and Tanzania on the history of the Zigula to 1900 J ames Thomson, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Indiana University, for research in France and Niger on legal analysis of rural institutional change: ramifications of imposing cooperatives on 5 villages in Niger Louis Truschel, Ph.D. candidate in history, Northwestern University, for preparation of a dissertation on evaluation of the failure of African resistance movements among the Tswana of the Bechuanaland Protectorate, 1891)-1910 (renewal) J. Michael Turner, Ph.D. candidate in history, Boston University, for research in Brazil, Dahomey, and France on Brazilian slaves in Dahomey VOLUME 24, NUMBER 5


Terry Wah, Ph.D. candidate in history, Boston Univer· sity, for intensive Arabic language traming and research in Egypt, France, and England on relations between Central Africa and Egypt in modem times with particu. lar reference to trade and pilgrimage patterns George Wright, Jr., Ph.D. candidate in economics, Uni· versity of Michigan, for Turkish language training and research in Turkey on investment behavior of small· city businessmen in a developing economy Thomas Zalla, Ph.D. candidate in agricultural economics, Michigan State University, for research in Uganda and Tanzania on the economics of dairy production and marketing by small holders in Tanzania South, Southeast, and East Asia Studies The awards were made by the National Screening Com· mittee-George M. Beckmann, University of Washington; Moye Freymann, University of North Carolina; John D. Montgomery, Harvard University; Barry M. Richman, Uni· versity of California, Los Angeles; Vernon W. Ruttan, Uni· versity of Minnesota; and Allen S. Whiting, University of Michigan-which met on February 13 and March 13, 1970. It had been assisted by a Preliminary Screening Committee -Bernard S. Cohn, University of Chicago; James Harrison, Hunter College; Michel C. Oksenberg, Columbia Univer· sity; and Kozo Yamamura, Boston College. East Asia Studies Program Guy Alitto, Ph.D. candidate in history and Far Eastern languages, Harvard University, for research in Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Japan on Liang Shu.Ming and the Chinese rural reconstruction movement Jonathan Best, Ph.D. candidate in East Asian languages and cultural history, Harvard University, for intensive Korean language training and research in Korea and Japan on Buddhism in Paekche: a cultural approach to early Korean history John Campbell, Ph.D. candidate in government, Colum· bia University, for completion of research and prepa· ration of a dissertation in Japan and the United States on the budgetary process in Japan (renewal) Jonathan Chaves, Ph.D. candidate in Chinese literature, Columbia University, for intensive Chinese language training in Taiwan (renewal) Leslie Collins, Ph.D. candidate in sociology, Yale Univer· sity, for research in Taiwan, Hong Kong, and England on the feminist movement in China since 1900 Jerry Dennerline, Ph.D. candidate in history, Yale Univer· sity, for preparation of a dissertation on resistance and collaboration: the Chinese response to the Manchu Conquest in Chekiang and Kiangsu (renewal) Arif Dirlik, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Rochester, for research in Hong Kong and the United States on pre.World War II controversy over the nature of Chinese society Joseph W. Esherick, Ph.D. candidate in history, Univer· sity of California, Berkeley, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in London and the United States on the significance and social origins of the Chinese Revolution of 1911 in Hunan and Hupeh (renewal) Frank S. Kehl, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, ColumSEPTEMBER

1970

bia University, for completion of research and prepara· tion of a dissertation in Hong Kon~ and the United States on ecology and community 10 a Hong Kong squatter area (renewal) Kenneth Lieberthal, Ph.D. candidate in government, C0lumbia University, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in Taiwan and the United States on the Communist takeover of Tientsin, 1949-53 Terry MacDougall, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Yale University, for research in Japan on the emergence of local multiparty systems Robert Radin, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of California, Berkeley, for Japanese 13:nguage tr~ining, completion of research, and preparatIOn of a dlsse~ta. tion in Japan and the United States on the rice rIots of 1918 (renewal) Celia Riely, Ph.D. candidate in Far Eastern art, Harvard University, for research in Europe, Taiwan, Japan, and Hawaii on Tung Chi'i·ch'ang: his art and influence Clifton Royston, Ph.D. candidate in Japanese literature, University of Michigan, for preparation of a dissertation on the poetics and poetry criticism of Fugiwara Shunzei (1114-1204) (renewal) Jon Saari, Ph.D. candidate in history, Harvard University, for preparation of a dissertation on the impact of Western education on Chinese intellectuals, 1900-1937 (renewal) Susan Shirk, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, for research in Hong Kong on Chinese Communist university education George A. Silver, Ph.D. candidate in history, Yale University, for background reading on authoritarian regimes and for research in the United States and Japan on nationalist thinking in Japan in the 1930's Richard Staubitz, Ph.D. candidate in sociology, Yale University, for Japanese language training and research in Japan on the establishment of local government systems in Meiji Japan Yoshio Sugimoto, Ph.D. candidate in sociology, University of Pittsburgh, for research in the United States and Japan on social equality and political opposition: the American occupatIon of Japan Douglas G. White, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Stanford University, for research in Hong Kong and Taiwan on Chinese Communist strategies of politically induced change in Tientsin, 1949-68 Edwin Winckler, Ph.D. candidate in government, Harvard University, for completion of research in Taiwan on the organizational process and mass compliance in Chinese society (renewal) Li-Nien Wong, Ph.D. candidate in Chinese modem history, Washington University, for research in Hong Kong, Japa~, and Taiwan on social history debate in China during the 1930's Kim Woodard, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Stanford University, for research in Hong Kong on fluctuation and recurring cycles in the making of Chinese Communist foreign policy, 1949-69 Southeast Asia Studies Program Stanley Bedlington, Ph.D. candidate in government, Cornell University, for research in Malaysia on the Alli. ance Party in Malaya and Sabah


Leslie Beebe. Ph.D. candidate in Thai language, University of Michigan, for research in Thailand on the structure of question-response sequences in standard Thai David Chandler, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Michigan, for research in Thailand, Cambodia. and Paris on Cambodia before the French: the politics of a tributary state William Collins, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of California, Berkeley, for research in Paris and Cambodia on an ethnography of Cambodia Edilberto de Jesus, Ph.D. candidate in history, Yale University, for research in the Philippines, Spain, and London on the tobacco monopoly in the Philippines, 17821882 Brian Foster, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Michigan, for research in London and Thailand on the Mons of Thailand Robert Gurevich, Ph.D. candidate in international and development education, University of Pittsburgh, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in Thailand and the United States on rural development and the role of the primary school teacher (renewal) Ronnie Lee Hatley, Ph.D. candidate in political science and in psychology, Yale University, for research in Indonesia on the psychological responses to social and political changes in Indonesia over the past 5 years Benedict Kerkvliet, Ph.D. candidate in political science, University of Wisconsin, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in the Philippines and the United States on the Huk revolt (renewal) Hendrik MoIster, Ph.D. candidate in tropical agricultural economics, Stanford University, for Indonesian language training and research in Hawaii and Indonesia on Indonesia's rice farmers as decision makers Robert Rickner, Ph.D. candidate in drama, University of Hawaii, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in Indonesia and the United States on the Balinese ritual-theater tradition in comparison with Artaud's theories (renewal) Stephen Tobias, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Chicago, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in Thailand and the United States on religion in a Chinese community in Thailand (renewal) Michael Vickery, Ph.D. candidate in history, Yale University, for a comparative study in Thailand and Cambodia of their historical chronicles of the fourteenth to seventeenth centuries Franklin Weinstein, Ph.D. candidate in government, Cornell University, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in Asia, Europe, and the United States on Indonesian foreign policy since 1963 (renewal)

South Asia Studies Program Richard Barnett, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of California, Berkeley, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in India, England, and the United States on the social history of Nawabi Awadh (renewal) Bhim Basnet, Ph.D. candidate in agronomy, Kansas State University, for research in Sikkim on the suitability of 34

soybeans of different maturity to ecological conditions at different elevations Mitchell Crites, Ph.D. candidate in ancient Indian history, University of Chicago, for research in India on the inscriptions on northern Indian dynasties and the archeological and ecological variables in two regions Marvin Davis, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Chicago, for research in India on the organization and legal culture of Panchyati Raj John Dolfin, III, Ph.D. candidate in government, Columbia University, for research in London, India, and Hong Kong on the role of administrative organizations in the development of a national community Michael Freedland, Ph.D. candidate in comparative education, University of Illinois, for research in India on social variables and their effects on access to education in a North Indian district John Gartrell, Ph.D. candidate in sociology, University of Wisconsin, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in India and the United States on social change in rural Andhra Pradesh communities in the last two decades (renewal) Jon Higgins, Ph.D. candidate in ethnomusicology, Wesleyan University, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in India and the United States on music of Bharata Natya (renewal) Mary Fainsod Katzenstein, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, for research in India on the social consequences of migration: Bombay Thomas Kessinger, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Chicago, for preparation of a dissertation on the social and economic history of two villages in two districts in Pakistan and India (renewal) Max Lowdermilk, Ph.D. candidate in agriculture, Cornell University, for research in Pakistan on the diffusion and adoption of modern technological innovations by farmers 10 West Pakistan Ronald Maduro, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of California, Berkeley, for completion of research, life-history tape translations, and preparation of a dissertation on creativity in India as culturally influenced symbolic thought and expression (renewal) Philip K. Oldenburg, Ph.D. candidate in political science, University of Chicago, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in India and the United States on urban politics in India (renewal) Patrick A. Peebles, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Chicago, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in Ceylon and the United States on the roles of education and religious controversy in social change in Ceylon, 1860-65 (renewal) Clinton B. Seely, Ph.D. candidate in literary history, University of Chicago, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in India, Pakistan, and the United States on the Bengali poet, Jibanananda Das (renewal)

Near East (Asia Studies Program) Daniel Bates, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Michigan, for preparation of a dIssertation on economic and social relations between peasants and pastoral nomads in southwestern Turkey (renewal) Doyle Hatt, Ph.D. candidate in social anthropology, UniVOLUME

24,

NUMBER

3


versity of California, LOi Angeles, for completion of research in Morocco on the system of power and authority among Ida ou Tanan and its evolution over the past 40 years (renewal) Douglas Jo~nson, Ph.D. candi?ate in g~ograp~y, Univ~r­ sity of ChIcago, for preparation of a dIssertatIOn on hIStorical and contemporary interactions of pastoral nomads and the sedentary population in an agriculturally marginal area (renewal) Co"in Meredith, Ph.D. candidate in history, Princeton t T lliversity, for preparation of a dissertation on the i 11 • tial stages of Iranian modernization (renewal) Joel Shinder, Ph.D. candidate in Ottoman history, Princeto:l University, for completion of research in England and the United States on the bureaucratic methods of Ottoman mobilization for combined land and sea operations, 1645-69 (renewal) David Stephenson, Ph.D. candidate in geography, University of Chicago, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in Tunisia and the United States on periodic labor migration between southern Tunisia and Tunis (renewal) Michael Van Dusen, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Johns Hopkins University, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in Lebanon and the United States on intra- and intergenerational conflicts in Syrian civil-military relations (renewal) Soviet and Eastern Eumpe

The awards were made by the National Screening Committee-Bohdan R. Bociurkiw, Carleton University; Morris Bornstein, Hoover Institution; Michael Cole, Rockefeller University; Nicholas DeWitt, Indiana University; and Peter F. Sugar, University of Washington-which met on February 6 and March 13, 1970. It had been assisted through preliminary screening by Walter D. Connor, University of Michigan. John E. Ackerman, Ph.D. candidate in history, Stanford University, for research on personnel of the Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 1856-82 Andrew Arato, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Chicago, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in Germany and the U mted States on Eastern European revisionist Marxism in the works of Georg Lukacs (renewal) Olavi Arens, Ph.D. candidate in history, Columbia University, for research in Finland on political developments in Estonia, 1917-18 George Breslauer, Ph.D. candidate in political science, University of Michigan, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation on decision making and Implementation in the Soviet Union (renewal) Victoria Brown, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Washington, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation on the political integration of Transylvania into Greater Romania, 1918-40 (renewal) W. Harriet Critchley, Ph.D. candidate in government, Columbia University, for research in the United States and Europe on the 1921-29 political system in Yugoslavia Herbert Eagle, Ph.D. candidate in Russian literature, University of Michigan, for a comparative study in the United States, the Soviet Union, and Czechoslovakia of SEPTEMBER

1970

Russian and Czech twentieth-century literature (renewal) Thomas Emmert, Ph.D. candidate in history, Stanford University, for research in Yugoslavia on the Kosova Epic in the historical consciousness of the Serbian people Alice Gorlin, Ph.D. candidate in economics, University of Michigan, for research on Soviet firms and the rationalization of the light and food industries Michael H. Haltzel, Ph.D. candidate in history, Harvard University, for preparation of a dissertation on the restriction of the Baltic Germans to Russification during the nineteenth century (renewal) Edward Hewett, Ph.D. candidate in economics, University of Michigan, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation on foreign trade prices in the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance, 1957-68 (renewal) Robert Johnson, Ph.D. candidate in history, Cornell University, for comfletion of a dissertation in Finland on the condition 0 the Russian working class, 1885-1900 (renewal) Frank L. Kaplan, Ph.D. candidate in mass communications, University of Wisconsin, for course work in political science and economics, German language training, and research in the United States and Europe on the history of the Czech press Samuel Kassow, Ph.D. candidate in history, Princeton University, for research in Israel, Finland. and the United States on Russian educational policy during the reign of Alexander III John R. Lampe, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Wisconsin, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in the United States and Europe on the role of the banking system in Serbian industrialization, 1884-1914 Edward Lazzerini, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Washington, for research in the United States, Turkey, Finland, and France on Pan-Islamism and PanTurkism among Russian Turkic intellectual emigres before 1905 Carol Leonard, Ph.D. candidate in history, Indiana University, for research in Europe and the Soviet Union on Peter III and his reforms Brian. Ma~Whinney, ~h.D. candidate in psycholinguistics, U mverSIty of CalIfornia, Berkeley, for research in Hungary on the acquisition of communicative competence among Hungarian children John McConnell, Ph.D. candidate in economics, University of Michigan, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in the United States and the Soviet Union on intergovernmental fiscal relations in the Soviet Union Bruce Menning, Ph.D. candidate in history, Columbia University, for research on the Don Cossacks in the reign of Nicholas II Paul E. Michelson, Ph.D. candidate in history, Indiana University, for course work in political theory and parties, background reading, and research on the development of Romanian politics James Miller, Ph.D. candidate in history, Indiana University, for directed reading in economic history, Polish language training, and research on the social history of the Polish magnate class in the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries Rudolf V. Perina, Ph.D. candidate in history, Columbia 35


Univenity, for research in the United States and Germany on intellectuals and political change in Czechoslovakia: the history of Literarni Noviny and its circle Thomas Sakmyster, Ph.D. candidate in history, Indiana University, for preparation of a dissertation on Hungary and the European crisis, 1938-39 (renewal) Lenore S. Shever, Ph.D. candidate in economics, University of California, Berkeley, for research on forestry problems and policies in the Soviet economy Brian Silver, Ph.D. candidate in political science, University of Wisconsin, for research on the nationalities problem Roman Solchanyk, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Michigan, for training in political sociology, political theory, and international Communism, and research on the Communist Party of Western Ukraine in Poland, 1919-38 Charles Strozier, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Chicago, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in Poland and the United States on Edward Dembowski and the revolutionary movement of the 1940's (renewal) Eric Weissman, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Washington, for research on the Bulgarian Agrarian Union, 1899-1923: pilot study of an agrarian movement Charles E. Wilmot, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Chicago, for research on the role of Russian merchants in the development of the Russian internal market, 1613-89 Sharon Zukin, Ph.D. candidate in sociology, Columbia University, for research on Socialist political culture: behavior and beliefs of Yugoslav citizens

Western Europe The awards were made by the National Screening Committee-Daniel Katz, University of Michigan; Lawrence Krause, Brookings Institution; Joseph LaPalombara, Yale University; Arno Mayer, Princeton University; and Laurence Wylie, Harvard University-which met on February 15 and March 14, 1970. It had been assisted by a Preliminary Screening Committee-Paul M. Hohenberg, Cornell University; Christoph M. Kimmich, Columbia University; and Eric A. Nordlinger, Brandeis University. Susan A. Ashley, Ph.D. candidate in history, Columbia University, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in Italy, France, and the United States on ministerial responsibility in the Italian and French constitutional monarchies (renewal) Richard B. Berner, Ph.D. candidate in economics, University of Pennsylvania, for French language training and research in France and Belgium on the extension and revision of a linear-programming model of production and trade in the Common Market John W. Boyer, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Chicago, for intensive German language training and research in Germany and Austria on social Catholicism, political action, and literary renewal in the Hapsburg Monarchy, 1875-1916 Moncrieff M. Cochran, Ph.D. candidate in psychology and in education, University of Michigan, for research in 36

Sweden on the effects of day-nursery care on young Swedish children James M. Danziger, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Stanford University, for directed reading on English cultural parties and pressure groups, and research in England on the process of budgetary decision-making in 4 English county boroughs Robert S. Duplessis, Ph.D. candidate in history, Columbia University, for a comparative case study in France of Arras and Lille during the Revolt of the Netherlands, with particular respect to urban structures and trends in political, religious, and social movements to test interpretations of change Helen Feldstein, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Yale University, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in France and the United States on French administrative adaptation to European economic community membership (renewal) Judith Silver Frandzel, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Michigan, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in France and the United States on the shifting attitudes of peasants in France and Italy, 1850-1900 (renewal) Michael R. Haines, Ph.D. candidate in economic history, University of Pennsylvania, for intensive German language training, preliminary research and reading, and research in West Germany on modernization and economic development in Upper Silesia Barbara M. Hallman, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of California, Los Angeles, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in Italy and the United States on progressive and conservative reform prelates in sixteenth-century Italy (renewal) Nancy H. Hildrew, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Rice University, for preliminary training and research in Italy on the effect of emigration on social structure Lynn A. Hunt, Ph.D. candidate in history, Stanford University, for training in comparative revolutions, statistics, and research methodology, and research in the United States and France on the French municipal revolutions of 1789 Kenneth J. Kirkland, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Oregon, for research in the United States and Italy on the formation of working-class institutions in Italy, 1891-1915 David F. Lindenfeld, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Chicago, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in Germany, Belgium, and the United States on the psychology of thought processes, 1890-1915 (renewal) Wallace D. Loh, Ph.D. candidate in social psychology, University of Michigan, for research in Belgium and French Canada on status inconsistency and the attitudinal bases of national integration: a social psychological survey and experiment in two countries Dario E. Longhi, Ph.D. candidate in sociology, University of Wisconsin, for research in Italy on social class and changing politics in that country John R. Low-Beer, Ph.D. candidate in sociology, Harvard University, for research in Italy on the development of class consciousness and militant unionism among factory workers VOLUME

24, NUMBER 3


Hans-Eberhard Mueller. Ph.D. candidate in sociology. University; and Hugh L. Popenoe, University of FloridaUniversity of California. Berkeley. for completion of met on January 16 and February 27, 1970. Members of the research and preparation of a dissertation in Germany latter committee-Raymond Carr, University of Oxford; on the development of higher education in England. Hugh Holley, Bank of London and South America; Richard Prussia. and Russia during the nineteenth century Keynes, Institute of Animal Physiology; Alex Nove, Univer(renewal) sity of Glasgow; and Kenneth G. Younger, Royal Institute Henry Nau. Ph.D. candidate in international relations. Johns Hopkins University. School of Advanced Inter- of International Affairs-met on January 27, 1970. national Studies. for research and preparation of a dis¡ North A merican Grantees sertation in West Germany. France. Italy. and the United States on intergovernmental cooperation among Michael V. Angrosino, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology. the major Western European countries in key sectors University of North Carolina, for research on the of modem technology (renewal) medical systems and health cultures in an East Indian Anthony J. O'Donnell. Ph.D. candidate in history. Princecommunity in Surinam: perspectives on the processes ton University. for training in research methodology of culture change, in affiliation with the Department of and research in the United States and West Germany Public Health, Surinam on the German National Liberal Party. 1895-1914 Carlos S. Bakota, Ph.D. candidate in history, University Susan M. Parman. Ph.D. candidate in anthropology. Rice of California, Los Angeles, for research on the city and University. for Gaelic language training and research the intellectual: Brazil's changing self-concept, 1922-45, in Scotland on sociocultural change in Scottish croftin affiliation with the Departments of Sociology and ing townships Politics and of Letters, Pontifical Catholic University Alan R. Posner. Ph.D. candidate in government. Columof Rio de Janeiro bia University. for ~ompletion of research ~nd prepaCharles W. Bergquist, Ph.D. candidate in history, Stanration of a dIssertation 10 Italy and the Umted States ford University, for research on the War of a Thousand on Italy and the Atlantic Alliance (renewal) Days in Cundinamarca: a case study of the dynamics Carla L. Shagass. Ph.D. candidate in English literature. of Colombian political violence, in affiliation with the University of Wisconsin. for research in England on University of the Andes interaction of the British theater in the late 1950's Morris J. Blachman, Ph.D. candidate in politics, New Douglas R. Skopp. Ph.~. candidate in history•.~ro~ U?iYork University, for research on social class and comversity. for research 10 Germany on the polItical sIgmfimunity in Brazil at the metropolitan and national cance of German education. 1850-70. with special atlevels, in affiliation with Candido Mendes Faculty, Rio tention to Prussia and Wurtemberg de Janeiro Ezra Suleiman, Ph.D. candidate in government, Columbia Brent W. Brown, Ph.D. candidate in political science, University. for preparation of a dissertation on the University of Illinois, for research on municipal finance directors of the French Central Administration under in a developing country: a case study of Belo Horizonte, the Fourth and Fifth Republics and in selected years Brazil, in affiliation with the Institute of Administraof the Third Republic (renewal) tion, Federal University of Rio Grande do SuI Timothy N. Tackett, Ph.D. candidate in history, StanKeith A. Davies, Ph.D. candidate in history, University ford University, for training in quantitative methodof Connecticut, for research on the origins of the haCIology, and research in France on the Ecclesiastical Soenda and the social relationships that derived from it ciety in eighteenth-century Franche-Comte in colonial Peru, 1550-1650, in affiliation with the Institute of Peruvian Studies, Lima Jose Toharia, Ph.D. candidate in sociology, Yale University, for research in Spain on the Spanish judiciary Henry A. Dietz, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Stanford University, for research on the assimilation and Dietmar U. Wagner. Ph.D. candidate in history, Unipoliticization of urban squatter migrants in Lima, in versity of Michigan, for preparation of a dissertation affiliation with the Center for Social, Economic, Poon German student movements in the Revolution of litical, and Anthropological Research, Catholic Uni1848-49 (renewal) versity, Lima Mark A. Wasserman, Ph.D. candidate in economics, UniErwin H. Epstein, Ph.D. in education, University of Wisversity of Illinois, for preparation of a dissertation on consin, for a postdoctoral internship in secondary eduBritish and French economic planning (renewal) cation in Colombia at the Instructional Resources CenJonathan S. Wylie, Ph.D. candidate in social anthroter, University of the Valley pology, Harvard University, for Faroese and Danish C. Griffin, Ph.D. candidate in geography, Michigan Ernst language training and course work in politics, ecology, State University, for research on the major agricultural economics, and sociology land-use zones of Uruguay, in affiliation with the Program of Study and Improvement of Soils, Ministry of Land and Agriculture, Montevideo Awards for Research Training and Internships Donna J. Guy, Ph.D. candidate in history, Indiana Uniin Latin America and the Caribbean versity, for research on the politics of the sugar industry in Tucuman, Argentina, 1870-1900, in affiliation The awards were made by separate committees in the with the Center for Social Research, Torcuato Di Tella United States and in the United Kingdom. The members of Institute, Buenos Aires the former-Werner Baer, Vanderbilt University; David Donald B. Holsinger, Ph.D. candidate in international Bronheim, Center for Inter-American Relations; Victor education, Stanford University, for research on educaGoldschmidt, Purdue University; John J. Johnson, Stanford tion and social mobility in Brazil, in affiliation with SEPTEMBER

1970

37


the Department of Anthropology and Sociology, University of Brasilia Robert C. Howell, Ph.D. candidate in minerals and metals engineering, University of Wisconsin, for a postdoctoral internship in the College of Engineering, University of Chile, and Department of Development, National Institute of Mining, Santiago, teaching, and evaluation and planning of small and medium-size mining projects Joyce E. Howland, Ph.D. candidate in economics, Vanderbilt University, for research on the inter- and intraregional effects of an increase in diesel fuel taxes on income distribution in Brazil, in affiliation with one or more of the following: Center for Regional Development, Belo Horizonte; Getulio Vargas Foundation, Rio de Janeiro; Institute for Economic Research, Sao Paulo Kenneth C. Kruempel, Ph.D. candidate in electrical engineering, University of Wisconsin, for a postdoctoral internship in electrical power engineering at the Department of Electrical Engineering, Poly technical School, University of Sao Paulo Jay F. Lehnertz, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Wisconsin, for research on frontier settlement in the tropics: Hispanic expansion and native social change in Eastern Peru, in affiliation with the Institute Raul Porras Barrenchea Mary Lombardi, Ph.D. candidate in Latin American studies, Indiana University, for an internship at the Federal University of Bahia in library science, assisting in the centralization of the university's libraries and preparing a history and bibliography of the university press Brian E. Loveman, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Indiana University, for research on the politics of development in Chilean rural and peasant organizations, in affiliation with the Institute for Training and Research on Agrarian Reform, Catholic University, Santiago Susan R. Makiesky, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Brandeis University, for research on local politics in Barbados, in affiliation with the Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of the West Indies, Cave Hill, Barbados William M. Murphy, Ph.D. candidate in agronomy, University of Wisconsin, for research on the perennial grass and legume mixtures for improvement of pastures and forage in Rio Grande do SuI, in affiliation with the Faculty of Agronomy and Veterinary Science, Federal University of Rio Grande do SuI Louise I. Paradis, Ph.D. candidate in archeology, Yale University, for field research to establish a cultural sequence from prec1assic to historic times and the Olmec presence in Guerrero, Mexico, in affiliation with the Department of Prehispanic Monuments, National Institute of Anthropology and History, Mexico City Michael A. Quinn, Ph.D. candidate in political science, University of Illinois, for research on the professional and political roles of planning experts in Brazil, in affiliation with the Institute of Administration, Federal University of Rio Grande do SuI Alfred W. Saulniers, Ph.D. candidate in economics, U niversity of Wisconsin, for research on the unpublished statistics of the Peruvian National Planning Institute and the Central Bank to test a planning model, in affiliation with the National Institute of Planning, Lima 38

Kenneth E. Sharpe, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Yale University, for research on the relationship of inequality and control mechanisms for different rural social groups in the Dominican Republic, in affiliation with the Department of Social Sciences, Catholic University Madre y Maestra, Santiago de los Caballeros David D. Sliwa, Ph.D. candidate in entomology, Purdue University, for research on the dynamics of Hypsipyla grandella (Zeller) populations in the American tropics, in affiliation with the Interamerican Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Organization of American States, Turrialba E. Jeffrey Stann, Ph.D. candidate in history, Vanderbilt University, for research on the demographic structure of Caracas in the early twentieth century, in affiliation with the John Boulton Foundation, Caracas; Center for Development Studies; and Institute for Higher Studies of Administration David H. Timm, Ph.D. candidate in agronomy, University of Florida, for research on efficient feeding systems for beef-cattle production in the wet-dry tropics, in affiliation with the Faculty of Agriculture, National University of Zulia, Maracaibo

British Grantees Christopher G. Abel, D.Phil. candidate in politics, University of Oxford, for research on conservatism in Colombia, 1930-53, in affiliation with the Faculty of Economics and Social Sciences, Pontifical University J avierana, Bogota Hugh E. Bicheno, D.Phil. candidate in history, Center of Latin American Studies, University of Cambridge, for research on Chilean fascism and the Popular Front during World War II, in affiliation with the Department of Political Science and the Institute of Sociological Studies, Catholic University, Santiago Norman E. Long, Professor of Social Anthropology, University of Manchester, for postdoctoral research on entrepreneurship in the Mantaro Valley of Peru, in affiliation with the Institute of Peruvian Studies, Lima, and conduct of seminars on sociological aspects of rural development in developing countries, and lecturing on recent advances in British anthropology Stella M. Lowder, D.Phil. candidate in geography, University of Liverpool, for research on internal migration in Peru, in affiliation with the Sample Survey Center, Ministry of Labor, Peru Nicholas T. Platt, D.Phil. candidate in anthropology, London School of Economics, University of London, for linguistic and anthropological study of the social organization, institutions, beliefs, and morality of a Quechua-speaking community, in affiliation with the Bolivian Institute of Studies and Social Action, La Paz Anthony Raw, D.Phil. candidate in entomology, Rothamsted Experimental Station and Imperial College, University of London, for research on the use of solitary bees and other insects in the pollination of tropical crops, in affiliation with the Department of Zoology. University of the West Indies, Kingston, Jamaica Roger J. Sandilands, D.Phil. candidate in economics, Institute of Latin American Studies, University of Glasgow, for research on the elasticity of supply in ColomVOLUME

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bian agriculture, in affiliation with the Department of Agricultural Economics, Colombian Institute of Agriculture - National University of Colombia, Tibaitata Julie M. Taylor, D.Phil. candidate in anthropology, Uni-

versity of Oxford, for research on mass beliefs in the Peronist movement, past and present: the case of Eva Peron, in affiliation with the Center for Social Research, Torcuato Di Tella Institute, Buenos Aires

NEW PUBLICArlONS The Behavioral and Social Sciences: Outlook and Needs. Report by the Behavioral and Social Sciences Survey Committee under the auspices of the Committee on Science and Public Policy, National Academy of Sciences, and the Committee on Problems and Policy, Social Science Research Council. Englewood Cliffs, N.].: PrenticeHall, Inc., December 1969. 335 pages. $7.95. Anthropology, edited by Allan H. Smith and John L. Fischer. Report of the Anthropology Panel of the Behavioral and Social Sciences Survey Committee. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc., November 1970. c. 120 pages. Cloth, $5.95; paper, $1.95. Economics, edited by Nancy D. Ruggles. Report of the Economics Panel of the Behavioral and Social Sciences Survey Committee. Englewood Cliffs, N.].: Prentice-Hall, Inc., November 1970. c. 140 pages. Cloth, $5.95; paper, $2.45. Geography, edited by Edward J. Taaffe. Report of the Geography Panel of the Behavioral and Social Sciences Survey Committee. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc., May 1970. 154 pages. Cloth, $5.95; paper, $2.45. Mathematical Sciences and Social Sciences, edited by William H. KruskaI. Report of the Mathematical Sciences Panel of the Behavioral and Social Sciences Survey Committee. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc., November 1970. c. 100 pages. Cloth only, $4.95. Political Science, edited by Heinz Eulau and James G. March. Report of the Political Science Panel of the Behavioral and Social Sciences Survey Committee. Englewood Cliffs, N.].: Prentice-Hall, Inc., November 1969. 160 pages. Cloth, $5.95; paper, $1.95. Psychiatry as a Behavioral Science, edited by David A. Hamburg. Report of the Psychiatry Panel of the Behavioral and Social Sciences Survey Committee. Englewood Cliffs, N.].: Prentice-Hall, Inc., July 1970. 127 pages. Cloth, $5.95; paper, $1.95. Psychology, edited by Kenneth E. Clark and George A. Miller. Report of the Psychology Panel of the Behavioral and Social Sciences Survey Committee. Englewood Cliffs, N.].: Prentice-Hall, Inc., March 1970. 157 pages. Cloth, $5.95; paper, $1.95. Sociology, edited by Neil J. Smelser and James A. Davis. Report of the Sociology Panel of the Behavioral and Social Sciences Survey Committee. Englewood Cliffs, N.].: Prentice-Hall, Inc., November 1969. 187 pages. Cloth, $5.95; paper, $1.95. Is the Business Cycle Obsolete?, edited by Martin Bronfenbrenner. Product of a conference sponsored by the Committee on Economic Stability in cooperation with the National Institute of Economic and Social Research, April 3-7, 1967. New York: John Wiley &: Sons, December 1969.580 pages. $12.50. Changing Characteristics of the Negro Population, by

SEPTEMBER

1970

Daniel O. Price. Sponsored by the former Committee on Population Census Monographs in cooperation with the Bureau of the Census. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, February 1970. 267 pages. $2.75. Computer-Assisted Instruction, Testing, and Guidance, edited by Wayne H. Holtzman. Product of a conference cosponsored by the Committee on Learning and the Educational Process and the College Entrance Examination Board Commission on Tests, October 21-22, 1968. New York: Harper &: Row, August 1970.404 pages. $10.00. Contemporary Chinese Law: Research Problems and Perspectives, edited by Jerome Alan Cohen. Harvard Studies in East Asian Law, 4. Product of the Conference on Chinese Communist Law: Tools for Research, held by the Subcommittee on Chinese Law, Joint Committee on Contemporary China, May 27-30, 1967. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, August 1970. 392 pages. $10.00. East Central Europe: A Guide to Basic Publications, edited by Paul L. Horecky. Prepared under the auspices of the Subcommittee on East Central and Southeast European Studies, Joint Committee on Slavic and East European Studies. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1969. 981 pages. $27.50. Southeastern Europe: A Guide to Basic Publications, edited by Paul L. Horecky. Prepared under the auspices of the Subcommittee on East Central and Southeast European Studies, Joint Committee on Slavic and East European Studies. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1969. 779 pages. $25.00. Family and Kinship in Chinese Society, edited by Maurice Freedman. Product of a conference sponsored by the Subcommittee on Research on Chinese Society, Joint Committee on Contemporary China, September 15-18, 1966. Stanford: Stanford University Press, March 1970. 286 pages. $7.95. Human Resources and Higher Education: Staff Report of the Commission on Human Resources and Advanced Education, by John K. Folger, Helen S. Astin, and Alan E. Bayer. New York: Russell Sage Foundation, March 1970.507 pages. $17.50. Japan and Korea: An Annotated Bibliography of Doctoral Dissertations in Western Languages, 1877-1969, compiled and edited by Frank J. Shulman. Prepared with the assistance of the Joint Committee on Japanese Studies and the Joint Committee on Korean Studies. Chicago: American Library Association, August 1970. 359 pages. $6.95. Studies in the Economic History of the Middle East, edited by M. A. Cook. Product of the conference cosponsored by the Joint Committee on the Near and Middle East and the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, July 4-6, 1967. London and New York: Oxford University Press, May 1970.535 pages. $11.25.

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COUNCil FELLOWSHIPS AND GRANTS OffERED IN 1970-7': DATES fOR fILING APPLICATIONS AND ANNOUNCEMENTS OF AWARDS Applications for fellowships and grants offered by the Council during the coming year will be due, and awards will be announced, on or before the respective dates listed below. Because applications received after the closing dates specified cannot be considered, and because preliminary correspondence is frequently necessary to determine under which program a given proposal should be submitted, prospective applicants should communicate with the Council if possible at least three weeks in advance of the pertinent closing date. Inquiries should indicate the nature of the proposed training or research; the approximate amount and duration of support needed; one's age, occupation or current activity and vocational aim, country of citizenship and country of permanent residence; academic degrees held (specifying the fields of study); and if currently working for a degree, one's present stage of advancement toward it. A brochure describing the several programs is available on request addressed to Social Science Research Council Fellowships and Grants, 230 Park Avenue, New York, N. Y. 10017. Research Training Fellowships, applications, January 4, 1971; awards, April 1, 1971 Faculty Research Grants, applications, January 4, 1971; awards, April 1, 1971 • Grants for African Studies, applications, December 1, 1970; awards, March 1971 • Grants for Research on Contemporary and Republican China, applications, December 1, 1970; awards, March 1971

• Grants for East Asian Studies, applications to be submitted to American Council of Learned Societies, 345 East 46 Street, New York, N.Y. 10017, December I, 1970; awards, within 3 months NOTE: A separate program of grants for research on South Asia (India, Pakistan, Nepal. Ceylon) is offered by the American Council of Learned Societies, to which inquiries should be addressed. • Grants for Latin American Studies, applications, December I, 1970; awards, March 1971 • Grants for Near and Middle Eastern Studies, applications, December I, 1970; awards, March 1971 • Grants for Slavic and East European Studies. applications to be submitted to American Council of Learned Societies, 345 East 46 Street, New York, N. Y. 10017, December 31, 1970; awards. within 3 months • Travel grants for international conferences on Slavic and East European studies, applications to be submitted to American Council of Learned Societies, 345 East 46 Street, New York, N. Y. 10017. January 15, 1971 • Grants for Study of East European Languages, applications to be submitted to American Council of Learned Societies, 345 East 46 Street, New York, N. Y. 10017, February 1, 1971; awards, within 2 months • Foreign Area Fellowships, applications to be submitted to Foreign Area Fellowship Program, 110 East 59 Street, New York, N. Y. 10022, for: Africa and the Near East. November 10, 1970 Asia, November 2, 1970 Latin America and the Caribbean, November 30, 1970 Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, November 20, 1970 Western Europe, November 16, 1970 • Offered under a joint program of the American Council of Learned Societies and the Social Science Research Council.

SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH COUNCIL 2'0

PARK

AVENUE,

NEW

YORK,

N.Y.

10017

Incorporated in the State of Illinois, December 27, 1924, for the purpose of advancing research in the social sciences Directors, 1970: WILLIAM O. AYDELOTTE, X. F'REmMAN, WILUAM GORHAM,

DANIEL

DORWIN CARTWRIGHT, JAMES S. COLEMAN, ELIZABETH COLSON, LEE J. CRONBACH, PHIUP D. CUllTIN, ZVI GRlUCHES, CHAUNCY D. HARRIS, SAMUEL P. HAYS, MATTHEW HOLDEN, JR., DELL HYMES, GARDNER

REEs, HENRY W. RIECKEN, A. SIMON, NEIL J . SMELSER, ALLAN H. SMITH, M. BREWSTER SMITH, K.AIu. E. TAEUBER, DAVID B. TRUMAN, ANDREW P. VAYDA, ROBERT E. WARD, CHAIu.Es V. WILLIE Officers and Staff: HENRY W. RIECKEN, President; PAUL WDIBINK, Vice·President; ELBRIDGE SmLEY, BRYCE WOOD, Executive Associates; ELEANOR C. ISBELL, ROWLAND L. MITCHELL, JR., NORMAN W. STORER, DONALD S . SHOUP, Staff Associates; STANLEY LEHMANN, MIRIAM ZEu.NER, Consultants; CATH.EIUNE V. RONNAN, Financial SeCf'etary

LINDZEY, LEoN LIPSON, GEOFFREY H. MOORE, JAMES N. MORGAN, FREDERICK MOSTEllER, AumN RANNEY, ALBERT HERBnT

40

Items Vol. 24 No. 3 (1970)  
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