Items Vol. 21 No. 1 (1967)

Page 1



GENErICS AND SOCIAL BEHAVIOR by David C. Glass*' GENETIC thinking in the sciences of human and infrahuman behavior has ranged from extreme emphasis on genetic determinism to virtual denial of the importance of heritability. This variation in emphasis can be partially attributed to the sociopolitical attitudes prevalent among scientists of a given period. Liberal attitudes are presumed to be correlated with acceptance of an environmental approach, whereas conservative attitudes are thought to be more compatible with a genetic view of behavior. A more important determinant of the relative emphasis given heredity and environment is the developmental level of a field in which this kind of dichotomy has not been rejected. As the social sciences matured, the nature-nurture controversy declined in importance and a more sophisticated view was adopted. Contemporary social scientists no longer adhere to a simplistic environmental determinism, just as contemporary biologists no longer embrace a genetic determinism. In both fields the importance of an interaction between the organism and his environment is recognized. Neither the genetic parameter nor the environmental parameter alone can account for more than a portion of behavioral variability. With the development of an interactional approach, a revitalized interest in the genetics of behavior has been witnessed. Evidence for this growing interest has been ably documented by Gardner Lindzey in his paper, • The author is Social Psychologist at Russell Sage Foundation and Visiting Associate Professor, Rockefeller University. A member of the Council's Committee on Biological Bases of Social Behavior, he organ· ized the Conference on Biology and Behavior: Genetics for its sponsors, and is editing the proceedings of the conference (which he summarizes here) for publication by Russell Sage Foundation and Rockefeller University.

"Genetics and the Social Sciences," which appeared in the September 1964 issue of I terns. In this paper Lindzey reviewed the role that genetic thinking has played in social science research in such areas as social class and intelligence, race differences, and behavior pathology. Along with these more general issues, Lindzey discussed the concerns of the Council's Committee on Genetics and Behavior, which had then completed its third year. Among its activities were a training institute on behavior genetics, held in the summer of 1964 at the University of California, Berkeley, under the general direction of Gerald McClearn, and a European conference on human behavior genetics arranged by J. N. Spuhler for the purpose of improving communication between European and American scholars who shared an interest in the genetic basis of human behavior. 1 In the years since the publication of Lindzey's paper, a number of developments have taken place in the committee's responsibilities and activities. Among the more important of these has been the recent change in the committee's mandate to include nongenetic aspects of the interrelationship between biology and social science. Now called the Committee on Biological Bases of Social Behavior,2 it is currently planning a number of training programs and conferences designed to dissemi1 The proceedings of this conference, edited by J . N. Spuhler. are to be published as Genetic Diversity arid Human Behavior, Viking Fund Publications in Anthropology No. 45. Chicago: Aldine Publishing Company, June 1967. 2 The present members of the committee are Gerald E. McClearn. University of Colorado (chairman); Theodosius Dobzhansky. Rockefeller University; Daniel X. Freedman. University of Chicago; David C. Glass; David A. Hamburg. Stanford University; Gardner Lindzey. University of Texas; Stanley Schachter. Columbia University; staD. Jerome E. Singer.


nate among social scientists greater knowledge concerning biological concepts and methods. It is hoped that these efforts will stimulate research in significant areas of biology and behavior. These developments are taking place as a result in part of the committee's sponsorship of a conference on genetics and behavior in collaboration with Russell Sage Foundation and Rockefeller University.8 The conference was held on November 18-19, 1966 in Caspary Auditorium on the Rockefeller campus. The organization of the conference was guided by the premise that recent advances in research on genetics portend serious social, ethical, and legal consequences in the not too distant future. 4 It is important that these consequences be specified and studied by both biological and social scientists. The latter, in particular, are equipped by training and implicitly committed to make substantial contributions in this area. However, social scientists often lack the knowledge of behavior genetics necessary for sophisticated analysis of the social consequences of new knowledge resulting from research on genetics. The specialist in genetics, on the other hand, often lacks the interest or skill necessary for examination of the broad implications of his research. The purpose of the conference was to enable participants ~ drawn from both groups of scientists to benefit from exposure to the work a This conference was the second in a series of three conferences on Biology and Behavior being sponsored by Russell Sage Foundation and Rockefeller University. The first conference dealt with neurophysiology and emotion; the third will consider environmental influences on behavior. 4 See, for example, the recent address on "What Man Can Be," de· livered by H. Bentley Glass, Vice·President of the State University of New York at Stony Brook, at the annual meeting of the American Association of School Administrators in Atlantic City, February 1967. 5 In addition to members of the committee and guests from the Rockefeller University faculty and staff, the participants included: Fred G. Armstrong, United States Steel Foundation; Harold Basowitz, John M. Darley, Irving Sarnoff, Morris I. Stein, and Philip G. Zimbardo, New York University; Marvin Bressler, Princeton University; OrvilJe G. Brim, Jr., Russell Sage Foundation; Detlev W. Bronk, Rene Dubos, RoIJin D. Hotchkiss, Peter R. Marler, Neal E. MilJer, and Carl Pfaff· mann, Rockefeller University; E. W. Caspari, University of Rochester; Kingsley Davis, University of California, Berkeley; Fred Elmadjian, and David Rosenthal, National Institute of Mental Health; John L. Fuller, Roscoe B. Jackson Memorial Laboratory; Benson E. Ginsburg, and Mark Haller, University of Chicago; Irving Gottesman, University of Minnesota School of Medicine; A. H. Halsey, University of Oxford; Jerry Hirsch, University of Illinois; Lissy F. Jarvik, Bibb Latane, Wil· Iiam J. McGuire, and Arthur W. Murphy, Columbia University; Mur· ray E. Jarvik, Albert Einstein College of Medicine; Alexander Kessler, World Health Organization, Geneva; Alfred G. Knudson, Jr., State University of New York at Stony Brook; Martin Manosevitz, RutgersThe State University; Richard L. Means, Kalamazoo College; William Meredith, Samuel Messick, and David Rosenhan, Educational Testing Service; Francis H. Palmer, City University of New York; Richard Solomon, and Harvey Winston, University of Pennsylvania; J. N. Spuh. ler, University of Michigan; W. R. Thompson, Queen's University; Steven G. Vandenberg, University of LouisvilJe School of Medicine; and V. C. Wynne· Edwards, University of Aberdeen.


of representatives of the other. It is hoped that publication of the full proceedings of the conference by the end of the current year will extend this benefit to greater numbers. A brief summary of the proceedings is presented in the remainder of this report. GENETICS AND THE STUDY OF INTELLIGENCE The first session, which was chaired by David Hamburg, began with an address by Steven Vandenberg of the University of Louisville School of Medicine on genetic factors in intelligence. Following earlier workers in the area (e.g., Thurstone), Vandenberg defined intelligence in terms of six factors or abilities: numerical, spatial, reasoning, vocabulary size, word fluency, and memory. He stated that intelligence is no longer considered a unitary variable and that investigators using an over-all IQ score miscalculate the interaction between the environment and the individual's genotype. Vandenberg went on to point out that only where the criterion of performance is speed do genetic parameters emerge as primary determining factors. Using any other criterion, one must take account of individual motivation and social norms. For example, where motivation to succeed is minimal and there are proscriptions against competitive behavior, the individual may obtain a low IQ score but in fact be outstanding on one or more dimensions of intelligence. This statement takes on added significance when problems of educating children from so-called culturally deprived urban environments are considered. Vandenberg devoted a good part of his paper to discussion of the approaches used to assess the contributions of genetic factors to the development of intellectual abilities. These approaches include studies of the family, of adopted children, and of twins, as well as experiments on the effects of inbreeding. He concluded that the results of longitudinal studies of identical twins reared together and apart probably constitute the only reliable body of evidence on the contribution of genetic components to intelligence. Even here, however, Vandenberg introduces a note of caution, pointing out that whatever behavioral uniformities have been observed in twins could be attributed to factors other than the genotype, for example, equivalent environments in which motivation to succeed is encouraged or discouraged. Vandenberg's paper was discussed by David Rosenthal of the National Institute of Mental Health and Irving Gottesman of the University of Minnesota School of Medicine. Rosenthal took a pessimistic view of the progress of genetic psychology over the last three decades. VOLUME




In his view there has been a basic failure in statistical studies of twins, namely, inability to demonstrate equality of the two environments in which pairs were reared. He believes this failure may have arisen from the fact that human behavior geneticists have too long focused on heredity to the virtual neglect of the interaction of heredity and environment. At present there is no sound technique for separating a genetic component from environmental parameters. Rosenthal proposed several paradigms for studying this interaction, including a technique he used in his research on schizophrenia in which children of two groups of parents were studied: In one group one parent was schizophrenic, and in the other neither parent had any known psychiatric disorder. The children of both groups were given up for adoption at an early age, so in this study genetic and rearing variables are not confounded. The observed differences in personality between the two sets of children are assumed to reflect contributions of the schizophrenic genotype. Rosenthal suggested that a similar model could be used in studies of intellectual abilities. GENETICS AND THE STUDY OF SOCIAL INTERACTION The second session of the conference, chaired by Richard Solomon of the University of Pennsylvania, was devoted to discussion of the literature on behavior genetics in infrahuman species and its relevance for the understanding of human social behavior. The principal speaker at this session was William Thompson of Queen's University, Ontario. He began his paper with the statement that in research on behavior genetics problems should be selected with reference to important issues in the social sciences. The phenotypes must be chosen for their relevance to problems of behavior, not for convenience of genetic analysis. In his view the central problem of behavior genetics is the genetic basis of the organism's susceptibility to environmental influence, i.e., "the degree to which the phenotypic expression of a given genotype changes from one environment to another." An important implication of this position is that modem eugenics must be concerned with the manipulation of phenotypes through environmental change rather than with the organization of breeding patterns in the population. But, as Thompson notes, this can only be done if more is known about the interaction of genotype and environment and about the susceptibility of each genotype at different periods of development. Thompson proceeded to specify the relevance of these behavioral genetic questions for social behavior, particularly for patterns of social interaction and aggression. On the basis of a thorough review of animal experiMARCH


ments, he concluded that early in life the organism is capable of being altered in various ways, including changes in its temperament and attitude or social posture toward other members of its species. Later in development the shaping of behavior patterns becomes possible. In order to assess the susceptibility to environmental influence of each of these variables, behavior geneticists must study given phenotypes of each over a wide variety and range of environments. Where such research has already been carried out,6 Thompson believes that the genetic make-up of the organism is a primary factor in development. In commenting on Thompson's paper, John Fuller of the Roscoe B. Jackson Memorial Laboratory indicated agreement with the view that behavior genetics "exists primarily to serve the behavioral sciences." He went on to suggest three social science areas in which genetic information is sorely needed. First, increasing population pressures require decisions of a eugenic nature, but knowledge of human genetics is inadequate for development of positive programs in this area. Second, the COllcept of interaction of genotype and environment needs to be translated into a concrete set of operations. In Fuller's words, "By the early identification of genotypes which are usually inferior, we may be able to select a special environment which will enable that genotype to function more adequately than it normally would." The third area of social science research that Fuller believes would profit from genetic research relates to the effects of increasing population density and changing educational policies on human breeding patterns. GENETICS AND THE SOCIAL SCIENCES The major address of the conference was delivered by Theodosius Dobzhansky at the third session, which was chaired by Carl Pfaffmann of Rockefeller University. Dobzhansky observed that many social scientists in the period since the 1930's have been skeptical of the relevance of genetics to the understanding of social and cultural processes in human societies, but he noted: "Some straws in the wind indicate that the attitudes are changing on both sides of the biology-sociology fence. To say that man is an animal is true, but that is only part of the story. Biologists must recognize that man is a great deal more than an animal, or at least that he is a very special kind of animal. And more and more social scientists accept that human nature is not a constant. Instead of a single invariant and unchanging human nature, there are about as many different human na6 See, for example, John P. Scott and John L. Fuller, Genetics and the Social Behavior ot the Dog, Chicago: University of Chicago Press,



tures as there are persons living. This does not mean, of course, that what a person is or can become is foreordained by his fixed nature, but neither are the genetic differences so insignificant as to be negligible. The stock argument of some psychologists and sociologists is that since educators and social workers cannot do anything about people's heredity they may as well forget about it. In reality they can do a lot about it; if they recognize that the human natures are not uniform but multiform, they may take steps to provide conditions in which ~verybody, or as nearly everybody as possible, is able to do his best." Dobzhansky then proceeded to review some of his own recent experiments in population genetics, specifically on the possible genetic consequences of assortative mating in certain species of Drosophila selected for either of two behavioral traits, positive and negative photo- and geotaxis. It is his view that such studies provide a laboratory model analogous to patterns of social mobility in human populations. POPULATION SIZE AND SOCIAL BEHAVIOR The principal speaker at the fourth session, chaired by Rene Dubos of Rockefeller University, was V. C. Wynne-Edwards of the University of Aberdeen. His topic was the role of social competition in natural selection. He noted that in a variety of species (e.g., beetles, moths, laboratory rats, and birds), there are unlearned mechanisms that regulate mortality and replenishment of the population, thereby controlling its density. Although available food supply is an important factor affecting population density, the animal's requirements for space are even more important. It is the way in which animals distribute themselves over a restricted space that regulates the demand for food and hence limits the total population. Through competition for space between members of a society, the population is kept at an optimum level relative to the food supply. Wynne-Edwards illustrated his theory of population control by describing his own research on the red grouse, a species of bird which lives on the Scottish moors. Heather is the main diet of this species and grows in sufficient quantity to support more grouse than the present population density of approximately 50 per square kilometer. It would seem that the birds regulate their concentration through a process of "social selection," which leads to the expulsion of those grouse that cannot win a territory. It is estimated that approximately 90 percent of the mortality of red grouse is attributable to forced exclusion from the group and consequent poor nutrition. To replace the remaining 10 percent that die from "normal" causes, the red grouse society recruits 4

birds that were formally expelled but continue to live on the periphery of society. Wynne-Edwards hypothesized that the same type of socially structured competition may have a selective influence on human populations. Indeed, he suggested that the central biological function of society (human and infrahuman) is to provide normative regulation of social competition, toward the end of maintaining an equilibrium between population and resources. In this conventionalized competition, genetic factors also play a role. What probably happens in every generation is that "feeble combinations of genes tend to be squeezed out, and those that are good enough to secure for their owners a respectable rating as individuals come through the social mill." Alexander Kessler of the World Health Organization, Geneva, and Gerald McClearn of the University of Colorado were the two discussants of Wynne-Edwards' paper. Kessler agreed with the thesis that the social ecology of natural populations can act as a prime force in population control and maintenance. He reported results of his own studies of mice in support of the WynneEdwards hypothesis-studies aimed at clarifying the relationships among such factors as social organization, density, and genetic changes. McClearn, whose comments concerned some of the broader social implications of Wynne-Edwards' paper, was particularly impressed by the research on the red grouse and agreed that the findings might also apply in a general sense to man. He noted that our species may "ultimately either undergo the rigors of selection arising from overcrowding, or we will employ some meaUil of controlling the birth rate. In the case of the latter outcome ... it will be difficult or impossible to design a program that limits the quantity of humans without raising the issue of quality." Unfortunately, McClearn warned, we are ill-prepared for this eventuality. Relatively little information has been compiled concerning the genetics of behavioral traits in man, particularly from an evolutionary perspective. McClearn argued persuasively for more research aimed at gathering facts that he believes to be essential to rational social planning and population control. GENETICS AND SOCIOLOGICAL RESEARCH Marvin Bressler of Princeton University delivered the major paper at the final section of the conference, chaired by Kingsley Davis of the University of California, Berkeley. Bressler's central theme was the distrust of contemporary sociologists for biogenetic explanations of human behavior. According to Bressler, this distrust arises "partially because historical formuVOLUME




lations such as those represented by Spencer and McDougal are demonstrably false, partially because the necessity of specialization and the rejection of 'reductionism' has made scholarly insularity a virtue; and, to a large extent, because of the view that biological theories necessarily lead to predatory ethics." Bressler reviewed some recent research in ethology and behavior genetics which has relevance for sociology and asserted that it may eventually be possible to think of a unified biosocial science. Meanwhile he believes there is "little reason to fear that social biology constitutes a serious threat to humane values." He presented a persuasive argument in support of this thesis by examining the ethical consequences of current biological theories for stratification, socialization, social deviance, social change, and the quality of the population. Bressler concluded his paper by noting that contemporary biologists emphasize the interaction between the organism and the environment, and no longer adhere to a genetic determinism which assumes that biological "causes" exhaust the variance in behavior, or that behavior is not amenable to further modification. Geneticists are increasingly accepting the view that it is possible to provide a favorable and benign environment for most persons regardless of phenotype. The discussants, A. H. Halsey of Oxford University and Mark Haller of the University of Chicago, agreed in the main with Bressler's analysis of the relationship that can and ought to exist between sociology and genetics. Halsey cited a number of examples of the consequences of such a relationship, based on his experiences as adviser to the labor government in England. Haller expressed general agreement with Bressler, but disagreed with his emphasis. Bressler underscored the

ideological barriers that led social scientists to reject hereditary explanations of human behavior. Haller, in contrast, emphasized the "relative lack of firm scientific information concerning the genetic basis for human behavior." Another difference in emphasis concerned Bressler's position that a system of humane ethics is compatible with an interest in behavior genetics. Haller does not dispute this point but, from the perspective of a historian, he believes we must be "sensitive to the possible policy implications" of theories based on genetic differences between human populations. CONCLUDING REMARKS The proceedings of the conference are being published primarily to serve as a general model for future exchanges between biologists and social scientists. It is vitally important that both groups pursue their research with full awareness and understanding of the relevance of the concerns of the other. This goal may be achieved as future investigators are given opportunities for training and experience in both the biological and social sciences. There is recognition of this pressing need for the future at Rockefeller University, where a program in the behavioral sciences was recently established. It has also been demonstrated in the development of a biology - social science program at Russell Sage Foundation, including its postdoctoral fellowship program for social scientists at Rockefeller. It is hoped that the Council's Committee on Biological Bases of Social Behavior may plan and stimulate the development of additional programs leading to research based on principles drawn from both the biological and social sciences.

COMMITTEE BRIEFS CONTEMPORARY CHINA (Joint with American Council of Leamed Societies) John M. H. Lindbeck (chairman), A. Doak Barnett, Alexander Eckstein, John K. Fairbank, Albert Feuerwerker, Walter Galenson, Robert A. Scalapino, George E. Taylor, Arthur P. Wolf; staff, Bryce Wood In addition to making the awards listed on pages 9-10, the committee at its meeting in Mexico City on January 19-21 met with Victor L. Urquidi, President of the College of Mexico; Mario Ojeda, Director of its Center of International Studies; Omar Martinez Legorreta, Secretary of Administration; and the following members of the Section of Oriental Studies: Graciela de la Lama, Coordinator of the Section, and Professors Kazuya Sakai, Y. Y. Yang, and Maria MARCH


Elena Ota Mishima. Questions of mutual interest pertaining to such subjects as the availability of materials for research on contemporary China and development of curricula in Chinese studies were discussed. The members of the committee were particularly interested in the program of fellowships offered to university graduates throughout Latin America for language and area studies leading to the master's degree from the College of Mexico. Recipients of fellowships under this program are nominated by universities and other institutions, and are expected to return to universities, governmental agencies, or other bodies in their countries of origin. As the regional center for Oriental Studies in Latin America, the Section has been assisted by UNESCO.


INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION Inis L. Claude, Jr. (chairman), Lincoln P. Bloomfield, William Diebold, Jr., Leland M. Goodrich, Ernst B. Haas, H. Field Haviland, Jr., Stanley Hoffmann; staff, Bryce Wood The value of the committee's July conference with recipients of its grants for research in a particular area-the development of international organizations in Western Europe (reported in Items, September 1966, page 35) -led it to hold a similar conference on the United Nations system of organizations, at the University of California, Berkeley, January 8-9, 1967. Two papers prepared by recipients of grants-"United Nations Relief and Works Agency: A Study in Non-Territorial Administration," by Edward H. Buehrig of Indiana University, and "The Organization of American States and Political Change in Latin America," by Jerome Slater of the State University of New York at Buffalo-were discussed, as well as a report on work supported by the committee during the summer of 1966, "The Study of Political Influence in the General Assembly," by Robert O. Keohane of Swarthmore College. In addition, two sessions were devoted to a general discussion of new trends and opportunities in research on universal and regional international organizations, based on a paper by Mr. Bloomfield. A report on the proceedings is being prepared for review in relation to assessment of possible future plans by the committee at its next meeting. The participants in the conference, in addition to those who prepared papers, members of the committee, and staff, were: Abraham Bargman, Brooklyn College; Charles G. Bolte, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace; Robert W. Cox, International Institute for Labor Studies; Rupert Emerson, and Joseph S. Nye, Harvard University; Elmore Jackson, United Nations Association of the United States of America; Harold K. Jacobson, Charles McClelland, and Eric Stein, University of Michigan; Young W. Kihl, Juniata College; Donald J. Puchala, Columbia University; Oscar Schachter, United Nations Secretariat; Walter R. Sharp, Palo Alto, California; Saadia Touval, Hebrew University; and 1. William Zartman, New York University. LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES (loint with American Council of Learned Societies) JoseJ;>h Grunwald (chairman), Richard N. Adams, John P. Augelh, Robert N. Burr, Frank Dauster, Daniel Goldrich, Enrique Oteiza; staff, Bryce Wood Nearly all members of the joint committee participated in the Conference on Latin American Studies that was sponsored by the Management Committee of the United States - Latin American Faculty Interchange Program, in Mexico City on December 8-9, 1966. The joint committee took advantage of this occasion to meet also with Argentine, Chilean, Colombian, and Mexican scholars for discussion of possible subjects of substantive conferences that might be sponsored in the future. A number of interesting suggestions made by the Latin American scholars present will be discussed at an early meeting of the committee. Participants 6

in the meeting, which was held at the College of Mexico on December 10, included, in addition to members and staff of the committee, Mario S. Brodersohn, Torcuato Di Tella Institute, Buenos Aires; Mario Ojeda, Rafael Segovia, and Victor L. Urquidi, College of Mexico; Juan Jose Santiere, National Development Council, Buenos Aires; Modesto Seara Vazquez, National University of Mexico; Miguel Urrutia, University of the Andes; and Ivan Yanez, Institute of Economics, University of Chile. For the list of awards made by the committee on February 9-10, see pages lO-l1. SOCIALIZATION AND SOCIAL STRUCTURE John A. Clausen (chairman), Orville G. Brim, Jr., Alex Inkeles, Ronald Lippitt, Eleanor E. Maccoby, M. Brewster Smith; staff, Jerome E. Singer Two additional reports based on activities of work groups sponsored by the committee are now available: "Family Structure, Socialization, and Personality," by Mr. Clausen, and "Socialization and Social Structure in the Classroom," by John C. Glidewell, Mildred B. Kantor, Louis M. Smith, and Lorene A. Stringer, are contained in the Review of Child Development Research, Vol. 2, edited by Lois W. Hoffman and Martin L. Hoffman for the Society for Research in Child Development, and published by Russell Sage Foundation in December 1966. SOCIOLINGUISTICS Charles A. Ferguson (chairman), Susan M. Ervin-Tripp, Joshua A. Fishman, John J. Gumperz, Einar Haugen, Everett C. Hughes, Dell Hymes, Nathan Keyfitz, Stanley Lieberson, John Useem; staff, Elbridge Sibley Thirty linguists and social scientists from 12 countries took part in a three-day conference on Language Problems of the Developing Nations, held under the committee's auspices at Airlie House, Warrenton, Virginia, November 1-3, 1966. The program, planned by Messrs. Ferguson and Fishman, opened with a session on "basic parameters of language development" and "basic parameters of national development." Four subsequent sessions were devoted to: the range and variety of language situations and conditions of change; language factors in the formation of nations; governmental language policies and their results; and "language engineering," a review of programs of action designed to resolve language problems. Participants and the subjects of their papers-which are not available for distribution at present, although plans for publication are under consideration-are listed below: Pierre Alexandre, Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes; linguistic problems of nation building in Negro Africa R. G. Armstrong, University of Ibadan (unable to attend); language policy in West Africa Wendell Bell, Yale University; some basic parameters of national development: examples from the West Indies Jack Berry, Northwestern University (no paper) Haim Blanc, Hebrew University; the Israeli Koine as an emergent national standard VOLUME




John B. Bowers, University of London; language problems and literacy Donald H. Burns, Summer Institute of Linguistics, Lima, Peru; bilingual education in the Andes of Peru J. C. Catford, University of Michigan (no paper) O. L. Chavarria-Aguilar, University of Michigan; English and Hindi in India J. Dasgupta, University of California, Berkeley; language and modernization in North India (with Mr. Gumperz) Karl W. Deutsch, Yale University; conditions for the spread of international languages: the experience of medieval Europe Charles A. Ferguson; St. Stefan of Perm and applied linguistics Joshua A. Fishman (summary of the conference) John J. Gumperz; language and modernization in North India (with Mr. Dasgupta) Lyndon Harries, University of Wisconsin; Swahili in modern East Africa Einar Haugen; the Scandinavian languages as cultural artifacts Bjorn Jernudd, Monash University, Australia; linguistic integration and national development: the Jebel Marra area, Sudan Heinz Kloss, Research Institute for Nationality and Language, Rotenberg, Germany; notes concerning a language-nation typology R. B. Le Page, University of York; the use of English as the medium of education in four West Indian territories Ali A. Mazrui, Makerere University College; some sociopolitical functions of English literature in Africa Jiri V. Neustupny, Oriental Institute, Prague; some general problems of communication policy in developing societies John N. Paden, Northwestern University; language problems of national integration in Nigeria Edgard Polome, University of Texas; African languages and the choice of an official language in the Democratic Republic of the Congo Clifford H. Prator, University of California, Los Angeles; the British heresy in teaching English as a second language Joan Rubin, George Washington University; language education in Paraguay A. Tabouret-Keller, University of Strasbourg; sociological factors of language maintenance and language shift Albert Valdman, Indiana University; language standardization in a diglossia situation: Haiti Pierre L. van den Berghe, University of Washington; language and nationalism in South Africa W. H. Whiteley, University College, Dar es Salaam; ideal and reality in national language policy Petr Zima, University of Ghana; Hausa in West Africa Four graduate students also attended the conference as observers: Giarenzo Clivio, Harvard University; Brenda Danet, University of Chicago; Gerard Hoffman, Yeshiva University; Sheila Seitel, University of Pennsylvania. !\IARCH


SURVEY OF THE BEHAVIORAL AND SOCIAL SCIENCES (Joint with National Research Council) Ernest R. Hilgard (chairman), Henry W. Riecken (vicechairman), Kenneth E. Clark, Otis Dudley Duncan, Fred Eggan, Charles A. Ferguson, David A. Hamburg, Carl Kaysen, William H. Kruskal, David S. Landes, Harvey C. Mansfield, George A. Miller, Warren E. Miller, Carl Pfaffmann, William H. Sewell, Allan H. Smith, Robert M. Solow, Edward J. Taaffe, Charles Tilly, S. L. Washburn; executive officer, Stephen Viederman Since the announcement of plans for the Survey in the December issue of Items, Edward J. Taaffe of Ohio State University and Charles Tilly of the University of Toronto have been appointed members of the central planning committee. The former is the member-at-large for geography; the latter, cochairman of the panel for history. The membership of the several panels is as follows: Anthropology: S. L. Washburn (chairman); Allan H. Smith (cochairman); Stephen T. Boggs, University of Hawaii; Elizabeth F. Colson, University of California, Berkeley; John L. Fischer, Tulane University; Eugene Giles, Harvard University; Dell Hymes, University of Pennsylvania; Douglas W. Schwartz, University of Kentucky. Economics: Carl Kaysen (chairman); Robert M. Solow (cochairman); Hollis B. Chenery, Harvard University; Arnold C. Harberger, and Henri Theil, University of Chicago; Dale W. Jorgenson, University of California, Berkeley; James N. Morgan, University of Michigan; Guy H. Orcutt, University of Wisconsin; Joseph A. Pechman, Brookings Institution; Melvin W. Reder, Stanford University; James Tobin, Yale University. History: David S. Landes (chairman); Charles Tilly (cochairman); Paul J. Alexander, and John Higham, University of Michigan; Howard F. Cline, Library of Congress; Sigmund Diamond, Columbia University. Political Science: Harvey C. Mansfield (chairman); Warren E. Miller (cochairman); David Easton, University of Chicago; Harry Eckstein, Princeton University; Heinz Eulau, Stanford University; Robert E. Lane, and Joseph LaPalombara, Yale University; James G. March, University of California, Irvine; Ithiel de Sola Pool, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Austin Ranney, University of Wisconsin. Psychology: Kenneth E. Clark (chairman); George A. Miller (cochairman); Launor Carter, System Development Corporation; Wayne H. Holtzman, University of Texas; Neal E. Miller, and Carl Pfaffmann, Rockefeller University; Richard Solomon, and Eliot Stellar, University of Pennsylvania; John Thibaut, University of North Carolina; Robert D. Wirt, University of Minnesota. Sociology: William H. Sewell (chairman); Otis Dudley Duncan (cochairman); Hubert M. Blalock, Jr., University of North Carolina; James A. Davis, University of Chicago; Lloyd E. Ohlin, Columbia University; Neil 1Smelser, University of California, Berkeley; Seymour Martin Lipset, Harvard University. 7

PERSONNEL DIRECTORS OF THE COUNCIL The following persons have been designated by the seven national social science organizations associated with the Council to serve as directors of the Council for the threeyear term 1967-69: Harold C. Conklin, Yale University, by the American Anthropological Association Albert Rees, Princeton University, by the American Economic Association Philip D. Curtin, University of Wisconsin, by the American Historical Association Austin Ranney, University of Wisconsin, by the American Political Science Association John Thibaut, University of North Carolina, by the American Psychological Association Peter M. Blau, University of Chicago, by the American Sociological Association Morris H. Hansen, Bureau of the Census, by the American Statistical Association. Their credentials as members are scheduled for acceptance by the board of directors of the Council at its spring meeting in Washington, D.C. on March 10-11, 1967. FACULTY RESEARCH GRANTS The Committee on Faculty Research Grants-Victor Jones (chairman), Edward M. Bruner, David W. Grantham, Edward E. Jones, Irving B. Kravis, Lawrence Stone, and Frank R. Westie-held the first of its two scheduled meetings on December 16. It made the following 23 grants: Suzanne Berger, Instructor in Government, Harvard University, for research in France on French politics and the modernization of French society (joint with Patrick L.-R. Higonnet) George H. Borts, Professor of Economics, Brown University, for research on long-term international capital movements Claus-Peter Clasen, Assistant Professor of History, University of California, Los Angeles, for research in Germany on the social history of the Anabaptists in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland during the sixteenth century Stanley Coben, Assistant Professor of History, Princeton University, for research on the economic and social history of the United States in the 1920's Amitai Etzioni, Associate Professor of Sociology, Columbia University, for research on theoretical foundations for a macrosociology Donald E. Ginter, Assistant Professor of History, Duke University, for research in England on the origins and development of a party organization among the Whig 0pposltion, 1783-99 Fred 1. Greenstein, Professor of Government, Wesleyan University, for research on standards for evidence and 8

inference in psychological explanations of political behavior Patrick L.-R. Higonnet, Assistant Professor of History, Harvard University, for research in France on French politics and the modernization of French society (joint with Suzanne Berger) Robert T. Holt, Professor of Political Science, University of Minnesota, for exploration of applications of automata theory to explanation of pohtical development Donald W. Katzner, Assistant Professor of Economics, University of Pennsylvania, for research in Japan on macroeconomic concepts and random elements within the framework of general microeconomic models Gordon M. Kaufman, Associate Professor of Management, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, for research in Belgium on the application of Bayesian methods to econometric problems Edward E. Malefakis, Assistant Professor of History, Columbia University, for research in the Netherlands and Spain on a history of Spanish socialism, 1870-1939 Bruce Mazlish, Professor of History, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, for research in England on the father-son relations of James and John Stuart Mill David Montgomery, Assistant Professor of History, University of Pittsburgh, for research on the impact of industrialization on the religious, family, and intellectual life of American wage earners, 1820-80 Wolfgang W. Sauer, Professor of History, University of California, Berkeley, for research in Germany on German cosmopolitanism, 1830-48 John L. Shover, Professor of History, San Francisco State College, for a statistical analysis of voting trends in the state of California, 1916-48 Clark C. Spence, Professor of History, University of Illinois, for historical research on the application of technology in the mineral industry of western America Herbert J. Spiro, Professor of Political Science, University of Pennsylvania, for research in England and Germany on the effects of legal education on the roles of lawyers in politics in those countries Peter N. Stearns, Associate Professor of History, University of Chicago, for research in England, Germany, and Belgium on labor unrest in industrial Europe, 18991914 Theodore H. Von Laue, Professor of History, Washington University, for research on the progress and tensions of Westernization in global perspective Robert G. L. Waite, Professor of History, Williams College, for research in England and Germany on Adolf Hitler: the pathological personality as political leader Henry Y. Wan, Jr., Associate Professor of Economics, University of California, Davis, for research on optimal savings programs William L. C. Wheaton, Professor of City Planning, University of California, Berkeley, for research in England and France on decision-making levels in national, regional, and metropolitan planning in those countries VOLUME





made the following 12 grants for research relating to Africa south of the Sahara:

The Committee on Governmental and Legal ProcessesAustin Ranney (chairman), Philip E. Converse, David J. Danelski, Richard F. Fenno, Jr., Samuel P. Huntington, and John C. Wahlke-at its meeting on February 3-4 made awards to the following 11 social scientists:

Daniel Biebuyck, Professor of Anthropology, University of Delaware, for research on the meaning and function of Lega art and artifacts in the context of the Bwami Association

George R. Boynton, Assistant Professor of Political Science, University of Iowa, for research on support for the legislative subsystem in a state political system (joint with Ronald D. Hedlund and Samuel C. Patterson) Aage R. Clausen, Assistant Professor of Political Science, University of Wisconsin, for longitudinal analysis of roll call voting on selected domestic policy issues in the U.S. House of Representatives and Senate, 1953-64 Sheldon Goldman, Assistant Professor of Government, University of Massachusetts, for research on judicial attitudes and behavior of United States district court judges Ronald D. Hedlund, American Political Science Association State Legislative Leaders Scholar, University of Iowa, for research on support for the legislative subsystem in a state political system (joint with George R. Boynton and Samuel C. Patterson) Richard I. Hofferbert, Assistant Professor of Political Science, Williams College, for research on environ!Dental structure, political leadership, and public policy In the fifty states Herbert Kaufman, Professor of Political Science, Yale University, for research on the morphology of organizations: determinants and characteristics of, and relationships betw~en,. administrative levels in public and private organIZatIOns Walter F. Murphy, Professor of Politics, Princeton University, for research on the roles of constitutional courts in maintaining political stability (joint with Joseph Tanenhaus) Samuel C. Patterson, Associate Professor of Political Science, University of Iowa, for research on support for the legislative subsystem in a state political system (joint with George R. Boynton and Ronald D. Hedlund) Michael D. Reagan, Professor of Political Science, University of California, Riverside, for research on criteria and process in federal support of science Joseph Tanenhaus, Professor of Political Science, University of Iowa, for research on the roles of constitutional courts in maintaining political stability (joint with Walter F. Murphy) Jack L. Walker, Assistant Professor of Political Science, University of Michigan, for research on innovation and change in American state governments, 1870-1964 GRANTS FOR AFRICAN STUDIES The Joint Committee on African Studies, sponsored with the American Council of Learned Societies-William O. Jones (chairman), Elizabeth Colson, L. Gray Cowan, Philip D. Curtin, Walter Deshler, Roy Sieber, Michael G. Smith, and Robert F. Thompson-at its meeting on January 16-17 MARCH


J.. Den~s, Professor of Geography, Southern IllinOIS UnIversIty, for research in SwazIland on its pattern of regional development Wolf Leslau, Professor of Hebrew and Semitic Linguis~ics, U~iv~rsity of Ca1iÂŁor~ia, Los Angeles, for research In EthIopIa on Gurage dIalects and completion of an English-Gurage dictionary Louis .Molet, Associate Professor of Anthropology, UniverSIty of Montreal, for ethnographic research in the Malagasy Republic on the Mikea (renewal) Richard J. Peterec, Assistant Professor of Geography, Bucknell University, for research in France on the effect of independence on the economic and political geography of former French Africa Mich~el ~. Sabba&h, As.sistant Professor of Geography, UnIVersIty of WISCOnSIn, for research in South Africa on the geographic implications of separate development in a plural society Sayre P. Schatz, Professor of Economics, Brooklyn Colle~e, for research in Nigeria on indigenous private enterpnse Robert H. T. Smith, Associate Professor of Geography, University of Wisconsin, for research on the structure of Nigerian internal trade Marc J. Swartz, Associate Professor of Anthropology and African Studies, Michigan State University, for research on the relationship between motivation and institutions among the Bena of Tanzania Absolom L. Vilakazi, Professor of African Studies American University, for research in Zambia and M~lawi on the role of nongovernmental agencies in the development of economic, social, and cultural institutions Brian Weinstein, Assistant Professor of Government, Howard University, for research in France and former French Africa on the career and influence of Felix Eboue, colonial administrator M. Crawford Young, Associate Professor of Political Science, University of Wisconsin, for research in England on agricultural politics in Uganda T.

GRANTS FOR RESEARCH ON CONTEMPORARY AND REPUBLICAN CHINA The Joint Committee on Contemporary China, sponsored with the American Council of Learned Societies-John M. H. Lindbeck (chairman), A. Doak Barnett, Alexander Eckstein, John K. Fairbank, Albert Feuerwerker, Walter Galenson, Robert A. Scalapino, George E. Taylor, and Arthur P. Wolf-at its meeting on January 19-21 awarded 15 grants for research and 1 grant for combined study and research:

Research grants M. Searle Bates, Seminar Associate, Columbia University, for research on the Protestant effort in China, 19001950 9

David C. Buxbaum, LL.B., Fellow, Modern China Project, University of Washington, for research in Hong Kong on family law and institutions in China from the late Ch'ing period to the present (renewal) Lloyd E. Eastman, Associate Professor of History, Ohio State University, for research on the political attitudes of Chinese intellectuals during the Nanking period, 1928-37 John Israel, Assistant Professor of History, Claremont Men's College, for research on the Chinese student movement, 1937-49 (renewal) Bruce D. Larkin, Assistant Professor of Government, University of California, Santa Cruz, for research on constraints on Chinese foreign policy since 1949 Robert M. Marsh, Associate Professor of Sociology, Duke University, for research in the United States on social structure and attitudes of Taiwanese in Taipei Susan H. Marsh, Ph.D. in political science, University of Chicago, for research in the United States on social values and foreign policy attitudes of elites in mainland China Mary L. B. Rankin, Ph.D. in history, Harvard University, for completion of research on student revolutionaries in Shanghai during the revolutionary movement of 1911 (renewal) Harold Z. Schiffrin, Senior Lecturer in Chinese Studies, Hebrew University, for research in London and the United States on a political biography of Sun Yat-sen Kenneth E. Shewmaker, Assistant Professor of History, College of William and Mary, for research on relationships between Americans and Chinese Communists, 1927-45 Tang Tsou, Professor of Political Science, University of Chicago, for research in Hong Kong and Japan on political development in Communist China, 1959-67 Karl A. Wittfogel, Adjunct Professor of Chinese History, Columbia University, for completion of research on Mao Tse-tung's "Unselected Works" Alexander B. Woodside, Ph.D. candidate in history and Far Eastern languages, Harvard University, for postdoctoral research on the cultural context of interstate relations between Communist China and North Vietnam Kwan Ha Yim, Assistant Professor of History and Government, Manhattanville College, for research in London, Taipei, and Tokyo on Sino-Japanese relations, 1911-22 George T. Yu, Associate Professor of Political Science, University of Illinois, for research in Africa on the instruments of Chinese Communist foreign policy employed in certain African countries

Study and research grant Allan E. Levett, Ph.D. candidate in sociology, University of Michigan, for postdoctoral training at Harvard University in Chinese language and area studies


GRANTS FOR LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES The Joint Committee on Latin American Studies, sponsored with the American Council of Learned SocietiesJoseph Grunwald (chairman), Richard N. Adams, John P. Augelli, 'Robert N. Burr, Frank Dauster, Daniel Goldrich, and Enrique Oteiza-at its meeting on February 9-10 awarded 22 grants for research and 5 grants for combined study and research:

Research grants Aaron V. Cicourel, Professor of Sociology, University of California, Santa Barbara, for research in Mexico on language socialization and the child's conceptualization of social organization Donald B. Cooper, Associate Professor of History, Tulane University, for research in Brazil on Oswaldo Cruz and the fight against epidemic disease in Brazil, 1850-1930 Stanley M. Davis, Assistant Professor of Business Administration, Harvard University, for research in Chile on social and economic modernization of industrial enterprise Warren Dean, Assistant Professor of History, University of Texas, for research in Brazil on a political history of the State of Sao Paulo, 1889-1932 Oscar Fernandez, Professor of Portuguese, New York University, for research in Brazil on the contemporary theater as a literary genre and social document Paul Friedrich, Associate Professor of Anthropology, University of Chicago, for research in Mexico on the contemporary language and culture of the Tarascans (renewal) Rose K. Goldsen, Associate Professor of Sociology, Cornell University, for research on the influence of international organizations in Latin American affairs Theodore D. Graves, Assistant Professor of Anthropology, University of Colorado, for research in Mexico on validation of historical inferences from a cumulative Guttman scale of modernization in Mexican villages Dale L. Johnson, Assistant Professor of Social Theory and Economic Development, Pitzer College, for research in Chile on social structure and economic development Jay Kinsbruner, Assistant Professor of History, Queens College, City University of New York, for research in Chile on the influence of the British merchants resident between 1810 and 1829 on Chilean political thought and early national legislation Jean C. Lave, Assistant Professor of Anthropology, University of California, Irvine, for research in Brazil on ritual symbolism of the Krikati (Ge) Indians Wolfram Liepe, Associate Professor of Economics, University of New Mexico, for research in Colombia on its balance of payments, exchange rate policies, and economic growth Thomas J. O'Leary, Assistant Professor of Political Science, Williams College, for research in Chile on sociopolitical factors affecting the administration of land reform Rollie E. Poppino, Associate Professor of History, University of California, Davis, for research in Brazil on a history of the Vargas era, 1930-45 VOLUME




Laura Randall Assistant Professor of Economics, Queens College, City University of ~ew York: fo~ research. in Argentina and Brazil on theIr economIc hIstory dunng the nineteenth century Gerald W. Sazama, Assistant Professor of Economics, University of Connecticut, for research in Chile on effects of changes in property taxes on land reform James R. Scobie, P~ofessor of. History, India~a University, for research In Argentma and the Umted States on a social history of Buenos Aires: from Gran A Idea to metropolis, 1870-1920 Robert J. Shafer, Professor of History, Syracuse Univer路 sity, for research in Mexico on organization, doctrines, roles, and programs of business associations Peter H. Smith, Assistant Professor of History, Dartmouth College, for research in England and the United States on the behavior of British and American diplomats and private investors regarding the Anglo-Argentine beef trade, 1900-1946 David Stea, Lecturer in Psychology, Brown University, for research in Mexico on the conceptions of three cities held by their inhabitants (renewal) Harris G. Warren, Professor of History, Miami University, for research in Paraguay and Argentina on a history of Paraguay between the War of the Triple Alliance and the Chaco War, 1870-1932 John D. Wirth, Assistant Professor of History, Stanford University, for research in Brazil on economic nationalism: trade, steel, and oil under Vargas, 1930-54

Donald E. Smith, Associate Professor of Political Science, University of Pennsylvania, for exploratory research in Mexico, Colombia, or Chile on Catholicism and political development GRANTS FOR 'R ESEARCH ON THE NEAR AND MIDDLE EAST The Joint Committee on the Near and Middle East, sponsored with the American Council of Learned Societies -Morroe Berger (chairman), Robert M. Adams, William M. Brinner, Charles Issawi, Bernard Lewis, Herbert H. Paper, and Nadav Safran-at its meeting on January 27 awarded 7 grants for research:

Study and research grants

Michael J. Francis, Assistant Professor of Government and International Studies, University of Notre Dame. for study and research on relations between the United States and Latin American countries during World War II Charles T. Goodsell, Associate Professor of Government, Southern Illinois University, for exploratory research in Peru on the relationshir of United States business enterprise to political development in Latin America Kenneth P. Langton, Assistant Professor of Political Science, University of Michigan, for intensive Spanish language training Sandra S. Powell, Assistant Professor of Government, American University, for preliminary study in Peru of urban political participation in Lima

Edward Allworth, Associate Professor of Turco-Soviet Studies, Columbia University, for research on Mahmud Khoja Behbudiy, Samarkand reform leader, and the relation of his ideas to contemporary thought in the Middle East, 1900-1920 Ilhan Basgaz, Assistant Professor of Uralic and Altaic Studies, Indiana University, for research in Turkey, Iran, Iraq, and Syria on rainmaking rituals in Anatolia David M. Hart, M. A. in anthropol0f;Y, University of Pennsylvania, for ethnographic study In Morocco of the Aith Waryaghar Tribe of the Moroccan Rif and the Ait 'Atta Tribe of southern Morocco Ira M. Lapidus, Assistant Professor of History, University of California, Berkeley, for research on the evolution of Islamic social and political institutions in the Abbasid Empire, 750-945 Leon B. Poullada, U.S. Foreign Service (retired), M.A. in South Asia Regional Studies, University of Pennsylvania, for research in Afghanistan on political modernization R. K. Ramazani, Professor of Government and Foreign Affairs, University of Virginia, for research in Iran, Turkey, Iraq, and Pakistan, on foreign policy in a modernizing society: the case of Iran Abraham L. Udovitch, Assistant Professor of Arabic Studies, Cornell University, for research on the economic relations between Egypt and the other Southern and Western Mediterranean countries in the late Fatimid and early Ayyubid periods








Incorporated in tlze State of Illinois, December 27, 1924, for the purpose of advancing research in the social sciences Directors, 1967: LEE






Officers and staff: PENDLETON HERRING. President; PAUL WEBBINK. HENRY tive Associates; ELEANOR C. ISBELL, ROWLAND L. MITCHELL, JR., NORMAN W. V. RONNAN, Financial Secretary MARCH


Vice-Presidents; ELBRIDGE SIBLEY. BRYCE WOOD, ExecuStaff Associates; JEROME E. SINGER, Consultant; CATHERINE




PUBLICA rlONS The Brookings Quarterly Econometric Model of the United States, edited by James s. Duesenberry, Gary Fromm, Lawrence R. Klein, and Edwin Kuh. Sponsored by the Committee on Economic Stability. Chicago: Rand McNally & Company, and Amsterdam: North-Holland Publishing Company, 1965. 791 pages. $9.00. College Peer Groups: Problems and Prospects for Research, edited by Theodore M. Newcomb and Everett K. Wilson. Based on the work of seminars sponsored by the former Committee on Personality Development in Youth. National Opinion Research Center Monographs in Social Research No.8. Chicago: Aldine Publishing Company, October 1966. 317 pages. $8.95. Communication Sciences and Law: Reflections from the Jurimetrics Conference, edited by Layman E. Allen and Mary Ellen Caldwell. Product of a conference held by the Jurimetrics Committee of the Association of American Law Schools, with the aid of the former Committee on Political Behavior. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill Company, February 1966. 462 pages. $17.50. Comparing Nations: The Use of Quantitative Data in CrossNational Research, edited by Richard L. Merritt and Stein Rokkan. Product of a conference held by the International Social Science Council and the Yale Political Data Program, with the aid of the former Committee on Political Behavior. New Haven: Yale University Press, February 1966. 600 pages. $12.50. The Development of Sex Differences, edited by Eleanor E. Maccoby, with contributions also by Roy G. D'Andrade, Sanford M. Dornbusch, David A. Hamburg, Lawrence Kohlberg, Donald T. Lunde, Walter Mischel, and Roberta M. Oetzel. Product of the work group on sex differences, sponsored by the Committee on Socialization and Social Structure. Stanford: Stanford University Press, December 1966. 351 pages. $8.50. Early Behavior: Comparative and Developmental Approaches, edited by Harold W. Stevenson, Eckhard H. Hess, and Harriet L. Rheingold. Revisions of papers prepared for conferences held by the former Committee on Comparative Developmental Behavior. New York: John Wiley & Sons, February 1967. 312 pages. $9.75. Education and Economic Development, edited by C. Arnold Anderson and Mary Jean Bowman. Outgrowth of a conference, April 4-6, 1963, jointly sponsored by the Committee on Economic Growth and the University of Chicago Comparative Education Center. Chicago: Aldine Publishing Company, August 1965.446 pages. $10.75. European Research in Cognitive Development, edited by Paul H. Mussen. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, Vol. 30, No. 2 (Serial No. 100), September 1965. Report of a conference sponsored by the former Committee on Intellective Processes Research. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 124 pages. $3.00. Field Guide for a Study of Socialization (edited by Beatrice B. Whiting), by John W. M. Whiting, Irvin L. Child, William W. Lambert, et al. Revision of a Field Manual originally prepared under the auspices of the former Committee on Social Behavior. New York: John Wiley & Sons, August 1966. 191 pages. $2.95. Financing the Chinese Government Budget: Mainland China, 1950-1959, by George N. Ecklund. Sponsored by 12

the Committee on the Economy of China. Chicago: Aldine Publishing Company, December 1966. 133 pages. $5.00.

Income Distribution in the United States, by Herman P. Miller. Sponsored by the Committee on Population Census Monographs in cooperation with the Bureau of the Census. Washington, D.C.: U. S. Government Printing Office, September 1966. 314 pages. $2.25. Invention and Economic Growth, by Jacob Schmookler. Prepared with the aid of the CommIttee on Economic Growth. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, September 1966. 347 pages. $9.95. Learning by Discovery: A Critical Appraisal, edited by Lee S. Shulman and Evan R. Keislar. Proceedings of a conference held by Stanford University and the Committee on Learning and the Educational Process, January 28-29, 1965. Chicago: Rand McNally & Company, December 1966. 237 pages. $5.00. Learning and the Educational Process: Selected Papers from the Research Confe,-ence ... held at Stanford University, June 22 - July 31, 1964, edited by John D. Krumboltz. Chicago: Rand McNally & Company, October 1965. 290 pages. $6.50. Mathematical Learning, edited by Lloyd N. Morrisett and John Vinsonhaler. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, Vol. 30, No.1 (Serial No. 99), July 1965. Report of a conference sponsored by the former Committee on Intellective Processes Research. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 150 pages. $3.00. Modern Economic Growth: Rate, Structme, and Sp,-ead, by Simon Kuznets. Based in part on studies initiated or aided by the Committee on Economic Growth. New Haven: Yale University Press, December 1966. 546 pages. $12.50. Political Culture and Political Development, edited by Lucian W. Pye and Sidney Verba. Studies in Political Development 5, sponsored by the Committee on Comparative Politics. Princeton: Princeton University Press, July 1965. 584 pages. $10.00. Political Parties and Political Development, edited by Joseph LaPalombara and Myron Weiner. Studies in Political Development 6, sponsored by the Committee on Comparative Politics. Pnnceton: Princeton University Press, August 1966.495 pages. $8.50. Social Structu1-e and Mobility in Economic Development, edited by Neil J. Smelser and Seymour Martin Lipset. Papers prepared for a conference held by the CommIttee on Economic Growth, January 30 - February I, 1964. Chicago: Aldine Publishing Company, August 1966. 408 pages. $10.75. Socialization after Childhood: Two Essays, by Orville G. Brim, Jr. and Stanton Wheeler. Revisions of papers prepared for the Conference on Socialization through the Life Cycle, May 17-19, 1963, sponsored by the Committee on Socialization and Social Structure. New York: John Wiley & Sons, January 1966. 125 pages. Cloth, $4.95; paper, $2.25. The Study of Urbanization, edited by Philip M. Hauser and Leo F. Schnore. Sponsored by the former Committee on Urbanization. New York: John Wiley & Sons, July 1965. 562 pages. $9.75.

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