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SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH COUNCIL

VOLUME 23 . NUMBER 3 . SEPTEMBER 1969 230 PARK AVENUE· NEW YORK, N.Y. 10017

BIOLOGY AND THE SOCIAL AND BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES by Gerald E. McClearn·

IT IS becoming increasingly apparent that many problems in social and behavioral science research may be illuminated in important ways by application of perspectives developed in biological sciences. There are numerous examples of social and behavioral scientists finding that the theoretical treatment of their particular areas of specialization can be expanded and strengthened by invoking explanatory principles from one or another biological discipline. Furthermore, some urgent social problems such as those arising from population pressures and environmental pollution would seem to require the integrated application of concepts from the social, behavioral, and biological sciences if solutions are to be found at all. In response to numerous indications of interdisciplinary stirrings, the Social Science Research Council in 1966 broadened the purview of its Committee on Genetics and Behavior and renamed it the Committee on Biological Bases of Social Behavior. In general terms, the committee then undertook to explore the developing areas between the social and biological sciences, to determine the dimension of need for explicit interdisciplinary training efforts, to evaluate the effectiveness of the methods by which social scientists currently utilizing biological perspectives acquired their biological knowl• The author is Professor of Psychology and Director, Institute for Behavioral Genetics, University of Colorado. He was a member of the Council's former Committee on Genetics and Behavior, 1961-{l6, and has served as chairman of the Committee on Biological Bases of Social Behavior since 1966. He presented the substance of the present report at the March 1969 meeting of the board of directors of the Council. The other members of the present committee are Theodosius Dobzhansky, Rockefeller University; Daniel X. Freedman, University of Chicago; David C. Glass, Russell Sage Foundation; Gardner Lindzey, University of Texas; Stanley Schachter, Columbia University; staff, Norman W. Storer.

edge, and where appropriate to promote the utilization of biological concepts and theories in social science research and training. CONFERENCE ON BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE TRAINING FOR SOCIAL SCIENTISTS: OPENING STATEMENTS One of the first projects of the committee was the planning of a conference to bring to bear upon these objectives the accumulated experience of social and biological scientists who are engaged in interdisciplinary training and research. The conference was held at Las Croabas, Puerto Rico, February 2-6, 1969, with support granted to the Council by the Russell Sage Foundation and the National Institute of Mental Health. The participants included 27 social and biological scientists in addition to six members of the committee and staff.1 1 In addition to Messrs. Dobzhansky, Freedman, Lindzey, McCleam, Schachter, and Storer, the participants were Kurt W. Back, Duke Uni· versity; Paul T. Baker, Pennsylvania State University; Colin G. Beer, Rutgers University; Floyd E. Bloom, National Institute of Mental Health; Richard A. Chase, Johns Hopkins University; Bertram D. Cohen, Rutgers University; John C. DeFries, University of Colorado; Bruce K. Eckland, University of North Carolina; Fred Elmadjian, National Institute of Mental Health; Irving I. Gottesman, University of Minnesota; Howard F. Hunt, Columbia University; Leo M. Hurvich, University of Pennsylvania; Seymour S. Kety, Harvard Medical School; John I. Lacey, Fels Research Institute; Richard S. Lazarus, University of California, Berkeley; Morris A. Lipton, University of North Carolina Medical School; David T. Lykken, University of Minnesota; William V. Mayer, Biological Sciences Curriculum Study, Boulder; Everett W. Maynert, University of Illinois College of Medicine; David Mechanic, University of Wisconsin; Eugene Roberts, City of Hope National Medical Center; Lloyd J. Roth, University of Chicago School of Medicine; Roger W. Russell, University of California, Irvine; Jerome E. Singer, State University of New York at Stony Brook; Joseph C. Speisman, Boston University; James N. Spuhler, University of New Mexico; and Richard F. Thompson, University of California, Irvine.

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The program began with the presentation of statements on the relationship between various biological discip1ines and social or behavioral disciplines. Bruce Eckland surveyed the current relations. of sociology and the biological sciences. Although medical sociology is closely related to biology, the total range of concern has not included such problems as the effects of differential fertility and of assortative mating on social structure. Impending biotechnological developments, such as the possibility of predetermination of sex of child and large-scale programs of organ transplants, will pose many problems for sociological research. At present, demand for biological science training by graduate students in sociology does not seem to be very great, but there should be no difficulty in introducing relevant courses in the curriculum of sociology departments if and when the demand grows. Stanley Schachter gave a case history of the difficulties encountered by social psychologists whose search for explanatory concepts leads into the biological realm. Limitation of knowledge often prevents expeditious following up of one experiment by another. The necessity of frequent consultation makes the research effort inefficient and inordinately time consuming, and generates considerable frustration. Reading of relevant primary biological literature by persons not formally trained is also inefficient, and evaluation of research reports is even more difficult. Some literature is essentially inaccessible because of lack of familiarity with basic concepts. Attempts to obtain training in the relevant biological science while continuing to function as a social scientist have often failed because of the extensive prerequisites of an orthodox training program. In a discussion of psychology and the biological sciences, John Lacey pointed out that psychology, through physiological psychology, has a long history of association with the biological sciences. He cautioned particularly against the dangers inherent in attempts to find simplistic physiological indices of complex behavioral traits. Social scientists armed with only fragmentary knowledge may not appreciate the limits of physiological measures and may seriously overinterpret them. He also urged that no one level of analysis be regarded as more basic in explanatory power than another. Flexible programs and approaches were strongly recommended, to permit social scientists in search of the relevance of biological factors to their research problems to obtain the information needed. Morris Lipton took up the relationship between psychiatry and biological sciences. In general, psychiatry may be regarded as an applied "interface" area. The development of psychotropic drugs has been particularly important in bringing psychiatry closer to biology. 34

These drugs have changed therapeutic practice extensively, and are modifying theories as well. The "black . box" is now obviously penetrable. Lipton also pointed out the importance of relevance of the level of explanation to the phenomena under investigation. Behavioral laws are pertinent to behavioral phenomena, and although they must not violate chemical and biological laws, it is not necessarily true that the behavioral laws can be derived from the latter. James Spuhler pointed out that in anthropology, as in psychology, parts of the discipline have been biological science and parts social science. A salient feature of modern physical anthropology has been the improved understanding of human evolutionary history, particularly with regard to the evolutionary sequence of brain size and tool use. A good example of the need of the physical anthropologist to be able to apply a broad range of information to a problem is found in the work of Livingston on the distribution of hemoglobin types in West African populations. Beginning with considerations of the genetics and the biochemistry of hemoglobin, he found it necessary to include considerations of the distribution of plants and insects, the introduction of iron tools, and linguistic differences among the groups examined in order to achieve a comprehensive analysis. There are three general problems of anthropology in which biological considerations are central: macroevolution of man along the primate lineage, microevolution and the classification of men, and comparative growth and development of man. An illustration of an interdisciplinary theoretical system was provided by Eugene Roberts, who presented a conceptual model that incorporates features of neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, neurochemistry, and psychology in explanation of the processes of learning, habituation, and adaptive failure. Empirical data pertinent to aspects of the model were discussed. The next group of statements was concerned with exposition and analysis of some specific training procedures and programs. Problems of basic curricula for training in biological sciences were discussed by William Mayer. Most basic curricula do not constitute a general balanced introduction to biology either as a self-contained terminal exposure to the subject or as a basis for further study. In part this is attributable to lack of integration among the various fields of biology. An introductory course should be of the highest caliber with laboratory work arranged so that the students experience a sense of discovery, not simply verification. A major difficulty in biosocial science interdisciplinary training is identifying people equipped to do the teaching. Teaching by teams without careful integration of the contributions VOLUME

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of individual instructors is not a very satisfactory procedure. An interim, makeshift arrangement might be to identify within a curriculum clusters of courses that touch upon matters relevant to the interdiscipline. Ultimately, it will be necessary to develop new curricula especially designed to meet interdisciplinary needs. A useful first step in the process of evolving new disciplines would be the reduction of departmental requirements and a lowering of barriers to the movement of students across departmental boundaries. Pharmacology was described by Lloyd Roth as a truly interdisciplinary field in which knowledge of biology, chemistry, physics, and mathematics is required. Still other fields are added in the case of psychopharmacology. Several illustrations of the necessity of interdisciplinary perspective for the conduct of meaningful research were presented, and it was shown that use of a single approach in studying biological phenomena gives very limited results. There is need to develop a new type of research worker who can use information and experience from diverse disciplines. That such truly interdisciplinary training can be provided in doctoral programs is documented by the training program in psychopharmacology at the University of Chicago. The history of the establishment of that program was reported. Fur路 ther efforts have shown that pharmacology can be taught successfully at the undergraduate and even at the high school level. One major source of difficulty in interdisciplinary training at the graduate level has been that the traditional sequence in medical schools is not necessarily appropriate for graduate instruction. Richard Thompson described the explicitly interdisciplinary training program in psychobiology at the University of California, Irvine. The first year of this program provides instruction in basic neuroanatomy, cellular biology, neurophysiology, neurochemistry and sensory mechanisms, through a highly integrated lecture series involving all the faculty, and a closely related intensive laboratory sequence in which students become familiar with the relevant techniques. The second year of the program is devoted to behavioral processes. The program has demonstrated the feasibility of intensive training to a high level of competence in several disciplines for students previously prepared in only one of them. In the program a very favorable studentteacher ratio is featured, with all staff members actively engaged in interdisciplinary research. Gerald McClearn reviewed the experience of the Social Science Research Council with summer research training institutes in other contexts, and described the 1964 summer institute on behavioral genetics cosponsored by the Commi ttee on Genetics and Behavior and the University of California, Berkeley. The training proSEPTEMBER

1969

gram brought together advanced predoctoral students and those with recent doctorates in biological and behavioral sciences in approximately equal numbers. The interaction with peers having common interests but diverse academic backgrounds was found to be very valuable. DISCUSSION Following each statement there was extensive discussion. It quickly became apparent that the interdisciplinary training problem is a refractory one. Every issue addressed seems to require the prior resolution of the other issues. Certain recurrent themes were identifiable, however. One was the importance of differential treatment of different audiences. The issue was stated in various ways. Training efforts, it was suggested, should be concentrated on "those who care"-those who have already decided that such training is appropriate to their needs-rather than on attracting others to this view. On the other hand, it was argued that some general training to develop an appreciation of the nature of biological information should be given to all social and behavioral science graduate students. A contrast was made between "retread" training of already established scholars and ab origine training of graduate students. In general, it was agreed that different approaches are required for a variety of needs. Another focal topic was the matter of content. Concern was expressed by some over the need to ensure that the amount of biological information transmitted in an interdisciplinary program be adequate for its purpose. It was generally agreed that half-knowledge could be dangerous, both for individual projects and for the state of health of the interdisciplinary field. In planning interdisciplinary training it appears that it is as critical to decide which material is to be excluded from the special curriculum as it is to decide which is to be included. For example, one might be concerned with the type and amount of material that might be excluded from the standard chemistry curriculum in modifying such a curriculum for the special purpose of providing a background in biochemistry for behavioral scientists. A third recurring theme concerned mechanisms of training. It became apparent early in the discussions that different training modes would be required to meet the various needs of different groups and for transmission of different types of biological information. It was also noted that changes in curricula over time could be expected. In the early stages of development of an inter. disciplinary field the training program might consist largely of an assemblage of existing courses; as the defi-

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nition of the interdiscipline proceeds, specialized courses and whole curricula will be developed. It is likely, therefore, that particular training devices will be required at one time and then will become outmoded. Several pertinent general comments may also be noted. There appeared to be general acceptance by those present of the proposition that no one explanatory level is more basic than another. This attitude of academic egalitarianism is an encouraging one because it seems unlikely that healthy interdisciplines can emerge if the partnership is not on conceptually equal terms. Another point is that there is nothing contradictory between the aims of encouraging the utilization of biological concepts and methods in social and behavioral research and the pursuit of social and behavioral knowledge at their own levels of description and analysis. That is to say, there is no implication in our concern over interdisciplinary training that all social and behavioral research should involve close and immediate biological considerations. TASK GROUPS In view of the complexity of the problems discussed and the difficulty of grasping them in their entirety, five task groups were organized at the conference to concentrate on particular aspects of the total problem. Four of the task groups were to focus on particular segments of the audience that might be involved, and to give attention to content and mechanism for each particular group of potentially interested scholars. The task group on General Biological Education was concerned with the provision of "appreciation" training for the general social and behavioral scientist. The type of training envisaged would acquaint students with the kinds of biological knowledge that exist, but not with details of specific bodies of knowledge. The Special Interest Training task group was concerned with training for a narrow specific purpose. This type of training would generally be for the mature investigator who for one or another reason needs to utilize a specific biological technique or procedure in exploring his own subject matter. With this kind of training he should not only be able to make appropriate use of the particular method, but should also have sufficient information to understand its limitations. The Basic Ancillary Training task group was oriented toward the scholar who will retain a strong primary interest in the field of his basic training, but who wishes to acquire enough knowledge of a biological discipline to be capable of effective collaboration or of independent research in the interdisciplinary area. 36

The Interdisciplinary Ph.D. Training task group was concerned with the training of individuals who would have genuine competence in the two parent disciplines of an interdisciplinary area. A fifth task group was established to consider points of convergence from an over-all perspective. Its assignment was to identify areas in which information flow between biological and social scientists would be useful in illuminating important theoretical or practical issues. After one and one-half days of deliberation, the task groups reported their analyses and recommendations to the conference. There was general agreement among the groups that training efforts at the particular levels they had considered are needed and are feasible, although special mechanisms and new training sequences may be required in many cases. A number of problems of interdisciplinary training were described; many of these had been identified earlier in the conference but were highlighted in task group discussions. One problem is the professional identification of the interdisciplinary scholar. Closely related to this issue is that of academic location of the interdiscipline. As an interdisciplinary area develops within an established academic department, increasingly unconventional and unpopular demands are likely to be made on the department with respect to recruiting policies, space allocation, equipment acquisition, and course sequences for students. A similar problem may arise in respect to funding of interdisciplinary research or training. Proposals for support of such programs may sometimes be at a disadvantage because they do not fall clearly within the bailiwicks of established programs of sources of funds. No clear means of resolving these problems is apparent. To a considerable extent they arise from the rigidity of departmental boundaries, and would be substantially ameliorated by more flexible attitudes toward academic sovereignty. The task groups identified many "points of convergence," ranging from whole interdisciplinary areas s}lch as developmental psychobiology to particular research foci such as the urban crisis. It seems clear that a highly diversified group of interdisciplinary areas is developing between various biological disciplines and various social and behavioral disciplines. Numerous ways of encouraging and supporting these developments were suggested. Many proposals naturally dealt with devices already tried and proven in other contexts. For implementation of such proposals initiative would seem to be with the scientists concerned, although, to be sure, receptive sources of support and cooperative university administrations will be required. Among the possibilities that fall in this category are the preparation VOLUME

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of curricular material; the organization of "traveling lectureships," problem-oriented conferences, and summer institutes; and the establishment of centers for advanced study. For the institution of other programs, such as special fellowships, graduate training and research grants, the initiative would appear to rest with sources of support, although the maintenance and success of such programs would be dependent on the supply of investigators eager and able to make effective use of them. Those participants in the conference who were involved in the growth of established interdisciplines, such as biochemistry and psychopharmacology, documented in detail the important role that similar funding programs played in those cases.

SUBSEQUENT COMMITTEE ACTION The Committee on Biological Bases of Social Behavior met in March to review the proceedings of the conference and to decide upon appropriate action. It was agreed that summer training institutes now constitute the most effective device for advancing development of the interdisciplinary areas with which the committee is concerned. Final preparations were made for a Summer Training Institute on Genetics and Behavior for Developmental Psychologists, the initial planning of which had begun prior to the conference. This institute was conducted at the University of Colorado, Boulder, from June 15 to July 26, 1969. Prospects for holding four additional summer institutes are being explored.

THE UNITED STATES-JAPAN JOINT BIBLIOGRAPHICAL PROJECT ON THE ALLIED OCCUPATION OF JAPAN by Robert E. Ward ,., IN January 1968 representatives of the group that sub- reasons, this has not until very recently been a popular sequently became the Joint Committee on Japanese subject of scholarly inquiry. Japan today, however, is in Studies of the American Council of Learned Societies the midst of what is sometimes described as a "history and the Social Science Research Council met in Hawaii boom" that tends to focus on the immediate prewar, warwith a delegation from a Japanese counterpart group time, and postwar phases of her national history. Unheaded by Kazuo Okochi, then President of Tokyo Uni- fortunately from the standpoint of the Japanese scholars versity. It was agreed that it would be beneficial for involved, much of the historical record of the early postscholars of both countries to engage more systematically war period is physically located in this country. The soin collaborative research, and the Japanese delegates called "Allied" Occupation was in fact almost exclusively presented an agenda of subjects on which they thought American in conception and control. Since it ruled that such research would be desirable. At the top of this Japan for almost seven years, its files, its more critically list was a proposal that Japanese and American scholars placed staff members, and American memories about should collaborate on a joint study of materials relat- and commentaries on this period have inevitably become ing to the Allied Occupation of Japan (1945-52). The an intrinsic and basic part of the primary source maAmerican delegates were agreeable to this proposal, and terials on modem Japanese history. funds were made available by the Ministry of Education It is the aim of the Joint Bibliographical Project to and the Nihon Gakujutsu Shinkokai (Japan Society for canvass the extent, nature, location, and availability of the Promotion of Science) on the Japanese side and by information relating to the Occupation in both the the Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs of the United States and Japan. The sources of such informaDepartment of State on the American side. The project tion are of two sorts: documentary and human. The got under way in March 1968. written records in both countries are extensive. In the There is growing interest in both Japan and the United States, for example, the most important single United States in the Occupation period of recent Japa- source is the actual records and files of the Supreme nese history.l In the Japanese case, for understandable Commander for the Allied Powers and the organizations and units under his command. These are voluminous • The author is Professor of Political Science at the University of and are housed mainly in the new Washington NaMichigan, a member of the board of directors of the Social Science tional Records Center, Suitland, Maryland. UnfortuResearch Council and of its Committee on Comparative Politics, and of the Joint Committee on Japanese Studies, which sponsors the project nately, a combination of the so-called "twenty-year rule" described here. regulating the public availability of classified materials 1 See, for example, the account in Items, September 1967, pp. 25-29, and the paucity of the funds available to the National of the Conference on "Military Occupations and Political Change," held Archives for processing and declassifying such collecby the SSRC's Committee on Comparative Politics, April 20--22, 1967. SEPTEMBER

1969

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tions precludes any but highly episodic access to these basic materials. Many other items of major importance are available, however, at the Bureau of Archives of the MacArthur Memorial at Norfolk, Virginia, the Library of Congress, the Army Library in the Pentagon, the Office of the Chief of Military History, and a variety of university libraries throughout the country. All of these have their counterparts in Japan. Of almost equal importance, but less durable, are the sizable numbers of still-living Americans and Japanese who served in important positions in the Occupation or the Japanese Government during the 1945-52 period. Many of these have personal files or diaries and all have memories relating to those rather remarkable years. In the Joint Bibliographical Project two things are

being attempted. First, an extensive annotated bibliography of the available records of the Occupation, both official and private, in the United States and Japan is being prepared. It is hoped that this will be published in two volumes, sometime in 1970-71. Second, a directory of potential American and Japanese interviewees who might reasonably be expected to have information of value about the Occupation is being compiled. The Japanese participants in the Project are organized into some ten groups by subject matter. They include in their number some of Japan's most eminent scholars. Their activities are being coordinated by Nobushige Ukai, former President of the International Christian University in Tokyo. The work of the American group is being directed by Robert E. Ward.

RESEARCH ON URBAN POVERTY: A CONFERENCE HELD AT PRINCETON UNIVERSITY, MAY 22-23,1969 by Albert Rees * THIS conference was planned in the belief that social science research on the problems of urban poverty was proceeding in a number of places and in several disciplines without adequate communication among the investigators. The conference was sponsored jointly by the Council and by the Industrial Relations Section and Woodrow Wilson School, Princeton University. The forty-five participants 1 represented twelve universities and seven other organizations and agencies.

• The author is Professor of Economics and Public Affairs, and Director of the Industrial Relations Section, Princeton University, and a member of the board of directors of the Council. 1 The participants were Roger Alcaly, and David Caplovitz, Columbia University; Marcus Alexis, University of Rochester; Orley Ashenfelter, William Baumol, J. Douglas Brown, Michael N. Danielson, Jameson W. Doig, Helen Fairbanks, Robert Geddes, Frederick H. Harbison, John D. Heinberg, Richard A. Lester, W. Duane Lockard, Rufus E. Miles, Jr., Wallace E. Oates, Albert Rees, Daniel H. Saks, Robert A. Scott, and Charles W. Wheatley, all of Princeton University; Merton Bernstein, Ohio State University; Glen G. Cain, Robinson Hollister, and Michael Lipsky, University of Wisconsin; Peter B. Doeringer, and Stephen Michelson, Harvard University; Daniel S. Hamermesh, and Peter Mieszkowski, Yale University; David Kershaw, and Heather L. Ross, Mathematica; Joseph A. Kershaw, and William C. Pendleton, Ford Foundation; Elliott Liebow, National Institute of Mental Health;

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Economists were in the majority, but political science, sociology, anthropology, and law were also represented. Discussion was focused around papers prepared on four subjects of research: on black entrepreneurship, by Robert B. McKersie, University of Chicago; on the political structure of the ghetto, by W. Duane Lockard, Princeton University; on the consumption patterns of the poor, by Marcus Alexis, University of Rochester; and on income maintenance, by Michael K. Taussig, Rutgers University. The conference identified a large number of possible areas for research, many closely linked with policy issues. However, no consensus emerged on priorities for research strategy, and the discussion suggested to some participants that pluralistic approaches to problems in this area are indicated for some time to come. Stanley Masters, and Michael K. Taussig, Rutgers University; Robert B. McKersie, and George S. Tolley, University of Chicago; Guy H. Orcutt, Urban Institute; Henry W. Riecken, and Paul Webbink, Social Science Research Council; Alvin L. Schorr, Brandeis University; Bruno Stein, New York University; Gordon F. Sutton, Office of Economic Opportunity; Lester D. Thurow, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; and Phyllis A. Wallace, Metropolitan Applied Research Center.

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PERSONNEL FOREIGN AREA FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM In the seventh year of administration of the Foreign Area Fellowship Program by the Social Science Research Council and American Council of Learned Societies, fellowships have been awarded for study of five major world areas as in previous years, and also special awards for research, training, and internships in Latin America and the Caribbean. As of August 1, the following 180 appointments have been accepted for 1969-70 (a few additional appointments are expected):

African Studies Program M. Catharine Atterbury, Ph.D. candidate in political science, University of Wisconsin, for intensive Kinyarwanda language training and research in Rwanda and Belgium on the political integration of Kinyaga, 1916-60 Leo Barrington, Ph.D. candidate in sociology, Boston University, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in Ghana and the United States on the resettlement of a Ghanaian town (renewal) Walter L. Barrows, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Yale University, for research in Sierra Leone on its national integration and political development James O. Bellis, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Indiana University, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in Ghana and the United States on the culture history of the Accra Plains in southern Ghana (renewal) Gerald J. Bender, Ph.D. candidate in political science, University of California, Los Angeles, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in Portugal and the United States on Portuguese immigration to Angola (renewal) Fremont E. Besmer, Ph.D. candidate in ethnomusicology, Columbia University, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in Nigeria, England, and the United States on Hausa traditional music in northern Nigeria (renewal) Beverly Bolser Brown, Ph.D. candidate in history, Boston University, for preparation of a dissertation on a history of the town of Ujiji (renewal) Michael A. Cohen, Ph.D. candidate in political science, University of Chicago, for research in Ivory Coast on the politics of urban development John D. Collins, Ph.D. candidate in comparative politics, Johns Hopkins University, School of Advanced International Studies, for research in Niger and France on animation rurale Mark W. Delancey, Ph.D. candidate in government, Indiana University, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in West Cameroon and the United States on interethnic communication and the development of a sense of community on the Cameroons Development Corporation plantations (renewal) Dennis L. Dresang, Ph.D. candidate in political science, University of California, Los Angeles, for preparation of a dissertation on the Zambian Civil Service: a study in development administration (renewal) SEPTEMBER

1969

Douglas E. Ferguson, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of California, Los Angeles, for completIon of research and preparation of a ~isse~tati~n ~n Gl~ana and the United States on MuslIm mstItutlOns m West Africa: the life, times, and works of Iman 'Umaru of the Kete-Krachi, 1852-1934 (renewal) Talmy Giveon, Ph.D. candidate in linguistics, University of California, Los Angeles, for preparation of a dissertation on Chi Bemba grammar (renewal) Gerald W. Hartwig, Ph.D. candidate in history, Indiana University, for preparation of a dissertation on the cultural history of the Kerebe to 1895 (renewal) Diann Holland, Ph.D. candidate in economics, Indiana University, for Wolof language training and research in France and Senegal on investment planning and implementation in the industrial sector of Senegal Allen F. Isaacman, Ph.D. candidate in African history, University of Wisconsin, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in Mozambique and the United States on the Prazos da Coroa of the Zambezi Valley (renewal) Susan B. Kaplow, Ph.D. candidate in history, Columbia University, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in Paris on sociopolitical relations of nineteenth-century Gold Coast traders (renewal) John E. Lamphear, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of London, for research in Uganda on a Jie oral history Leif Landberg and Pamela Landberg, Ph.D. candidates in anthropology, University of California, Davis, for completion of research and preparation of dissertations in Tanzania and the United States on social organization of Ngalawa fishin~ crews in a Tanzanian coastal community, and Swahili concepts of disease and curing, respectively (renewals) Thomas D. Moodie, Ph.D. candidate in sociology of religion, Harvard University, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in South Africa and the United States on Afrikaner civil religion during 1930-50, with special emphasis on the Nationalist victory of 1948 (renewal) M. Bridget O'Laughlin, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Yale University, for Mbum language training and research in Chad on a problem of economic anthropology among the Mbum horticulturists Robert M. Price, Ph.D. candidate in political science, University of California, Berkeley, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation on organizational control in a transitional society (renewal) David W. Robinson, Ph.D. candidate in history, Columbia University, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation on the history of the Fouta Toro, 1860-90 (renewal) Harlan D. Robinson, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Stanford University, for preparation of a dissertation on the political and economic development of the Malagasy Republic (renewal) Cyprian L. Rowe, Ph.D. candidate in African literature, Howard University, for Twi language training, course work in field research methodology and African history, and research in the United States and Ghana on a topic in African literature Joel Samoff, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Univer39


sity of Wisconsin, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in Tanzania and the United States on the political process in a single-party state (renewal) Roger Sanjek, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Columbia University, for research in Ghana on the indigenous population of Accra Earl P. Scott, Ph.D. candidate in geography, University of Michigan, for research in England and Nigeria on the Hausa onion industry of northern Nigeria Kenneth H. Shapiro, Ph.D. candidate in economics, Stanford University, for research in Tanzania on the determinants of agricultural economic change among African cotton farmers Philip J. Shea, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of WIsconsin, for research in Nigeria on a socioeconomic history of a ward in Kano Morris A. Simon, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Cornell University, for preparation of a dissertation on processes of institutionalized leadership in rural and urban settings (renewal) Francis G. Snyder, doctoral candidate in African law and economics, University of Paris, for course work in Paris and London relating to West Africa (renewal) Charles C. Stewart, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Oxford, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in Senegal, Paris, and England on the role of the Qadiriyya brotherhood in West African Islam (renewal) Heidi S. Tauss, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Northwestern University, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in Ghana and the United States on politics in an urban area: a comparison of indigenous and immigrant communities in Accra (renewal) Malcolm D. Valentine, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of California, Los Angeles, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation In Kenya and the United States on Luo society, 1900-1963 (renewal)

Asia and Near East Studies Program Gary D. Allinson, Ph.D. candidate in history, Stanford University, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in Japan and the United States on the social and political history of a Japanese city in the twentieth century (renewal) R. David Arkush, Ph.D. candidate in history and Far Eastern languages, Harvard University, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in Hong Kong, England, and the United States on an intellectual biography of Fei-Hsiao-t'ung (renewal) James W. Bjorkman, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Yale University, for Hindi-Urdu language training, course work relating to South Asia, and research in the United States and India on political value configurations in India Barry B. Blakeley, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Michigan, for preparation of a dissertation on a historical study of Chou China (renewal) Nevin A. Bryant, Ph.D. candidate in geography, University of Michigan, for research in the United States, the Philippines, Indonesia, and the Netherlands on 40

increased population pressure and change in rural agricultural land use in central Java Philip T. Chadie, Ph.D. candidate in history, Princeton University, for research in Turkey on the institution of Valide Sultan Jonathan Chaves, Ph.D. candidate in Chinese literature, Columbia University, for Japanese language training and research in the United States, Taiwan, and Japan on early Sung poetry Jerry P. Dennerline, Ph.D. candidate in history, Yale University, for completion of research in Taiwan and Japan on resistance and collaboration: the Chinese response to the Manchu Conquest in Chekiang and Kiangsu (renewal) Michael W. Donnelly, Ph.D. candidate in government, Columbia University, for Japanese language training and research in Japan on the politics of rice prices David J. Elkins, Ph.D. candidate in political science, University of California, Berkeley, for preparation of a dissertation on correlatives of political participation in South Asia (renewal) John W. Gartrell, Ph.D. candidate in sociology, University of Wisconsin, for research in India on evaluation of changes in rural communities through community development and agricultural extension programs Henry D. Ginsburg, Ph.D. candidate in Thai language and literature, School of Oriental Studies, University of London, for research and preparation of a dissertation in Thailand and England on contemporary Thai drama tradition with historical Indic links Robert Gurevich, Ph.D. candidate in international and development education, University of Pittsburgh, for research in Thailand on rural development and the role of the primary school teacher Thomas J. Harper, Ph.D. candidate in Japanese literature, University of Michigan, for completion of research in Japan on premodern criticism of the eleventhcentury Japanese novel, Genji monogatari (renewal) Doyle G. Hatt, Ph.D. candidate in social anthropology, University of California, Los Angeles, for research in Morocco on an ethnography of a sedentary tribe in southern Morocco Jon B. Higgins, Ph.D. candidate in ethnomusicology, Wesleyan University, for research in India on the music of Bharata Natya Douglas L. Johnson, Ph.D. candidate in geography, University of Chicago, for colloquial Arabic language training and research in Libya on interactions of pastoral nomads and sedentary farmers in agriculturally marginal areas Stephen L. Keller, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, for preparation of a dissertation on refugees and political development: effects of adult trauma on attitudes and personality (renewal) Benedict J. Kerkvliet, Ph.D. candidate in political science, University of Wisconsin, for Tagalog language training and research in Manila on the historical process of the Huk revolt Christopher R. King, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Wisconsin, for directed studies and research in the United States, England, and India on the Society for Promotion of N agari Script VOLUME

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David S. Lelyveld, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Chicago, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in India and the United States on the first generation of English-educated Muslims in North India (renewal) Susan J. Lewandowski, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Chicago, for research in India on Malayalee migrants Rudi P. Lindner, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of California, Berkeley, for research in Turkey on the influence of Mongol, Seljuk, and Byzantine practices on Ottoman institutions Mary C. Lynn, Ph.D. candidate in art history, University of Chicago, for research in Europe and India on the architecture and sculpture of the Kalacuris of Dahala Richard J. Lynn, Ph.D. candidate in Chinese literature, Stanford University, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in Japan and the United States on the Ch'ing statesman-poet-critic, Wang Shihchen, 1634-1711 (renewal) Susan K. Matisoff, Ph.D. candidate in Japanese literature, Columbia University, for course work, preparation for examinations, and research in the United States and Japan on the Seminaru legend in Japanese literature Ronald C. Miao, Ph.D. candidate in literature and linguistics, University of California, Berkeley, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation In Japan and the United States on modern Chinese literary criticism, 1917-30 (renewal) Mattison Mines, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Cornell University, for preparation of a dissertation on patterns of social and economic behavior among Tamil-speaking Muslims in a Madras market town (renewal) M. Michael Moffatt, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Chicago, for research in India on an untouchable community Susan M. Neild, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Chicago, for research in India and England on the Indian city and cultural change: Madras City, 1870-1910 Sylvia Opper, Ph.D. candidate in child psychology, Cornell University, for Thai language training and research in the United States and Thailand on the intellectual development of Thai children in relation to family variables Robert B. Radin, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of California, Berkeley, for Japanese language training and research in Japan on the rice riots of 1918 William V. Rapp, Ph.D. in economics, Stanford University, for Japanese language training and research in Japan on its international trade and investment (renewal) Robert Rickner, Ph.D. candidate in drama, University of Hawaii, for research in Bali on its ritual-theater tradition in comparison with Antonin Artaud's theories James N. Riley, Ph.D. candidate in social anthropology, University of North Carolina, for Thai language training, Southeast Asia area training, and research in the United States and Thailand on population dynamics and social structure in Thailand Gilbert F. Rozman, Ph.D. candidate in sociology, Princeton University, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation on urbanization in Ch'ing China and Tokugawa Japan (renewal) SEPTEMBER

1969

Gary Saxonhouse, Ph.D. candidate in economics, Yale University, for completion of research in Japan on change in productivity in cotton spinning, 1888-1938 (renewal) Joel Shinder, Ph.D. candidate in history, Princeton University, for research in Turkey and Europe on the structure of the Ottoman bureaucracy in the seventeenth century Brian Q. Silver, Ph.D. candidate in Urdu literature, University of Chicago, for course work, reading in Islamic literature, and research in the United States and India on Ghalib's Urdu poetry and its importance in Indo-Muslim history and culture David E. Stephenson, Ph.D. candidate in geography, University of Chicago, for Tunisian Arabic language training and research in Tunisia on periodic labor migrations between southern Tunisian villages Thomas Timberg, Ph.D. candidate in economics and government, Harvard University, for research in India on the rise of Marwari entrepeneurs in industry Michael H. Van Dusen, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Johns Hopkins University, for research in Lebanon on intra- and intergenerational civil-military conflicts in Syria James L. Watson, Ph.D. candidate in social anthropology, University of California, Berkeley, for Cantonese language training and research in Hong Kong on interpersonal relations among Chinese peasants Lynn T. White, Ph.D. candidate in political science, University of California, Berkeley, for research on the politics of Shanghai City since 1949 (renewal) Latin American Studies Program Jeffry Adelman, Ph.D. candidate in history, Indiana University, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in Brazil and the United States on the growth and evolution of the city of Belo Horizonte (renewal) Roderick C. Barman, Ph.D. candidate in history, U niversity of California, Berkeley, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in Brazil and the United States on the political and social structure of the Brazilian Empire, 1850-70 (renewal) Rebecca Baird Bergstresser, Ph.D. candidate in history, Stanford University, for preparation of a dissertation on the abolition movement in Rio de Janeiro, 1880-90 (renewal) Miguel A. Bretos, Ph.D. candidate in history, Vanderbilt University, for research in Colombia and Venezuela on the influence of Bolivar and Santander as viewed by successive generations of Colombians in the nineteenth century Leslie Ann Brownrigg, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Columbia University, for research in Ecuador on marriage systems in the Cuenca Valley Wayne A. Cornelius, Jr., Ph.D. candidate in political science, Stanford University, for research in Mexico on political correlates of the assimilation of urban migrants in metropolitan areas W. Winfield Crowther, Ph.D. candidate in political science, University of California, Berkeley, for preparation of a dissertation on the political economy of the Chilean State railways as a -public enterprise (renewal) 41


David A. Denslow, Ph.D. candidate in economics, Yale University, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in Brazil and the United States on sugar production during the colonial period in Brazil (renewal) Paul W. Drake, Ph.D. candidate in history, Stanford University, for research in Chile on the origins of the continuing leftward movement of the electorate Cornelia Butler Flora, Ph.D. candidate in sociology, Cornell University, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in Colombia and the United States on the structural causes and the consequences of the Pentecostal religious movement in the Cauca Valley (renewal) Jan L. Flora, Ph.D. candidate in sociology, Cornell University, for completion of research and p,reparation of a dissertation in Colombia and the Umted States on regional and subregional development in Colombia (renewal) Mary Ellen Healy, Ph.D. candidate in economic development, University of Utah, for course work in economics and Latin American studies, and research in the United States, Chile, and Argentina on effects of domestic indirect taxes on bilateral trade between Chile and Argentina in selected commodities James H. Lauer, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Wisconsin, for research in Brazil on the role of intellectuals in the rise of Brazilian nationalism between the World Wars John H. Magill, Jr., Ph.D. candidate in political science, . University of Wisconsin, for preparation of a dissertation on labor unions as a Bolivian institution (renewal) Robert E. Mc Caa, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of California, Los Angeles, for course work in demography and research in the United States and Chile on the settlement of Chile's southern frontier in the late nineteenth century Richard L. Meyer, Ph.D. candidate in agricultural economics, Cornell University, for preparation of a dissertation on the role of beneficiary payments in land reform (renewal) Christopher Mitchell, Ph.D. candidate in government, Harvard University, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation on political parties in Bolivia, 1952-64 (renewal) Bernard Q. Nietschmann, Ph.D. candidate in geography, University of Wisconsin, for preparation of a dissertation on the cultural ecology of subsistence diets on the east Coast of Nicaragua (renewal) Liisa L. North, Ph.D. candidate in political science, University of California, Berkeley, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in Peru and the United States on the Peruvian Aprista Party (renewal) John C. Pollock, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Stanford University, for preparation for examinations, and research in the United States and Colombia on the impact of bureaucratic roles on the growth of urban housing in Colombia (renewal) Donald Ramos, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Florida, for research in Brazil on the social structure and economic and political systems of Ouro Preto,

1700-1760 Scott S. Robinson, Ph.D. candidate in social anthropology,

42

Cornell University, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in Ecuador and the United States on constraints on social and agricultural development and the human ecology of the eastern lowlands (renewal) Peter J. Schoenbach, Ph.D. candidate in romance languages, Rutgers University, for research in Brazil on its society as reflected in the theater Richard N. Sinkin, Ph.D. candidate in Latin American history, University of Michigan, for preparation of a dissertation on the development of nationalism in Mexico, 1855-76 (renewal) Robert W. Slenes, Ph.D. candidate in history, Stanford University, for research in Brazil on the planter and the social and political transformation of Sao Paulo,

1860-1906 David G. Sweet, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Wisconsin, for research in Portugal, Spain, Italy, and Brazil on the social history of the Indians of the upper Amazon Valley in the seventeenth to midnineteenth centuries Alexander W. Wilde, Ph.D. candidate in government, Columbia University, for preparation of a dissertation on the role of the Church in the political system of Colombia (renewal) Jerry R. Williams, Ph.D. candidate in geography, University of Florida, for preparation of a dissertation on the functional relationship of Manaus to the Amazon basin (renewal) John H. Williams, Ph.D. candidate in Latin American . history, University of Florida, for preparation of a dissertation on the regime of Jose Gaspar Rodriguez de Francia (renewal)

Soviet Union and Eastern European Studies Program Andrew Arato, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Chicago, for German language training and research in Germany on Eastern European revisionist Marxism in the works of Georg Lukacs Raymond W. Baker, Ph.D. candidate in government, Harvard University, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation on Soviet influence in the Middle East (renewal) George W. Breslauer, Ph.D. candidate in political science, University of Michigan, for participation in the InterUniversity Consortium for Political Research and preliminary research on decision making and implementation in the Soviet Union Lenard J. Cohen, Ph.D. candidate in government, Columbia University, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in Yugoslavia and the United States on the politics of national integration (renewal) Herbert J. Eagle, Ph.D. candidate in Russian literature, University of Michigan, for course work in Russian literature, Czechoslovak language and literature, and Russian and East European history, political science, and economics Philip T. Grier, Ph.D. candidate in philosophy, University of Michigan, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation on Soviet ethics William W. Hagen, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Chicago, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in Poland and the United States on VOLUME

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the rise of the Polish National Democratic Party, 18901914 (renewal) Michael H. Haltzel, Ph.D. candidate in history, Harvard University, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in Finland, West Germany, and the United States on the Baltic Germans in the Russian Empire, 1881-1914 (renewal) David J. Herman, Ph.D. candidate in public law, Harvard University, for Russian language training and course work in Soviet studies Edward A. Hewett, Ph.D. candidate in economics, University of Michigan, for course work for Certificate in Russian and East European Studies, and research on foreign trade prices charged by the Soviet Union to the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance, 1948-66 Donald R. Kelley, Ph.D. candidate in government, Indiana University, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation on the Union Republic press (renewal) Ann M. Kleimola, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Michigan, for course work in Slavic linguistics and sociology or geography, and research on medieval Russian legal history John R. Lampe, Ph.D. candidate in economics, University of Wisconsin, for research in Yugoslavia on the role of the banking system in Serbian industrialization, 1884-1914 John S. McConnell, Ph.D. candidate in economics, University of Michigan, for research on the role of financial instruments in national economic planning in the Soviet Union (renewal) Thomas A. Meininger, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Wisconsin, for Bulgarian language training and preliminary research and consultation Max J. Okenfuss, Ph.D. candidate in history, Harvard University, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation on Russian education in the eighteenth century (renewal) Norman G. O. Pereira, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of California, Berkeley, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation on N. G. Ghernyshevsky and the Great Emancipation in Russia (renewal) L. Hamilton Rhinelander, Ph.D. candidate in history, Columbia University, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in the Soviet Union and the United States on the incorporation of Georgia into the Russian Empire (renewal) Laurence R. Richter, Ph.D. candidate in Slavic languages, Indian,a University, for course work in Slavic languages and linguistics, and Eastern European history Thomas L. Sakmyster, Ph.D. candidate in history, Indiana University, for completion of research in Hungary, Austria, Germany, and England on Hungary and the European crisis, 1938-39 (renewal) Alexandra D. Shecket, Ph.D. candidate in history, Columbia University, for research in London, Helsinki, the Soviet Union, and France on the State Council of the Russian Empire, 1905-17 Martin C. Spechler, Ph.D. candidate in economics, Harvard University, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation on maintenance and improvement of the quality of goods in Soviet planning SEPTEMBER

1969

Charles B. Strozier, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Chicago, for Polish language training and research in Poland on Edward Dembowski and the revolutionary movement of the 1840's Ronald F. Walter, Ph.D. candidate in Slavic languages and literatures, Indiana University, for research on Veniamin Kaverin (renewal) Edward D. Wynot, Ph.D. candidate in history, Indiana University, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in Poland, Canada, and the United States on the Camp of National Unity in Polish politics (renewal)

Western European Studies Program Susan A. Ashley, Ph.D. candidate in history, Columbia University, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in Italy, France, and the United States on ministerial responsibility in the Italian and French constitutional monarchies (renewal) Michael G. Baylor, Ph.D. candidate in history, Stanford University, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in Germany and the United States on the ideas of conscience in the Reformation (renewal) Lutz K. Berkner, Ph.D. candidate in history, Harvard University, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in France and the United States on social and economic effects of the domestic cotton industry on the agricultural population of Lower Austria and Normandy (renewal) Dietrich K. Fausten, Ph.D. candidate in economics, University of Utah, for guided reading and research in London, Switzerland, and Brussels on the influence of political systems on England's devaluation of the pound Thomas R. Forstenzer, Ph.D. candidate in history, Stanford University, for Italian language training, completion of research, and preparation of a dissertation In Italy and the United States on prefects and other local functionaries in France and Italy (renewal) Judith Silver Frandzel, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Michigan, for French and Italian language training, and research in France and Italy on the shifting attitudes of their peasants, 1850-1900 David S. Gross, Ph.D. candidate in comparative literature, University of Iowa, for research in France on the influence of historical events on the novels of Flaubert and Zola Barbara M. Hallman, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of California, Los Angeles, for research in Italy on progressive and conservative reform prelates in sixteenth-century Italy H. Hugh Heclo, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Yale University, for completion of research in England on political forces in the development of social security programs in Great Britain and Sweden (renewal) Stephen M. Hellman, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Yale University, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in Italy and the United States on attitudes and behavior of bureaucratic elites in the Communist Party of northern Italy (renewal) William M. Lafferty, Ph.D. candidate in political science, University of Florida, for Norwegian language training, completion of research, and preparation of a dissertation in Norway and the United States on industrializa43


tion and -political radicalism in the Scandinavian countries (renewal) Peter M. Lange, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, for Italian language training and research in the United States and Italy on internal operations of its Communist and Socialist Parties David S. Lindenfeld, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Chicago, for research in Austria, Germany, and Belgium on thought psychology, 1894-1915 Hans-Eberhard Mueller, Ph.D. candidate in sociology, University of California, Berkeley, for a comparative study in Germany and England of the development of systems of higher education in those countries and in Russia Alan R. Posner, Ph.D. candidate in government, Columbia University, for research in the United States and Western Europe on Italy and the Atlantic Alliance Jack Reece, Ph.D. candidate in history, Stanford University, for preparation of a dissertation on the Breton Nationalist Movement in the twentieth century (renewal) A. Joshua Sherman, D. Phil. candidate in history, University of Oxford, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in England on British government policies toward refugees from the Third Reich, 1933-39 (renewal) Sandra S. Smith, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of North Carolina, for research in France on the nobles of the French National Convention Ezra N. Suleiman, Ph.D. candidate in government, Columbia University, for research in France on directors of the Central Administration under the Fourth and Fifth Republics Timothy A. Tilton, Ph.D. candidate in government, Harvard University, for intensive German language training and research in West Germany on North German peasant politics Dietmar U. Wagner, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Michigan, for research in Germany on student movements in the Revolution of 1848 Mark A. Wasserman, Ph.D. candidate in economics, University of Illinois, for completion of research in England and France on British and French national planning in the 1960's (renewal) Robert F. Willis, Ph.D. candidate in musicology, Columbia University, for preparation of a dissertation on Bellini in the musical life of nineteenth-century Western Europe (renewal) Howard J. Zehr, Ph.D. candidate in history, Rutgers University, for German and French language training and research in Germany and France on their criminal records

Special Awards for Latin America and the Caribbean North A merican Grantees Allan M. Arbeter, Pediatric Resident, Tufts New England Medical Center, for an internship in the Department of Nutrition, University of Antioquia, Faculty of Medicine, Medellin, Colombia, and visiting residency at the Hospital in Haliconia, and participation in its research project on malnutrition in children 44

David A. Brading, Assistant Professor of History, University of California, Berkeley, for research on the development of the Mexican hacienda in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, in affiliation with the College of Mexico as a visiting scholar and participant in the research seminar, Center for Historical Studies Marshall S. Chrostowski, Ph.D. candidate in geography, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, for research on pasturage in the lowlands of east-central Peru, in affiliation with the Tarapoto Experiment Station, Ministry of Agriculture, and teaching field methods in pasture research Stephen Conn, Attorney, Navajo Legal Services, Crownpoint, New Mexico, for research on the internal legal systems of Brazilian marginal communities, in affiliation with the Department of Sociology and Anthropology, University of Brasilia, and participation in seminars on the common law of the favelas David V. Fleischer, Ph.D. candidate in political science, University of Florida, for research on political recruitment in Minas Gerais, in affiliation with the Department of Political Science, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, and participation in development of the department's data bank Loretta L. Good, Ph.D. candidate in economics, Cornell University, for course work in area studies and research on the characteristics of viable small joint manufacturing ventures of Mexican and United States private entrepreneurs (affiliation and further activities to be determined) Barry N. Heyman, Ph.D. candidate in comparative education, University of Wisconsin, for research on the role of primary school teachers in community leadership, in affiliation with the Center for Social, Economic, Political, and Anthropological Research, Lima, and participation in organization of a seminar on education Barclay M. Hudson, Ph.D. candidate in education, Harvard University, for research on the development of planning models for educational administration at the municipal level, in affiliation with the Interdisciplinary Committee on Urban Development, Santiago, and teaching field research techniques and educational planning Peter N. Landerman, Ph.D. candidate in linguistics, University of California, Los Angeles, for research on Quechua and Aymara dialects, in affiliation with the Summer Institutes of Linguistics, Peru and Bolivia, and assisting in a bilingual education program of the Institutes and the Ministries of Education Anne L. Maino, Ph.D. in plant pathology, University of California, Berkeley, for Spanish language training and research on the incidence of disease, including diagnosis and laboratory culture of organisms, in affiliation with the National University of the South, Bahia Blanca, and University of Neuquen, Argentina, and teaching plant pathology and field research techniques William F. Martin, Ph.D. in zoology, University of Texas, for research on the evolution of communication in two closely related amphibian families, and the acoustics of pre-Colombian whistles, in affiliation with the Department of Zoology, University of Antioquia, Medellin, Colombia, and teaching laboratory techniques and supervising students' research Marcella Mazzarelli, Ph.D. candidate in cultural anthropology, University of Illinois, for Spanish language VOLUME

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training and research on racial attitudes in three communities in British Honduras, in affiliation with St. John's College, Belize, and teaching anthropology and field research methods Theodore H. Moran, Ph.D. candidate in government, Harvard University, for research on the political problems of United States investment in copper in Chile, in affiliation with the Institute of Political Science and Public Administration, University of Chile, and participation in a research seminar on contemporary Chile Robert G. Myers, Assistant Professor of Education, University of Chicago, for research on the relationship of graduates of higher education institutions to the Peruvian economic system, in affiliation with the Center for Social, Economic, Political, and Anthropological Research, Lima, and organizing a seminar on education Wayne M. Porter, Ph.D. candidate in plant breeding and genetics, Purdue University, for research on breeding edible legumes with regard to nutrition, in affiliation with the Colombian Agricultural and Livestock Institute, Bogota, and assisting in the development of a graduate school of agriculture Stephen J. Stein, Ph.D. candidate in Latin American history, Stanford University, for research on the political behavior of Lima-Callao voting groups in the 1931 presidential election, in affiliation with the Institute of Peruvian Studies, Lima, and participation in a seminar on social science research in Peru S. Jeffrey K. Wilkerson, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Tulane University, for research on the cultural history of the Totonic and Huastec Indians as shown in the archaeological record, in affiliation with the Institute of Anthropology, University of Vera Cruz, and teaching archaeological field methods

British Grantees Kenneth S. Brecher, D.Phil. candidate in anthropology, University of Oxford, for research on the Waura Indians of the Upper Xingu River region in Mato Grosso, in affiliation with the National Museum of Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, and participation in seminars on social anthropology, and assembling exhibits for ethnographic collectIOns Michael Elmer, D.Phil. candidate in politics, University of Liverpool, for research on contemporary Bolivian political parties, in affiliation with the Bolivian Institute for Studies and Social Action, and organization of a seminar on contemporary Bolivian politics Donald A. Hay, Assistant Research Officer in Economics, Institute of Economics and Statistics, University of Oxford, for Portuguese language training and research on industrialization and regional economic growth in Brazil, in affiliation with the Getulio Vargas Foundation, and participation in seminars on economic development Colin V. Henfry, D.Phil. candidate in anthropology, University of Oxford, for research on socioeconomic behavior of urban lower-income groups in Brazil, in affiliation with the Federal University of Bahia, and participation in seminars on anthropology and in field training of students Jaime Reis, D. Phil. candidate in modern history, University of Oxford, for research on the emancipation of slaves in Brazil and the aftermath of abolition, in SEPTEMBER

1969

affiliation with the Federal University of Pernambuco, Recife, and participation in seminars on social science research methodology Michael Taussig, Junior Research Fellow in Sociology. Institute of Latin American Studies, University of London. for research on the political, economic. and social organization of the Colombian peasantry, in affiliation with the Department of Political Science, University of the Andes, Bogota, and participation in social science research seminars

GRANTS FOR SLAVIC AND EAST EUROPEAN STUDIES Under the program sponsored by the Joint Committee on Slavic and East European Studies, its Subcommittee on Grants for Russian and Soviet Studies-Edward J. Brown (chairman), Clayton L. Dawson, Warren W. Eason, Stephen D. Kertesz, and Hans J. Rogger-and Subcommittee on East Central and Southeast European Studies-Irwin T. Sanders (chairman), William E. Harkins, George W. Hoffman, Paul L. Horecky, Andrzej Korbonski, J. M. Montias, Michael B. Petrovich, and Alexander M. Schenker-have awarded 29 grants for research: Paul B. Alexander, Assistant Professor of Geography, University of Montana, for research on land use changes induced by internal migration in rural Slovenia Henrik Birnbaum, Professor of Slavic Languages, University of California, Los Angeles, for studies in comparative Slavic literature (medieval and renaissance) Marianna D. Birnbaum, Lecturer, Department of Classics, University of California, Los Angeles, for research on Janus Pannonius: the impact of the Italian renaissance on Hungarian literature Malcolm Brown, Associate Professor of Music, Indiana University, for research on the life and music of Sergei Prokofiev R. V. Burks, Professor of History, Wayne State University, for research on projection of the institutional evolution of Communist Eastern Europe to 1975 Ethel Dunn, Center for Slavic Studies, University of California, Berkeley, for research on a history of religious sectarianism in Russia since 1861 Robert S. Feldman, Associate Professor of History, California State College at Fullerton, for research on the Russian General Staff and the Revolution, 1917 Mieczyslaw Giergielewicz, Professor of Slavic Literatures, University of Pennsylvania, for research on the poetry of J uliusz Slowacki Richard F. Gustafson, Associate Professor of Russian, Barnard College, for research on Leo Tolstoy after Anna Karenina Keith Hitchins, Associate Professor of History, University of Illinois, for research on the Romanian national movement in Transylvania, 1867-1918 John H. Hodgson, III, Associate Professor of Political Science, Syracuse University, for research on a political biography of Otto V. Kuusinen Barbara Jelavich, Professor of History, Indiana University, for research on Russian foreign policy, 1878-94 45


Charles Jelavich, Professor of History, Indiana University, for research on Tsarist Russia and Balkan nationalism, 1887-97, and on issues in Yugoslav nationalism in the nineteenth century David ]oravsky, Professor of History, Northwestern University, for research on mechanical man in nineteenthcentury Russian thought John S. Kolsti, Assistant Professor of Slavic Languages, University of Texas, for research on Albanian heroic epic poetry Leszek A. Kosinski, Associate Professor of Geography, Queen's University, for research on population problems in East Central Europe after World War II Herbert S. Levine, Associate Professor of Economics, University of Pennsylvania, for research on the role of planning in the operation of the Soviet economy Svetozar Pejovich, Associate Professor of Economics, Texas A&M University, for research on the firm, monetary policy, and property rights in a decentralized socialist state Walter M. Pintner, Associate Professor of History, Cornell University, for a social analysis of the Russian civil service from the late eighteenth through the midnineteenth century Judah M. Rosenthal, Professor of Biblical Studies, College of ] ewish Studies, for research on the theology of the Polish radical sectarians and its relation to the Old Testament and postbiblical Judaism Richard L. Rudolph, Assistant Professor of European Economic History, University of Minnesota, for research on the state and industrialization in the Bohemian crownlands, 1848-1914 Anthony Salys, Professor of Slavic and Baltic Languages, University of Pennsylvania, for preparation of a historical dictionary of the Lithuanian language with emphasis on neologisms of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries Richard Sheldon, Assistant Professor of Russian Language and Literature, Dartmouth College, for research on the life and work of the Russian critic Viktor B. Shklovsky Edward Taborsky, Professor of Government, University of Texas, for research on President Edward Benes, between the East and the West Henry Teune, Associate Professor of Political Science, University of Pennsylvania, for an empirical study of the processes of social change and integration in Yugoslav communes Paul I. Trensky, Associate Professor of Russian, Fordham University, for research on Czech and Slovak literature, 1948-68 Alexander Vucinich, Professor of Sociology, University of Illinois, for research on science in Russian culture, 1917-67 David J. Welsh, Associate Professor of Slavic Languages and Literatures, University of Michigan, for research on Communist control of contemporary Polish fiction Allan K. Wildman, Associate Professor of History, State University of New York at Stony Brook, for research on the Revolution of 1917 and the Russian Army

46

GRANTS FOR STUDY OF EAST EUROPEAN LANGUAGES The Subcommittee on East Central and Southeast European Studies, of the Joint Committee on Slavic and East European Studies, has made 21 grants for study of the following languages: Bulgarian

Thomas J. Butler, Assistant Professor of Slavic Languages, University of Wisconsin Czech

Zvi Gitelman, Assistant Professor of Political Science, University of Michigan Alan H. Timberlake, graduate student, linguistics, Harvard University Modern Greek

Amy L. Sheldon, graduate student, linguistics, University of Texas Polish

Deborah A. Garretson, graduate student, Slavic languages and literatures, New York University Donald T. Lineburgh, graduate student, Russian and East European Area Studies Program, Yale University Alex Orenstein, graduate student, philosophy, New York University John]. Valentino, graduate student, Slavic languages and literatures, University of Chicago Romanian

Larry L. Brock, graduate student, history, Indiana University Kostas Kazazis, Assistant Professor of Balkan Linguistics, University of Chicago Peter B. Maggs, Associate Professor of Law, University of Illinois George A. Maloney, Associate Professor of Theology, Fordham University Serbo-Croatian

Stephen Clorfeine, graduate student, Institute on East Central Europe, Columbia University Allen Z. Hertz, graduate student, Institute on East Central Europe, Columbia University Grace M. Hucko, graduate student, Slavic languages and literatures, Yale University Andrew C. LeCompte, graduate student, geography, University of Texas Harriet Z. Pass, graduate student, history, Columbia University David W. Paul, graduate student, politics, Princeton University Sharon Z. Rousmaniere, graduate student, government, Columbia University Stephen R. Sacks, graduate student, economics, University of California, Berkeley Susan L. Woodward, graduate student, politics, Princeton University VOLUlIIE

23.

NUMBER

3


PUBLICATIONS Metropolitan Area Definition: A Re-evaluation of Concept and Statistical Practice, U.S. Bureau of the Census Working Paper No. 28, by Brian J. L. Berry with Peter G. Goheen and Harold Goldstein. Report on a study made for the former Committee on Areas for Social and Economic Statistics. Washington, D.C.: Bureau of the Census, June 1968. 51 pages. 50 cents. The Nature of Fascism: Proceedings of a Conference Held by the Reading University Graduate School of Contemporary European Studies, edited by S. J. Woolf. Product of a conference held with the aid of the Committee on Comparative Politics, April 3-4, 1967. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, November 1968. 268 pages. People of Rural America, by Dale E. Hathaway, J. Allan Beegle, and W. Keith Bryant. Sponsored by the former Committee on Population Census Monographs in cooperation with the Bureau of the Census. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, January 1969. 298 pages. $3.50. Political and Administrative Development, edited by Ralph Braibanti. Product of a conference sponsored by the Duke University Commonwealth-Studies Center with the assistance of the Committee on Comparative Politics, July 16-22, 1967. Durham: Duke University Press, May 1969. 718 pages. $15.00. Political Research and Political Theory, edited by Oliver Garceau. Prepared with the assistance of the Council. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, September 1968. 266 pages. $7.95. Political Science and Public Policy, edited by Austin Ranney. Product of conferences sponsored by the Committee on Governmental and Legal Processes, June 15-17, 1966 and August 28-29, 1967. Chicago: Markham Publishing Company, September 1968. 300 pages. $5.95. Early Education: Current Theory, Research, and Action, edited by Robert D. Hess and Roberta M. Bear. Pa{lers Public Policy, Vol. 17, edited by John D. Montgomery and prepared for the Conference on Preschool EducatIon, Albert O. Hirschman. Includes 5 papers prepared for sponsored by the Committee on Learning and the Educathe Conference on Military Occupations and Political tional Process, February 7-9, 1966. Chicago: Aldine PubChange, held by the Committee on Comparative Politics, lishing Company, March 1968. 282 pages. $6.95. April 20-22, 1967: "The Legacies of the Occupation of Germany," by Carl J. Friedrich; "The Potential for Economic Trends in Communist China, edited by AlexanDemocratization in Occupied Germany: A Problem in der Eckstein, Walter Galenson, and Ta-Chung Liu. ProdHistorical Projection," by Leonard Krieger; "Allied uct of a conference sponsored by the Committee on the Strategies of Effecting Political Change and Their ReEconomy of China, October 21-23, 1965. Chicago: Aldine ception in Occupied Germany," by Peter H. Merkl; Publishing Company, September 1968. 757 pages. $17.50. "Soviet Occupation in Romania, Bulgaria, and Hungary," Genetics, edited by David C. Glass. Papers prepared for the by Hugh Seton-Watson; "The Potential for Democraticonference cosponsored by Rockefeller University, Russell zation in Prewar Japan," by Robert E. Ward. Cambridge: Sage Foundation, and the Committee on Biological Bases Harvard University Press, September 1968. 474 pages. of Social Behavior, November 18-19, 1966. New York: $7.00. Rockefeller University Press and Russell Sage FoundaResearch and Resources of Haiti, edited by Richard P. tion, May 1968. 270 pages. $7.50. Schaedel. Papers of 路t he conference held by the Research Industrial Development in Pre-Communist China, by John Institute for the Study of Man with the assistance of the K. Chang. Sponsored by the Committee on the Economy Joint Committee on Latin American Studies, November '1-4, 1967. New York: Research Institute for the Study of China. Chicago: Aldine Publishing Company, August 1969. 176 pages. $6.00. of Man, July 1969. 624 pages. $5.00. Language Problems of Developing Nations, edited by Joshua Socialization and Society, edited by John A. Clausen, with contributions also by Orville G. Brim, Jr., Alex Inkeles, A. Fishman, Charles A. Ferguson, and Jyotirindra Das Ronald Lippitt, Eleanor E. Macc6by, and M. Brewster Gupta. Papers prepared for the conference sponsored Smith. Report of the former Committee on Socialization by the Committee on Sociolinguistics, November 1-3, and Social Structure. Boston: Little, Brown and Com1966. New York: John Wiley & Sons, September 1968. pany, June 1968. 416 pages. $5.50. 536 pages. $12.95.

Agricultural Development in China, 1368-1968, by Dwight H. Perkins. Sponsored by the Committee on the Economy of China. Chicago: Aldine Publishing Company, August 1969. 416 pages. $12.50. The Central Middle East: A Handbook of Anthropology, edited by Louise E. Sweet. Product of a project initiated by the Joint Committee on the Near and Middle East. New Haven: Human Relations Area Files, September 1968. HRAFlex Book MI-OOl. 2 vols. 420 pages. $13.50. China in Revolution: The First Phase, 1900-1913, edited by Mary Clabaugh Wright. Product of the Conference on the Chinese Revolution of 1911, sponsored by the Joint Committee on Contemporary China, August 22-27, 1965. New Haven: Yale University Press, November 1968. 518 pages. $15.00. Chinese Communist Politics in Action, edited by A. Doak Barnett. Papers prepared for the Conference on Microsocietal Study of the Chinese Political System, sponsored by the Subcommittee on Chinese Government and Politics, Joint Committee on Contemporary China, August 29 - September I, 1967. Seattle: University of Washington Press, April 1969. 648 pages. Cloth, $12.50; paper $3.95. The Chinese Economy under Communism, by Nai-Ruenn Chen and Walter Galenson. Sponsored by the Committee on the Economy of China. Chicago: Aldine Publishing Company, August 1969. 256 pages. $7.95. Conduct and Conscience: The Socialization of Internalized Control over Behavior, by Justin Aronfreed. Expansion of a paper prepared for the conference on moral development, held by the former Committee on Socialization and Social Structure, October 31- November 3, 1963. New York: Academic Press, October 1968. 414 pages. $12.50.

SEPTEMBER

1969

47


COUNCIL FELLOWSHIPS AND GRANTS OFFERED IN 1969-70: DATES FOR FILING APPLICATIONS AND ANNOUNCEMENTS OF AWARDS Applications for fellowships and grants offered by the Council during the coming year will be due, and awards will be announced, on or before the respective dates listed below. Because full consideration cannot be assured for late applications, and because preliminary correspondence is frequently necessary to determine under which program a given proposal should be submitted, prospective applicants should communicate with the Council if possible at least three weeks in advance of the pertinent closing date. Inquiries should indicate the nature of the proposed training or research; the approximate amount and duration of support needed; one's age, occupation or current activity and vocational aim, country of citizenship and country of permanent residence; academic degrees held (specifying the fields of study); and if currently working for a degree, one's present stage of advancement toward it. A brochure describing the several programs is available on request addressed to Social Science Research Council Fellowships and Grants, 230 Park Avenue, New York, N. Y. 10017. Research Training Fellowships, applications, January 2, 1970; awards, March 15, 1970 Faculty Research Grants, applications, January 2, 1970; awards, April 1, 1970 Grants for Research on American Governmental and Legal Processes, applications, December I, 1969; awards, February 15, 1970 • Grants for African Studies, applications, December 15, 1969; awards, February 1970

• Grants for Research on Contemporary and Republican China, applications, December 15, 1969; awards, February 1970 • Grants for East Asian Studies, applications to be submitted to American Council of Learned Societies, 345 East 46 Street, New York, N.Y. 10017, December 1, 1969; awards, within 3 months • Grants for Latin American Studies, applications, December 15, 1969; awards, February 1970 • Grants for Near and Middle Eastern Studies, applications, December 15, 1969; awards, February 1970 • Grants for Slavic and East European Studies, applications to be submitted to American Council of Learned Societies, 345 East 46 Street, New York, N.Y. 10017, December 31, 1969; awards, within 3 months • Travel grants for international conferences on Slavic and East European studies, applications to be submitted to American Council of Learned Societies, 345 East 46 Street, New York, N.Y. 10017, January 15, 1970 • Grants for Study of East European Languages, applications to be submitted to American Council of Learned Societies, 345 East 46 Street, New York, N.Y. 10017, February 1, 1970; awards, within 2 months • Foreign Area Fellowships, applications to be submitted to Foreign Area Fellowship Program, 110 East 59 Street, New York, N.Y. 10022, for: Africa and the Near or Middle East, December 1, 1969 South, Southeast, and East Asia, November 7, 1969 Latin America and the Caribbean, November 1, 1969 Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, December 10, 1969 Western Europe, December 10, 1969 • Offered under a joint program of the American Council of Learned Societies and the Social Science Research Council.

SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH COUNCIL 250

PARK

AVENUE,

Incorporated in the State of Illinois, December 27, Directors,

1924,

NEW

YORK,

N.Y.

10017

for the purpose of advancing research in the social sciences

1969: WILLIAM O. AYDELOTTE, ABRAM BERGSON, PETER M. BLAU, DORWIN CARTWRIGHT, JAMES S. COLEMAN, ELIZABETH COLSON, HAROLD

C. CONKliN, LEE J. CRONBACH, PHILIP D. CURTIN, DANIEL

X.

FREEDMAN, ZVI GRIUCHES, MORRIS H. HANSEN, CHAUNCY D. HARRIS, SAMUEL P. HAYS,

MATTHEW HOLDEN, JR., DELL HYMES, GARDNER LINDZEY, GEOFFREY H. MOORE, JAMES N. MORGAN, FREDERICK MOSTELLER, DON K. PRICE, AumN RANNEY, ALBERT

REEs,

HENRY W. RIECItEN, HERBERT A. SIMON, NEIL J. SMELSER, ALLAN H. SMITH, JOHN THIBAUT, DAVID B. TRUMAN, ROBERT E.

WARD

Officers and Staff:

HENRY W. RIECItEN,

President;

RONNAN,

48

Financial Secretary

Vice-President; ELBRIDGE SIBLEY, BRYCE Staff Associates; STANLEY LEHMANN, MIRIAM

PAUL WEBBINK,

C. ISBELL, ROWLAND L. MITCHELL, JR., NORMAN W. STORER,

WOOD,

Executive Associates; ELEANOil Consultants; CATHERINE V.

ZELLNER,

Items Vol. 23 No. 3 (1969)  
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