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PIDGINIZATION AND CREOLIZATION OF LANGUAGES: THEIR SOCIAL CONTEXTS by Dell Hymes· LANGUAGES called "pidgins" and "creoles" have been something of a stepchild in scientific research, but their origins and social functions pose in particularly clear form problems of the sort with which the Council's Committee on Sociolinguistics is concerned. In analyzing historical change and in describing present structure in language, linguists often find it possible to take social factors for granted. Work proceeds as if something that might be called "normal transmission" of speech from one generation to the next could be assumed, or as if the sample of speech provided by one's informants could be safely assumed to represent a norm identical throughout the community. Whether these assumptions are justified is open to question; what is clear is that even the ordinary work of the linguist cannot proceed without questioning them in the case of "pidgins" and "creoles." These languages demonstrate dramatically the interdependence of linguistics and social science, and open up new possibilities for the integration of their methods and theories. During the past decade there has been a notable growth of interest and information concerning such languages, whose implications have not yet been widely recognized. For these reasons an international conference was organized to encourage research on situations of pidginization and creolization, and call attention to its importance. The conference was cosponsored by the • The author is Professor of Anthropology, University of Pennsylvania. As a member of the Council's Committee on Sociolinguistics, he was responsible, in collaboration with Gertrud Buscher, Lecturer in French at the University of the West Indies, for organizing the conference on which he reports here. The conference was made possible by a grant to the Council from the National Science Foundation, and funds allocated by the University of the West Indies.

committee and the University of the West Indies, which has been the principal site of the development of creole studies in the past decade, and was held at the campus of the University in Mona, Jamaica, on April 9-12, 1968. By meeting in Jamaica the conference was able to benefit from the participation of a number of Caribbean scholars for whom creolized languages are of personal and practical, as well as theoretical, importance. The depth and realism of some of the discussion reflected their presence. Most of the participants in the conference were linguists, but many of them had some social science training and about one of four was affiliated with a social science department. 1 The papers prepared for the coni In addition to Charles A. Ferguson, Allen D. Grimshaw, Dell Hymes, William D. Labov, and Elbridge Sibley of the Committee on Sociolinguistics, the 85 participants included 4 members of the University of the West Indies staff-Mervyn Alleyne, Gertrud Buscher, Dennis R. Craig, John Figueroa; and the following: Beryl Bailey, Yeshiva University; Jack Berry, Morris Goodman, Northwestern University; Frederic G. Cassidy, University of Wisconsin, Madison; David DeCamp, Edgar G. Polom~, University of Texas; Joseph Dillard, Uni· versit~ Oflicielle de Bujumbura; Christian Eersel, Taalbureau, Surinam; Charles O. Frake, Stanford University; Henry M. Hoenigswald, Uni· versity of Pennsylvania; Terence Kaufman, University of California, Berkeley; David Lawton, Inter-American University, Puerto Rico; Robert B. Le Page, University of York; Sidney W. Mintz, Yale University; John Reinecke, Honolulu; Karl Reisman, Brandeis University; Irvine Richardson, Michigan State University; William J. Samarin, Hartford Seminary Foundation; Franklin Southworth, Columbia University; William A. Stewart, Center for Applied Linguistics; Douglas Taylor, Paramaribo, Surinam; Stanley M. Tsuzaki, University of Hawaii; Albert Valdman, Indiana University; Jan Voorhoeve, University of Leiden; Keith Whinnom, University of Exeter. The conference was also attended by Richard Allsopp, Lawrence Carrington, Jean D'Costa, Kemlin Laurence, Joan McLaughlin, Donald Wilson, University of the West Indies; D. Bickerton, A. C. Nunn, University of Guyana; Elizabeth Carr, University of Hawaii; and Martin Joos, Uni-


ference were grouped for discussion according to several main topics of concern: general conceptions of the nature of pidginization and creolization; analysis of specific characteristics and processes; reconstruction of the origins and history of such languages; recognition of the past occurrence of creolization in the history of a language; analysis of contemporary pidginization and creolization; and studies of the social role of pidgin and creole languages in contemporary communities. Two social scientists and two linguists were given the special task of reviewing the conference at its last session: Sidney Mintz (an anthropologist specializing in Caribbean cultures) from the standpoint of social history; Henry Hoenigswald from the standpoint of a specialist in comparative and historical linguistics; Allen Grimshaw as a member of the Council's Committee on Comparative Sociological Research; and William Labov from the standpoint of an innovator in sociolinguistic analysis. "PIDGIN" AND "CREOLE": BACKGROUND The conference sought to focus attention on processes, and to avoid popular connotations of the terms "pidgin" and "creole." The terms have clear and standard scientific meanings. A pidgin is defined as a stable form of speech that is not learned as a first language (mother tongue) by any of its users, but as an auxiliary language by all; whose functions are sharply restricted (e.g., to trade, supervision of work, administration, communication with visitors), and whose vocabulary and overt structure are sharply reduced, in comparison with those of the languages from which they are derived. A creole is defined as an ordinary language that is derived from a pidgin and that through one or another set of circumstances has become the first language of a community, has been adapted to the full range of functions of community life, and has become notably richer in lexicon and structure than the pidgin from which it arose. In most circumstances in which creoles are found they are considered socially inferior, even though sometimes thought superior in expressiveness. In ordinary usage the term pidgin suggests a mishmash, and certainly inferiority; only rarely, as among some peoples of New Guinea, is knowledge of a pidgin a badge of cosmopolitanism and male superiority. At best these languages are considered marginal; at worst, debased forms versity of Toronto, as observers. Jan Daeleman, S. I., Louvanium University, Congo; John Gumperz, University of California, Berkeley; and Ian Hancock, London, contributed material to the conference but were unable to attend. The author is especially indebted to David DeCamp, whose survey of the field of creole studies, circulated to the participants, contributed to the background of this report.


of speech without structure or value. Such attitudes have made them seem unworthy of study to most of their users and to those concerned with them officially, and have perhaps contributed to the relative absence of their study by others. The common etymology for pidgin reflects these views. It is thought to be an Asian corruption of English "business," although the changes in pronunciation are unparalleled and unlikely. In fact the word is a sixteenth-century English "corruption" of a South American Indian term (Pidian) applied to the people with whom one traded and hence to the language used in trade (d. Indian: Injun). The term and form of speech were carried over the world in the early years of European expansion and colonization. Indeed, one major theory is that almost all the world's pidgins and creoles have their origin in an Afro-Portuguese pidgin developed on the coasts of West Africa, itself perhaps adapted from a Portuguese version of the medieval Mediterranean pidgin, Sabir, and subsequently rapidly replenished in vocabulary ("relexified") from Spanish, English, Dutch, or French, as the case might be, in various parts of the Caribbean, the Pacific, and Asia. Though restricted in content and use, pidgins are real languages with structures of their own that their users must learn. Pidgin English is not just any distortion of English that comes to mind, but a specific code, indeed a series of specific codes, not mutually intelligible with standard English or necessarily with each other, as between the various sectors of Asia, the Pacific, and Africa in which they are found. There is a fair amount of literature in some pidgins, through translation and local composition. There are probably several million persons in the world who daily use some pidginized language. Languages characterized as creoles are spoken by more than six million persons in and around the Caribbean, by a variety of groups in West Africa (Sierra Leone, Camerouns, Ivory Coast, Guinea especially), and in Asia (India, Macao, the Philippines), as well as in South Africa and Indonesia, if the creole characteristics of Afrikaans and Bahasa Indonesia are taken into account. The major contemporary cases in the United States, recognized as such, are Gullah, once spoken widely in Georgia, South Carolina, and the Sea Islands, and Hawaiian pidgin and creole. The circumstances that give rise to such forms of speech continue to occur: in Central Africa a pidginized Sango is spreading, while the ordinary Sango from which it derives (with the aid of French) may be dying out, according to William Samarin; in Katanga a pidginized form of Swahili is reported by Edgar Polome to be undergoing creolization. The Pidgin English (NeoVOLUME




Melanesian) of New Guinea is spreading as an integrative force among speakers of New Guinea's many diverse languages, and may become the national language of the new country; an incipiently creolized Swahili has been adopted as the national language of administration and education in Tanzania. Creoles, of whose status as full languages there is no question, are major factors in literature and education in the Caribbean and increasingly in England, and some contend that the perspective of the student of creole languages sheds light on the nature of some forms of English in use among Negroes in the United States (a point ably argued by Joseph Dillard). In short, education, administration, and sometimes quest for national identity are bound up with such languages in several parts of the world. SIMPLIFICATION In recent years linguists have tended to avoid questions of differences in complexity and adequacy among languages. With pidgins the questions are inherent in the subject. Much of the discussion at the first session of the conference revolved around the notions of "simplification" or "reduction." Samarin treated pidginization as any "consistent reduction of the functions of language both in its grammar and its use." So regarded, pidginization is part of a wide range of phenomena, including what the British sociologist Basil Bernstein has called "restricted codes"; much of the interest in the subject lies in this relationship. From this point of view, one undertakes a general study of simplifications and reductions of speech in adaptation to others. The social context is patently crucial, since simplification attributable to lack of shared understanding must be distinguished from simplification which represents the economy of means possible to those whose shared understandings are great. Keith Whinnom emphasized, in contrast to Samarin, the rarity with which simplification and mixture of speech have led to establishment of a pidgin. He compared cocoliche, a highly unstable and variable variety of speech found among Italian immigrants in Argentina, with Chinese Pidgin English. Cocoliche survived only as renewed by fresh immigrants from Italy, its potential second-generation speakers being instead speakers of Spanish. Whinnom made clear that the circumstances under which a pidgin can emerge must be quite specialized and stressed the process not only of simplification, but also of stabilization of a discrete form of speech not mutually intelligible with the languages from which it derives. Whinnom suggested characteristics also stressed by William Stewart as essential to effective pidginization: JUNE


a multilingual situation; separation from the domain of use of languages of wider communication; marginality of the speakers among whom the pidgin arises, such that they are not corrected by, or integrated among, the users of established linguistic norms. Apparently there must also be sufficient difference among the languages involved, so that interference of one set of linguistic habits with imperfectly acquired others has a marked effect. (In an original comparison of biological and linguistic theory, Whinnom discussed primary and secondary hybridization in a revealing way, and specified the formation of pidgins as "tertiary" hybridization.) This discussion raised most of the major issues of the conference: the characteristics distinctive of these languages; what the characteristics imply about users of the languages; the linguistic and social prerequisites of the processes involved; theories as to the origin of known pidgins and creoles. Samarin reported on statistical studies of characteristics of pidgins and other forms of speech. Charles Ferguson noted that societies have varieties of speech that they themselves regard as simpler than others, and as suited for use with babies and foreigners. Their conventions must be studied as possibly shaping the outcome of pidginization. For example, absence of copula (forms of "to be" in English) is generally regarded, both by linguists and native speakers, as simpler than its presence. Ferguson proposed a series of relevant hypotheses. Their testing would help establish universal principles of simplicity as between forms of speech, and shed light on universals of language. It was observed that the reduction of overt structure in pidgins may be accompanied by greater use of other modes of communication (intonation, gesture, facial expression); that greater cognitive effort may be involved in communicating with the restricted lexical and grammatical means of a pidgin; that there may be compensating complexities (as in length of sentences); and that the essential reduction of machinery special to particular languages could be seen as laying bare a substratum common to all. John Reinecke, whose Yale dissertation thirty years ago was the first systematic American study of pidgin languages, described the Pidgin French spoken in Vietnam (Tay Boi), now vanishing with the withdrawal of the French. It is a classic case, with pronunciation essentially Vietnamese or French, according to the speaker, vocabulary from French, morphology simplified in the direction of Vietnamese, copula almost never used, and verbal means often eked out by gestures and intonation. Charles Frake analyzed the Zamboangueno dialect of Philippine Creole Spanish, whose history poses a number of problems for usual assumptions as to the nature 15

and direction of lexical influence of one language on another. Of particular interest was the semantic structure associated with words of Philippine origin. Spanish vs. Philippine origin of words is not correlated with differences in the provenience of objects denoted (foreign vs. indigenous), but with the "unmarked" vs. "marked" in the sense of Joseph Greenberg's general theory. Philippine-derived words are, in contrast with those of Spanish origin, markers of the smaller, nearer, younger, female, plural, or worse of a pair. Where forms are differentiated by style, the Spanish term marks formality (politeness toward addressee), and the Philippine is the unmarked conversational form. This indicated to the conference a quite unexpected and original possibility of linking the analysis of creolization to the study of language universals. COMMON ORIGIN A principal reason for the growth of attention to pidgins and creoles has been the hypothesis, developed only in the last decade, that most or all of them may have a common historical origin. The hypothesis is far from established, but it has already brought students of pidgin and creole languages together in a common field, where previously the study of one such language had been largely cut off from the study of others. Some support for the hypothesis has appeared in a study by Morris Goodman that points to a common origin for all French-based creoles. Ian Hancock is advancing a similar thesis for English-based creoles. The general thesis is that there was an early Portuguese-based pidgin, rapidly stabilized, and readily relexified. From this standpoint, Chinese Pidgin English, for example, would not have arisen from confrontation of English and Chinese, but through adaptation of a pre-existing pidgin by speakers of Chinese. Frederic Cassidy discussed the linking of a pidgin element in Jamaican vocabulary to such a source. Such analysis of origins entails greater complexity of argument than can be summarized here, but clearly it is inseparable from social history, from specification of the location and movement of peoples at specific times, and from comparative analysis of the types of social situation in which communication occurred. Mervyn Alleyne challenges the Portuguese hypothesis, so far as Caribbean creoles are concerned, on just such grounds. He rejects, as do other creolists, the picture, derived in part from Leonard Bloomfield, of Europeans in each separate situation speaking baby talk or the like to inferiors, who in good faith adopt such talk while introducing features of their own language; and he accepts a common general origin for Caribbean creoles on the west coast of Africa; but 16

he insists that the situation must be seen from the standpoint of Africans, learning one or another European language, and reinterpreting it in terms of patterns common to West African languages, leading to a syncretism in language like that well known in culture. Rather than a rapid crystallization of pidgins, Alleyne sees persistence of a continuum of variation from the most to the least standard (English, French), with the eventual outcome depending on the development of the total acculturation situation. Where the European linguistic model was withdrawn (as English was withdrawn from Surinam when Dutch was introduced), the creole end of the continuum is set off as a separate new language in a simple bilingual situation. Where the European model remains, as in Jamaica, the creole portion of the continuum moves steadily toward the standard, so that those who envisage an earlier dichotomy between the creole and standard language speak of the present situation as a postcreole continuum and predict the disappearance through absorption of the distinction. Crosscutting this issue of the social process is the question of linguistic classification. Some would classify Haitian Creole as a dialect of French, Jamaican Creole as a dialect of English, etc., depending upon the European language from which the bulk of the vocabulary and, apparently, of morphological detail derives. Perhaps such classification is in part an effort to confer prestige upon the languages. Others point to the common grammatical patterns of Caribbean creoles whose lexical stocks are from diverse European languages, as evidence for their descent from a common pidgin ancestor, variously relexified, and as an indication that they are truly "new" languages, not properly to be classified or interpreted in terms of the usual methods of historical and comparative linguistics. In support of this view is the fact that basic vocabulary (the common core of meanings for body parts, natural objects, and the like found in all languages) tends to change at about the same rate in all languages, except pidgins (New Guinea Pidgin English) where the rate of change is wildly accelerated. From either point of view the different rates of change in basic vocabulary of pidgins and creoles challenge prevailing theory and recent procedures. In a detailed study of Marathi and other Indo-Aryan languages of India, Franklin Southworth suggested that pidginization and creolization may have intervened in the history of indigenous Dravidian languages. John Gumperz provided evidence of almost total convergence in all but vocabulary forms between two contemporary Indian languages, one Dravidian (Kannada), one Indo-Aryan (a dialect of Marathi). Morris Goodman presented the problem of Mbugu, a language in Tanzania, whose grammatical structure pointed to Bantu VOLUME




origins, and whose basic vocabulary apparently did not. While inconclusive, these studies directed attention to the fact that if prior pidginization and creolization could have intervened widely in the past history of languages, many accepted classifications and subgroupings of languages would be of questionable validity. The great desideratum would be to establish linguistic, or social, criteria for the occurrence of the processes. Much more linguistic and social analysis is needed for this purpose. The results might considerably change usual approaches to linguistic prehistory and linguistic change.

which regularities and relationships must be built up. Comments on the papers raised many questions which descriptive linguistics has only begun to answer. Dennis Craig raised the question of the cognitive consequences of use of a creole language (a point that Whinnom had also discussed), and reported studies of the effects of teaching of standard English in schools. There was considerable discussion of the interplay between features of language, education, attitudes, and social structure in Caribbean communities and others, such as Hawaii, and of the future of the creole speakers in them.

PRESENT SOCIAL ROLES OVERVIEW Much of the interest of the conference, especially In his concluding statement Sidney Mintz asked why given the Caribbean setting, was in the status and consequences of creoles in contemporary societies. Jan Voor- present-day creoles are so largely concentrated in the hoeve and Christian Eersel analyzed the situation in Caribbean, and in the French and English (rather than Surinam (former Dutch Guiana). A prestige variety of Spanish) parts of it. He answered in terms of precondiSranan Tongo ("Church Creole") was developed by mis- tions for creolization, giving a succinct demographic and sionaries, and Voorhoeve's translation of the Bible into historical analysis of a massively imported population the non prestigious Sranan vernacular is still under de- caught up in quasi-urbanizing plantation life. Henry bate and cannot be used. Eersel analyzed choice between Hoenigswald spoke of the historical linguist as having use of Dutch and Sranan Tongo in political affairs, per- two main interests in these languages: in their histories sonal relations between sexes and persons of different (genesis, change, disappearance), and in the relations of status, parents and children, etc. Sranan is becoming the phenomena of pidginization and creolization, and standardized and a vehicle of poetry. One comparison of those of social change in general. In synthesizing many interest is that to speak Dutch with standard grammar aspects of the discussion, he concentrated on the possible and vocabulary is good, but to speak it with a standard destructive consequences (noted above) of study of crepronunciation is to put on airs. To speak standard oles and pidgins on notions of change, descent, family Sranan with a standard Dutch ("bakara") pronunciation, tree, and classification; and recommended clarification conversely, does confer prestige. of the traditional concepts. Attention to classic cases in David DeCamp, Beryl Bailey, and Robert Le Page Indo-European showed the critical role of basic vocabudirected attention to problems of describing the actual lary in permitting a decision as to historical affiliation. state of affairs in a complex multilingual situation, There may be no sharp differentiation between pidginiwherein any given speaker (as in Jamaica) has command zation and ordinary change in some sort of continuous of not one norm, but a set of norms spanning part of a space. Allen Grimshaw vigorously reviewed the developcontinuum. All introduced novel methodological de- ment of comparative sociology, its relations with linguisvices for coping with such situations. DeCamp proposed tics, and their areas of common interest. William Labov a seven-point linguistic spectrum for Jamaica, and dis- discussed types of linguists with respect to their methods cussed ways of incorporating the multiplicity of varieties and criteria for accepting results. Mentioning the near defined in the spectrum within a single set of rules of despair of some linguists in their efforts to write gramthe sort used in transformational generative grammar. matical rules, he outlined several strategies for combinHe argued that the limitation of a given speaker to some ing social and linguistic analysis to obtain convincing part of the continuum could find a place within a single results. grammar of the whole, and called for study of the factors Several memoranda indicating a variety of research that govern the actual switching of speakers within the needs had been circulated in advance of the conference. span at their command-factors whose operation is as If a single result can be said to have emerged from the yet unknown. Bailey established creole and standard as conference, it is somewhat ambiguous: retrospectively, two ideal types, introducing the number of rules re- considerable satisfaction in seeing the study of pidginiquired to go from both types to a given text as a measure zation and creolization change from the marginal work for categorizing it as one or the other. Le Page argued of a few pioneers to a central object of research and for starting with the individual speaker as the basis from theory; prospectively, a sense of urgency concerning the




great amount of research needed to resolve the many problems brought into focus. There are still too few adequate descriptions of too few of the world's pidgin and creole situations; too few linguists able to approach the historical origins of these languages with a knowledge of their putative African sources; too few linguists able to study the use and consequences of these languages in a

manner informed by social science. Some of the Caribbean scholars urged particularly that the relation of these languages to questions of national identity and literature be given concentrated attention at some future conference. It is likely that the next decade will see as great a transformation of our knowledge in all these respects as has the last.

COMMITTEE BRIEFS EXCHANGES WITH ASIAN INSTITUTIONS John K. Fairbank (chairman), Albert Feuerwerker, Donald G. Gillin, George E. Taylor, C. Martin Wilbur; staff, Bryce Wood At the committee's meeting on January 17, 1968, final appointments were made under the committee's program to facilitate participation of American social scientists in the development of research and communication with scholars at the Toyo Bunko (Oriental Library), Tokyo, and the Institute of Modem History, Academia Sinica, Taipei: Samuel C. Chu, Associate Professor of History, University of Pittsburgh, for research at the Toyo Bunko on the Grand Council; Lloyd E. Eastman, Associate Professor of History and Asian Studies, University of Illinois, for research at the Institute of Modem History and the Toyo Bunko on the Kuomin tang and national unification during the Nanking period, 1928-37; Michael Gasster, Associate Professor of History and Far Eastern and Slavic Languages and Literatures, University of Washington, for research at the Institute of Modem History and Toyo Bunko on the Chinese Revolution of 1911 and its consequences; Edgar B. Wickberg, Associate Professor of History and East Asian Studies, University of Kansas, for research at the Toyo Bunko on land tenure on the Chinese mainland and in Taiwan since 1850. Two fellowships were awarded under the committee's special program to facilitate research in the archives of the Institute of Modem History, Academia Sinica: Irwin T. Hyatt, Jr., Instructor in History, Emory University, and Ph.D. candidate in history and Far Eastern languages, Harvard University, for research on the missionary movement in Shantung, 1860-1912; Jonathan Porter, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of California, Berkeley, for research on the suppression of the Taiping rebellion by Tseng Kuo-fan. SOCIAL SCIENCE IN ITALY (Joint with Adriano Olivetti Foundation) Manlio Rossi Doria (chairman), Joseph LaPalombara (liaison), Francesco Alberoni, Norberto Bobbio, Massimo Fichera, Pendleton Herring, George H. Hildebrand, Wilbert E. Moore; Secretary, Alberto Spreafico The committee held its fifth meeting in Rome on March 24-27. Peter de Janosi of the Ford Foundation was present 18

at the first session. Major attention was devoted to an evaluation of the programs sponsored by the committee, particularly those in graduate training which constitute its most important activity. It was reported that the programs in economics at Ancona and in quantitative methods and sociology at Milan were progressing quite satisfactorily, particularly the program in economics which is now in its second year. At Milan the program in quantitative methods has been merged with that in sociology, under the aegis of the Institute of Sociology. The Institute itself represents a singular innovation in Italian higher education in that it enjoys independent status as to curriculum; it is jointly sponsored by the four private and public universities in Milan, and has already achieved a high degree of institutionalization, the further development of which is a central purpose of committee assistance to such centers. Equally important at Milan is the extent of indigenous financing, which the program has encouraged, both from Italy's National Research Council and from local governmental and industrial sources. The Olivetti Corporation has supplied equipment for the training centers. In the field of political science the committee decided to provide initial support for a training program at the University of Florence, to be directed by Giovanni Sartori. With the hope of assuring a longer-range program in this area, the committee had asked Norberto Bobbio to investigate, and prepare a report on, the feasibility of locating such a program at the University of Turin. Part of his exploration was carried on in the United States (with the aid of a Travel and Study Award from the Ford Foundation); he observed the organization of political science departments at Boston, Princeton, and Yale Universities and the University of North Carolina. His encouraging report was favorably reviewed by the committee, and a program will be launched at Turin in September 1968. Giovanni Sartori will also participate in this program. The social sciences that are less developed in Italy, such as cultural anthropology and social psychology, raise perplexing problems for the committee. The foremost problem is whether these fields have reached a level of development ~here committee efforts would have more than a marginal mfluence. As an exploratory approach to this question, the committee decided to provide modest financing for a series of seminars, in each of these fields, to take place during 1968. VOLUME




These seminars will be directed by Francesco Alberoni; Gustavo Iacono, University of Naples; Luigi Meschieri, National Institute of Psychology, Rome; and Gilberto A. Marselli, Institute of Agricultural Economics, Naples. The two work groups authorized by the committee in March 1967 to explore needs for basic data in social and economic fields have been organized and have begun their explorations. After several general meetings, attended by Italian experts in each relevant field, research and writing groups were constituted in economics, under the direction of Francesco Forte, and in sociology under Luciano Gallino, Paolo Ammassari, Giuseppe De Rita, and Renato Curatolo. Late in 1967 the committee awarded pre doctoral fellowships for research at four private research centers to the following: Marzio Barbagli, for survey research at the Carlo Cattaneo Institute, Bologna, on the relationship between problems of teachers and administrators associated with the new integrated middle schools in Italy Ugo Leone, for research at the Nord e Sud Research Center, Naples, on the development of air traffic and the aeronautical industry in Italy Carlo Massa, for research at the Italian Center of Research and Documentation, Rome, on the role and function of the mass media in an industrial society Heidi Munscheid, for research at the Center for Industrial and Social Research, Turin, on scholarship and professional aspirations of youth in the Valle d'Aosta. Each fellow is expected to publish a monograph incorporating the results of his research program. Notwithstanding the intrinsic merits of this program the committee does not expect to extend it. The two institutes to which the committee gave modest support for improvement of social science curricula and training programs-the Advanced School of Sociology at the University of Rome and the Luigi Sturzo Institute of Sociology, Rome-appear to have made good use of this assistance. Individual committee members have visited these organizations for consultations about curricula, research programs, and future developmental plans. Special courses for public administrators have been initiated with the aid of the committee. A first course in sociology was successfully concluded under the direction of Franco Ferrarotti, University of Rome. After reviewing its ongoing programs, the committee turned its attention to problems of continuing its activities beyond the initial period of three years for which funds were provided by the Ford Foundation and the Olivetti Foundation. Discussion centered on means of securing institutionalization of training programs under way or soon to be inaugurated; possibilities for an additional social science training center at the University of Naples; problems implicit in the withdrawal of committee support for training programs; and the nature of committee activities other than improvement of graduate training. Considerable attention was given to international aspects of the committee's work. 1- LAP. JUNE


SOCIOLINGUISTICS Charles A. Ferguson (chairman), Jacques Brazeau, Susan M. Ervin-Tripp, Joshua A. Fishman, Allen D. Grimshaw, John J. Gumperz, Everett C. Hughes, Dell Hymes, William D. Labov, Stanley Lieberson; staff, Elbridge Sibley A report by Dell Hymes on the conference on social contexts of pidgin and creole languages, held April 9-12 at Mona, Jamaica, under joint sponsorship of the committee and the University of the West Indies, appears on pages 13-18 above. The next phase of the committee's program of pilot research on acquisition of communicative competence will take place at the University of California, Berkeley, during the summer term, June 19 - September 7. Four work groups will be directed respectively by Susan Ervin-Tripp, John J. Gumperz, Dan I. Slobin of the University of California, and Charles A. Ferguson, assisted by visiting consultants, including Basil Bernstein, Martin D. S. Braine, Aaron Cicourel, Dell Hymes, Vera John, Edward S. Klima, Ursula Bellugi-Klima, William D. Labov, Wick Miller, Harry Osser, and Emanuel Schegloff. Six doctoral candidates who have carried on research under the committee's auspices will participate in the workshops as research associates, presenting their data and findings on children's learning of communicative skills in varied social settings in India, Samoa, Mexico, and the United States. The research associates are: David Argoff, Jan Brukman, Keith Kernan, Claudia Mitchell, and Brian Stross, all doctoral candidates at the University of California, Berkeley; and Carolyn Wardrip, a doctoral candidate at Stanford University. Thirty-six graduate students who plan to undertake comparable field studies in the future will also be admitted to the summer workshops. The following have been offered stipends and/or travel allowances under a grant to the Council from the Division of Graduate Education of the National Science Foundation: Kay Atkinson, University of California, Los Angeles; Mary Ann Campbell, University of Chicago; Ronald W. Casson, and Arlene I. Moskowitz, Stanford University; Sybillyn J. Mehan, University of California, Santa Barbara; P. David Pavy, III, Harvard University; Diana 1- Risen, and Sandra M. Storm, University of Wisconsin, Madison; Abigail B. Sher, New York University; Merrill K. Swain, University of California, Irvine. Applications for admission to the workshops were received from 50 students and staff members at 26 different institutions or campuses; the 36 admitted are at 22 different places. The Field Manual for Cross-cultural Study of the Acquisition of Communicative Competence, a preliminary draft of which has guided the field workers on the committee's project, will be revised during the summer session. Copies of a second draft of the Manual are now available to interested persons. Seven courses in linguistics and sociolinguistics are included in the summer session curriculum at Berkeley, and will be open to participants in the committee's program who desire formal instruction in these subjects. 19

PERSONNEL RESEARCH TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS The Committee on Social Science Personnel-Norton Ginsburg (chairman), Milton C. Cummings, Jr., Robert B. MacLeod, John C. McKinney, Ronald 1. McKinnon, Murray G. Murphey, and Allan H. Smith-on March 6-7 voted to offer 14 new appointments and named several alternates, 4 of whom have subsequently been awarded fellowships. Of the 18 awards 2 are pre doctoral and 16 postdoctoral: William A. Brown, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Wisconsin, Madison, postdoctoral fellowship for training at an Islamic university in Africa, including study of Islamic institutions and advanced Arabic language training Colin B. Burke, Ph.D. candidate in history, Washington University, for training in the application of soci~l science techniques in research on the history of Amencan higher education in the nineteenth century Emanuel G. Fenz, Assistant Professor of History, Purdue University, postdoctoral fellowship for training at the University of Michigan in social sciences relevant to the history of ethnic minority groups Fred M. Frohock, Assistant Professor of Political Science, Syracuse University, postdoctoral fellowship for study in London of analytic philosophy as a basis for political theory Richard A. Gillam, Ph.D. candidate in history, Stanford University, for training in sociology at Harvard University in preparation for research in American intellectual history David Hunt, Ph.D. candidate in history, Harvard University, postdoctoral fellowship for training in psychological and anthropological approaches to the history of child rearing and social attitudes toward children Byrd L. Jones, Assistant Professor of History, California Institute of Technology, postdoctoral fellowship for training at Stanford University in macroeconomics in preparation for research on the development of economic planning in the United States Samuel Leinhardt, Ph.D. candidate in sociology, University of Chicago, postdoctoral fellowship for training at Harvard University in algebraic models applicable to a theory of social structure Peter Loewenberg, Assistant Professor of History, University of California, Los Angeles, postdoctoral fellowship for training in psychoanalytic theory applicable to historical research Peter B. Natchez, Ph.D. candidate in government, Harvard University, postdoctoral fellowship for training at Massachusetts Institute of Technology in quantitative methods for the study of politics Philip Pomper, Assistant Professor of History, Wesleyan University, postdoctoral fellowship for training in personality psychology as a basis for historical research John M. Richardson, Jr., Ph.D. candidate in political science, University of Minnesota, postdoctoral fellowship for training in mathematical organization theory applicable to research on political development


John R. Staude, Assistant Professor of History, University of California, Riverside, postdoctoral fellowship for training at the University of California, Berkeley, in sociological theory and research methods Henry J. Steck, Assistant Professor of Political Science, State University of New York, College at Cortland, postdoctoral fellowship for training at Yale University in research on comparative politics Jeremy J. Stone, Assistant Professor of Mathematics, Pomona College, postdoctoral fellowship for training at Stanford University in economics Russell G. Thornton, Ph.D. candidate in sociology, Flori路 da State University, postdoctoral fellowship for ad路 vanced study at Harvard University in the sociology of bureaucracy Daniel B. Wackman, Ph.D. candidate in mass communications, University of Wisconsin, Madison, postdoctoral fellowship for training at the University of Minnesota in research on socialization and interaction processes Sidney R. Waldman, Ph.D. candidate in political science, University of North Carolina, and Assistant Professor of Political Science, Haverford College, postdoctoral fellowship for training at Yale University in applications of psychology in research on political behavior FACULTY RESEARCH GRANTS The Committee on Faculty Research Grants-Frank R. Westie (chairman), Stanley M. Elkins, James L. Gibbs, Jr., Edward E. Jones, Everett C. Ladd, Jr., Jerome L. Stein, and Lawrence Stone-held the second of its two scheduled meetings on March 17. It awarded grants to the following 29 social scientists: Steven J. Brams, Assistant Professor of Political Science, Syracuse University, for application of modern mathematics in the study of political systems Berenice A. Carroll, Assistant Professor of History, University of Illinois, for a comparative study of the ending of wars of selected nations since 1775 William R. Charlesworth, Associate Professor of Child Psychology, University of Minnesota, for research in Munich on ontogenetic changes in cognitive and expressive behavior in infants Seymour Drescher, Associate Professor of History, University of Pittsburgh, for research in France on postRevolutionary responses of the elite to social change: the humanitarian movement, 1815-48 Marshall Durbin, Assistant Professor of Anthropology, Tulane University, for research on linguistic sources of variation and bias in attitude-scaling techniques (joint with Michael Micklin) Duncan K. Foley, Assistant Professor of Economics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, for research in England on the role of information exchange in economic decisions Henry G. Grabowski, Assistant Professor of Economics, Yale University, for research on a microeconomic analysis of factors influencing industrial growth VOLUME




Richard F. Hamilton, Associate Professor of Sociology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, for research on class and politics in the United States Patrick L.-R. Higonnet, Assistant Professor of History, Harvard University, for research in Europe on European diplomacy from 1750 to the French Revolution m the light of concurrent changes in the European sta te-sys tern Jeffry J. Kaplow, Assistant Professor of History, Columbia University, for research in France on the condition of the Parisian poor on the eve of the Revolution Mark Kesselman, Assistant Professor of Government, Columbia University, for research in France on political parties in selected departements Seymour Leventman, Lecturer in Human Relations, University of Pennsylvania, for research on race pride, black power, and the Negro community Darwyn E. Linder, Assistant Professor of Psychology, Duke University, for research on attitude change as a result of dissonant cognitions introduced after behavioral commitment Peter H. Merkl, Associate Professor of Political Science, University of California, Santa Barbara, for empirical research in Italy and West Germany on the "decline of ideology" and patterns of socialization in partisan politics Michael Micklin, Assistant Professor of Sociology, Tulane University, for research on linguistic sources of variation and bias in attitude-scaling techniques (joint with Marshall Durbin) D. C. Moore, Associate Professor of History, University of California, Los Angeles, for research in England on the social and political structure and the dynamics of political action in selected boroughs in the mid-nineteenth century Dietrich Orlow, Associate Professor of History, Syracuse University, for research in Germany on the organizational history of the Nazi Party, 1933-45 Hortense Powdermaker, Professor Emeritus, Queens College, City University of New York, and Research Associate, Department of Anthropology, University of California, Berkeley, for research on contemporary clothing and grooming styles, as reflecting changes in social roles of sex and age groups and in the development of ego-identity Abraham Rosman, Associate Professor of Anthropology, Barnard College, for research on the relationship between exchange and social structure (joint with Paula G. Rubel) Paula G. Rubel, Assistant Professor of Anthropology, Barnard College, for research on the relationship between exchange and social structure (joint with Abraham Rosman) Mark B. Schupack, Associate Professor of Economics, Brown University, to construct and test empirically theoretical models of the production of technological information by a firm T. Y. Shen, Associate Professor of Economics, University of California, Davis, for research on technological change in manufacturing industries Hung-chao Tai, Assistant Professor of Political Science, University of Detroit, for comparative analysis of rural political participation in the developing countries JUNE 1968

Robert B. Tapp, Professor of Philosophy of Religion, Meadville Theological School, Lombard College, for research on a posttraditional response to secularization: value-based religion as a successor to belief-based church and individual behavior Herbert Waltzer, Professor of Government. Miami University. for research on network television reporting of the 1968 presidential election Norbert Wiley. Assistant Professor of Sociology. Wayne State University, for research on the theory of class and politics Robert Wohl, Associate Professor of History. University of California, Los Angeles, for research in Munich and Rome on Europeans who reached maturity in 1914 Joachim F. Wohlwill, Professor of Psychology, Clark University, for research on certain problems of scientific method and research design in developmental psychology Mary E. Young, Associate Professor of History, Ohio State University, for research on the administration of federal public lands in the United States in the nineteenth century GRANTS FOR ASIAN STUDIES The Joint Committee on Asian Studies, sponsored with the American Council of Learned Societies-Robert I. Crane (chairman), H. G. Creel, Marius B. Jansen, John L. Landgraf, Richard L. Park, and Laurence Sickman-at its meeting on February 17 awarded grants to 19 scholars under its continuing program of aid for advanced research in the humanities and social sciences dealing with Asia: Will em R. C. Adriaansz, Assistant Professor of Music, University of Washington, for research on the repertoires and practices of three related schools of Japanese koto performance in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries George N. Appell, Research Associate in Oceanic Ethnology, Harvard University, for research on religious texts collected among the Rungus of Northern Borneo Richard K. Beardsley, Professor of Anthropology, University of Michigan, for research on the conduct of public affairs in Japanese villages under industrial influence Albert E. Dien, Associate Professor of Chinese, Columbia University, for research on military organization in the medieval period in China (third to eighth centuries) Peter Duus, Assistant Professor of History, Harvard University, for research on the Japanese liberal intelligentsia, 1890-1940 Willard H. Elsbree, Professor of Government, Ohio University, for research on Japanese economic and political relations with Southeast Asia since World War II Ainslie T. Embree, Associate Professor of History, Columbia University, for research on social and political change in India in the eighteenth century Edwin M. Gerow, Associate Professor of Sanskrit and Indian Literature, University of Washington. for a study of the methods, curriculum, and theory of a traditional Sanskrit school Harry Harootunian, Associate Professor of History, University of Rochester, for research on tradition, historical consciousness, and modernity in Japanese thought


Donald Holzman, Sous Directeur d'Etudes, Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, for research on the end of antiquity in China: social and intellectual history of the third century Walter H. Maurer, Associate Professor of Sanskrit and History, University of Hawaii, for study of the Indian grammarians Panini and Vopadeva and preparation of critical text and English translation of the Mugdhabodha Morris D. Morris, Professor of Economics, University of Washington, for research on growth, change, and stagnation in the Indian economy, 1800-1947 Masatoshi Nagatomi, Associate Professor of Buddhist Studies, Harvard University, for research on Sthiramati's Abhidharmakosavrtti in the Tibetan and Chinese translations Robert S. Ozaki, Associate Professor of Economics, California State College at Hayward, for research on the role of economic policy in japan's postwar foreign trade Nicholas N. Poppe, Professor of Slavic and Altaic Studies and Anthropology and Linguistics, University of Washington, for study of Mongolian manuscripts in European libraries Irwin Scheiner, Assistant Professor of History, University of California, Berkeley, for research on revolt and dissent in Meiji Japan Conrad D. Totman, Assistant Professor of History, Northwestern University, for research on the collapse of the Tokugawa bakufu, 1845-68 Tsuen-hsuin Tsien, Professor of Chinese Literature, U niversity of Chicago, for research on the art and technology of Chinese printing Charles D. Weber, Professor of Art, University of Bridgeport, for a study of the pictorial bronze vessels of ancient China in collections in Taiwan and Japan GRANTS FOR SOUTHEAST ASIAN STUDIES With support granted to the American Council of Learned Societies by the Ford Foundation, the Joint Committee on Asian Studies also initiated a special program of aid for studies of the Southeast Asia mainland-Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, and Vietnam. At a meeting on April 27, the committee made 10 awards under this new program: Clark E. Cunningham, Visiting Lecturer in Anthropology, Yale University, for research on the culture of health and illness in Chiang Mai, Thailand John C. Donnell, Associate Professor of Political Science, Temple University, for research on South and North Vietnamese politics Hans-Dieter Evers, Associate Professor of Sociology, Yale University, for research on Buddhist monastic organization and social structure in Thailand Wesley R. Fishel, Professor of Political Science, Michigan State University, for research on South Vietnamese elections and the changing political elite Fang Kuei Li, Professor of Far Eastern Languages, University of Washington, for research on comparative Tai John T. McAlister, Jr., Lecturer in Public and International Affairs, Princeton University, for research on the process of revolution: a case study of Vietnam


Ithiel de Sola Pool, Professor of Political Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, for research on social groups and national integration in Vietnam Roger M. Smith, Assistant Professor of Political Science, University of Michigan, for research on conflict and cooperation among the Indo-China states Edward Van Roy, Assistant Professor of Economics, State University of New York at Stony Brook, for research on structure and change within three interacting economic systems in north Thailand Alexander Woodside, Ph.D. candidate in East Asian studies, Harvard University, for research on Vietnam and the Chinese institutional model: Nguyen emperors and their civil bureaucracy, 1802-47 GRANTS FOR LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES The Joint Committee on Latin American Studies, sponsored with the American Council of Learned SocietiesJoseph Grunwald (chairman), Richard N. Adams, John P. Augelli, Frank Dauster, Daniel Goldrich, L. N. McAlister, and Enrique Oteiza-at its meeting on February 8-9 awarded 22 grants for research and 4 collaborative research grants:

Research grants Samuel L. Baily, Assistant Professor of History, RutgersThe State University, for research in Argentina on the assimilation of working-class Italian immigrants in Buenos Aires and New York, 1880-1910 Winfield J. Burggraaff, Assistant Professor of History, University of Missouri, for research in Venezuela on processes of modernization, 1935-48 Robert M. Carmack, Assistant Professor of Anthropology, University of California, San Diego, for research in Guatemala on th~ social system of the Prehispanic Quiche state Peter Dodge, Associate Professor of Sociology, University of New Hampshire, for research in Brazil on the family firm and economic development Mary Alice Ericson, Professor of Sociology, Coe College, for research in Costa Rica on the social organization of planned agricultural settlements of the Agrarian Reform Agency Marysa Navarro Gerassi, Associate Professor of History, Newark State College, for research in Brazil on the development and role of Afiio Integralista Brasileira Gino Germani, Professor of Latin American Affairs, Harvard University, for research on economic, political, and social modernization in Latin America Benjamin Keen, Professor of History, Northern Illinois University, for research on the Aztecs in Western thought Kenneth P. Langton, Assistant Professor of Political Science, University of Michigan, for comparative studies in South America of political socialization Paul H. Lewis, Assistant Professor of Political Science, Tulane University, for research in Brazil on voting patterns in state and local elections, 1954-64 Joseph L. Love, Jr., Assistant Professor of History, University of Illinois, for research in Brazil on the state of Rio Grande do SuI as a source of instability in Brazilian politics 1889-1932: a study in regionalism VOLUME




Markos J. Mamalakis, Associate Professor of Economi<;s, University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee, for research m South America on trends in employment and value added in services in selected countries, 1950-64 James L. Payne, Assistant Professo! of Govern~e.nt, Wesleyan University, for research ill the DomlnIcan Republic on political processes Carlos M. Pelaez, Assistant Professor of Economics, University of Pittsburgh, for research in Brazil on industrialization and economic development, 1920-50 Campbell W. Pennington, Professor of Geography, Southern Illinois University, for research in Mexico on the Pima Bajo of Sonora Fredrick B. Pike, Professor of History, University of Notre Dame, for research in Madrid on Spain and the rapprochement with Spanish America, 1898-1934 Ivan L. Richardson, Professor of Public Administration, California State College at Fullerton, for research in Brazil on metropolitan government in the state of Guanabara Bernard C. Rosen, Professor of Sociology, Cornell University, for research in Brazil on family structure and achievement motivation Donald E. Smith, Associate Professor of Political Science, University of Pennsylvania, for research in Latin America on Catholicism and political development Martin S. Stabb, Professor of Spanish, University of Missouri, for research in Argentina on literary activity during the Peron period (1946-55), with special reference to the relationship between intellectual life and an authoritarian regime Lewis A. Tambs, Assistant Professor of History, Creighton University, for research in Brazil and Peru on an oral history of the Amazon rubber boom, 1890-1912 Ray A. Verzasconi, Assistant Professor of Spanish, Oregon State University, for a critical study of the literary works of Miguel Angel Asturias

Collaborative research grants Roy E. Carter, Jr., Professor of Sociology and Mass Communication, University of Minnesota, and Orlando Sepulveda, Professor of Sociology, University of Chile, for research in Chile on the functions of television in the lives of its viewers in Santiago de Chile: a study of mass communication and modernization Aaron V. Cicourel, Professor of Sociology, University of California, Santa Barbara, and Eliseo Veron, Research Associate, National Council for Scientific and Technical Research, Buenos Aires, for research in Argentina and the United States on language socialization and the child's acquisition of concepts of social organization Carlos F. Diaz-Alejandro, Associate Professor of Economics, University of Minnesota, and Mario S. Brodersohn, Senior Economist, Center for Economic Research, Torcuato Di Tella Institute, Buenos Aires, for research in Argentina and the United States on the patterns of industrial relative prices and the efficiency of Latin American industries Richard D. Mallon, Development Adviser, Harvard University, and Juan V. Sourrouille, Chief, National Accounts Section, United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America, for research in Argentina and the United States on recent Argentine economic policy in relation to political-institutional constraints JUNE


GRANTS FOR RESEARCH ON THE NEAR AND MIDDLE EAST In addition to the awards listed in the March issue of Items, the Joint Committee on the Near and Middle East, sponsored with the American Council of Learned Societies, has made the following 2 grants for research: Ira M. Lapidus, Associate Professor of History, University of California, Berkeley, for research in Europe, Turkey, and Egypt on the evolution of Islamic sociaf and political institutions in the period of the 'Abbasid Empire, 750-945 (renewal) Joseph S. Szyliowicz, Assistant Professor of International Relations, University of Denver, for research in Turkey on the bureaucratic elite GRANTS FOR SLAVIC AND EAST EUROPEAN STUDIES The Subcommittee on Grants for Slavic and East European Studies (of the Joint Committee on Slavic Studies, sponsored with the American Council of Learned Societies) -Edward J. Brown, Clayton L. Dawson, Alexander Erlich, Charles Jelavich, Stephen D. Kertesz, and Hans J. Roggerat its meeting on February 24 awarded 22 grants for research: Patricia M. Arant, Assistant Professor of Slavic Languages, Brown University, for research on the traditional oral lament in North Russia Abraham Ascher, Associate Professor of History, Brooklyn College, City University of New York, for research on Pavel Axelrod and the development of democratic Marxism in Russia Michael Cherniavsky, Professor of History, University of Rochester, for research on the iconography of Russian rulers, 1500-1700 Bogdan Czaykowski, Assistant Professor of Slavonic Studies, University of British Columbia, for a critical survey of Polish poetry from C. K. N orwid to the present Donald Fanger, Associate Professor of Modem European Languages, Stanford University, for a critical study of Nikolai Gogol George R. Feiwel, Professor of Economics, University of Tennessee, for research on new economic patterns in Czechoslovakia Mark G. Field, Professor of Sociology and Anthropology, Boston University, for research on the Soviet health system Mojmir Frinta, Associate Professor of Art, State University of New York at Albany, for research on sculpture of the Beautiful Style in East Central Europe Deno J. Geanakoplos, Professor of History and Religious Studies, Yale University, for research on Byzantine ecclesiastical and cultural influences on Russia Richard A. Gregg, Associate Professor of Russian Language and Literature, Columbia University, for research on the poetic achievement of N. A. Nekrasov Robert C. Howes, Professor of History, Oakland University, for a translation of the Moscow Chronicle Ervin Laszlo, Associate Professor of Philosophy, University of Akron, for research on the current influence of


Western natural and social philosophy on the Hungarian intellectual elite Ian M. Matley, Professor of Geography, Michigan State University, for research on the pastoral economy of the Bihor Mountains, Transylvania, Rumania Deborah D. Milenkovitch, Assistant Professor of Economics, Barnard College, for research on Yugoslav economic thought on planning and the market Dagmar H. Perman, Associate, American Historical Association, for research on Czechoslovakia in United States foreign policy, 1922-48 Arshi Pip a, Associate Professor of Romance Languages, University of Minnesota, for research on Girolamo de Rada: Milosao Nathan Rosen, Associate Professor of Foreign and Comparative Literature, University of Rochester, for research on Dostoevsky's The Brothers Karamazov

Joseph Rothschild, Associate Professor of Government, Columbia University, for a political and socioeconomic analysis of East Central Europe between the two World Wars Michael Shapiro, Assistant Professor of Slavic Languages, University of California, Los Angeles, for research on derivational morphology of contemporary standard Russian Benjamin A. Stolz, Assistant Professor of Slavic Languages and Literatures, University of Michigan, for a linguistic analysis of the Journal of Michael Konstantinovic Robert C. Tucker, Professor of Politics, Princeton University, for research on Stalin and Russian communism J. K. Zawodny, Professor of Political Science, University of Pennsylvania, for research on the Warsaw uprising, 1944 (renewal)

NEW PUBLICA rlONS The City in Modern Africa, edited by Horace Miner. Product of the conference on methods and objectives of research on urbanization in Africa, sponsored by the Joint Committee on African Studies, April 1-3, 1965. New York: Frederick A. Praeger, December 1967. 375 pages. $7.50. The Construction Industry in Communist China, by Kang Chao. Sponsored by the Committee on the Economy of China. Chicago: Aldine Publishing Company, February 1968.252 pages. $8.75. Early Education: Current Theory, Research, and Action, edited by Robert D. Hess and Roberta M. Bear. Papers prepared for the Conference on Preschool Education, sponsored by the Committee on Learning and the Educational Process, February 7-9, 1966. Chicago: Aldine Publishing Company, March 1968. 282 pages. $6.95. Economic Trends in Communist China, edited by Alexander Eckstein, Walter Galenson, and Ta-Chung Liu. Product of a conference sponsored by the Committee on the Economy of China, October 21-23, 1965. Chicago: Aldine Publishing Company, May 1968. c. 800 pages. c. $17.50. Genetic Diversity and Human Behavior, edited by J. N. Spuhler. Viking Fund Publications in Anthropology, No.

45. Proceedings of a symposium, September 17-25, 1964, jointly sponsored by the Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research and the Committee on Biological Bases of Social Behavior. Chicago: Aldine Publishing Company, December 1967. 302 pages. $7.50.

Genetics, edited by David C. Glass. Papers prepared for the conference on genetics and behavior cosponsored by Rockefeller University, Russell Sage Foundation, and the Committee on Biological Bases of Social Behavior, November 18-19, 1966. New York: Rockefeller University Press and Russell Sage Foundation, May 1968. 270 pages. $7.50. Revolutionary Russia, edited by Richard Pipes. Product of the conference on the Russian Revolution, cosponsored by the Joint Committee on Slavic Studies and the Harvard University Russian Research Center, April 4-9, 1967. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, January 1968. 376 pages. $7.95. The Spatial Economy of Communist China, by Yuan-li Wu. Prepared with the aid of the Committee on the Economy of China. New York: Frederick A. Praeger for the Hoover Institution on War, Revolution and Peace, January 1968. 386 pages. $10.








Incorporated in the State ot Illinois, December 27, 1924, tor the purpose ot advancing research in the social sciences Directors, 1968:










Officers and Staff: PENDLETON HERRING, President; PAUL tive Associates; ELEANOR C. IsBELL, ROWLAND L. MITCHELL, V. RONNAN, Financial Secretary


Vice-Presidents; ELBRIDGE SIBLEY, BRYCE WOOD, ExecuStaff Associates; JERO~IE E. SINGER, Consultant; CATHERINE


Items Vol. 22 No. 2, Pt 1 (1968)